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1 LINEAR MOTION Physical Quantity Distance, l Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit Distance is the total path length traveled from one location to another. Quantity: scalar SI unit: meter (m)

(a) The distance in a specified direction. (b)the distance between two locations measured along Displacement, the shortest path connecting them in a specific l direction. (c) The distance of its final position from its initial position in a specified direction. Quantity: vector Speed,v Speed = Distance traveled Time taken Quantity: scalar Velocity, v Velocity = Displacement Time taken Direction of velocity is the direction of displacement Quantity : Vector SI unit: m s-1 Average speed Average velocity v = Total distant traveled, s Total time taken , t v = Displacement, s Time taken, t Example: A car moves at an average speed / velocity of 20 ms-1 On average, the car moves a distance / displacement of 20 m in 1 second for the whole journey.

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SI unit: meter (m)

Speed is the rate of change of distance

SI unit: m s-1

Velocity is the rate of change of displacement.

Uniform speed Uniform velocity An object has a non-uniform velocity if: Acceleration, a

Speed that remains the same in magnitude regardless of its direction. Velocity that remains the same in magnitude and direction. (a) the direction of motion changes or the motion is not linear. (b)The magnitude of its velocity changes. When the velocity of an object changes, the object is said to be accelerating. Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity. Acceleration = Change in velocity Time taken = final velocity, v – initial velocity, u Time taken, t

a=

v−u t

unit : ms-2

acceleration is positive

• The velocity of an object increases from an initial velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction.

Deceleration

acceleration is negative. Zero acceleration Constant acceleration

The velocity of an object decreases from an initial velocity, u, to a lower final velocity, v. An object moving at a constants velocity, that is, the magnitude and direction of its velocity remain unchanged – is not accelerating Velocity increases at a uniform rate. When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration of 5 ms-2, its velocity increases by 5 ms-1 for every second that the car is in motion.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Constant = uniform increasing velocity = acceleration decreasing velocity = deceleration zero velocity = object at stationary / at rest negative velocity = object moves at opposite direction 6. zero acceleration = constant velocity 7. negative acceleration = deceleration Comparisons between distance and displacement.

Distance Total path length traveled from one location to another Displacement The distance between two locations measured along the shortest path connecting them in specific direction Vector quantity It has both magnitude and direction SI unit : meter

**Comparisons between speed and velocity
**

Speed The rate of change of distance Scalar quantity It has magnitude but no direction SI unit : m s-1 Velocity The rate of change of displacement Vector quantity It has both magnitude and direction SI unit : m s-1

Scalar quantity It has magnitude but no direction SI unit meter

Fill in the blanks: 1. A steady speed of 10 m/s = A distance of .. ……….is traveled every ……….. 2. A steady velocity of -10 m/s = A …………. Of 10 m is traveled every ………..to the left. 3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms-2 = Speed goes up by 4 m/s every ………. 4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms-2 = speed goes ……….. by 4 m/s every ………. 5. A steady velocity of 10 m/s = …………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

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Example 1 Every day Rahim walks from his house to the junction which is 1.5 km from his house. Then he turns back and stops at warung Pak Din which is 0.5 km from his house.

Example 2 Every morning Amirul walks to Ahmad’s house which is situated 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the south of Ahmad’s house. (a) What is the distance traveled by Amirul and his displacement from his house? (b)If the total time taken by Amirul to travel from his house to Ahmad’s house and then to school is 15 minutes, what is his speed and velocity?

(a) What is Rahim’s displacement from his house • when he reaches the junction. • When he is at warung Pak Din. (b)After breakfast, Rahim walks back to his house. When he reaches home, (i) what is the total distance traveled by Rahim? (ii) what is Rahim’s total displacement from his house?

Example 3 Syafiq running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s. (a) What is his speed in m/s (b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?

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02 s 5 . Is the speed of both cars same? Is the velocity of both cars same? A ticker timer Use: 12 V a. 1 tick = 0. (a) What is the average speed of the plane? (b)What is the average velocity of the plane? (c) What is the difference between average speed and average velocity of the plane? Example 5 The speedometer reading for a car traveling north shows 80 km/hr. the plane moves to the east with the velocity 400 km / hr in one hour. Hence. Then. The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second.c power supply 1 tick = time interval between two dots.Example 4 An aeroplane flys towards the north with a velocity 300 km/hr in one hour. Another car traveling at 80 km/hr towards south. the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is 1/50 = 0.02 s.

s = x cm velocity = s = x cm t 0.02 s = 0.02 s = 0.2 acceleration. t = 10 dots x 0. acceleration and time using ticker tape. velocity. a=v–u t ACCELERATION elapse time.8 s or t = (50 – 10) ticks x 0. VELOCITY FORMULA Time.2 s displacement. v = x2 0.2 s Initial velocity.8 s TICKER TAPE AND CHARTS TYPE OF MOTION Constant velocity – slow moving Constant velocity – fast moving Distance between the dots increases uniformly the velocity is of the object is increasing uniformly The object is moving at a uniform / constant acceleration.2 final velocity.2 s = 0. 6 . t = (5 – 1) x 0. u = x1 0.Relating displacement.

(a) What is the time between two dots. (b) What is the time for one strips. The frequency of the ticker-timer used is 50 Hz. THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION u = initial velocity v = final velocity t = time taken s = displacement a = constant accleration 7 . Distance between the dots decrease uniformly The velocity of the object is decreasing uniformly The object is experiencing uniform / constant deceleration Example 6 The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart for a moving trolley. (e) What is the time interval to change from initial velocity to final velocity? (f) What is the acceleration of the object. Each section has 10 dots-spacing. (c) What is the initial velocity (d) What is the final velocity.

C – D : gradient of the graph –ve and constant.2 MOTION GRAPHS DISPLACEMENT – TIME GRAPH Velocity is obtained from the gradient of the graph. VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH Area below graph Positive gradient Negative gradient Zero gradient Distance / displacement Constant Acceleration (A – B) Constant Deceleration (C – D) Constant velocity / zero acceleration (B – C) a versus t GRAPH Zero velocity s versus t v versus t Negative velocity Constant velocity 8 . object at rest. The velocity is negative and object moves in the opposite direction. B – C : gradient of the graph = 0 ∴ the velocity = 0. A – B : gradient of the graph is +ve and constant ∴ velocity is constant.2.

GRAPH Constant acceleration s versus t v versus t a versus t Constant deceleration Example 6 Contoh 11 Example 7 Based on the s – t graph above: (a) Calculate the velocity at (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD (a) Calculate the acceleration at: (i) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM (b) Describe the motion of the object at: (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD (b) Describe the motion of the object at: (i) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM (c)Find: (i) total distance (ii) total displacement (d) Calculate (i) the average speed (c) Calculate the average velocity. 9 Calculate the total displacement. (ii) the average velocity of the moving particle. .

When the bottle stops suddenly.3 INERTIA Inertia The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or. Thus when the car stop. Every object continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless it is acted upon by an external force. Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly The passengers were in a state of motion when the car was moving. A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion. The sauce inside the bottle moves together with the bottle. The cow has a large inertia making it difficult to change direction. the coin drops straight into the glass. the larger the inertia SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA EXPLAINATION When the cardboard is pulled away quickly. When the car stopped suddenly. 10 . the sauce continue in its state of motion due to the effect of its inertia. the inertia in the passengers made them maintain their state of motion. The inertia of the coin maintains its state at rest. The larger the mass. the passengers moved forward.2. to continue its motion. Newton’s first law Relation between inertia and mass SITUATION Chili sauce in the bottle can be easily poured out if the bottle is moved down fast with a sudden stop. The coin falls into the glass due to gravity. if moving.

• When the umbrella stops rotating. • One bucket is filled with sand while the other bucket is empty. so that the top end of the handle is slotted deeper into the hammer head. The inertia of the head tends to keep in its state of rest when the body is moved suddenly. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up together by string. (b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck during rear-end collisions. the seat belt provides the external force that prevents the driver from being thrown forward. 2. • This is because the drop of water on the surface of the umbrella moves simultaneously as the umbrella is rotated. • This causes the hammer head to continue on its downward motion when the handle has been stopped. When the lorry starts to move suddenly. • The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall when the boy rotates the umbrella. the furniture are more difficult to fall off due to their inertia because their combined mass has increased. Safety in a car: (a) Safety belt secure the driver to their seats. 1. • Two empty buckets which are hung with rope from a the ceiling. (c) An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel. • Then. both pails are pushed.• The head of hammer is secured tightly to its handle by knocking one end of the handle. • It is found that the empty bucket is easier to 11 Ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia Relationship between mass and inertia . the inertia of the drop of water will continue to maintain its motion. It provides a cushion to prevent the driver from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard during a collision. on a hard surface. held vertically. When the car stops suddenly.

When both buckets are oscillating and an attempt is made to stop them. Kinetic energy is not conserved. The two objects combine and move together with a common velocity after the collision. 2. Momentum is conserved. the total momentum of a system remains unchanged. The bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to movement. Kinetic energy is conserved. Inelastic collision Elastic Collision Both objects move independently at their respective velocities after the collision.• • • • push compared to the bucket with sand.4 MOMENTUM Definition Principle of Conservation of Momentum Momentum = Mass x velocity = mv SI unit: kg ms-1 In the absence of an external force. the bucket filled with sand offers more resistance to the hand (more difficult to bring to a standstill once it has started moving) This shows that the heavier bucket offers a greater resistance to change from its state of rest or from its state of motion. 12 . Momentum is conserved. Total energy is conserved. An object with a larger mass has a larger inertia. Total energy is conserved.

an equal but opposite momentum is produced to recoil the riffle backward. Application in the jet engine: A high-speed hot gases are ejected from the back with high momentum. moves with a high velocity.Total Momentum Before = total momentum After m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 Total Momentum Before = Total Momentum After m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) v Explosion Before explosion both object stick together and at rest. This produces an equal and opposite momentum to propel the jet plane forward. 13 . After collision. v. From the principle of conservation of momentum. the bullet of mass m. Total Momentum Total Momentum before collision after collision : Is zero m1v1 + m2v2 From the law of conservation of momentum: Total Momentum = Total Momentum Before collision after collision 0 = m1v1 + m2v2 m1v1 = . both object move at opposite direction.m2v2 -ve sign means opposite direction EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum) When a rifle is fired. This creates a momentum in the forward direction.

The water is forced out at a high speed backward. A squid propels by expelling water at high velocity. So the boat will move forward. before= Total Mom. 14 . Jets of hot gases are expelled at very high speed through the exhaust. Water enters through a large opening and exits through a small tube.The launching of rocket Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels burn explosively in the combustion chamber. These high speed hot gases produce a large amount of momentum downward. an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the boat. propelling the rocket upwards. The fan produces a high speed movement of air backward. By conservation of momentum. an equal but opposite momentum is produced and acted on the rocket. This produces a large momentum backward. In a swamp area. This causes the squid to jet forward. By conservation of momentum. a fan boat is used. Total Mom. after 0 =Mom water + Mom squid 0 = mwvw + msvs -mwvw = msvs The magnitude of the momentum of water and squid are equal but opposite direction.

of the car A immediately after the crash? Before collision After collision MA = 4 kg MB = 2 kg UA = 10 m/s to the left UB = 8 m/s to the right VB = 4 m/s to the left. Example Example A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at 30 m/s collides with a car of mass 1000 kg which is traveling in the opposite direction at 20 m/s. What is the velocity of both vehicles immediately after collision? A man fires a pistol which has a mass of 1. If the mass of the bullet is 10 g and it reaches a velocity of 300 m/s after shooting. the two vehicles move together.Example Example Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at 20 ms-1 collides with a car B of mass 1200 kg moving at 10 m s-1 in same direction. After the collision. what is the recoil velocity of the pistol? 15 . Calculate the value of VA . v.5 kg. what is the velocity. If the car B is shunted forwards at 15 m s-1 by the impact.

they cancel each other out. Mass & Acceleration The acceleration produced by a force on an object Newton’s Second is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net Law of Motion force applied and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.2.change it state of motion (a moving object will decelerate or change its direction) Force. G When the forces acting on an object are not balanced. The net force is known as the unbalanced force or the resultant force. a. F = drag. W = Lift. there must be a net force acting on it. F.5 FORCE Example: Balanced Force When the forces acting on an object are balanced. The net force is zero. m it causes an acceleration. Effect : the object at is at rest [ velocity = 0] or moves at constant velocity [ a = 0] Weight. When a net force. Effect : Can cause a body to . The direction of the acceleration is the same as that of the net force. acts on a mass.change it state at rest (an object will accelerate . Force = Mass x Acceleration F = ma 16 . U Unbalanced Force/ Resultant Force Thrust.

The acceleration produced by an object depends on the mass The acceleration of the object decreases when the mass of the object increases Mass Acceleration Force Hypothesis Variables: Manipulated : Force Responding : Acceleration Constant : Mass Apparatus and Material Ticker tape and elastic cords. power supply and friction compensated runway and meter ruler. Mass & Acceleration Relationship between Situation a&F a&m Inference Both men are pushing the same mass but man A puts greater effort. But man B moves faster than man A. is directly proportional to the applied force. trolleys. Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force.Relationship between a & F aαF The acceleration. So he moves faster. a. 17 . ticker timer. a∝ 1 m Relationship between a and m The acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to the mass. The acceleration of the object increases when the force applied increases Both men exerted the same strength. The acceleration produced by an object depends on the net force applied to it. F.

Controlling responding variables. Acceleration a = v−u t . four using two. three. The elastic cord is stretched until the end of the trolley. The elastic cord is stretched until the end of the trolley. Acceleration a = v−u t An elastic cord is hooked over a trolley.Controlling manipulated variables. three. The trolley is pulled down the runway with the elastic cord being kept stretched by the same amount of force Determine the acceleration by analyzing the ticker tape.Procedure : . Analysing data 18 . Recording data Repeat the experiment by Repeat the experiment by using two . four and and five elastic cords five trolleys. . The trolley is pulled down the runway with the elastic cord being kept stretched by the same amount of force Determine the acceleration by analyzing the ticker tape.Repeating experiment. An elastic cord is hooked over the trolley.

1. What force is required to move a 2 kg object with an acceleration of 3 m s-2. A car of mass 1200 kg traveling at 20 m/s is brought to rest over a distance of 30 m.mu Unit : kgms-1 or Ns Impulsive The rate of change of momentum in a Force collision or explosion Unit = N Impulsive force is inversely proportional to time of contact m = mass u = initial velocity v = final velocity t = time Effect of time Longer period of time →Impulsive force decrease Shorter period of time →Impulsive force increase 19 . Find (a) the average deceleration. Which of the following systems will produce maximum acceleration? 2. What is the frictional force acting on the table? 3. 4. Ali applies a force of 50 N to move a 10 kg table at a constant velocity. (b) the average braking force.6 IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE Impulse The change of momentum mv . if (a) the object is on a smooth surface? (b) The object is on a surface where the average force of friction acting on the object is 2 N? 2.

20 . This can prevent injuries to the participants.Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports Situations Explanation Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in events such as high jump so that the time interval of impact on landing is extended. This will reduce the chance of getting serious injury. A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing. A baseball player must catch the ball in the direction of the motion of the ball. Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force Situations Explanation A karate expert can break a thick wooden slab with his bare hand that moves at a very fast speed. This will reduce the impulsive force. The short impact time results in a large impulsive force on the wooden slab. Goal keepers will wear gloves to increase the collision time. A massive hammer head moving at a fast speed is brought to rest upon hitting the nail. The large change in momentum within a short time interval produces a large impulsive force which drives the nail into the wood. thus reducing the impulsive force. Moving his hand backwards when catching the ball prolongs the time for the momentum to change so as to reduce the impulsive force. This is to increase the time of impact in order to reduce the impulsive force acting on his legs.

The impulsive force acted on the ball will be bigger and the ball will move faster and further. Example 1 A 60 kg resident jumps from the first floor of a burning house. (a) Calculate the impulse when his legs hit the ground.A football must have enough air pressure in it so the contact time is short. His velocity just before landing on the ground is 6 ms-1. The time of contact of his boot with the ball is 0. Pestle and mortar are made of stone. what is the velocity of the ball? 21 .05 s? (d) What is the advantage of bending his legs upon landing? Example 2 Rooney kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N.5 s to stop? (c) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he does not bend and stops in 0.01 s. When a pestle is used to pound chilies the hard surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause the pestle to be stopped in a very short time. What is the impulse delivered to the ball? If the mass of the ball is 0. A large impulsive force is resulted and thus causes these spices to be crushed easily.5 kg. (b) What is the impulsive force on the resident’s legs if he bends upon landing and takes 0.

Air bag Absorbing impact by increasing the amount of time the driver’s head to come to the steering. Front Absorb the shock from the accident. ABS Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing the brakes to lock. Seat belt To reduce the inertia effect by avoiding the driver from thrown forward. Made from steel.2. So it can reduce the impulsive force. So it can reduce the impulsive force. So it can increase zone the amount of time the car takes to come to a complete stop. bumper aluminium. So it can increase bar the amount of time the car takes to come to a complete stop. So that the impulsive force can be reduce Windscreen The protect the driver Crumple Can be compressed during accident.7 SAFETY VEHICLE Component Function Headrest To reduce the inertia effect of the driver’s head. 22 . plastic or rubber. Side impact Can be compressed during accident.

The acceleration due to gravity. g force of gravity only. This force is known as the pull of gravity or the earth’s gravitational force.2. An object falls freely only in vacuum. The standard value of the gravitational acceleration. A piece of paper does not fall freely because its fall is affected by air resistance.81 m s-2. They fall with the same acceleration ie. g. The earth’s gravitational force tends to pull everything towards its centre. The value of g is often taken to be 10 m s-2 for simplicity. Gravitational The gravitational field is the region around the earth in field which an object experiences a force towards the centre of the earth. Objects dropped under the influence of the pull of gravity with constant acceleration.8 GRAVITY Gravitational Objects fall because they are pulled towards the Earth Force by the force of gravity. This force is the gravitational attraction between the object and the earth. The gravitational field strength is defined as the gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram. g. This acceleration is known as the gravitational acceleration. The absence of air means there is no air resistance to oppose the motion of the object. In vacuum. g is 9. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends on the strength of the gravitational field. 23 . g= F m Its unit is N kg-1. Free fall An object is falling freely when it is falling under the Acceleration due to gravity. both light and heavy objects fall freely.

Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration W = mg SI unit : Newton. At normal state: Both coin and feather will fall because of gravitational force. Air resistance effected by the surface area of a fallen object. 24 Comparison between weight & mass Weight The weight of an object is the force of gravity acting on the object. Varies with the magnitude of gravitational field strength. g = 10 m s-2 The approximate value of g can therefore be written either as 10 m s-2 or as 10 N kg-1. Weight The gravitational force acting on the object. Both the coin and the feather are released simultaneously from the same height. Only gravitational force acted on the objects. The coin and the feather will fall freely. At vacuum state: There is no air resistance. N . The coin will fall at first. Both will fall at the same time. N and it is a vector quantity Mass The mass of an object is the amount of matter in the object Constant everywhere A scalar quantity A base quantity SI unit: kg The difference between a fall in air and a free fall in a vacuum of a coin and a feather. g = 10 N kg-1 Acceleration due to gravity. g of the location A vector quantity A derived quantity SI unit : Newton. The feather that has large area will have more air resistance.Gravitational field strength.

Motion graph for free fall object Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward and fall Example 1 A coconut takes 2. (b)The two spheres are falling down with the same acceleration The two spheres are at the same level at all times. a heavy object and a light object fall with the same gravitational acceleration. Thus. falling with an acceleration.(a) The two sphere are falling with an acceleration.0 s to fall to the ground. 25 . What is (a) its speed when it strikes the ground (b) the height of the coconut tree. Gravitational acceleration is independent of mass. The distance between two successive images of the sphere increases showing that the two spheres are falling with increasing velocity. Two steel spheres are falling under gravity. The two spheres are dropped at the same time from the same height.

2. Addition of Forces Resultant force. F = ____ + ____ 26 .9 FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM Forces in When an object is in equilibrium. F = ____ + ____ Resultant force. The object will either be 1. at rest 2. Newton’s 3rd Law Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects) Resultant Force A single force that represents the combined effect of two of more forces in magnitude and direction. the resultant force acting Equilibrium on it is zero. move with constant velocity.

FY Inclined Plane Fx = F cos θ Fy = F sin θ Component of weight parallel to the plane = mg sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane = mg cos θ 27 .Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method] STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor. FX (b) vertical component. STEP 3 Draw the diagonal of the parallelogram. F in magnitude and direction. draw the two forces F1 and F2 from a point. STEP 2 Complete the parallelogram scale: 1 cm = …… Resolution of Forces A force F can be resolved into components which are perpendicular to each other: (a) horizontal component . The diagonal represent the resultant force.

find the resultant force (d) (e) Lift Stationary Lift Lift accelerate upward Lift accelerate downward Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale = Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale = Resultant Force = The reading of weighing scale = 28 .

a 4. Find the moving mass. F 2.Pulley 1. Find string tension. T 29 .m 3. Find the resultant force. Find the acceleration.

J W = work. Example 3 A man is pulling a crate of fish along the floor with a force of 40 N through a distance of 6 m. Calculate the work done by the boy. Example 2 A girl is lifting up a 3 kg flower pot steadily to a height of 0.4 m. ENERGY.10 WORK. POWER & EFFICIENCY Work Work done is the product of an applied force and the displacement of an object in the direction of the applied force W = Fs The SI unit of work is the joule. F W = Fs s F W = (F cos θ) s W=Fs Example 1 A boy pushing his bicycle with a force of 25 N through a distance of 3 m. s of the object is in the direction of the force.2. F = force s = displacement 1 joule of work is done when a force of 1 N moves an object 1 m in the direction of the force Calculation of Work The displacement. s of the object is not in the direction of the force. F The displacement . What is the work done by the girl? What is the work done in pulling the crate? 30 .

The work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred. m = mass h = height g = gravitational acceleration E = mgh Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of m = mass an object due to its motion. energy is transferred from one object to another. Concept Power Definition The rate at which work is done. W = work / energy t = time Energy Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field. Formula & Unit P= W t p = power. A student carrying his bag while waiting at the bus stop A waiter is carrying a tray of food and walking No force is applied on the object in the direction of displacement (the object moves because of its own inertia) A satellite orbiting in space. or the amount of work done per second.No work is done when: The object is stationary The direction of motion of the object is perpendicular to that of the applied force. This is accompanied by the transfer of energy from one object to another object. Therefore. An object that can do work has energy Work is done because a force is applied and the objects move. when work is done. There is no friction in space. v = velocity E = ½ mv2 31 . No force is acting in the direction of movement of the satellite.

What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches point B? Example 8 Example 9 32 . total energy in a system is constant.Principle of Conservation of Energy Energy can be changed from one form to another. Example 5 A student of mass m is climbing up a flight of stairs which has the height of h. Calculate the work done by the worker to pull the block. What is the power of the student? Example 6 A stone is thrown upward with initial -1 velocity of 20 ms . He takes t seconds. What is the maximum height which can be reached by the stone? Example 7 A boll is released from point A of height 0. The distance traveled by the block is x.with a force of P along a fritionless plank at height of h.W. The energy can be transformed from one form to another..8 m so that it can roll along a curve frictionless track. Total energy before = total energy after Example 4 A worker is pulling a wooden block of weight. but it cannot be created or destroyed.

What is the velocity of the trolley at point Y? A ball moves upwards along a frictionless track of height 1.A trolley is released from rest at point X along a frictionless track. What is his velocity at the end of the slope? 33 . When he slides down the slope.5 m. What is its velocity at point B? Example 10 A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a concrete slide of height 2.5 m with a velocity of -1 6 ms . he does work to overcome friction of 140 J.

The wire returns to its original position 34 .2. Stretching a solid causes its molecules to be displaced away from each other. Stretching a wire by an external force: Its molecules are slightly displaced away from one another.12 ELASTICITY Elasticity A property of matter that enables an object to return to its original size and shape when the force that was acting on it is removed. Attractive intermolecular force acts to pull back the molecules to their original positions. Repulsive intermolecular force acts to push the molecules back to their original positions. Strong attractive forces act between the molecules to oppose the stretching When the external force is removed: The attractive intermolecular forces bring the molecules back to their equilibrium separation. Molecules are at their equilibrium separation. Compressing a solid causes its molecules to be displaced closer to each other. No external force is applied. Intermolecular force is equal zero.

35 . the spring cannot return to its original length even though the force no longer acts on it. The force required to produce one unit of extension of the spring. The Hooke’s law is not obeyed anymore. If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic limit. k unit N m-1 or N cm-1 or N mm-1 k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring The spring with a larger force constant is harder to extend and is said to be more stiff.Hooke’s Law The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. F = kx F= force on the spring x = extension k = force constant of the spring Force extension graph Based on the graph: Relationship between F & x : F is directly proportional to x The gradient of the graph represent = force constant of the spring. k= F x Force constant of the spring. A spring with a smaller force constant is easier to extend and is said to be less stiff or softer. k Area under the graph equal to the work done to extent the spring: = elastic potential energy = ½ Fx = ½ kx2 The elastic limit of a spring The maximum force that can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to be restored to its original length when the force is removed.

With a load of 10 g. springs.Factors that effect elasticity Factor Change in factor How does it affects the elasticity Length Shorter spring Less elastic Longer spring More elastic Diameter of spring Smaller diameter More elastic wire Larger diameter Less elastic Diameter spring Smaller diameter Less elastic Larger diameter More elastic Type of material Springs made of different materials Elasticity changes according to the type of material Arrangement of the spring In series In parallel The same load is applied to each The load is shared equally among the spring. W Tension in each spring = W Tension in each spring = 2 Extension of each spring = x x Total extension = 2x Extension of each spring = 2 If n springs are used: If n springs are used: The total extension = nx x The total extension = n Example 1 The original length of each spring is 10 cm. What is the length of the spring system for (a). (b) and (c)? 36 . the extension of each spring is 2 cm.

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(a) Figure 1. ………………………………………………… …………………………… Give a reason to your answer in (b) ………………………………………………… ………………………… Calculate the distance AB 2 m (b) 1 m (c) 1 m (d) 2 m (e) The velocity of a car increases if the force exerted on the accelerator of a car increases.SECTION A QUESTION 1 Figure 1.1 shows a car moving along a straight line but hilly road. The car travels at 60 kmh-1 from A to B for two minutes. Figure 1. ………………………………………………… …………………………….2 shows how the velocity of the car varies with time as it travels from A to E. Explain why the velocity of the car increases from D to E although the force on the accelerator of the car is the same as a long C to D.1 Figure 1. ………………………………………………… 2 m 38 .2 Describe the acceleration of the car as it travels from A to E. Compare the resultant force as it travels along AB and CD.

QUESTION 2 (SPM 1999) 39 ...…………………………… ………………………………………………… ………………………….

The cap passenger in the bus is 40 ……………………………… mass of the bus with the ca …………………………… and the average frictional fo bus tire and the road for the jo ……………………………… The bus moves at average sp …………………………… Kota Bharu before stopover a at 12:00 mid night on the s hour later the bus continue Kuala Lumpur with average The bus arrived at 6:00 am on (a) Put in a table all the phys involved in the informatio two groups. (d) (i) What is the value of the tr the bus when it moves at speed? (ii) ……………………………… …………………………… Give a reason for the ans ……………………………… 40 …………………………… . QRST and TU is the part of the hill that have constant slope where the slope of QRST is higher that the slope of TU. The frictional force that acts along QRSTU is 2 000N.QUESTION 3 ( SPM 2000) Figure 2 Figure 2 shows a car of mass 1 000kg moving a straight but hilly road. The velocity if the car at P is 80kmh-1 and takes 3 minutes to move from point P to Q. (c) Sketch a distance-time gr the motion of the bus. (e) Why is it necessary to ha capacity limit for the safe A bus traveled from Kota the bus? Lumpur at 9:00 pm. The motion of the car along PQRSTU represent by a velocity-time graph in Figure 3. (b) Calculate the total distanc the bus.

………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2m (c) (i) Compare the resultant force of the car when the move along PQ and ST. 1m ……………………………………………………………………………………. (a) (i) At which point the parachute start to open? …………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (a)(i) …………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Calculate the acceleration of the diver at ST. Figure 3(ii) shows a velocity-time graph for the skydiver at position S.. V and W from the earth surface. 41 1m 1m . explain the acceleration of the car from point P to S.. (d) Calculate the distance form point P to Q 2m QUESTION 4 (SPM 2002) Figure 3(i) Figure 3(ii) Figure 3(i) shows a sky diver start to make a jump from an aircraft at a certain height.. 2m (b) From the graph in Figure 3. T. U.(a) Classify the physical quantity into two groups. (ii) State a reason for your answer in c(i) 1m …………………………………………………………………………………….

. T. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 2m QUESTION 5 (SPM 1988) Figure 4(i) 42 . ……………………………………………………………………………………….2m (c) Sketch an acceleration-time graph for the motion of the skydiver at point S. U. 3m (d) Suggest one way that can the skydiver apply to reduce injuries on his leg during landing. V and W at the space below. Explain your answer.

(i) If the bullet speed is 400ms-1. (a) (i) What happen to the gun during the shot? 1m …………………………………………………………………………………. as shown in Figure 4(ii).. (b) The bullet shot the object of mass 0. Figure 4(ii) (i) What is the value of kinetic energy of the object together with the bullet 2m inside the object? 43 ..495kg..Figure 4(i) show a gun fires a bullet of mass 5g to an object. (ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i) 1m …………………………………………………………………………………. what is the momentum of the bullet? 2m (ii) What is speed of the object after the bullet obscured into the object after the gunshot? 2m (c) The object and the bullet that obscured in the object aloft at a maximum height of H.

Figure 5 (a) State the physics principle that is involved in the movement of the boat as the man jumps onto the jetty. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1m (c) The mass of the man is 50 kg and he jumps at a velocity 2ms-1. He then jumps out of the boat onto the jetty. Why? …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… QUESTION 6 (SPM 1994) Figure 5 shows a man standing on a stationary boat. The boat moves a way from the jetty as he jumps. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1m (b) Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty when the man jumps. ………………………………………………………………………………………… m 44 2m . The mass of the boat is 20kg. H. Calculate the velocity of the boat as the man jumps.(ii) Calculate maximum height. H achieved by the object? 2m 1m (iii) In real situation it is possible to achieved maximum height. (d) Name one application of the physics principle stated in (a) in an exploration of outer space.

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