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Civil Procedure-- Joinder Parties - Rule 17 - real party in interest, capacity, standing Real Party in Interest- FRCP 17(a)(1)

) (Ellis) n action !ust "e prosecuted in t#e na!e o$ t#e real party in interest% & real party in interest ' applies to P ' a person (#o #as "een (ronged or da!ages and as t#e rig#t to sue ' ensures t#at only t#e litigant (#o #as a true sta)e in t#e outco!e can sue or "e sued & capacity ' re$ers to t#e a"ility o$ an individual or corporation to en$orce rig#ts or to "e sued ' applies to Ps and *s ' to protect t#e party ' lac) o$ is usually in$ancy or insanity & standing ' protects t#e court ' P !ust #ave a "ona $ide dispute ' "ased on rt% II+ o$ t#e constiution Joinder o$ Clai!s Rule 1, (Per!issive) 1,(a) In -eneral% party asserting a clai!, counterclai!, crossclai!, or t#ird-party clai! MAY .oin, as independent or alternative clai!s, as !any clai!s as it #as against an opposing party% /01E2 even i$ did not arise out o$ t#e sa!e transaction or occurrence /01E2 does not address 34J Every clai! individually does #ave to !eet su".ect !atter .urisdiction ggregation 3upple!ental .urisdiction 5, 6%3%C 17872 1787(a)2 %%%s#all #ave supple!ental .urisdiction over all ot#er clai!s t#at are so related to clai!s in t#e action (it#in suc# original .urisdiction t#at t#ey $or! part o$ t#e sa!e case or controversy under rticle III o$ t#e 6nited 3tates Constitution% 3uc# supple!ental .urisdiction s#all include clai!s t#at involve t#e .oinder or intervention o$ additional parties%9 (") Joinder o$ Contingent Clai!s% party !ay plead alternative clai! i%e%can plead $or intentional tort or negligence in sa!e co!plaint Rule 17 ddition o$ Clai!s (4ust arise out o$ t#e sa!e transaction or occurrence) Per E:on2 1ests t#at t#e clai! arises out o$ t#e sa!e transaction or occurrence and series o$ transactions or occurrences (4oore v% /e( ;or) Cotton E:c#ange Pg% 887) re t#e issues o$ $act and la( raised "y t#e clai! and counterclai! largely t#e sa!e< =ould res .udicata "ar a su"se>uent suit on *?s clai! a"sent t#e co!pulsory counterclai! rule< =ill su"stantially t#e sa!e evidence support or re$ute P?s clai! as (ell as *?s counterclai!< Is t#ere any logical relation "et(een t#e clai! and t#e counterclai!< Co!pulsory Counterclai!, Rule 17(a) In -eneral Rule 17(a)- pleading MUST state as a counterclai! any clai! t#at arises out o$ t#e sa!e 1 or 0 and is t#e 34 o$ t#e opposing party?s clai!@ and does not re>uire t#e addition o$ a party over (#o! t#e court cannot esta"lis# .urisdiction% /ote2 --A*o not #ave to esta"lis# independent $ederal 34J $or co!pulsory counterclai!s WAIVER2 I$ you do not "ring clai! at t#at ti!e, you lose rig#t to "ring it at anot#er ti!e B part test to deter!ine i$ clai! is co!pulsory2 (1) re t#e issues o$ $act and la( raised "y t#e clai! and counterclai!s largely t#e sa!e< (5) =ould res .udicata "ar a su"se>uent suit on de$endant?s clai! a"sent t#e co!pulsory counterclai! rule< (7) =ill su"stantially t#e sa!e evidence support or re$ute t#e plainti$$?s clai! as (ell as de$endant?s counterclai!< (B) Is t#ere any logical relation "et(een t#e clai! and t#e counterclai!s< E:ceptions Rule 17(a)(5)2 1#e pleader need not state t#e clai! i$2 I$ t#e counterclai! is already pending in anot#er action or Per Cac)2 Rule 172 co!pulsory .oinder o$ clai!s2 policy underlying is .udicial econo!y (!ention on e:a!) e$$iciency in providing relie$ and conservation o$ .udicial resources

Per!issive counterclai!, Rule 17(")2 pleading MAY state as a counterclai! against an opposing party any clai! t#at is not co!pulsory anyt#ing else, !ust esta"lis# independent 34J ;ou !ay "ring t#e cc later, and does not #ave to "e transactionally related Crossclai! gainst a Coparty, Rule 17(g)2 pleading MAY state as a crossclai! any clai! against a coparty i$ t#e clai! arises out o$ t#e sa!e transaction or occurrence t#at is t#e su".ect !atter o$ t#e original action or o$ a counterclai! Joinder o$ Parties Per!issive .oinder o$ parties - Rule 5D MAY - apply to "ot# P E * (!ust !eet all 7) 1% 3a!e transaction or occurrence or series o$ transaction or occurrence (logically related) 5% 1#e sa!e >uestion co!!on o$ la( and $acts all >uestions don?t #ave to "e t#e sa!e, .ust need one co!!on does not #ave to "e t#e do!inant >uestion o$ t#e actions 7% ssert actions against ot#er parties .ointly, severely, or in t#e alternative Co!pulsory .oinder o$ parties - Rule 1F MUST /ecessary party, Rule 1F(a)(1)2 person (#o is su".ect to service o$ process and (#ose .oinder (ill not deprive t#e court o$ 34J MUST "e .oined as a party i$2 0ne t#at s#ould "e "roug#t in t#e interest o$ .ustice 1F(a)(1)( )2 =it#out t#is person, t#e court cannot give co!plete relie$ 1F(a)(1)(G)2 t#is person clai!s an interest to t#e su".ect o$ t#e action t#at i$ t#e court (ere to dispose t#e action (it#out t#e person !ay2 (i)2 i!pair or i!pede t#e person?s a"ility to protect t#e interest@ or (ii)2 leave t#e party su".ect to a su"stantial ris) or incurring dou"le, !ultiple, or ot#er(ise inconsistent o"ligations "ecause o$ t#e interest Joinder "y court order21F(a)(5)2 I$ t#e re>uired person #as not "een .oined, t#en t#e court MUST order t#at t#e person "e !ade a party% Indispensa"le Rule 1F(")2 I$ a person is necessary "ut cannot "e .oined, t#e court !ust deter!ine (#et#er, in e>uity and good conscience, t#e action s#ould proceed a!ong t#e e:isting parties or s#ould "e dis!issed2 a$$ects t#eir interests (it# outco!e and 4631 "e .oined, "ut C //01 "e .oined and C //01 proceed (it#out t#e party% e:% .oining so!eone (ould destroy .urisdiction so ct decides i$ s#ould "e dis!issed "ecause t#e case cannot "e decided (Hout t#e party e:2 in an action "y one creditor against assignees $or t#e "ene$it o$ creditors, see)ing an accounting and pay!ent o$ #is s#ares o$ t#e assets, t#e ot#er creditors (ere #eld indispensa"le% Rule 1F(") suggests $our interests9 t#at !ust "e e:a!ined in eac# case to deter!ine (#et#er, in e>uity and good conscience, t#e court s#ould proceed (it#out a party (#ose a"sence $ro! t#e litigation is co!pelled% --Acan t#is case proceed #ere (it# an a"sent party or does it need to "e dis!issed< e>uity and good conscious9 test Rule1F(")(1-B) 1% 1#e P #as an interest in #aving a $oru! 5% 1#e * !ay properly (is# to avoid !ultiple litigation, or inconsistent relie$, or sole responsi"ility $or a lia"ility #e s#ares (it# anot#er 7% 1#e interest o$ t#e outsider (#o! it (ould #ave "een desira"le to .oin R0+2 1#e .udg!ent appealed $ro! !ay not in $act a$$ect t#e interest o$ any outsider even t#oug# t#ere e:isted, "e$ore trial, a possi"ility t#at a .udg!ent a$$ecting #is interest (ould "e rendered% =#en necessary, a court o$ appeals s#ould, on its o(n initiative, ta)e steps to protect t#e a"sent party, (#o o$ course #ad no opportunity to plead and prove #is interest "elo( B% 1#ere re!ains t#e interest o$ t#e courts and t#e pu"lic in co!plete, consistence, and e$$icient settle!ent o$ controversies E$$iciency2 1#e pro"le!atic pre$erence on e$$iciency grounds #ad entirely disappeared2 t#ere (as no reason t#en to t#ro( a(ay a valid .udg!ent .ust "ecause it did not t#eoretically settle t#e (#ole controversy Consolidation - Rule B5 - co!!on >uestion o$ la( or $acts Consolidation B5(a)2 I$ actions "e$ore t#e court involve a co!!on >uestion o$ la( or $act, t#e court 4 ;2 1% .oin $or #earing or trial any or all !atters at issue in t#e actions@

5% consolidate t#e actions@ or 7% Issue any ot#er orders to avoid unnecessary cost or delay 3eparate 1rials2 Rule B5(")- courts #ave t#e discretion to separate trials to avoid pre.udice, to e:pedite and econo!iIe Policy2 Courts are lenient in .oining parties "ecause o$ t#e availa"ility o$ Rule B5(") to sever clai!s t#at overly co!plicate t#e action

Interpleader-- e>uita"le action, !ust "e no ade>uate re!edy at la( 1(o stages 1% sta)e#older !otions t#e court 5% sta)e#older posts "ond (it# t#e court *isadvantages creates co!ple: trials clai!ants re>uired to "e involved in co!ple: trials denies clai!ants po(er to select $oru! lose rig#t to .ury trial "ecause interpleader is an e>uita"le re!edy dvantages !ay alleviate !ultiple lia"ility and !ultiple suits sta)e#older doesn?t #ave to decide (#o to pay sta)e#older doesn?t #ave to contest lia"ility re!oved $ro! litigation "ene$it to clai!anst don?t #ave to rus# to t#e court #ouse .udicial econo!y 1ype o$ territorial .urisdiction eit#er in re! or >uasi-in-re! (property in dispute) Rule 55 - narro( - you don?t #ave to post a "ond general 34J rules apply 1J, general rules apply notice !ust "e pursuant to Rule B venue still pursuant to 17F1 sta)e#older need not deposit "ond to court no in.unction re>uire!ent !ust $ollo( ot#er FRCPs t#at apply 3tatutory (177J2 -eneral interpleader, 17F72 Kenue, 5781) 34J !ini!u! diversity property in dispute !ust "e LJDD or !ore service o$ process !ay "e done any(#ere in t#e 6%3% nation(ide 1J Kenue- (#ere 1 or !ore clai!ants reside sta)e#older !ust deposit to court Intervention, Rule 5B2 0n ti!ely !otion, t#e court MUST per!it anyone to intervene (#o2 Intervention o$ rig#t, 5B(a)(5) 1% ti!ely !otion 5% interest in su".ect !atter o$ suit 7% disposition o$ suit (ill i!pair or i!pede !ovant?s a"ility to protect interest B% not already ade>uately represented $actors to .udge ade>uacy t#e applicant?s interests are not represented as all t#e applicant and t#e attorney (#o supposedly represents #is interests are antagonistic t#ere is collusion "et(een t#e representative and t#e adverse parties

Class

Per!issive intervention, 5B(")(1)(G) 1% ti!ely !otion 5% clai! or de$ense t#at s#ares (it# !ain action a co!!on >uestion o$ la( or $act 34J 3ee supple!ental .urisdiction 7rd party co!plaint M I!pleader, Rule 1B2 de$ending party MAY, as t#ird-party plainti$$, serve a su!!ons and co!plaint on a nonparty (#o is or !ay "e lia"le to it $or all or part o$ t#e clai! against it% purpose2 to per!it additional parties (#ose rig#ts !ay "e a$$ected "y t#e decision in t#e original action to "e .oined so as to e:pedite t#e $inal deter!ination o$ t#e rig#ts and lia"ilities o$ all t#e interested parties in one suit li!ited to contri"ution or inde!nity contri"ution-- only $or partial lia"ility inde!nity-- relieves all lia"ility o$ 7rd party P * !ust, "y !otion, a$ter 1B days re>uest court?s per!ission to add a 7rd party 1est to i!plead a t#ird party2 Factors court "alance to deter!ine i$ i!pleader is appropriate (1oo v% No#l?s, pg% 7D7) 1% (#et#er t#e !ovant (as deli"erately delayed or (as derelict in $iling t#e !otion 5% (#et#er i!pleading (ould unduly delay or or co!plicate t#e trial 7% (#et#er i!pleading (ould pre.udice t#e 7rd party * B% (#et#er t#e 7rd party co!plaint states a clai! upon (#ic# relie$ can "e granted% note on 34J2 i$ t#e original cause o$ action is "ased solely on diversity o$ citiIens#ip, a P?s t#ird-party clai!s !ust statis$y eit#er $ederal >uestion or diversity .urisdiction% 5, 6%3%C% 1787(") e:pressly provides t#at t#e court #as not supple!ental .urisdiction over clai!s "y Ps against persons !ade parties under Rule 1B, i$ t#at party destroys diversity% Oo( to approac# Parties Puestion (1) +oo) at parties (5) do all parties #ave capacity E standing (7) loo) at parties - Rule 5D to see i$ parties can "e .oined (B) ssess!ent Rule 1F $easi"le or not $easi"le 0nce all t#e parties are identi$ied (J) pply Rule 1,, Rule 17, Rule 17(g) (8) Rule 1B, Rule 55, 3tatutory Interpleader, Rule B5(a) consolidation t#en Rule 5B Intervention ction- Rule 57 Prere>uisites FRCP 57(a)2 one or !ore !e!"ers o$ a class !ay sue or "e sued as representative parties on "e#al$ o$ all only i$ (1) t#e class is so nu!erous t#at .oinder o$ all !e!"ers is i!practica"le, (5) t#ere are >uestions o$ la( or $act co!!on to t#e class, (7) t#e clai!s or de$enses o$ t#e representative parties are typical o$ t#e clai!s or de$enses o$ t#e class, and (B) t#e representative parties (ill $airly and ade>uately protect t#e interests o$ t#e class Nno( 8 $actors 1% 4ust "e a class GuII =ords2 0".ective, precise, and easily ascertaina"le class9 5% 4ust #ave a class representative a% 4ust #ave standing GuII =ords2 4ust "e in.ured in t#e sa!e (ay as t#e ot#er !e!"ers o$ t#e class9 7% /u!erosity a% 5J-BD people (ill "e t#e t#res#old nu!"er "% GuII =ords2 1#e class !ust include too !any !e!"ers $or t#e nor!al .oinder device to $unction properly B% Co!!onality GuII =ords2 =ill $actual di$$erences inter$ere (it# t#e co!!on >uestion o$ la( or $act<9 J% 1ypicality GuII =ords2 1#e class representative?s clai! !ust "e typical o$ t#e class and t#ose o$ t#e absent class members 8% de>uate Representation2 $airly and ade>uate protects t#e interest o$ t#e class9

Class Rep2 4ain >uestion2 can deciding all t#e a"sent class !e!"ers clai!s "ased on class rep?s clai! satis$y due process< Is it $air< /o $a!ily relations#ip "et(een rep and class counsel% Inade>uate class rep leaves .udg!ent vulnera"le to collateral attac) Class Counsel2 E:pertise and general e:perience in Cass ctions and in su".ect !atter de>uacy o$ resources2 Esp% $or notices no $a!ily relations#ip to class rep% "sent class !e!"ers cannot "e adversarial to rep or counsel no internal antagonis! 1#e class action !ust $it (it#in one o$ 7 types o$ Class ction--A also see c#art "elo( Pre.udice Class ction as) (#et#er individual actions !ig#t cause Pre.udice gainst * t#at can "e avoided "y C cert creates !andatory class t#at cannot "e opted out o$ In.unction or declaratory relie$ relie$ soug#t "ased on * actions or re$usal to act in regards to (#ole class *a!age class 57(")(7)2 co!!on >uestions #ave to predo!inate 3uit not going to trial so, need to loo) at ++ t#e re>uire!ents o$ 57(")(7) closer "ecause need t#e settle!ent to "e $air ot#er t#an 7(d) Even i$ settle!ent is not $air, isn?t depositive to t#e certi$ication 0n test2 Court #as e:tensive control over entire case Counsel, certi$ication, dis!issal%% etc% so a"sent class !e!"ers interest are $airly represented% s) on test2 1% Certi$ication o$ class 5% =#at type o$ class action /ote2 Interlocutory appeals are allo(ed *on?t #ave to (ait $or $inal .udg!ent 1rial types 3ingle trial Gi$urcate trial 1% $or lia"ility 5% $or da!ages 3a!pling Rando! sa!pling o$ all availa"le class !e!"ers and applies results to class as a (#ole Fluid class recovery (ards so!e general "ene$it to class !e!"ers as a (#ole rat#er t#an individual co!pensation Court !ust approve any dis!issal so t#at it !ay "e $air to all parties 3ettle!ent2 3ettle!ent !ust "e su"!itted to t#e court $irst 4a)e sure is $air to "ot# parties Judge !ust approve t#e settle!ent "ecause "inding and $airness 0nce $ile class action, anyt#ing you do is su".ect to court approval =#at role does it play< Relevant to certi$ication not dispositive 6sed 1o in$or! ot#er si: $actors to certi$ications G61 $airness o$ settle!ent (as not individual test as to (#et#er class s#ould "e certi$ied

E:tra points )no( "est notice practica"le9 in$o $ro! 57(c)(5)(G)2 For any class certi$ied under Rule 58(")(7), t#e court !ust direct to class !e!"ers t#e "est notice t#at is practica"le under t#e circu!stnaces, including individual notice to all !e!"ers (#o can "e identi$ied t#roug# reasona"le e$$ort% 1#e notice !ust clearly and concisely state in plain, easily understood language2 i% t#e nature o$ t#e action ii% t#e de$inition o$ t#e class certi$ied iii% t#e class clai!s, issues, or de$enses iv% t#at a class !e!"er !ay enter an appearance t#roug# an attorney i$ t#e !e!"er so desires v% t#at t#e court (ill e:clude $ro! t#e class any !e!"er (#o re>uests e:clusion vi% t#e ti!e and !anner $or re>uesting e:clusion@ and vii% t#e "inding e$$ect o$ a class .udg!ent on !e!"ers under Rule 57(c)(7) C F 1775 E:ception to aggregation rule IF all ot#er re>uire!ents o$ C F are satis$ied !ust #ave an aggregated LJ !illion in controversy, no one !e!"er o$ t#e class needs to !eet a!ount-in-controversy only !ini!al diversity is needed

Type 57(")(1) Pre.udice

Requirements Individual actions (ould create2 (a) inconsistent decisions (") i!pair!ent o$ interests Party opposing t#e class #as acted or re$used to act on grounds generally applica"le to t#e class Got#2 1% Co!!on >uestion predo!inates 5% superior

Notice Court !ay? appropriate notice

Opt-out? 4ay not opt-out

E ect on uture actions !y same " /o opt-outQall class !e!"ers "ound% 3ee 57(c)(7)

57(")(5) In.unctive

3a!e as a"ove

3a!e as a"ove

3a!e as a"ove

57(")(7) *a!ages

Gest notice practica"le9 57(c)(5)(G)

Rig#t to opt out

Gound unless t#ey opt out

3cope o$ *iscovery Rule 58(") per E:on2 ny non-privileged !atter t#at is relevant to t#e clai! or de$enses any parties? clai!s or de$enses or appears reasona"ly calculated to lead to discovery o$ ad!issi"le evidence t#at relates to t#e su".ect !atter% *e$% privilege2 4aterial is privileged against discovery i$ it (ould "e protected against disclosure at trial, and an atte!pt to o"tain discovery o$ privileged !aterial !ay "e resisted only "y t#e person (#o assert t#e privilege at trial E!anual2 e:a!ples o$ relevant "ut inad!issi"le in$or!ation +eads2 !aterial (#ic# (ill serve as a lead to ad!issi"le evidence +egal t#eories2 !aterial relating to legal t#eories on (#ic# t#e responding part e:pects to rely at trial /ote2 Rule 77(a)(5) allo(s any interrogatory t#at relates to%%%t#e application o$ la( to $act%%%9 =itnesses2 t#e identity and (#erea"outs o$ any (itness (#o is t#oug#t to #ave discovery in$or!ation /ote2 Rule 58(")(1)2 1#is testi!ony is relevant and is not privileged, and !a)es it outside t#e (or)-product i!!unity rule I!!unities2 =or) product i!!unity2 4aterials prepared "y counsel in anticipation o$ litigation and opinions o$ e:perts (#o! counsel #as consulted in trial preparation is i!!une (>uali$ied privilege) attorney #olds

Oic)!an2 Can "e overco!e "y a strong s#o(ing t#at t#e discovering party #as a su"stantial need $or t#e !aterials and t#at t#eir e>uivalent is not availa"le t#roug# ot#er !eans (it#out undue #ards#ip E:a!ples o$ undue #ards#ip2 cost o$ o"taining in$or!ation, $inances o$ t#e party see)ing discovery, and #ostility o$ (itnesses "solute i!!unity2 58(")(7)(G)2 given to !ental e:pressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal t#eories o$ an attorney or ot#er representative o$ a party concerning t#e litigation9 cannot "e overco!e action does not #ave to "e $iled (it# court to "e privilegedt ttorney-client privilege2 applies to any co!!unication !ade "et(een attorney and client relevant to a legal action% a"solute privilege client #olds Attorney Wor' "roduct

Attorney #$ient "ri%i$e&e Co!!unication "H( attorneyHclient Clients #old privilege 3o client can tal) to attorney openly, so attorney can represent client

ttorney #olds privilege 4aterial prepared in preparation $or trial 1rying to protect t#e adversarial syste!, attorney?s (or) (Ho inter$erence

A!so$ute "ri%i$e&es ttorney?s !ental i!pressionsHstrategiesHconclusions are al(ays privileged ttorney Client privilege R all co!!unication (7rd person #ears it, all privilege is lost) 3pousal privilege P#ysician-patient Clergy-priestHparis#ioner Jt# !end against sel$-incri!ination Purpose o$ *iscovery % Preserve evidence G% Eli!inates surprise C% Oelp esta"lis# caseHpro!ote settle!ent *% Isolates issues t#at are actually in controversy E% Pro!otes transparency "y !a)ing in$o !ore availa"le F% Pro!otes t#e (or) o$ private attorney generals9 -% scertain credi"ility o$ evidence2 Particularly (itnesses 1ypes o$ evidence % Ra(2 al(ays (ill "e a"le to s#o( it at trial G% *ocu!entary2 (ritten docu!ent C% 1esti!onial2 (itness, e:pert, etc% *% *e!onstrative2 di$$icult to get, attorney (or) product Court?s discretion redact

#onditiona$ "ri%i$e&es ttorney (or) product R su"stantial need and undue #ards#ip (!ust s#o( "ot#) P#ysician-patient R can put di$$ #ealt# issues in t#e open

in ca!era inspection se>uenceHti!ing *iscovery devices % Production o$ *ocu!ents, Electronically 3tored In$or!ation, and 1angi"le 1#ings, or Entering onto +and, $or Inspection and 0t#er Purposes Rule 7B *e$2 can "e tangi"le or gain access to so!eone?s #ouse $or a (al) t#roug# (it# e:pert (itness2 includes (ritings, dra(ings, grap#s, c#arts, p#otograp#s, sound recordings, i!ages, and ot#er data or data co!pilations, tangi"le t#ings, or to per!it entry onto land or ot#er property possessed or controlled "y t#e responding party Electronic *ata2 Cu"ula)e court (ill (eig# t#e cost o$ accessing t#e electronic data using a co!pre#ensive set o$ $actors, and (ill deter!ine (#et#er t#e data s#ould "e availa"le $or discovery, and (#ic# party to place t#e cost o$ t#e discovery% 7 $actor cost s#i$ting test 1% 1#e e:tent to (#ic# t#e re>uest is speci$ically tailored to discover relevant in$or!ation 5% t#at availa"ility o$ suc# in$or!ation $ro! ot#er sources 7% t#e total cost o$ production, co!pared to t#e a!ount-in-controversy B% t#e total cost o$ production, co!pared to t#e resources availa"le to eac# party J% t#e relative a"ility o$ eac# party to control costs and its incentive to do so 8% t#e i!portance o$ t#e issues at sta)e in t#e litigation 7% t#e relative "ene$its to t#e parties o$ o"taining t#e in$or!ation Categories and types o$ data ctive and online (!ost lenient in allo(ing) /ear-line 0$$line storage or arc#ives Gac)up tapes Erased $rag!ented or da!aged data (least lenient in allo(ing) G% =ritten re>uest $or ad!ission - Rule 78 aut#oriIes a party to serve on anot#er party (ritten re>uests to ad!its t#e trut# o$ certain !atters o$ $act or o$ t#e application o$ la( to $act, or t#e genuineness o$ a docu!ents or ot#er evidence t#at !ay "e used at trial 78(a)(1)( )2 relate to t#e application o$ la( to $act9 ad!issions are only pertinent to t#e current action and #ave e$$ect on su"se>uent actions C% *epositions2 only (ay to see) discovery $ro! non-party *epositions "y 0ral E:a!ination Rules o$ deposition2 Rule 7D(a) =#o2 ny person, including parties, !ay "e deposed, #o(ever eac# party is li!ited to 1D depositions% Oo( +ong2 *epositions cannot "e !ore t#an 1 day o$ 7 #ours% can "e e:tended "y agree!ent "et(een parties or (it# leave $ro! t#e court E:tra depositions2 +eave o$ t#e court is re>uired i$ !ore t#an 1D depositions are needed or a person needs to "e deposed t(ice% /otice 7D(")(1) !ust state t#e ti!e and place o$ t#e deposition as (ell as t#e na!e and address o$ t#e deponent i$ a su"poena see)ing a docu!ent is to "e served t#en a description o$ t#e docu!ents soug#t !ust also "e included need not "e $iled (it# court 0rganiIations2 4ay notice a corporation "ut !ust include in t#e notice descri"e (it# reasona"le particularity t#e !atters $or e:a!ination% t#e corporation !ust t#en designate one or !ore o$$icers, directors, or !anaging agents, or ot#er persons to testi$y on its "e#al$% /on-party2 Can notice a non-party "ut a non-party is not "ound to s#o( up% 4ust "e su"poenaed to $orce a non-party to attend% /01E2 notice is !ostly a $or!ality% 3et up ti!e and place o$ deposition (it# t#e ot#er parties involved $irst, (call counsel) t#en send notice% Recording 4et#ods 7D(")(7)

1ype used !ust "e indicated in notice !ay "e recorded "y audio, audiovisual, or stenograp#ic !eans% additional !et#ods !ay "e used "ut t#e party see)ing to add t#e !et#od "ears t#e cost o$ recording 0".ections !ust "e raised at t#e ti!e o$ t#e deposition or t#ey are (aived ttorney s#ould not use o".ection to instruct t#e (itness on #o( to ans(er t#e >uestion ttorney !ay instruct (itness to /01 ans(er a >uestion in t#ese situations 0/+; to clai! a privilege to en$orce a court directive li!ited t#e scope or lengt# o$ t#e deposition or to suspend t#e deposition $or purposes o$ a !otion under Rule 7D(d)(7) 3anctions are possi"le i$ (itness does not s#o( up to t#e deposition Costs2 1#e propounding party "ears t#e cost o$ t#e deposition Certi$ication and *elivery 7D($) t#e court o$$icer !ust certi$y t#e (itness (as s(orn and t#at t#e transcript (as a true record o$ t#e testi!ony given "y t#e deponent% o$$icer prepares certi$icate and transcript o$ t#e deposition =#y are t#ey i!portant< can see e!otion o$ deponent and get a $eel $or (itnesses availa"ility o$ candid responses i!!ediate-- (itness doesn?t #ave ti!e to con$er (it# attorney "e$ore ans(ering allo(s $or open ended >uestions *epositions "y (ritten >uestions (Rule 71) (#y use t#e!< !ay"e (e are dealing (it# an out o$ state party to !aintain privacy ine:pensive (ritten >uestions are sent to t#e court o$$icer and t#e o$$icer reads t#e! to t#e deponent sa!e general rules $or notice, ti!e, and nu!"er as 0ral *epositons *epositions to perpetuate 1esti!ony (Rule 57) (a)(1) Ge$ore an action is $iled2 person !ust $ile a petition (it# t#e court to as) $or an order aut#oriIing t#e petitioner to depose t#e na!ed person in order to perpetuate t#eir testi!ony% *iscovery can generally "e done only a$ter t#e suit is $iled t#e e:ception to t#is is Rule 57--A allo(s pre co!plaint discovery to preserve evidence t#at already e:ists +i!ited to depositions #ave to s#o( you (ant to perpetuate testi!ony and t#e li)eli#ood testi!ony (ill "e unavaila"le at trial -rave Illness !oving out o$ court?s .urisiction cant use it to discover testi!ony, only to preserve it !ust $ile veri$ied petition in court o$ adverse party?s residence including (#o petitioner e:pect to "e a party to t#e action su".ect !atter o$ t#e e:pected action $acts petitioner e:pects to esta"lis# E reasons to perpetuate it na!e, address and e:pected su"stance o$ eac# deponent * Interrogatories (Rule 77)--Asets $ort# procedures $or using interrogatories - set o$ (ritten >uestions -enerally i$ >uestions are not ans(ered, t#e re>uesting party !ay $ile a !otion to co!pel responses a party !ay serve on any ot#er party no !ore t#an 5J (ritten interrogatories including su" parts --77(a)(1) (#en t#e party is an individual, t#e party, not t#e attorney, !ust sign a veri$ication or a$$idavit as to t#e accuracy o$ t#e ans(ers Responding --77(")(1)

!ust "e ans(ered "y t#e party to (#o! t#ey are t#ey are directed@ or i$ t#at party is a pu"lic or private corporation, a partners#ip, an association, or a govern!ental agency, "y any o$$icer or agent (#o !ust $urnis# t#e in$or!ation availa"le to t#e party% response due 7D days upon !ailing% ans(ers eac# interrogatory !ust , to t#e e:tent it is not o".ected to "e ans(ered separately and $ully in (riting under oat# o".ections !ust "e stated (it# speci$icity% ny ground not stated in a ti!ely o".ection is (ai%ed unless t#e court $or good cause e:cuses t#e $ailure% 0".ections co!!on o".ections 0verly "road, unduly vague and a!"iguous Gurdenso!e and oppressive Privileged in$or!ation ttorney (or) product /on-*iscovera"le e:pert in$or!ation /ot calculated to lead to t#e discovery o$ ad!issi"le evidence 3o!e E:tra t#ings Rule 77 re>uires t#at a party served (it# an interrogatory to respond (it# all in$or!ation t#at is availa"le, (#ic# includes in$or!ation t#at t#e could "e co!pel $ro! a t#ird party a party served (it# an interrogatory #as a duty to investigate t#e in$or!ation soug#t Interrogatories are not proper (#ere t#e in$or!ation soug#t is not (it#in t#e personal )no(ledge o$ t#e ot#er party and is not pertinent to an issue raised "y t#e pleading o$ t#e in>uirer (#ere t#e ans(er calls $or !ere opinion o$ t#e party, F% *e!and $or p#ysical or !ental e:a! Rule 7J *e$2 !ust "e court ordered (#en a party (4ust "e a party to t#e action) (#ose !ental or p#ysical condition is in controversy !otion and notice !ay "e !ade only on !otion and $or -00* C 63E /otice !ust include ti!e, place, !anner, conditions, scope o$ e:a!, and person to per$or! /01E2 only notice (#ic# re>uires a court order

Oo( to s#o( -00* C 63E re>uires an a$$ir!ative s#o(ing "y t#e !ovant t#at eac# condition as to (#ic# t#e e:a!ination is soug#t is really and genuinely in controversy and t#at good cause e:ists $or ordering eac# particular e:a!ination !ore evidence $ro! discovery to su"stantive clai!s !ust "e a greater s#o(ing o$ need under Rule 7B and 7J t#an under t#e ot#er discovery rules 1ype o$ doctor !ust "e relevant to clai! suita"ly licensed or certi$ied e:a!iner -% E:c#ange or e:pert trial (itness in$o 4andatory2 i$ use e:pert at trial (it#in FD days o$ trial typically use at t#e end o$ discovery list o$ e:perts e:c#anged as (ell as t#eir level o$ e:pertise, any articles t#ey a#ve (ritten (ill use to depose e:perts t#e!selves *iscovery 3anctions FRCP 58(c) Protective 0rders - li!ited to discovery, not (#at you can o"tain outside t#e discovery 58(c)(1) in general- a party or person (#o! discovery is soug#t !ay !ove $or a protective order in t#e court (#ere t#e action is pending% 1#e !otion !ust include a certi$ication t#at t#e !ovant #as in good $ait# con$erred or atte!pted to con$er (it# ot#er a$$ected parties in an e$$or to resolve t#e dispute (Hout court action% 1#e court !ay issue an order to protect a party or person $ro! annoyance, e!"arrass!ent, oppression, or undue "urden, including one or !ore o$ t#e $ollo(ing2 (a) $or"idding t#e disclosure or discovery

(") speci$ying ter!s, including ti!e and placce, $or t#e disclosure or discovery (c) prescri"ing a discovery !et#od ot#er t#an t#e one selected "y t#e party see)ing discovery (d) $or"idding in>uiry into certain !atters, or li!iting t#e scope o$ disclosure or discovery to certain !atters (e) designating t#e person (#o !ay "e present (#ile t#e discovery is conducted ($) re>uiring t#at a deposition "e sealed and opened only on court order (g) re>uiring t#at a trade secret or ot#er con$idential researc#, develop!ent, or co!!ercial in$or!ation not "e revealed or "e revealed only in a speci$ied (ay@ and (#) re>uiring t#at t#e parties si!ultaneously $ile speci$ied docu!ents or in$or!ation in sealed envelopes, to "e opened as t#e court directs FRCP 77(a) 4otion $or an 0rder Co!pelling *isclosure or *iscovery (1)t#e !otion !ust include a certi$ication t#at t#e !ovant #as in good $ait# con$erred or atte!pted to con$er (Ht#e person or party $ailing to !a)e disclosure or discovery in an e$$ort to o"tain it (it#out court action *iscovery 4otions 1o deter!ine (#et#er !aterial $alls (it#in t#e scope o$ discovery can "e acco!plis#ed "y a 7 >uestion process to (#ic# eac# potentially discovera"le ite! s#ould "e su".ected

d.udication (it#out 1rial2 4otion $or 3u!!ary Judg!ent - Rule J8 (a) a su!!ary .udg!ent (ill "e granted (#en t#ere is no &enuine dispute as to any materia$ act ) t*e mo%in& party is entit$ed to +ud&ment as a matter o $a( (") party !ay $ile a !otion $or su!!ary .udg!ent at any ti!e unti$ ,- days a ter t*e c$ose o a$$ disco%ery d.udication (it#out 1rial2 *is!issal@ *e$ault Judg!ent *is!issal o$ ctions - Rule B1 Koluntary *is!issal - allo(s t#e !oving party to dis!iss action (Hout t#e court?s discretion to e:tricate #i!sel$ $ro! t#e la(suit (Hout a$$ecting #is legal rig#ts "e$ore t#e opposing party serves eit#er an ans(er or a !otion Involuntary *is!issal - Courts #ave t#e in#erent discretionary to dis!iss an action i$ P does not proceed to trial (it# due diligence% * !ay !ove to dis!iss t#e action or any clai! against it% t#ere is no speci$ic ti!e li!it and cannot re$ile% *e$ault Judg!ent - Rule JJ =#en a party against (#o! a .udg!ent $or a$$ir!ative relie$ is soug#t #as $ailed to plead or ot#er(ise de$end t#e cler) !ust enter t#e party?s de$ault 1#e court !ay set aside an entry o$ de$ault .udg!ent $or good cause P?s clai! is $or a su! certain or a su! t#at can "e !ade "y co!putation entered "y cler) or t#e court

*R

E:% !ec#anic repairs car and #as a receipt to s#o( t#e a!ount o(ed I$ * doesn?t s#o( up, you aren?t necessarily entitled to de$ault .udg!ent, until P2 Enter de$ault 3#o( P is entitled to de$ault .udg!ent Per Rule JB(c) S i$ * doesnt appear, P can only o"tain da!ages t#at (ere clai!ed in t#e petition, ot#er(ise it (ould "e a violation o$ due process "Hc depriving * o$ t#e e:tra a!ount o$ L (it#out giving #i! t#e opportunity to de$end a"out it%

*R is not a single syste! "ut rat#er a !ultiplicity o$ approac#es to t#e pro"le! o$ #o( "est to resolve disputes% It is an u!"rella ter! t#at enco!passes a range o$ processes I$ $ocuses on interpersonal relations, its lo( cost or speed or its a"ility to $oster personal gro(t# E a(areness =#o resolves t#e disputes< .udge, an o$$icer o$ t#e state (Hpro$essional education in t#e la(, a la(yer (Hsi!ilar pro$essional traiing, an e:pert, a representative o$ t#e co!!unity, a neutral 7rd party =#at ist #e source o$ t#e standard $or resolution< Rules o$ la(, t#e prior practices in t#at $ield, co!!unity values, standards developed "y t#e disputant t#e!selves =#o spea)s $or t#e disputants< +a(yers, persons (Hout pro$essional training ($riends, $a!ily !e!"ers), t#e disputants t#e!selves =#at is t#e nature E e:tent o$ $act-$inding E standard $inding< /o $act-$inding, s#aring t#e tas)s o$ 7rd parties =#o decides t#e dispute< 7rd party privately c#osen "y t#e disputant, a 7rd party !andated "y t#e state, or t#e parties t#e!selves =#at is t#e "inding e$$ect o$ any resolution< Ginding o$ t#e parties t#roug# coercive sanctions, "inding on non parties 1%/egotiation2 t#e !ost $a!iliar $or! o$ dispute resolution% Fairness is i!portant to t#e success E acceptance o$ negotiated solution% t t#e early stages, t#e parties !ay represent t#e!selves, #o(ever la(yers can get involved and #andle negotiations as (ell% 1#ere is no need $or Fact $inding 5% 4ediation2 is a process (#ic# a neutral 7rd party, (#o is o$ten "ut not al(ays a #u!an relations pro$essiona, assists t#e disputantn in reac#ing a negotiated settle!ent o$ t#eir di$$erences% 1#e decision !a)ers are t#e disputants t#e!selves% 1#ey see) co!!on ground, and serve as a neutral9 literally a go-"et(een $or t#e parties person% 1#ey do not #ave discovery !ec#anis!s to $orce t#e opposing side to reveal in$or!ation% 1#ey discourage t#e involve!ent o$ la(yers E $ind it appropriate (#en "ot# parties #ave t#e sa!e "argaining po(er% 6sed (#en t#e parties #ave a continuing relations#ip% 7% /eutral Fact$inding E 0!"udspersons2 generic ter! $or t#e use o$ a t#ird party to gat#er in$or!ation releveant to t#e settle!ent o$ a dispute% n o!"udsperson is a t#ird party (#o receives and investigates co!plaints a!ied at an institution "y its constituents, clients, or e!ployees% 1#ey are !ost li)ely #ired in regulated institutions, $or internal policy or co!!only s#ared values% B% Early /eutral Evaluation2 i$ parties do not settle at an early stage in litigation process "Hc t#ey $ail to evaluate t#e case ade>uately until t#e trial process re>uires t#e! to do so% Early neutral evaluation is a !ec#anis! designed to respond to t#is pro"le!% 0$ten an e:perienced la(yer, ar"itrator, $or!er .udge #andles t#e proceeding% J% 4ini 1rials2 is a privately developed !et#od o$ #elping to "ring a"out a negotiated settle!ent in lieu o$ protracted corporate litigation% It entails li!ited periods o$ discovery% 1#e neutral advisor is usually a retired .udge or respected la(yer% 1#e parties resolve t#e disputes aided "y t#e assess!ent o$ t#e neutral advisor as to t#e liely outco!e s#ould t#e !atter go to court% 1#e advisor?s i!partial appraisal o$ t#e con$lict encourages t#e parties to adopt !ore realistic goals in negotiating a settle!ent% 8% 3u!!ary Jury 1rial2 si!ilar to a !ini trial "ut is used $or cases ready to "e tried "e$ore a .ury% Instead o$ presenting a case "e$ore $ull .ury panel, t#e la(yers $or t#e parites present an a""reviated case "e$ore a panel o$ 8 .urors% 1#e verdict is not "inding, "ut provides a "asis $or settle!ent% 7% r"itration2 t#is t#e longest e:perience portion% 1#e parties select an ar"itrator (#o conduce #earings and t#en reac# a decision% 1#e ar"itration #earing is an adversary proceeding, in (#ic# eac# o$ t#e parties presents its case, (H$ull opportunity $or cross e:a!ination E re"uttal% +a(yers o$ten present evidence E argu!ents% .udg!ent is !ade, and "ot# parties are "ound to a"ide "y t#e a(ard, even t#oug# in certain circu!stances, eit#er or "ot# parites !ay see) to c#allenge, !odi$y or even vacate t#e a(ard% 7 "ound areas o$ responsi"ility2 (1) t#e pre-#earing p#ase (5) t#e #earing (7) t#e a(ard and t#e opinion Final o$$er ar"itration2 t#e standard ar"itration "ut is used typically to set t#e ter!s o$ contracts rat#er t#an to interpret E apply contractual provisions% Eac# party proposes a $inal o$$er o$ settle!ent% ,% Private Judging2 disputant (#o can a$$ord it !ay utiliIe private .udging in order to avoid t#e delays o$ t#e court syste!% $ter t#e dispute #as arisen and "een $iled in court, t#ey !ay #ire a private .udge, t#en t#e ct re$ers a .udge to t#e case% 1rial "y Jury & Rig#t to Jury trial ' 1#e 7t# !!end!ant Preserves, "ut does not guarantee t#e rig#t to .ury trial as it (as understood at C+ ' WAIVER ISSUE--A I$ you do not .emand a +ury tria$ in your comp$aint you #ave (ai%ed you rig#t to it% T * can de!and Jury trial in t#eir ans(er

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T 7,"(1) R t#e de!and $or .ury trial can not "e !ade !ore t#an 1B days a$ter 7t# !end!ent2 1#e 3event# !end!ent Puestion o$ t#e Rig#t to a Jury 1rial depends on t#e nature o$ t#e issue to "e tried rat#er t#an t#e c#aracter o$ t#e overall action% T only applies to $ederal courts, states deter!ine t#eir o(n rig#t T t#e rig#t as preserved at C+, 17F1% U C+ e>uita"le and legal issues #ad to "e tried "y separate courts T Colgrove2 7t# !end!ent preserved t#e RI-O1 to a trial "y .ury in civil cases rat#er t#an t#e various incidents o$ trial "y .ury% R% B, ' pros and cons o$ a .ury trial T pro & sets precedent & res .udicata & pu"licity & .ustice & parties get t#eir day in court T cons & !ore (or) to litigate & .ury trial !uc# longer and costs !ore ' E>uita"le vs% +egal T E>uita"le2 t#ere !ust "e no ade>uate re!edy at la( and petitioner (ould su$$er irrepara"le #ar! i$ t#e court does not ta)e action & Clean up doctrine (t#oug# does not apply today)2 court o$ e>uity could #ear s!all issues o$ la( i$ it #ad .urisdiction over a !ostly e>uita"le case (overruled "y *airy Pueen) T +egal2 generally loo)ing $or !onetary da!ages ' Geacon T /01E2 dd in E!anuel?s R0+ T R0+2 =#ere legal and e>uita"le clai!s are .oined in t#e sa!e action, t#e legal clai!s !ust "e tried "y .ury "e$ore t#e e>uita"le clai!s can "e resolved T 1#e only ti!e a .udge can decide E>uita"le issues $irst is i$ t#e clai! is co!pletely di$$erent separate $ro! t#e legal issues--A Co!pletely separate V di$$erent $acts ' *airy Pueen T R0+2 /o !atter #o( s!allHincidental t#e legal issues are, t#e rig#t to .ury trial s#ould "e preserved ' 1ull2 applies ON/Y to STATUTES t#at do not e:pressly grant or deny a rig#t to .ury trial T 1% nalogiIe and see i$ t#e statutory action (ould #ave "een eligi"le $or a .ury trial in 17F1 & E:a!ple2 pu"lic rig#ts provided "y a statute - s#aring air or (ater% Collectively a rig#t to "e protected "y a state & E:a!ple2 torts, usually could #ave "een litigated under C+ so 1ull test (1 E 5) T 5% loo) to re!edy soug#t & deter!ine i$ t#e relie$ soug#t is !ore legal or e>uita"le & t#is is t#e !ore i!portant $actor #o(ever a co!plete analysis s#ould "e done ' *a!ages are e>uita"le (#en t#ey are restitutionary and (#en t#ey are intert(ined (it# in.unctive relie$ (1ea!sters) ' Pu"lic Rig#ts2 tlas Roo$ing2 T Congress can ta)e a(ay t#e rig#t to a .ury trial in a statute and assign t#e $act $inding $unction and initial ad.udication to an ad!inistrative $oru! (it# (#ic# t#e .ury (ould "e inco!pati"le T =#en Congress creates a pu"lic rig#t it can deter!ine t#e !anner in (#ic# it is en$orced or vindicated & (#en Congress !andates t#at a rig#t (ill "e en$orced "y an ad!inistrative $oru! t#ere is /0 rig#t to a .ury trial ' E:a! analysis T 1% Geacon R0+ T 5% *airy Pueen R0+ T 7% I$ t#ere is a statute, t#en 1ull T B% I$ it involves pu"lic rig#ts, t#en tlas Roo$ing Province o$ t#e Judge and Jury ' Judge decides !atter o$ la( T "ind litigants '

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T "eco!es precedent Jury decides >uestions o$ $act T $or purposes o$ individual case T not necessarily "inding on su"se>uent cases 4ar)!an2 T In so!e cases (#ere it is unclear as to (#et#er a .udge or .ury s#ould decide upon ter!s o$ art in a case t#at is traditionally decided "y a .ury, precedent states t#at, .udges, "ecause o$ t#eir e:perience !ay "e !ore capa"le to de$ine t#e ter!s

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0ury se$ection ' sse!"le venire T Kenire2 list o$ potential .urors & co!plied "y ' voter registration ' drivers? license lists ' auto!o"ile registrations ' !arriage licenses T Rule ,7 - Civil Cases - 8 !e!"ers $or a .ury & Colgrove2- !ini!u! is 8, !a:i!u! is 15 & FRCP B, - court can decide t#e siIe o$ .ury no $e(er t#an 8 no !ore t#an 15 T E!paneling t#e Jury & (1) +ist o$ Potential Jurors ' 5, 63C 1,8J - >uali$ications -63 citiIen, at least 1, yrs old, a"le to read (rite understand E spea) Englis#, does not #ave !ental or p#ysical in$ir!ity, cannot "e convicted $elon or incarcerated $or a year or !ore ' 5, 63C 1,87 - e:e!pted2 !e!"ers in active service in t#e ar!ed $orces o$ t#e 63, !e!"ers o$ t#e $ire or police dept, pu"lic o$$icers in t#e govern!ent & (5) Koir *ire2 PuestionJuror to *eter!ine i$ appropriate ' voir dire - t#e process o$ >uestioning .urors, to deter!ine i$ t#at .uror could decide appropriately T c#allenging potential .urors & c#allenge $or cause - re.ected (#en partiality can "e s#o(n ' "ias o$ a .uror !ust "e s#o(n ' unli!ited nu!"er ' !ust as) t#e .udge $or per!ission to use & pree!ptory c#allenge - .ust stri)e out (Hout any reason, e:cept $or gender and race, E are assu!ed partiality t#at !ay not "e suscepti"le o$ proo$ ' li!ited to 7 in $ederal court ' no per!ission is needed $ro! t#e .udge Gurden o$ Proo$ - prove pri!a $acie ele!ent o$ case ' "urden o$ production2 !ust !eet t#e "urden o$ production including evidence to prove case, in order to #ave t#e .ury #ear t#e case ' "urden o$ persuasion - * (ill try to cast dou"t on t#e credi"ility or relia"ility o$ t#at evidence% represent t#e >uality E >uantity o$ evidence a party !ust produce at trial to prevail T standards & (1) preponderance o$ t#e evidence (!ore t#an JDW) & (5) clear and convincing evidence & (7) "eyond a reasona"le dou"t ' Courts (ill loo) at evidence in t#e lig#t !ost $avora"le o$ non-!oving party, as (ell as evidence supporting t#e !oving party t#at is uncontradicted 1a)ing t#e case a(ay $or! Jury ' 4otion $or Judg!ent as a 4atter o$ +a( (*irected Kerdict) T 4J4+ (directed verdict) - Can "e used $or a J6R; 1RI + 0/+; & Rule JD(a)(1)2 I$ a party #as "een $ully #eard on an issue during a .ury trial and t#e court $inds t#at a reasona"le .ury (ould not #ave a legally su$$icient evidentiary "asis to $ind $or t#e party on t#at issue, t#e court !ay grant a !otion as a !atter o$ la( against t#e party on a clai!

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31 /* R*2 T Insu$$icient evidence to give case to a .ury 0R T Reasona"le $inder o$ $act could only reac# one conclusion - evidence is so co!pelling t#at only one result could occur9 T Judge 4ay /01 (eig# t#e credi"ility o$ evidence T I!!ediately appeala"le T 4otion (ill "e denied i$ t#ere is su"stantial evidence to support t#e verdict $or t#e ot#er party T Judge is ta)ing a(ay $ro! .ury, so to not run a$oul $ro! 7t# a!end!ent & 1i!ing2 a$ter a party #as $ully "een #eard on an issue "ut "e$ore it is su"!itted to t#e .ury ' * can as) (#en P rests ' or (#en "ot# parties #ave rested t#eir case Rene(ed 4otion as a 4atter o$ +a( (J/0K) T Rene(ed 4J4+ & Rule JD(")2 I$ t#e court does not grant a !otion $or .udg!ent as a !atter o$ la( !ade under Rule JD(a), t#en !ay !a)e t#e rene( !otion as a !atter o$ la( and in t#e alternative !otion $or a ne( trial% & 1i!ing2 /o later t#an 5, days a$ter t#e entry o$ .udg!ent & In ruling on t#e rene(ed !otion, t#e court !ay2 ' 1) allo( .udg!ent on t#e verdict, i$ t#e .ury returned a verdict@ ' 5) order a ne( trial@ or ' 7) direct t#e entry o$ .udg!ent as a !atter o$ la( T WAIVER NOTE2 O KE 10 4 NE 4otion $or Rule JD(a) "e$ore t#eir !otion JD(") Rig#t to ne( trial Rule JF2 can "e "ased on t#e $ollo(ing errors T 3tandard2 & verdict is against t#e clear (eig#t o$ t#e evidence & verdict is "ased on $alse evidence & verdict (ould result in t#e !iscarriage o$ .ustice T Judicial error & gave (rong .ury instruction & error in ad!itting evidence & co!!ented pre.udicially on t#e evidence t#at #o( an e$$ect on t#e outco!e o$ t#e case T !isconduct "y attorneys or parties T !isconduct "y !e!"ers o$ t#e .ury & Ro!!--A .ury !isconduct "Hc .ury didnXt $ollo( instructions% Court cant !ould t#e verdict GHC it (as not clear (#at t#e .ury decided ' .uror?s a$$idavits cannot "e utiliIed to i!peac# t#e verdict ' t#e >uestion is not (#et#er t#e conduct (as i!proper "ut (#et#er t#e error is so serious t#at t#e verdict !ust "e overturned% ' .urors #olding unaut#oriIed conversations concerning t#e case% 4ost cases turn on t#e nature o$ t#e conversation and t#e e:tent to (#ic# t#e .uror !ig#t #ave "een in$luenced in #is decision% T Mc.onou&*--A to o"tain a ne( trial a party !ust de!onstrate & t#e .uror $ailed to ans(er #onestly a !aterial >uestion on voir dire & s#o( t#at a correct response (ould #ave provided a valid "asis $or a c#allenge $or cause T /e(ly discovered evidence & *iscovered a$ter trial ended "ut (as in e:istence at t#e ti!e o$ tiral & Patric) 8 $actors--A need all o$ t#e! ' !ust "e suc# as (ould pro"a"ly c#ange t#e result o$ a ne( trial ' !ust #ave "een discovered since t#e trial ' !ust "e o$ suc# a nature t#at it could not #ave "een discovered "e$ore trial ' !ust "e !aterial ' !ust not "e !erely cu!ulative or i!peac#ing ' !ust relate to t#e $acts t#at (ere in e:istence o$ t#e ti!e o$ trial T Kerdict is contrary to t#e (eig#t o$ t#e evidence & .udge !ay "ase #is action on #is "elie$ or dis"elie$ in so!e o$ t#e (itnesses

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*yer--A a .udg!ent (ill not "e vacated or set aside (#en it is supported "y co!tpetent, su"stantial, and apparently credi"le evidence (#ic# goes to all t#e essential ele!ents o$ t#e case T dditur and re!itttur & additu2 * !ust agree ' used to descri"e an order denying t#e P?s application $or a ne( trial on condition t#at t#e * consent to a spec$ied increase in t#e .ury?s a(ard ' increases t#e da!ages a(arded "y t#e .ury ' not recogniIed in $ederal court "ecause it goes "eyond (#at t#e .ury aut#oriIed ' not allo(ed at C+ & re!ittitur2 P !ust agree ' used to descri"e an order denying t#e *?s application $or a ne( trial on t#e condition t#at t#e P consent to a speci$ied reduction in t#e .ury?s a(ard% ' reduces t#e a!ount o$ da!ages a(arded "y t#e .ury ' allo(ed "y $ederal court ' Po(ers2 court !ust set da!ages to (as it dee!s to "e reasona"le T loo)s to past cases and t#e .ury a(ards in t#ose cases T loo)s to local .ury a(ards $or si!ilar cases T conditional ne( trial2 .udge !ay order a Rule JF ne( trial unless t#e parties agree to a re!ittitur & Rule 8D(") relie$ $ro! .udg!ent2 #ave up to a year to raise, "ased on $ollo(ing reasons ' 1% !ista)e, inadvertence, surprise, or e:cusa"le neglect T $actors & danger o$ pre.udice to opposing party & lengt# o$ delay and potential i!pact on .udicial proceedings & reason $or t#e delay & (#et#er t#e !oving party acted in good $ait# ' 5% ne(ly discovered evidence, t#at (it# reasona"le diligence, could not #ave "een discovered in ti!e to !ove $or a ne( trial under rule JF(") T $actors & 1% evidence (ould pro"a"ly c#ange t#e result i$ t#ere (as a ne( trial & 5% needs to #ave "een discovered a$ter t#e trial & 7%evidence !ust "e suc# t#at it could /01 #ave "een discovered t#roug# due diligence & B% !ust "e !aterial & J% !ust not "e !erely cu!ulative or i!peac#ing ' 7% $raud ' B% t#e .udg!ent is void ' J% t#e .udg!ent #as "een satis$ied, released or disc#arged@ it is "ased on an earlier .udg!ent t#at #as "een reversed or vacated@ or applying it prospectively is no longer e>uita"le ' 8% any ot#er reason t#at .usti$ies relie$ ' /ote2 allo(s .udg!ents to "e attac)ed (it#out regard to t#e passage o$ ti!e in certain situations T !ust "e reserved $or t#ose cases o$ in.ustice (#ic#, in certain instances, are dee!ed su$$iciently gross to de!and a departure $ro! rigid ad#erence to t#e doctrine o$ res .udicata T Ele!ents o$ suc# an action & a .udg!ent (#ic# oug#t not, in e>uity and good conscious, to "e en$orced & a good de$ense to t#e alleged cause o$ action on (#ic# t#e .udg!ent i$ $ounded & $raud, accident, or !ista)e (#ic# prevented t#e * in t#e .udg!ent $ro! o"tain t#e "ene$it o$ t#e de$ense & t#e a"sence o$ $ault or negligence on t#e part o$ t#e * & t#e a"sence o$ any ade>uate re!edy at la( 1#e Ginding E$$ect o$ Prior *ecisions & Co!!on +a( Principles ' /ot rules o$ Civil Procedure ' I$ state court, apply t#e rule o$ t#at state ' I$ Fed% court (Hdiversity .uris% apply co!!on la( o$ $oru! state - Erie doctrine ' I$ Fed% court "ased on $ederal >uestion .uris% apply Fed% co!!on la( & Res 0udicata - clai! preclusion ' Ele!ents2

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Judg!ent !ust "e $inal, valid and on t#e !erits to #ave preclusive e$$ect & 0n t#e !erits2 (#ere t#e clai! #as "een tried and deter!ined@ (#ere t#e court #as ruled t#at P #as or #as not esta"lis#ed #is clai! & Finality2 Res .udicata applies (#en t#e prior .udg!ent (as "ased on a $inal deter!ination o$ t#e cause o$ action asserted int #e $irst action% ' /ote2 i$ a clai! #as "een separately deter!ined in t#e action, it !ay "e treated as t#e e>uivalent o$ a $inal .udg!ent $or Res Judicata purposes, even t#oug# t#e action is still pending & Kalid Judg!ent2 *ecisions (ill not "e "inding i$2 ' t#e .udg!ent (as o"tained "y t#e use o$ $raud ' t#ere (as a clear and $unda!ental .urisdictional de$ect t#at s#ould #ave prevented t#e $irst court $ro! #earing t#e case% (34J, Personal Jurisdiction, lac) o$ due process) T Parites in second la(suit !ust "e identical (or in privity) to t#ose o$ $irst la(suit T Clai! in t#e second suit !ust involve !atters properly considered included (Hin t#e $irst la(suit ' 4erger2 (#en P o"tains .udg!ent in #is $avor, t#e clai! !erges in t#e .udg!ent so #e cannot see) $urt#er relie$ on t#at clai! in a separate action ' Gar2 (#en P losses and .udg!ent rendered in $avor o$ *, P?s clai! is e:tinguis#ed "ecause t#e .udg!ent acts as a "ar ' $$ir!ative *e$ense2 party (is#ing to rely on res .udicata !ust assert t#e de$ense in #is ans(er or it (ill "e dee!ed (aived ' =#at is a clai!< T Focus on t#e transaction rat#er t#an t#e cause o$ action & i$ t#e sa!e evidence (ill support "ot# actions, t#ere is "ut on cause o$ action T single tort can "e t#e "asis rat#er t#an t#e cause o$ action ' Final Judg!ent on t#e !erits T 3u!!ary Judg!ents T FRCP 15(")(8) *is!issal $or $ailure to state a cause o$ action T Judg!ent as a 4atter o$ +a( T rene(ed Judg!ent as a 4atter o$ +a( T Involuntary *is!issalH Koluntary *is!issal (it# Pre.udice T Consent Judg!ent T *e$ault Judg!ent ' E:a!ples T Failure to raise a co!pulsory counterclai! T Per!anent nuisances are considered to #ave a $ull and preclusive e$$ect T transaction t#at is represented "y on single and indivisi"le contract and t#e "reac# gives rise to one cause o$ action ' Purpose o$ res .udicata T to preclude 5nd clai! (#en it #as already "een decided T to preclude re-litigation "et(een t#e sa!e parties ' nalysis2 T Is it t#e sa!e or di$$erent cause o$ actionHclai! & Evidence t#e sa!e< & rise out o$ sa!e transaction or occurrence< (sounds li)e .oinder) T 3a!e parties (or privity) T *id action one end on t#e !erits< & I$ yes, can?t relitigate T =#at?s on t#e !erits< & nyt#ing $ro! 43J on including de$ault (!erits not concerned (H.uris%, venue, process) T E:ceptions to Preclusive E$$ect & I$ $irst, .udg!ent o"tained "y $raud, courts generally don?t consider it "inding & =#ere #ad a clear E $unda!ental .uridictional de$ect t#at s#ould #ave prevented 1st court $ro! #earing t#e case, courts o$ten (on?t consider t#e .udg!ent "inding & !ay consider e:pectations o$ parties & R0+2 (Jones v% 4orris) - in deter!ining (#et#er a de!and is a single and entire, or (#et#er it is several, so as to give rise to !ore t#an one cause o$ action, one !ust identi$y t#e $acts necessary to !aintain t#e action% I$ t#e sa!e evidence (ill support "ot# action, t#ere is "ut one cause o$ action% Collateral Estoppel - issue preclusion2 Collateral estoppel operates only to preclude t#e relitigation o$ speci$ic issues t#at actually (ere litigated and deter!ined and necessarily detr!ined in t#e previous action

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Re>uire!ents2 T (1) Judg!ent in $irst suit !ust #ave "een $inal, valid and on t#e !erits T (5) Identical issue & *e$ining t#e Issue ' 3unnen2 It !ust "e con$ined to situations (#ere t#e !atter raised in t#e second suit is identical in all respects (it# t#at decided in t#e $irst proceeding and (#ere t#e controlling $acts and applica"le legal rules re!ain unc#anged ' t#e legal !atters in t#e second proceeding !ust involve t#e sa!e set o$ events or docu!ents and t#e sa!e "undle o$ legal principles t#at contri"uted to t#e rendering o$ t#e $irst .udg!ent ' CE applied to >uestions o$ $acts and !i:ed >uestions o$ la( and $act T (7) ctually litigated in $irst suit & ctually litigated2 =#ere t#e trier o$ $act in t#e $or!er action !ust #ave actually !ade a deter!ination (i%e% a $inding) (it# respect to t#e $act in order $or collateral estoppel to preclude relitigation o$ t#at $act in t#e action% ' -eneral verdicts2 i$ a general verdict is rendered in t#e $or!er action and t#ere is no (ay o$ )no(ing (#ic# o$ t#e issues t#e .ury ruled on in reac#ing its conclusion, none o$ t#e issues litigated in t#at action (ill "e given collateral estoppel e$$ect ' *e$ault .udg!ent2 /ot "e given collateral estoppel e$$ect "ecause t#ere is no actual deter!ination o$ $acts on t#e evidence in a de$ault .udg!ent ' 3u!!ary Judg!ent ' Judg!ent as a 4atter o$ la( ' FRCP 15(")(8) T (B) /ecessarily decided - !ust #ave "een necessary to t#e ct?s .udg!ent & Essential Facts2 Collateral estoppel applies only as to t#ose $act issues decided in t#e $or!er action t#at (ere essential to t#e .udg!ent & Russell2 =#ere uncertainty e:ists as to several distinct !atters t#at !ay #ave "een litigated, (it#out indication o$ (#ic# speci$ic !atters (ere decided upon, t#e (#ole su".ect !atter o$ t#e action is open or retrial unless t#e uncertainty is re!oved (it# regard to e:trinsic evidence s#o(ing t#e precise point deter!ined & unless $act pattern is contri"utory negligence "ecause it is a co!plete "ar to recover Persons "ound "y Collateral Estoppel T 1raditional Rule o$ 4utuality - !utuality (as re>uired T 4odern Rule2 /o !utuality re>uired-& Gern#ard R0+ (!a.ority)2 an e:ception to t#e !utuality rule (#en a nonparty is going to use a prior .udg!ent as a s#ield% & .udg!ent is "inding only on parites E persons in privity (it# t#e! & t#e party against (#o! CE is "eing asserted !ust #ave "een a party to t#e original action or privity to a party in t#e original action & Glonder-1ongue ' !ust s#o( t#at t#e party against (#o! CE is asserted #ad a $ull and $air opportunity to litigiate t#e issue T E:ceptions to !utuality re>uire!ent & inde!intorHinde!nitee & 4asterHservant & 4odern Rule - non!utual collateral estoppel ' *oesn?t #ave to #ave sa!e parties T Person (#o! collateral estops is "eing asserted t#at #ad to #ave $ull E $air opportunity in 1st suit 0$$ensive v% *e$ensive Collateral Estoppel T 0$$ensive - use o$ CE ocurs (#en a P see)s to prevent a * $ro! relitigating an issue t#e * previously litigated and lost in an action against t#e sa!e or di$$erent party & $actors t#e court (ill (eig# (Par)lane Oosiery) ' 1% (#et#er t#e non-party could #ave .oined in t#e $irst action ' 5% (#et#er * #as incentive to vigorously litigate t#e $irst action ' 7% (#et#er t#e second action a$$ords * procedural opportunities unavaila"le in t#e $irst action t#at could readily cause a di$$erent result

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B% (#et#er t#e .udg!ent relied upon as a "asis $or CE is inconsistent (it# ot#er previous .udg!ents in $avor o$ * T *e$ensive use o$ CE occurs (#en a * see)s to prevent a P $ro! relitigating an issue t#e P #as previously litigated and lost in an action against t#e sa!e or di$$erent party (3ee Glonder a"ove) ' Collateral Estoppel dvantages2 T 4ore speci$ic issues S ot#er issues already decided S Oence Judicial Econo!y T =ait and 3ee9 - (ait until so!et#ing is deter!ined, so one does not #ave to investigate issue T Oelp parties avoid e!"arrass!ent o$ re-litigation and di$$erent .udg!ents 3tare *ecisis - in a"sence o$ special circu!stances, sa!e court or lo(er courts (Hin .urisdiction !ust $ollo( t#e la( as decided - applying precedent d!inistrative Foru!Hagencies ' t#ey !ust "e in privity (it# eac# ot#er and o$ t#e sa!e govern!ent $or any preclusive e$$ect

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