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ECKH=  E KIJH= J= ? ?AEJ 6 f (x) 2AH @ BK @= A J= T P = 2T P = 3T x . P ?E= = CK =H BK @= A J= @A J=@= IK= BHAG ω0 = 2π T -NA F   ) BK f (x) = sen(x) FAHE @E?= ? 2π BK @= A J= ω0 = 2 = 1 .ECKH=  2AHE @ A FAH @ BK @= A J= • = BHAG ?E= F @A K = BK FAHE @E?= @A E@= ? E LAHI @A IAK FAH @ F = A A 1 P A@E@ = I@ AH @A HAFAJE AI ?E? I A ?=@= E JAHL= K EJ HE A x 5A x IACK @ I A J = BHAG ?E= F AH @A ?E? I F H IACK @ 0AHJ  • 7 KJH JEF @A BHAG ?E= = GK= KJE E =HA I BHAG ?E= = CK =H @A J=@= F H ω A @A E@= ? ω = 2πF = • 5A T F H ω0 FAHE @ BK @= A J= @A f A J @=@= F H AIJK@ @=I 5 HEAI @A .ECKH=  ! π FAH @ BK @= A J= T = 2π A BHAG ?E= . KHEAH 2π .F IEJEL JA I f (x) = f (x + nP ). K IA = GK= GKAH JEF E JAEH F IEJEL nP @A P J= > K FAHE @ @A f A H L= H @A P GKA I=JEIB= = AGK=   ?D= =@ FAH @ BK @= A J= @A f A IAH @A J=@ F H T 3K= GKAH KJH FAH @ @A f IAH K JEF E JAEH @ FAH @ BK @= A J= ) .

AI FAH @ P α1 A α2 @K=I J= > FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ P EIJ FAH @ J= > FAHE @E?= ? AI = ? >E = FAH @ @=I BK ! E A=H @A BK AI GKA B H= AI FAHE @E?=I @A ? >E =@=I AI .= A @ u = x C FA = DEF JAIA @A GKA f FAHE @E?= @A >JA I f (u) = f u + Pb b P∗ ∗ FAH @ P ? ? K I GKA P = b @ @A P = bP ∗ 2H F IE  5A = f1 A f2 @K=I BK AI FAHE @E?=I @A ? IJ= JAI HA=EI GK=EIGKAH ) BK h @A E@= F H h(x) = α1 f1 (x) + α2 f2 (x).-NA F -NA F ) BK f (x) = cos(x) FAHE @E?= ? 2π BK @= A J= ω0 = 2π = 1 .ECKH=  !  FAH @ BK @= A J= T = 2π A BHAG FAH @ GK= GKAH ?E=  ! ) BK ? IJ= JA f (x) = c JA F IIKE FAH @ BK @= A J= 6 ? AH HA= P = 0 A cos(x) .ECKH=  ! 5A E@AI sen(x) A cos(x) )I @K=I FH F IE AI = IACKEH I@ @K=I FH FHEA@=@AI E F HJ= JAI @=I BK AI FAHE @E?=I 2H F IE EE f 2H L=I x b  5A = f K = BK FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ P A J P a E f (ax) a = 0 b=0 FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ bP E 5KF D= GKA P ∗ FAH @ @A f (ax) @A @ GKA f (ax) = f [a(x + P ∗ )] = f (ax + aP ∗ ) .x sen(x) −4π −3π −2π −π 0 π 2π 3π 4π .= A @ u = ax >JA I f (u) = f (u + aP ∗ ) C FA = DEF JAIA @A GKA f FAHE @E?= @A ∗ ∗ FAH @ P ? ? K I GKA P = aP @ @A P = P a 1 P x ∗ EE 5KF D= GKA P ∗ FAH @ @A f x @A @ GKA f x b b = f b (x + P ) = f b + b ∗ .

. . + αn fn (x) + . . -NA F >IAHL= " + I GKA x 2 =I BK AI sen(x) A cos(x) F IIKA FAH @ 2π 2 = >=I FAH @ 2π FA = 2H F IE  E sen(2x) A cos(2x) F IIKA EE sen A cos x 2 =π F IIKA FAH @ 2 × 2π = 4π FAH @ FAH @ 2π 2π 2π 2π EEE sen(2πx) A cos(2πx) F IIKA EL sen ) @EIJ 2πx T =1 T =T A cos 2πx T F IIKA AI sen ∀ n ∈ Z =I BK 2nπx 2nπx A cos T T F IIKA =I ? F IIKA FAH @ T 2π T = . . . . " . . @=@= FA = ? >E = E A=H @A f1 . . . . . . fn . BK AI FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH @ α1 f1 (x) + α2 f2 (x) + . . f2 . fn J= > FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T ) FH L= @= FH F IE  A F @A IAH >JE@= FA FHE ? FE @= E @K -NJH=F = @ = FH F IE T = I HEA E EJ= @=@= F H  ! IA = = C= f1 . .J = BK h(x) = α1 f1 (x) + α2 f2 (x) + . . . .E = A JA FA = FH F IE  >IAHL= I GKA = BK h(x) = α1 sen 2nπx T + α2 cos 2nπx T J= > FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T 2H F IE ! 5A = f1 . .)GKE = FH L= KEJ IE F AI A F @A IAH >JE@= @EHAJ= A JA h(x + P ) = α1 f1 (x + P ) + α2 f2 (x + P ) = α1 f1 (x) + α2 f2 (x) = h(x). . + αn fn (x) + . . . . . . 2nπ n GK= GKAH JEF E JAEH @ FAH @ J= > FAH @ ? ? K I GKA = >=I J= > FAH @ T . . + αn fn (x). f2 . . @A A F=H= I L= HAI @A x F @A I @A EH = BK I GK=EI ? LAHCA K = BK FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T )IIE h(x) = α1 f1 (x) + α2 f2 (x) + . . fn BK AI FAHE @E?=I @A FAH @ T . f2 .

±2. .AJAH E A IA ?=@= K = @=I BK FAH @ BK @= A J= A IK= BHAG = y = cos(πx) > y = tg (πx) ? y = x2 @ y = sen(5x) A y = cos(3πx) AI = IACKEH K ?E= BK @= A J= FAH @E?= +=I IA = @AJAH E A IAK B y = cos(nx) C y = sen(nπx) D y = sen   y = sen πx T x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 E y = cos(3x) + sen(4x) + cos(5x) + cos + sen + cos   2=H= ?=@= BK = IACKEH AI> ?A IAK CH ? F=H= = CK I L= HAI @A n >IAHL= @ AIJA CH ? @AJAH E A IA = BK K FAH @E?= +=I IA = @AJAH E A IAK FAH @ BK @= A J= A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= = y = > y = ! 5A = 0 . . n = 0. n = 0.J= GKA h(x) = h(x + T ) -IJ= JE = = H = @A BK @= A J= E F HJ JH=>= D=HA I ? I HEAI E EJ=I JHEC JHE?=I @= B H = ?E= K = LA GKA an cos 2nπx T + bn sen 2nπx . . . 1 . ±2. 1 . 2n ≤ x < 2n + 1 (−1)n . ±1.AIJ= B H = F=H= I L= HAI @A x GK=EI = I HEA ? LAHCA A = @A A K = BK FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T    2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  . T   I >IAHLA GKA ?=@= JAH @AIJ= I HEA F IIKE FAH @ T . ±1. 2n − 1 ≤ x < 2n . . . 2n − 1 ≤ x < 2n . g : R −→ R BK = (f + g )(x) = f (x) + g (x) FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T EIJ FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH @ J= > FAHE @E?= > (f − g )(x) = f (x) − g (x) FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T EIJ FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH @ J= > FAHE @E?= ? (f g )(x) = f (x)g (x) FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T EIJ FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH @ J= > FAHE @E?= FH @KJ @A @K=I BK # . 2n ≤ x < 2n + 1 AI FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH @ T IJHA GKA =I = @EBAHA = @A @K=I BK = @A @K=I BK AI AI AI f.

T T )I HA = AI  #=  #> A  #? I ?D= =@=I HA = AI @A HJ C = E@=@A 2H L=HA I = AGK=  #= A @AEN= I =I FH L=I @=I HA = AI  #> A  #? ? ANAH? ?E F=H= AEJ H I 2H > A =I  F CE = % A F CE = % HAIFA?JEL= A JA $ . IAH E F HJ= JA F=H=  "=  ">  "? II JH=>= D I HAIK J=@ I @ 6A HA =  " @=@ = IACKEH J= > 6A HA =  " 4A = AI @A T HJ C = E@=@A IA m. n ∈ Z∗ + E JAEH I F IEJEL I A J 0 T 2 cos 0 T 2mπx 2nπx cos dx = T T 2mπx 2nπx sen dx = T T T . ." 5A = f : R −→ R K = BK GKA FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T A E JACH LA A a+ T b+T J @= = HAJ= IJHA f (x)dx = a b f (x)dx  K IA = E @AFA @A JA @ E JAHL= @A E JACH= L= H @= E JACH= IAH IA FHA AI @AI@A GKA J= = D @AIJA E JAHL= IA = FH FHE FAH @ @= BK /A AJHE?= A JA EIJ >LE 2 H GK   4A = AI @A HJ C = E@=@A ) JAI @A AN= E =H I ? =EI @AJ= DAI I HEAI JHEC JHE?=I @= B H =   E LAIJEC=HA I = CK =I FH FHEA@=@AI E F HJ= JAI @=I BK AI GKA = @A A + A?A I HA A >H= @ @= JHEC AJHE= A A A J=H =I B H K =I F=H= IA A ? IIA @= I = A @= @EBAHA = IA ? IIA IA ? IIA @= I @= I = = = = sen(θ + φ) = sen(θ)cos(φ) + cos(θ)sen(φ). I JH I E@A JE@=@AI GKA KJE E =HA I I I I =@E= JA  !=  !>  !?  !@ ? ?K @A @= @EBAHA @= @EBAHA ) F=HJEH @AIJ=I B H K =I >JA = CK =I E JACH=EI F H  !> +  !@ >JA F H  !@ −  !> >JA F H  != −  !? >JA BKJKH 2cos(θ)cos(φ) = cos(θ + φ) + cos(θ − φ). sen(θ − φ) = sen(θ)cos(φ) − cos(θ)sen(φ). cos(θ − φ) = cos(θ)cos(φ) + sen(θ)sen(φ). IA m = n  #=  #>  #? sen 0 0 T 2 cos 0 2nπx 2mπx sen dx = 0. 2cos(θ)sen(φ) = sen(θ + φ) − sen(θ − φ). IA m = n IA m = n . n. 2sen(θ)sen(φ) = cos(θ − φ) − cos(θ + φ). . cos(θ + φ) = cos(θ)cos(φ) − sen(θ)sen(φ). IA m = n . . ∀m.

2H L= @A  #= • +=I m = n 7JE E = @ = E@A JE@=@A  "= F @A T 0 I AI?HALAH .

.

2mπx 2nπx 1 cos cos dx = T T 2 .

 2mπx 2nπx 2mπx 2nπx + + cos − T T T T 0  .

.

 2(m + n)πx 2(m − n)πx 1 T cos + cos = 2 0 T T  .

  .

 1 T 2(m + n)πx T 1 T 2(m − n)πx T = sen + sen 2 2(m + n)π T 2 2(m − n)π T 0 0  .

.

 T sen 2(m + n)π − sen 0 = 4π (m + n)  .

.

4π (m − n) T .  T + sen 2(m − n)π − sen 0 = 0.

cos K = LA GKA m. n ∈ Z∗ + m=n A IA @A T JEF I E JAEH I @A π .

AH • +=I m = n AIJA ?=I JA T 0 I  2nπx 2 dx T 0  .

1 T 4nπx dx 1 + cos 2 0 T  .

T 1 T 4nπx x+ sen 2 4nπ T 0   T T 1 T+ sen(4nπ ) − 0 − sen(0) 2 4nπ 4nπ   1 T T = . 2 2 .

.

2nπx 2πx cos cos dx = T T cos = = = = K = LA GKA n ∈ Z∗ + A IA @A JEF I E JAEH I @A π AH   2H > A =I 2H F IJ I AI H=?E ? E @ JANJ  5ACKE @ HJ C = E@=@A  #>   5ACKE @ AI H=?E ? E @ JANJ HJ C = E@=@A  #? KJE E A = E@A JE@=@A  "> F=H= FH L=H = HA = KJE E A = E@A JE@=@A  "? F=H= FH L=H = HA = @A @A  ! 5 HEAI @A . T  $ . KHEAH 8 JA I =C H= I I HEAI JHEC JHE?=I @= B H = ∞ a0 + 2 an cos n=1 2nπx T % + bn sen 2nπx .

KHEAH . KHEAH F=H= = @=@= BK 2=H= J= = =HA I @=I HA = AI @A HJ C = E@=@A = JAHE H A JA @EI?KJE@=I  A A= *=FJEIJA IAFD .=@= K = BK f FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T II > AJEL @AJAH E =H I + A ?EA JAI @A .AJAH E = @ I + A ?EA JAI @A .E A I A J GKA = I HEA  $ = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH F=H= f A AI?HALA I f (x) ∼ a0 + 2 ∞ an cos n=1 2nπx T + bn sen 2nπx . KHEAH ) IACK @= F H IA JH=J=H @A K =IIK J =EI IKJE IAH ? A J=@= =EI =@E= JA IA  " GK= @ AIJELAH I B= E E=HE =@ I ? =I 5 HEAI @A . T  % @A I ? A ?EA JAI a0 an A bn n ∈ Z+ ?D= =@ I + A ?EA JAI @A . KHEAH  !  . IE? =JA JE? BH= ? I 1768 − 1830 . KHEAH a0 an A bn F=H= GKA F II= F H K = I HEA @= B H =  & EE GK=EI =I ? @E AI GKA @ALA I E F H I >HA f F=H= GKA J= HAFHAIA J= I HAFHAIA J=H f IA = F II LA )> H@=HA I =C H= = FHE AEH= GKAIJ F=H= = @AJAH E = @ I ? A ?EA JAI @A . KHEAH .= GK= >IAHL= I GKA J @=I =I E EJ=I F=H?A =I I FAHE @E?=I @A FAH @ T ? K J @A L= HAI @A x F=H= I GK=EI = I HEA  $ ? LAHCA A = @A A K = BK FAHE @E?= f @A FAH @ T . KHEAH @= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH + = BK f ∗I π )IIE @A E@= F H  % F IIKE FAH @ BK @= A J= 6 IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 2 T HAAI?HALA I = I HEA  % = B H = =EI ? LA EA JA a0 f (x) ∼ + 2 ∞ an cos nω0 x + bn sen nω0 x . KHEAH F=H= AIJ= BK A F=HJE?K =H KJH=I F= =LH=I @AJAH E =H I ? A ?EA JAI @A . KHEAH KJE E K I HEAI @= B H =  $ IAK B= I JH=>= D 6D HEA ) = OJEGKA @A = +D= AKH @A AIJK@ K I BA A I @A ? @K @A ?= H & . n=1  & 4=?E ?E = @ IA JE@ E LAHI IA = f K = BK FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ BK @= A J= 6 A 2π BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = T 5KHCA @K=I GKAIJ AI E ? @AJAH E =H I ? A ?EA JAI @A .

2 nω nω 2 0 0 n=1 = n=1 ∞ : K = LA GKA sen 2nπ = 0 A cos 2nπ = 1 ∀n ∈ Z )IIE ? A ?EA JA a0 @=@ F H  '= a0 = • . 2A = AGK=  #? = IACK @= E JACH= @ I =J HE K = 2A = AGK=  #= = IACK @= E JACH= @ I =J HE K = F=H= m = n A L= A T F=H= m = n )IIE JA I 2 T 0 f (x)cos nω0 x dx =  T a0 T sen nω0 x + an 2nω0 2 0   a0 T = sen nω0 T − sen 0 + an 2nω0 2   T a0 T = sen 2nπ − sen 0 + an = an . 0 @A an E JAHL= 0 K JEF E?= [0. 7 = I HEA @A BK AI F @A IAH @AHEL=@= A E JACH=@= JAH = JAH I A JA IA A = B H K EB H A A JA ? CA JA -IJA ?=I @=I 5 HEAI @A . 2nω0 2 2 K = LA GKA sen 2nπ = 0 ∀n ∈ Z )IIE ? A ?EA JA an @=@ F H  '> LAH an = 2 T T 0 f (x)cos nω0 x dx. T ] 2 + an cos nω0 x + bn sen nω0 x dx T T a0 dx + an cos nω0 x dx + bn sen nω0 x dx 2 0 0 n=1 0   T T  ∞  : a0 T an bn = x sen nω0 x cos nω0 x + − 2 nω0 nω0 0 0 0 n=1      :  ∞ bn an a0 sen nω0 T − sen 0 − cos nω0 T − cos 0 T + = 2 nω0 nω0 n=1       : ∞ a0 an bn a0 = T + sen 2nπ − 0 − cos 2nπ − 1 = T.AJAH E = T 0 @A a0 E JACH= f (x)dx = 0 T Ta 0 I = > I I ∞ : A >H I @A  & I >HA  E JAHL= [0. KHEAH 8A = I +=F JK I 1 A 2 @= HABAH ?E= ! ' .AJAH E = CH= I I >HA T 0 2 T T f (x)dx. T ] Ta 0 I= > I I ∞ : A >H I @A  & F H cos mω0 x A E JA  f (x)cos mω0 x dx = = 2 T cos mω0 x + an cos nω0 x cos mω0 x + bn sen nω0 x cos mω0 x T 0 dx 0 a0 cos mω0 x dx + an 2 n=1 n=1 ∞  : cos nω0 x cos mω0 x dx+ T + bn 0  sen nω0 x cos mω0 x dx.• .

KHEAH @= FAH @ @A f @= GK=@H=@= IJH=@= = ) IE > . T ] =I ? f. H K =I @A -K AH . KHEAH @= I HEA  & F=H= K = @=@= BK f FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T = @A@K @AIJ=I . T  = T f (x)cos(nω0 x)dx. . n = 1 .  '? )I AGK= AI  '=  '> A  '? I ?D= =@=I . n = 1. . KHEAH A IA @AIJE = = ? ?K @ I + A ?EA JAI @A . @ T I HAIK J=@ I @ I 2H > A =I ! F CE = F @AHE= IA @=H I >HA GK= GKAH E JAHL= @A ?EA JAI a0 an A bn F @A I E JACH=H I >HA JA AI? DA I E JAHL= =EI ? LA EA JA FAHE @E?=I @A AI FAH IJH= GKA J= E JACH= F=H= ? ?K @ I ? A FHE A J T ALE@A JA A ! -NA F I @A 5 HEAI @A . .E?= = ?=HC @ AEJ H 2H > A = % @= F CE = $ LAHE ?=H bn = 2 T T 0 f (x)sen nω0 x dx. T ] . 2. H K =I @A -K AH .AJAH E = CH= I I >HA GKA E JAHL= @A bn K JEF E?= I = > I I A >H I @A  & F H sen mω0 x A E JA [0.AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= CE= 4 T A I >HA K 5 HEA @A .  >  ? T . . KHEAH @=@= F H ω0 = ? A ?EA JAI a0 an A bn I @=@ I FA =I . . . π @A ω0 = 2 J @=I T I # A " F CE = $ I ? FHE A J T )IIE GK= GKAH E JAHL= @A ? cos(nω0 x) A sen(nω0 x). 2. . H K =I E JACH= I I >HA E JAHL= [0.ECKH=  " ! -NA F  # . KHEAH @= B H = a0 f (x) ∼ + 2 ∞ an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) n=1   2π T @A ω0 = BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= @A f A J= > @= 5 HEA @A .• . KHEAH FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ 4AIK E @ II I HAIK J=@ I =J A J IA f : R −→ R K = BK T A J f F @A IAH HAFHAIA J=@= F H K = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH! I a0 = an = bn = 2 T 2 T 2 T f (x)dx. . f (x)sen(nω0 x)dx. dx IEC E ?= E JACH=  .

2=IIA • + ?K a0 = IA J = I ? ?K I @ I ? A ?EA JAI @A . −π ≤ x < 0 1 . nπ nπ F EI " IA @A JEF I E JAEH I @A π AH @ J= = D @A IAK KEJ I ?=I I = =EI 7 = LA GKA = BK FAHE @E?= @ALA FAH @ A = IACKEH E @E?=H IK= FAHE @E?E@=@A ? LA EA JA E JAHL= ?A JH=@ = HECA I ANFHAII = = = EJE?= A JA A K E JAHL= ) AI? D= @AIJA E JAHL= =H>EJH HE= A A  . f (x + 2π ) = f (x). + π π π π −π 0 • + ?K @A an KI= @ = AGK= an =  > ? ω0 = 1 JA I π 2 f (x)cos(nx)dx 2 π −π   0 π 1 = − cos(nx)dx + cos(nx)dx π −π 0  0  π 1 1 =− sen(nx) + sen(nx) nπ nπ −π 0     1 1 =− sen(0) − sen(−nπ ) + sen(nπ ) − sen(0) nπ nπ     1 1 =− 0 + sen(nπ ) + sen(nπ ) − 0 = 0. KHEAH  = JA π 0 @A a0 KI= @ = AGK= 2 2π π I f (x)dx = −π  1 − π 0 dx + −π   0  π     1 1 1 1 dx = − x x =− 0+π + π − 0 = −1 + 1 = 0.f (x) 6 1 .ECKH=  " @= 3K=@H=@= 2AH @ 2π FAH @ @AIJ= @= GK=@H=@= B H = = = JE?= F @A IAH @=@= F H" f (x) = T = 2π A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 2π T = 1 5K= −1 . 0≤x<π .x −3π −2π −π 0 −1 π 2π 3π .

H K HE F CE = #! 4 nπ IA n IA n F=H . nπ   = GKA F @A K = B H = >=IJ= JA @AI= AEJ=@= I HAAI?HALAH bn ? bn = 0 7JE E = @ = AGK= .• + ?K @A bn KI= @ = AGK= bn = = = = =  ? ? ω0 = 1 JA I π 2 f (x)sen(nx)dx 2π −π   0 π 1 − sen(nx)dx + sen(nx)dx π −π 0  0  π 1 1 cos(nx) − cos(nx) nπ nπ −π 0     1 1 cos(0) − cos(−nπ ) − cos(nπ ) − cos(0) nπ nπ       1 2 1 1 − cos(nπ ) − cos(nπ ) − 1) = 1 − cos(nπ ) . nπ nπ nπ F EI IA @ ? IIA F=H cos(nπ ) = cos(−nπ )   = HAFHAIA J= 5K>IJEJKE @ a0 = 0 an = 0 A ω0 = 1 = AGK= @AIJ= @= GK=@H=@= JA = B H = ∞ A 5 HEA @A . F=H KJE E = @   > EIJ JA FA = AGK= I =FA =I JAH I F=H= L= HAI F=HAI @A n )IIE   > = ANF= I @= 5 HEA   = ?= f (x) ∼ I L= HAI @A bn @=@ I 4 4 4 4 sen(x) + sen(3x) + sen(5x) + sen(7x) + .  . KHEAH f (x) ∼ n=1 bn sen(nx). π 3π 5π 7π K HAAI?HALA @ = = B H = @A I =J HE  >IAHLA GKA JA ∞ k=0 I =FA =I JAH I F=HAI   ? 4 f (x) ∼ π 1 sen (2k + 1)x . . . . EIJ = 5 HEA I F IIKE JAH AI?HALAH I A f (x) ∼ IA ∞ n=1 I# 5K>IJEJKE @ L= H A ? JH=@ F=H= bn F @A I 2 1 − cos(nπ ) sen(nx). 2k + 1  .

x .ECKH=  # @= 6HE= CK =H 2AH @ 2 -NA F  $ . H K HE F CE = #! ? ω0 = π >JA I  0  1 x 1 x 1 an = − sen(nπx) + 2 2 cos(nπx) + sen(nπx) + 2 2 cos(nπx) nπ n π nπ n π −1 0     1 1 1 1 1 1 sen(−nπ ) − 2 2 cos(−nπ ) + sen(nπ ) + 2 2 cos(nπ ) − 2 2 cos(0) = − 2 2 cos(0) + n π nπ n π nπ n π n π       1 1 1 1 2 = − 2 2 − 2 2 cos(nπ ) + cos(nπ ) − 2 2 = 2 2 cos(nπ ) − 1 n π n π n2 π 2 n π n π  # LAHA I GKA EIJ K = AH= ? E ?E@ ?E= # )@E= JA IA ! .f (x) 6  @  @ 1  @  @     @ @ −3   @  −2   @ @ −1 @  0     @ 1 @ @  2     @ @ 3 . KHEAH @= @= JHE= CK =H IJH=@= = . 2=IIA • + ?K IA J 1 = I ? ?K I @ I ? A ?EA JAI @A . −1 ≤ x < 0 x . + =− 0− 2 −1 2 0 2 2 2 2 • + ?K @A an KI= @ = AGK= an = = 2 2  > ? 1 −1 0 ω0 = π JA I f (x)cos(nπx)dx 1 −x cos(nπx)dx + −1 0 x cos(nπx)dx 2A = AGK= " . KHEAH I 0 @A a0 KI= @ = AGK= 2 2 f (x)dx = −1 −1 a0 = −xdx +  2 0     2 1  x 1 1 1 x 1 xdx = − + − 0 = + = 1. f (x + 2) = f (x). 0≤x<1  = JA 1 0 .ECKH=  # π FAH @ @AIJ= @= JHE= CK =H T = 2 A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 2 T = π 5K= B H = = = JE?= F @A IAH @=@= F H f (x) = −x .AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .

H K HE x 1 cos(nπx) + 2 2 nπ n π F CE = #! ?  ω0 = π >JA I bn = − − 1 1 x cos(nπx) + 2 2 sen(nπx) nπ n π −1 0     1 1 1 1 1 1 = − 2 2 sen(0) − cos(−nπ ) − 2 2 sen(−nπ ) + − cos(nπ ) + 2 2 sen(nπ ) − 2 2 sen(0) n π nπ n π nπ n π n π 1 1 = cos(nπ ) − cos(nπ ) = 0 nπ nπ 0 sen(nπx) + − 5K>IJEJKE @ bn = 0 A ω0 = π = AGK=   = HAFHAIA J= @= JHE= CK =H JA = B H = ∞ a0 f (x) ∼ + an cos(nπx). . H K HE F CE = #! F @A 0 − n24π2 . 2 2 π 9π 25π 49π 2 K HAAI?HALA @ = = B H = @A I =J HE f (x) ∼ 1 4 f (x) ∼ − 2 2 π ∞ k=0 1 sen (2k − 1)πx . . (2k − 1)2  !?  ! ! 2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  4AB= = I ? ?K I @ -NA F $  # F CE =  E JACH= @ I >HA K = AH= ? E ?E@ ?E= E JAHL= )@E= JA IA  # LAHA I GKA EIJ " .• + ?K @A bn KI= @ = AGK= bn = = 2 2  ? ? 1 −1 0 ω0 = π JA I f (x)sen(nπx)dx 1 −x sen(nπx)dx + −1 0 x sen(nπx)dx 2A = AGK=  ! . F=H KJE E = @  !> an = IA n IA n EIJ JA FA = AGK= I =FA =I JAH I F=H= L= HAI F=HAI @A n )IIE  !> = ANF= I @= 5 HEA  != ?= I L= HAI @A an @=@ I 4 4 4 4 1 − 2 cos(πx) − 2 cos(3πx) − cos(5πx) − cos(7πx) + . I HAAI?HALAH an ? F=H . KHEAH @AIJ= I A ? IIA I$ 5K>IJEJKE @ L= HAI 1 + 2 ∞ n=1 2 n2 π 2 cos(nπ ) − 1 cos(nπx). .  != 7JE E = @ = AGK=  . 2 n=1 EIJ = 5 HEA F IIKE JAH A ? JH=@ I F=H= a0 A an F @A f (x) ∼ 0 ? IJ= JA a 2 A JAH I AI?HALAH A 5 HEA @A .

# .AJAH E A = B H = = = JE?= A = HAFHAIA J= A 6 f (x) π 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= BK FAHE @E?=       −3π −2π         −π 0       π     2π     3π x # 2=H= ?=@= BK FAHE @E?= = IACKEH AI> ?A IAK CH A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . −1 ≤ x < 0 . 3−x . KHEAH @= BK FAHE @E?= ! . 0≤x<1 0 . 0] A f (x) 6 1 ? [2. sen(x) . f (x) = f (x + 2π ). 2π ]   4AB= = I ? ?K I @ -NA F = [0. 1 . 4] 5 HEA @A . KHEAH = f (x) = > f (x) = ? f (x) = ? A K E JAHL= @A JH I FAH @ I A 0 . 0 ≤ x < π. 2] > [−2π. −3 ≤ x < 0 . −π ≤ x < 0 . f (x) = f (x + 2). x .AJAH E A = B H = = = JE?= A = HAFHAIA J=       −3 −2         −1 0       1     2     3 x " . −π ≤ x < 0 . 4π ] E JAHL=  $ F CE = ! E JACH= @ I >HA > [−2. f (x) = f (x + 6). 0≤x<3 AE= @= ? @= f (x) = @ HAJE ?=@ H @A A HAJE ?=@ H @A 0 . 0] ? [2π. 0 ≤ x < π F AJ= f (x) = sen(x). 0≤x<π −3 − x . f (x) = f (x + π ). f (x + 2π ) = f (x).= [0.

ECKH= KJH=I F= =LH=I f IA??E = A JA ? J K= E JAHL= [a.K [a.ECKH=  $> $ .. KHEAH @= IJH=H GKA @= JHE= CK =H @= . ? ?AEJ @A BK IA??E = A JA ? J K=  K 6= > @A BK @= A J= E F HJ BK ? J K= F H F=HJAI ?E= . . KHEAH 1 E?E= @A E @ = IACKE JA J= F=H= I E EJAI =JAH=EI @A K = BK • E EJA =JAH= AIGKAH@= x→a− lim f (x) = f (a − 0). . KHEAH I AIJ= IA @EI?KJEHA I >HALA A JA =I BK AI HAFHAIA J LAEI F H 5 HEAI @A . . < tn @AIJA E JAHL= E F HJ= JA >IAHL=H GKA FA = ? JE KE@=@A A ?=@= IK>E JAHL= I E EJAI =JAH=EI x→a+ i lim f (x) = f (ai + 0) A x→a− i lim f (x) = f (ai − 0). 8 4 9 16 25 49 % 8AHE GKA = L= E@=@A @= AGK=  '? " 6A HA = @A .. .A A K E E JAHL=  # . b] IA A = ? J K= A J @ E JAHL= AN?AJ A K AH EJ @A F J I t0 < t1 < . . .$ 7IA = HAFHAIA J= A AGK=  !? F=H= 5 HEA @A . < tn ≤ b @A @ GKA f IA = ?  $= J K= A ?=@= IK>E JAHL= =>AHJ ti−1 < x < ti i = 1. b] IA FK@AH IA??E = I IK>@ELE@EH A JA ? J K= 7 = BK E JAHL= A K f AH IA??E = A JA ? J K= EJ @A F J I a ≤ t0 < t1 < . n . ANEIJA I EJ I >LE= A JA J @= BK ? J K= IA??E = A JA ? J K= 7 ANA F IE F AI @A BK 1 GKA IA??E = A JA ? J K= = BK f (x) = x K = LA GKA I E EJAI =JAH=EI A x = 0 I E EJ I . • E EJA =JAH= @EHAEJ= x→a+ lim f (x) = f (a + 0). . .ECKH=  # @=@= FA = π2 1 1 1 1 1 =1− + − + − + .

KHEAH K = BK f @ALA IAH FAHE @E?= A IA? ?E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA ) ? @E @A IAH IA??E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA K = ? @E IK ?EA JA =I A?AII HE= F=H= GKA f F II= IAH ANF= @E@= A 5 HEA @A .ECKH=  $ ? ?AEJ @A BK IA??E = A JA ? J K= @EBAHA ?E LA A .JAH I @A ? LAHC ?E= 6A HA = = H = GKA = HAFHAIA J= @A K = BK f ? LAHCA F=H= F J @E @ I E EJAI =JAH=EI @A f F=H= J @ x 7 = @EI?KII >=IJ= JA @AJ= D=@= I >HA =I 5 HEAI @A . b] IA f A IK= @AHEL=@= f I = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA  7 = BK IA??E = f @EJ= IA??E = A JA A JA ? J K=I A [a.K K E JAHL= IA??E [a.A E  $ . 2  " 8= I ) @A IJH= @ 6A HA = @A . KHEAH KJH=I F= =LH=I J @= BK FAHE @E?= A IA??E = A JA ? J K= HAFHAIA J LA F H 5 HEA @A . KHEAH 5A = f : R −→ R K = BK an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) = n=1 1 f (x − 0) + f (x + 0) . KHEAH GKA I IA??E = A JA ? J K=I 1IJ E F E?= GKA F @AH = I A BH=GKA?AH =I DEF JAIAI @ 6A HA = @A @ = ? >HEH K AH =EI = F @A BK AI% A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH =I ANEIJA BK AI HAFHAIA J LAEI F H 5 HEA @A .J = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . b] IA??E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T . KHEAH • . KHEAH @A f @=@= FA = f ( x − 0) + f ( x + 0) EIJ AGK=   ? LAHCA A ?=@= x F=H= 1 2 a0 + 2 ∞ 6A HA =  % 6A HA = @A . KHEAH E ? KE @ = @A F @A IAH A ? JH=@= I +=F JK I 1 2 A 3 @= HABAH ?E= ! % IJH= @ 6A HA = @A . KHEAH AIJ = @ AI? F @AIJA JANJ E JH @KJ HE IE F AI A JA ? A J=H I >HA @ EI =IFA?J I E F HJ= JAI @ 6A HA = • 2=H= IAH HAFHAIA J LA F H K = 5 HEA @A .6f (x) = f (x) 6 1 x b b b x a b - x = 7 = BK IA??E = A JA ? J K= > 7 = BK J K= IA??E = A JA ? . KHEAH % .

ECKH=  % 7 = BK ) CK I ANA F I @A BK AI F=HAI I f (x) = c BK @K =H f (x) = x2 f (x) = x4 f (x) = xn F=H= n F=H BK F=H f (x) = cos(x) .  # 5E AJHE= . ∀x /A AJHE?= A JA IA f F=H IAK CH ? GKA f (a) = f (−a) f (b) = f (−b) AJ? @ JHE? A 6 f (x) HA = f (−a) f (a) f (−b) f (b) −b −a a F=H b - x . KHEAH JA I GKA = A x = π ? J K= A JA E =CA f π 2 = BK 2 = 1 5 HEA @A . ±π.ECKH=  " F CE =  >JE@= -NA F  # F CE =  2A 6A HA = @A . . . KHEAH @=@= FA = AGK=   ? ? LAHCA F=H= 1 C IK= HAFHAIA J= A @AI? J K= =FHAIA J= K I= J  C IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA > A x = π = BK @A . ±2π. ∀x & @ E @A f .ECKH=  % >IAHLA f (x) = f (−x). = AEN O .ECKH=  ! 7 ? IJ= JA f (x) = |x| BK KJH ANA F E F HJ= JA @A .K @K =J HE= F=H K = BK IE f : R −→ R @EJ= F=H IA E @A f .A E  ' .ECKH=  " GKA AI ? F HJ= A J @A ? LAHC ?E= 2 ? HHA A x = 0. .>LE= A JA EIJ E F E?= GKA I F J I @A f ? J K= = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= @= GK=@H=@= IJH=@= = .K F=H K = BK f : R −→ R @EJ= F=H IA f (−x) = −f (x).A E  & . KHEAH ? LAHCA F=H= = @E= @=I E =CA I I ANJHA I @ I= J -NA F  % + IE@AHA = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @=@= FA = AGK=   ? ? LAHCA F=H= = @E= @ I E EJAI =JAH=EI A x = π C ? LAHCA F=H= 1 >IAHLA = . . KHEAH ? LAHCA F=H= = FH FHE= E =CA @A f @A f @AI? J K= F H ANA F @A f =FHAIA J= K I= J = 5 HEA @A .

KHEAH @A BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI 5 ) I 5  = I 5! = I = @EBAHA = @EBAHA = @EBAHA = @A @K=I BK = @A @K=I BK = @A K = BK AI F=HAI AI F=HAI F=H F=H F=H A F=H A F=H F=H A K = BK ' .ECKH=  ! F=H 7 >IAHL= AI E ) E?= BK K IA = = BK EE IA f K = BK f (0) = 0 GKA IE K J= A= A JA F=H A F=H = BK ?K = E =CA AH F=H= J @ @ E F=H GKA ? JA D=   AH  @ E E@A JE?= A JA K = f (x) = 0 A J >HEC=J HE= A JA JAHA I EEE = CH= @A =E HE= @=I BK AI GKA ? HHA I A F=HAI A F=HAI -IJ= I F=HJE?K =H A JA E JAHAII=@ I =I BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI F EI IK=I HAFHAIA J= AI A I HEAI @A .ECKH=  & >IAHLA f (b) f (−a) −b −a a b f (a) x f (−b) ./A AJHE?= A JA IA f F=H IAK CH ? GKA f (−a) = −f (a) f (−b) = −f (b) AJ? IE JHE? A f (x) 6 HA = HECA . IE?= =JA JE?= A . KHEAH =F=HA?A = HAI K @A AGK= AI @EBAHA ?E=EI F=H?E=I E F HJ= JAI @= .CA D=HE=  #  2H FHEA@=@AI @=I BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI ) I = @EBAHA = A FH @KJ GK ?EA JA @A BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI F IIKA FH FHEA@=@AI E F HJ= JAI =I GK=EI EIJ=HA I = IACKEH 6=EI FH FHEA@=@AI IE F E ?=H >=IJ= JA II JH=>= D = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEAI @A .ECKH=  & 7 = BK ) CK I ANA F I @A BK AI KJH ANA F E F HJ= JA @A BK F=H F=HAI I f (x) = x f (x) = x3 f (x) = xn F=H= n F=H f (x) = sen(x) .

I2 (−x) −I2 (x) I2 (x) IJH= I GKA GK ?EA JA Q(x) = I1 (x) I2 (x) EIJ ? = DEF JAIA GKA I1 A I2 I F=HAI I=JEIB= Q(x) = Q(−x) C AIJA GK ?EA JA F=H 2H F IE   5A f K = BK L F=H E JACH LA L E JAHL= f (x)dx [−L. L] A J f (x)dx = 2 −L 0 /A AJHE?= A JA = FH F IE >LE= K = LA GKA IA @ f F=H = HA= I > = ?KHL= [−L.2 2  2! FH @KJ GK ?EA JA @A @K=I BK FH @KJ GK ?EA JA @A @K=I BK FH @KJ GK ?EA JA @A K = BK AI F=HAI AI F=HAI F=H F=H F=H F=H ANAH? ?E F=H= F=H A K = BK I 2 A @AEN=HA )I FH L=I I >=IJ= JA IE F AI 2H L=HA AEJ H 2H > A = " F CE = $ I =I @A =EI ? 2H L= @A 2" 5A = I1 . JA I dx = −dt L B= A @ x = −t = FHE AEH= E JACH= @ L 0 L A >H @EHAEJ L C L f (x)dx = − −L L f (−t)dt + 0 f (x)dx = 0 f (t)dt + 0 f (x)dx = 2 0 f (x)dx. H = A JA JA L 0 L E JAHL= I f (x)dx = −L −L f (x)dx + 0 f (x)dx. L] .A FH @KJ P (x) = I1 (x)I2 (x) P (−x) = I1 (−x)I2 (−x) = −I1 (x) −I2 (x) = I1 (x)I2 (x) = P (x).A = GK ?EA JA Q(x) = I1 (x) I2 (x) C JA I Q(−x) = −I1 (x) I1 (x) I1 (−x) = = = Q(x). I2 : R −→ R @K=I BK = AI F=HAI EIJ C JA I1 (−x) = −I1 (x) A I2 (−x) = −I2 (x) I • .  . 0] ECK= HA= I > = ?KHL= E JAHL= [0.ECKH=  '= . EIJ ? = DEF JAIA GKA I1 A I2 I F=HAI IJH= I=JEIB= P (x) = P (−x) C AIJA FH @KJ F=H I GKA FH @KJ P (x) = I1 (x)I2 (x) • .

0] A [0. 0] A [0. L] ECK=EI ? AI IE = 6 f (x) −L L x > .K [−L.ECKH=  '> . H = A JA JA I L 0 L f (x)dx = −L −L f (x)dx + 0 f (x)dx. L] F H ? J=EI HA=I J IE =EI ? JH HE I = I = IA ?= ?A = . 0] ECK= HA= I > = ?KHL= E JAHL= [0.K F=H HA=I I E JAHL= I [−L. JA L 0 B= A @ x = −t = FHE AEH= E JACH= @ L 0 A >H @EHAEJ L 0 I dx = −dt L C f (x)dx = − −L L f (−t)dt + f (x)dx = −  f (t)dt + 0 f (x)dx = 0. L] A J f (x)dx = 0 −L /A AJHE?= A JA = FH F IE >LE= K = LA GKA IA @ f F=H = HA= I > = ?KHL= E JAHL= [−L.K F=H HA=I I E JAHL= I [−L. . L] ECK=EI ? F=H A BK F=H E JAHL= IE =EI ? JH HE I .ECKH=  ' . L] 2H F IE   5A f K = BK F=H E JACH LA L E JAHL= [−L.f (x) 6 x −L 0 L = .

ECKH=   π FAH @ @= @= T = 2 A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 2 AIJA ?=I T = π @= =FHAIA J= IE AJHE= F=H JA I bn = 0 A @ALA I @AJAH E =H =FA =I a0 A an ? = . L] • += ?K = @ bn AGK= bn = 2 T  ? T 0 >JA I f (x)sen nω0 x dx = 2 T L −L f (x)sen nω0 x dx = 0.AJAH E A = ANF= I A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @A K = BK f (x) ∼ a0 + 2 ∞ ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = K = I HEA @A ? IIA I EIJ  #= an cos(nω0 x). n=1 2=H= = LAHE ?= @AIJ= FH F IE @A L AE FAH @ IKF >JA D= I I GKA f F=H A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T = 2L • += ?K = @ a0 AGK=  = a0 = 2 T T f (x)dx = 0 4 T L f (x)dx. KHEAH @= @= JHE= CK =H @ -NA F  $ = F CE = ! -NA F  & . 0  #> I IK>IJEJKEH = E JACH= K = LA GKA E JACH= @ F=H A FA = 2H F IE   F @A E JAHL= [−L.# 5 HEAI @A . L] • += ?K = @ an AGK= an = 2 T  > T 0 >JA I f (x)cos nω0 x dx = 4 T L 0 f (x)cos nω0 x dx. L] F H @K=I LA AI = E JACH= E JAHL= [0.  #? K = LA GKA FA = = FH FHEA@=@A 2 E JACH= @ f (x)cos nω0 x F=H A FA = 2H F IE   F @A I IK>IJEJKEH = E JACH= E JAHL= [−L. KHEAH @= B H =  #= LA = = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @A K = BK 2π T 2H F IE f F=H FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T A BHAG   5 HEA @A . −1 ≤ x < 1. F=H A FA = 2H F IE K = LA GKA FA = = FH FHEA@=@A 2!   = E JACH= IA = K = E JACH= @ f (x)sen nω0 x C IA f F=H A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T IK= ANF= I A 5 HEA @A . IJH=@= = . KHEAH @A BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI F=H = 5 HEA @A . L] F H @K=I LA AI = E JACH= E JAHL= [0. KHEAH @= BK FAHE @E?= f (x) = x2 . f (x) = f (x + 2).

K FAHE @E?= f (x) = x2 . H K HE F CE = #! ? >JA I 1 2x 4 x2 2 sen(nπx) + 2 2 cos(nπx) − 3 3 sen(nπx) 2 nπ n π n π 0 4 1 2 2 2 = sen(nπ ) + 2 2 cos(nπ ) − 3 3 sen(nπ ) − 0 − 0 − 3 3 sen(0) 2 nπ n π n π n π 4 = 2 2 cos(nπ ) n π )IIE FA = AGK=  #= ? ω0 = π = HAFHAIA J= 4 1 + 2 3 π ∞ n=1 A 5 HEA @A . 3  #? >JA • + ?K @A an IK>IJEJKE @ T = 2 L = 1 A ω0 = π = AGK= an = 4 2 1 0 I x2 cos(nπx)dx. ω0 = π 7I= @ = AGK= an = % . H K HE F CE = #! ∞ n=1 4 1 f (x) ∼ + 2 3 π (−1)n cos(nπx). KHEAH @= BK ?=  $ f (x) ∼ cos(nπ ) cos(nπx). n2 K KI= @ = AGK=  .6 f (x) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 x . n2 ! . −1 ≤ x < 1 2AH @ 2 • + ?K @A a0 IK>IJEJKE @ T = 2 L = 1 A ω0 = π = AGK= 4 a0 = 2 1 0  #> >JA I x3 x dx = 2 3 2 1 0 2 = .ECKH=   .

KHEAH @= B H =  %= LA = = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . n=1 F=H = 5 HEA @A . " . −L F=H A FA = 2H F IE >JA I   = E JACH= IA = K = • += ?K = @ an AGK= an = 2 T  > T 0 f (x)cos nω0 x dx = 2 T L −L f (x)cos nω0 x dx = 0. L] F H @K=I LA AI = E JACH= E JAHL= [0. KHEAH @A K = BK 2π T K = I HEA @A IA I EIJ f (x) ∼ 2=H= = LAHE ?= @AIJ= FH F IE @A L AE FAH @ IKF >JA T  %= F=H A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T = 2L D= I I GKA f • += ?K = @ a0 AGK=  = a0 = K = LA GKA E JACH= @ 2 T f (x)dx = 0 2 T L f (x)dx = 0. KHEAH @A K = BK ∞ ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = bn sen(nω0 x). KHEAH @= @= @A JA @A IAHH= IJH=@= = . F=H A FA = 2H F IE K = LA GKA FA = = FH FHEA@=@A 2!   = E JACH= IA = K = E JACH= @ f (x)cos nω0 x I • += ?K = @ bn AGK= bn = 2 T  ? T 0 >JA f (x)sen nω0 x dx = 4 T L 0 f (x)sen nω0 x dx.  %> K = LA GKA FA = = FH FHEA@=@A 2 E JACH= @ f (x)sen nω0 x F=H A FA = 2H F IE   F @A I IK>IJEJKEH = E JACH= E JAHL= [−L.ECKH=   π FAH @ @= @= T = 2π A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 2 T = 1 5K= B H = = = JE?= F @A IAH @=@= F H f (x) = x. L] C IA f F=H A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T IK= ANF= I A 5 HEA @A .2H F IE f F=H FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T A BHAG  ! 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= @= GK=@H=@= @ -NA F  # = F CE =   -NA F  ' .AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . IA −π ≤ x < π A f (x) = f (x + 2π ).

ECKH=   @= .AJAH E A IA =I IACKE JAI BK AI I F=HAI # F=HAI K A DK @ I @ EI ANF EGKA . 1 2 3 4 5  # ! 2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  . n K = B H = ANF= @E@= 2 2 2 2 2 f (x) ∼ sen(x) − sen(2x) + sen(3x) − sen(4x) + sen(5x) − . H K HE F CE = #! π 0 bn = 2 x 1 − cos(nx) + 2 sen(nx) π n n 2 = − cos(nπ ). I @AJAH E =H xsen(nx)dx = 0 2 π π 0 A FA = AGK= ! . KHEAH @= @= @A JA  & f (x) ∼ −2 n=1 (−1)n sen(nx).x −π     −π      0 π         2π   3π     .        −3π   −2π           f (x) 6       π       . H K HE F CE = #! bn F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ ? bn = −2 (−1)n . n )IIE FA = AGK= @A IAHH= ?=  %= ? ω0 = 1 = HAFHAIA J= ∞ A 5 HEA @A . n 7I= @ = AGK=  .A JA @A 5AHH= 2AH @ 2π AIJA ?=I ? = @= =FHAIA J= IE AJHE= F=H JA =FA =I bn 5K>IJEJKE @ T = 2π L = π A ω0 = 1 = AGK= bn = 4 2π π I a0 = an = 0 A @ALA  %> >JA I xsen(nx)dx. . .

T = 4. T = 4π. 0≤x<π . I HEA @A IA 1 . I. T = 4π. 0 ≤ x < π. 0≤x<π . I HEA @A ? IIA F CE = !  B f (x) = x. + " 2H LA =I FH FHEA@=@AI 5 5 5! 2 A 2! @= I = @EBAHA = A FH @KJ GK ?EA JA @A BK AI F=HAI A F=HAI @= F CE = ' @ JANJ 5KCAIJ LA = = FH L= @A 2 = F CE =   $ -NF= I AI FAHE @E?=I KEJ=I LA AI IKHCA = A?AIIE@=@A @A HAFHAIA J=H I F H K = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH FA@E@= F=H= = BK KJE E = @ ! FAH @ I I. a] −→ R. I. 1≤x<2 I. KHEAH K = BK f : [0.ECKH=   = FAHE @E?= $ >LE= A JA J= HAFHAIA . 0≤x<1 . EIJ J= K = BK @A E@= =FA =I F II LA K = LA GKA f E JAHL= [0. a] . 0≤x<1 . π ≤ x < 2π 1 . I HEA @A ? IIA 1 . T = 2π. I HEA @A IA F CE = "  I. T = 4. I HEA @A ? IIA 0 . 1≤x<2 x . + F=HA ? F=HA ? -NA F -NA F $ = ' = A f (x) = x. T = 2π. I. π ≤ x < 2π x . 1 .= y = x3 > y = x3 − 2x   7I= @ =I FH FHEA@=@AI @=I BK = > ? ! 1 −1 xdx 1 4 −1 x dx π −π ? y = x3 − 2x + 1 @ y = tg (2x) AI F=HAI A A y = sec(x) B y = |x|3 F=HAI ?= ?K A =I E JACH=EI @=@=I @ A B 2 sen 2nπx cos 2nπx T T −T 2 π 4 −π x sen(nx)dx π −π xcos(nx)dx T dx xsen(nx)dx I FH > A =I = IACKEH @AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= @=@= -IGKA =JE A CH ? @AIJ= HAFHAIA J= = f (x) = > f (x) = ? f (x) = @ f (x) = A 5 HEA @A . I HEA @A IA 0 . 0 ≤ x < π.

K I >HA E JAHL= > -NF= I FAHE @E?= @A f FAHE @E?= .ECKH=  !> F=H= = GK= T = π A ω0 = 2 • + ?K FAHE @E?= @A f IJH=@= = @A a0 KI= @ = AGK= a0 = 2 π  = JA π I xdx = 0     2 2 x2 π π − 0 = π.ECKH=  != AIJA ?=I L= I @AJAH E =H = 5 HEA @A . a] = HAFHAIA J= FH ?KH=@= F=H= f & f (x) 6 f (x) 6 0 a x −3a −2a −a 0 a 2a 3a - x = f @A E@= E JAHL= [0.ECKH=   [0. KHEAH =IIE >JE@= HAIJHEJ= = E JAHL= [0. a] .ECKH=   > A = IACKEH @AJAH E = I = 5 HEA @A .2=H= ? J H =H J= IEJK= ANF= @E I f FAHE @E?= A JA ∀ x ∈ R . 0 ≤ x < π.AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= BK f (x) = x. a] A IK= ANF= I -NA F   . IJH=@= = . KHEAH @= ANF= I . a] AII= BK E@ JE?= = f A K = KJH= BK GKA f =? JA?A GKA % . = π 2 0 2 • + ?K @A an KI= @ = AGK= an = 2 π π 0  > ?  ω0 = 2 JA I xcos(2nx)dx = π 1 2 x sen(2nx) + cos (2 nx ) =0 π 2n 4n2 0 • + ?K @A bn KI= @ = AGK= bn = 2 π π  ? ? ω0 = 2 JA I xsen(2nx)dx = 0 π  1 2 1 1 x = − cos(2nπ ) = − cos(2nx) + sen (2 nx ) − π 2n 4n2 n n 0 & ALE@A JA GKA = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @AIJ= ANF= I  >IAHLA GKA = ANF= I JA FAH @ a ) 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= ANF= I FAHE @E?= @A E JAHL= @A E JAHAIIA [0.

ECKH=  "> A = IACKEH @AJAH E = I = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @= ANF= I 1 sen(2nx). H K =I @A -K AH .ECKH=  ! ) BK E JAHL= [0. . KHEAH @A IA 8E I J= > GKA AIJAI ?=I I =I . π ] A IK= ANF= I  $  -NF= I AI A AE FAH @ IE AJHE=I F=H A F=H A IK=I HAFHA I I =I IA AI  # A  # AIJK@= I =I BK AI FAHE @E?=I ? IA J= AI A 5 HEAI @A . a] -IJA @A I AIJ= L= BK FAHE @E?= A JA ∀ x ∈ R . KHEAH @AIJ= ANF= I FAHE @E?=  >IAHLA GKA = ANF= I JA FAH @ 2a 7 = LA GKA J= ANF= I FAHE @E?= JA IE AJHE= F=H IK= 5 HEA @A . KHEAH IAH K = I HEA @A ? IIA I @= B H =  #= & . KHEAH AGK= AI  #> A  #? = I HEA @A ? IIA I AGK=  %> = I HEA @A IA I A FHAC= = E JACH= A =FA =I AE FAH @ -IJAI B=J I I IKCAHA KJH=I => H@=CA I ? DA?E@=I ? ANF= I AI A AE FAH @ F=H= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .)IIE FA = AGK= FAHE @E?= @A f ?=   ? ω0 = 2 = HAFHAIA J= π f (x) ∼ − 2 ∞ n=1 A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH @A K = BK f @A E@= =FA =I E JAHL= [0. KHEAH GKA ?= ?K = I ? A ?EA JAI @= 5 HEA @A . n K = B H = ANF= @E@= f (x) ∼ π 1 1 1 1 1 − sen(2x) − sen(4x) − sen(6x) − sen(8x) − sen(10x) − . a] • ANF= I F=H = F=HJEH @A f @A E I K = L= BK ? IE AJHE= F=H I >HA E JAHL= [−a. π ] f (x) = x > -NF= I FAHE @E?= @A f (x) = x FAHE @E?= . . 2 1 2 3 4 5 f (x) 6 f (x) 6   0       π x −3π         −2π         −π           0       π         2π         3π - x = f (x) = x E JAHL= [0. KHEAH @A ? IIA K = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH 8E I GKA • IA f • IA f F=H A FAHE @E?= A J F=H A FAHE @E?= A J F @A IAH ANF= @E@= A F @A IAH ANF= @E@= A K = 5 HEA @A .

2 • + ?K @A an KI= @ = AGK= an = 4 2π π  #? ? ω0 = 1 JA I π xcos(nx)dx = 0 2 x 1 sen(nx) + 2 cos(nx) π n n = 0 2 cos(nπ ) − 1 n2 π 7JE E = @ = AGK=  . 0 ≤ x < π. . KHEAH @AIJ= ANF= JA FAH @ 2a 7 = LA GKA J= ANF= I FAHE . H K HE F CE = #! F @A 0 − n4 2π . I HAAI?HALAH an ? F=H . a] K = LA GKA ? ?K I @ I ? A ?EA JAI @A K = I HEA @A ? IIA I K @A K = I HEA @A IA I A FHAC= E JACH= A =FA =I AE FAH @ ? B H A >IAHL= I =I AGK= AI  #> A  #? F=H= = I HEA @A ? IIA I A  %> F=H= = I HEA @A IA I -NA F   . a] -IJA @A I AIJ= L= BK FAHE IACKEH @AJAH E = I = 5 HEA @A . KHEAH IAH K = I HEA @A IA I @= B H =  %= L= BK ? IE AJHE= F=H I >HA @E?= A JA ∀ x ∈ R . .ECKH=  "? A = I FAHE @E?=  >IAHLA GKA = ANF= I @E?= JA IE AJHE= F=H IK= 5 HEA @A =I ANF= I AI A AE FAH @ F=H K F=H I A?AIIEJ= I ? DA?AH = @A E @= BK A AE FAH @ K IA = E JAHL= [0. IJH=@= = . F=H A 5 HEA @A .ECKH=  # T = 2π A ω0 = 1 • + ?K >IAHL= I π I GKA F=H= AIJ= ANF= I JA I @A a0 KI= @ = AGK= a0 = 4 2π  #> JA π xdx = 0 2 x2 π 2 = 0 π2 − 0 = π. 2 π 9π 25π 49π 81π ' .• ANF= I F=H = F=HJEH @A f @A E I K = E JAHL= [−a. π (2k − 1)2 K = B H = ANF= @E@= f (x) ∼ π 4 4 4 4 4 − cos(x) − cos(3x) − cos(5x) − cos(7x) − sen(9x) − .ECKH=  != ) ANF= I F=H @A f IJH=@= = .AJAH E A = ANF= I F=H A AE FAH @ @= BK f (x) = x. KHEAH @= ANF= I an = IA n IA n )IIE F=H @A f FA = AGK= ?=  #= ? ω0 = 1 = HAFHAIA J= ∞ k=1 π f (x) ∼ − 4 2 1 cos (2k − 1)x . .

6π ] E JAHL= ? AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I FAHE @E?= F=H FAH @ T = 4π  [−6π. π ≤ x < 2π E JAHL= E JAHL=  .=@= = BK f (x) = 1 . 6] A [−6. KHEAH > AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I FAHE @E?= F=H FAH @ T = 4 A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . π .=@= = BK = AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I FAHE @E?= FAH @ T = 2π  A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 6π ] A [−6π. KHEAH > AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I FAHE @E?= F=H FAH @ T = 4π  A A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 0 ≤ x < π. 0≤x<π . KHEAH [−6. KHEAH @=@= FA = AGK=  & @= F CE = # $ 2H > A =I 2H F IJ I f (x) = x . KHEAH   . 6] A [−6. 2−x .-NA F   . KHEAH ? AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I A A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A FAHE @E?= F=H FAH @ T = 4 5 HEA @A .AJAH E A = ANF= I F=H A AE FAH @ @= BK f (x) = x.ECKH=   @= F CE = # C IK= 5 HEA @A . 0≤x<1 . IJH=@= = . 1≤x<2 E JAHL= E JAHL= E JAHL= = AI> ?A CH ? @A IK= ANF= I FAHE @E?= FAH @ T = 2 A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 6π ] A A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .ECKH=  != ) ANF= I F=H @A f AN=J= A JA = @= @A JA @A IAHH= IJH=@= = . KHEAH [−6π. 6] ! .

a] ! .ECKH=  " -NF= I AI F=H A F=H @A K = BK [0.6 f (x) 0 a x = .K f @A E@= =FA =I E JAHL= [0. a] f (x) 6 −3a −2a −a 0 a 2a 3a x > -NF= I F=H @A f f (x) 6 - x −3a −2a −a 0 a 2a 3a ? -NF= I F=H @A f @A E@= I >HA E JAHL= .

6 f (x) @ @ @      @ @ @      @ @ @ @  2π @  −2π @  0       3π x −3π −π π . π ] ! .ECKH=  # -NF= I F=H @= BK f (x) = x @A E@= E JAHL= [0.

KHEAH A AI ANF einω0 x . . A n = 1 . n ∈ Z. H K =I @A -K AH . T . T  = > ? T f (x)cos(nω0 x)dx. JAH I @A BK   T II > AJEL >JAH K = HAFHAIA J= A ?E=EI ? F AN=I @= B H = 5 HEA @A . . . KHEAH a0 = an = bn = 2 T 2 T 2 T f (x)dx. KHEAH @=@= F H ω0 = I ? A ?EA JAI a0 an A bn I 2π . . KHEAH + .+=F JK 5 HEAI @A . T @=@ I FA =I . 2. . ω0 = !! 2π . .EI?HAJ I  5 HEA @A . KHEAH + F AN= F AN= A -IFA?JH I + B H A LE I 6A HA = @A . KHEAH @= B H = ∞ a0 f (x) ∼ + an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x)   2 n=1 @A ω0 = BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= @A f A J= > @= 5 HEA @A . f (x)sen(nω0 x)dx. KHEAH F CE = % IA f : R −→ R K = BK IA??E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T A J f F @A IAH HAFHAIA J=@= F H K = 5 HEA @A . 2. n = 1.

2  $ @ GKA = AGK= ∞ 1 an + ibn . 2 2 )C H= @A E I ? A ?EA JA cn ? cn = A >IAHL= @A I GKA 1 an − ibn .  % 2A =I AGK= AI  > A  ? >IAHL= T I GKA an = bn = 2 T 2 T T f (x)cos(nω0 x)dx = 2 T 2 T T T f (x)cos(−nω0 x)dx = a−n . IA K = LA GKA ? IIA F=H cos(θ) = cos(−θ) A F H  !=+  !> >JA I F=H −sen(θ) = sen(−θ) )IIE  "= cos(nω0 x) = A F H  !=−  !> A >H= @ GKA 1 i 1 inω0 x e + e−inω0 x . e −inω0 x  !=  !> = cos(nω0 x) − isen(nω0 x). einω0 x = cos(nω0 x) + isen(nω0 x). !" .= E L I @ I JAH ? F AN= JA I GKA I JHEC JHE? I @= AGK=   2A = @A E @= BK ANF A ?E= ex+iy = ex [cos(y ) + isen(x)]. f (x)sen(nω0 x)dx = − f (x)sen(−nω0 x)dx = −b−n . 2  # F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ= ? cn = ∞ an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) = n=0 n=0 cn einω0 x + cn e−inω0 x . 2 5K>IJEJKE @ =I AGK= AI  "= A  "> ∞ ∞  "> I I =J HE @= AGK=   >JA an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) = n=0 n=0 ∞ 1 an einω0 x + e−inω0 x 2 − 1 i bn einω0 x − e−inω0 x 2  # = n=0 1 1 an − ibn einω0 x + an + ibn e−inω0 x . 2 >JA I = −i 1 sen(nω0 x) = − i einω0 x − e−inω0 x .

2 2  % F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ ? cn = ∞ ∞ an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) = n=0 n=0 cn einω0 x + c−n e−inω0 x . KHEAH + F AN=  K -NF A ?E=  @A f . ?D= =@= @A ANF= I A 5 HEA @A . n ∈ Z T T a0 2  ' c0 = EIJ c0 = 12 a0 = 2 2T f (x)dx = T 1 T f (x)dx.)IIE A I =J HE A 1 1 an + ibn = a−n − ib−n = c−n .A E I J= > 1 an − ibn 2 1 2 2 f (x)cos(nω0 x)dx − i f (x)sen(nω0 x)dx 2 T T T T 1 f (x) cos(nω0 x) − isen(nω0 x) dx T T 1 ∗ f (x)e−inω0 x . T n∈Z    !# . KHEAH 6HEC f (x) ∼ c0 + n∈ ∗ cn einω0 x A A >H= @ GKA e0 = 1   K IE F AI A JA B= A @ n L=HE=H A J @ I I E JAEH I E ? KIELA AH f (x) ∼ n∈ cn einω0 x .= A @ n L=HE=H A J @ I I E JAEH I E ? KIELA AH A >IAHL= @ GKA   K ?=I F=HJE?K =H @A  ' F=H= n = 0 I ? A ?EA JAI @= 5 HEA   I @=@ I FA = AGK=  ' EIJ cn = 1 T f (x)e−inω0 x .  $ ?=  & 2A =I AGK= AI  > A  ? ? A ?EA JA cn @A E@ FA = AGK= cn = = = = . AH  K IE F AI A JA B= A @ n L=HE=H A ∞ J @ I I E JAEH I AN?AJ an cos(nω0 x) + bn sen(nω0 x) = n=0 n∈ ∗ cn einω0 x . T   JHE?= @=@= 7I= @ =I AGK= AI  & A   = ANF= I FA = AGK=   F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ= ? @A f A 5 HEA @A .

ω0 = 2π/T. 0≤x<π . KHEAH einω0 x . F J @A LEIJ= =JA =JA JE? JE?= @= 5 HEA @A . KHEAH I IJH= GKA ? K J =I 5 HEAI @A . AIJA ? JANJ @A E = I =I BK AI einω0 x @A D=H E? I K IA = I ? IJEJKE JAI BK iω x 0 @= A J=EI @A K = @= GK= GKAH . KHEAH + F AN= @= @= GK=@H=@= @ -NA F  # F CE =  IJH=@= = . KHEAH 3K= GKAH BK K = I = E IA??E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LA A FAHE @E?= @A FAH @ T F @A IAH HAFHAIA J=@= F H EJ= @A BK AI @= B H = einω0 x . f (x + 2π ) = f (x).  1 JAHFHAJ= . −π ≤ x < 0 1 . n ∈ Z. n∈Z T B H = K = >=IA HJ H = @A @E A I E EJ= F=H= AIF= @=I BK AI IA??E = A JA @EBAHA ?E LEAI A FAHE @E?=I @A FAH @ T ) AGK=   AN=J= A JA = HAFHAIA J= @A K = BK @AIJA AIF= AIJ= >=IA I ? A ?EA JAI cn @A ?=@= BK >=IA I @=@ I FA I FH @KJ I E JAH I @= AGK=    .A IJH= AI @AJ= D=@=I @AIJAI >HALAI ? A J HE I F @A IAH A ? JH=@=I A @ELAHI=I HABAH ?E=I = EJAH=JKH= I AEJ HAI E JAHAII=@ I A ? JH=H K AN?A A JA =JAHE= I +=F JK I 1 A 2 @= HABAH ?E= !  1 JAHFHAJ= + ?AEJK= @= 5 HEA @A .AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= !$ .ECKH=  " F CE =  + B H A LE I -NA F  # AIJ= @= GK=@H=@= JA FAH @ T = 2π BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = 1 A B H = = = JE?= f (x) = −1 . -NA F  . ω0 = 2π .E A I GKA e FHE AEH D=H E?  K D=H E? BK @= A J= F EI F IIKE = AI = BHAG ?E= @A f  ei2ω0 x IACK @ D=H E? IK= BHAG ?E= @ >H @= BHAG ?E= @A f  ei3ω0 x JAH?AEH D=H E? IK= BHAG ?E= JHEF @= BHAG ?E= @A f  A =IIE F H @E= JA ) AGK=   ?D= =@= AGK= @A I JAIA I @E GKA f F @A IAH IE JAJE =@= FA = I = @A E EJ I D=H E? I ?K =I BHAG ?E=I I JEF I E JAEH I @A IK= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= AIJ= I = = ? JHE>KE @A D=H E? F @AH=@= FA HAIFA?JEL ? A ?EA JA cn @=@ FA = AGK=    ?D= =@= AGK= AGK= @A = EIA + B H A LAHA I =@E= JA ? A ?EA JA cn I E B H = = = F EJK@A A CK @A B=IA @A ?=@= K @ I D=H E? I ? IJEJKE JAI @A f A 5 HEA @A .

. − 2i −5ix 2i −3ix 2i −ix 2i ix 2i 3ix 2i 5ix e − e − e − e − e − e − . 2k + 1 K = B H = ANF= @E@= f (x) ∼ .5K>IJEJKE @ ω0 = 1 = AGK= cn = = = = = = 1 2π 1 2π π    cn ?= f (x)e−inx dx −e−inx dx + 0 0 π −π 0 −π e−inx dx π 0 1 1 −inx e 2π in 1 2π 1 2π 1 inπ 1 − e−inx in −π 1 1 1 − einπ − e−inπ − 1 in in 2 1 1 2 2 − einπ + e−inπ = − cos(nπ ) in in 2π in in i 1 − cos(nπ ) = cos(nπ ) − 1 . . nπ  != F EI HAIK J=HE= A π  != >IAHLA GKA c0 F @A IAH ?= ?K =@ FA = AGK= C @ALA I ?= ?K IAF=H=@= A JA c0 = 1 2π π @ELEI F H AH f (x)dx = −π 1 2π 0 −dx + −π 0 dx = 1 −π + π = 0 2π  !>  != ?  !? 7JE E = @ = AGK=  . . F=H A cn = IA n IA n )IIE IK>IJEJKE @ ω0 = 1 = AGK   = HAFHAIA J= @= GK=@H=@= @= .ECKH=  " @=@= F H f (x) ∼ − 2i π 5 HEA @A . I HAAI?HALAH = AGK= F=H . KHEAH + F AN= @= k∈ 1 ei(2k+1)x . H K HE F CE = #! F @A 0 . 5π 3π π π 3π π JHEC -NA F ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? JHE? I a0 an A bn F AN I cn @ -NA F  @AJAH E A I ? A ?EA JAI !% .. 2i − nπ .

nπ nπ nπ 2 cos(nπ ) − 1 . KHEAH + F AN= @= @= JHE= CK =H @ -NA F  $ F CE = ! IJH=@= = .0 + c0 = a AGK=   FA HAIK J=@ @= AGK= 2 @AJAH E =H I an A bn >IAHL= I FA = AGK=  $ GKA  !> JA I a0 = 0 2=H= cn = cn = 1 an − ibn .ECKH=  # F CE = ! + B H A LE I -NA F  $ AIJ= @= JHE= CK =H JA FAH @ T = 2 BHAG ?E= BK @= A J= ω0 = π A B H = = = JE?= f (x) = −x .  != HAIK J=@ @= AGK= >JA I an = i (−i) cos(nπ ) − 1 + cos(nπ ) − 1 = 0. f (x + 2) = f (x).  "?  "@ ibn = cn − cn . IA n IA n >IAHLA GKA I HAIK J=@ I a0 = an = 0 AH= AIFAH=@ I K = LA GKA = @= GK=@H=@= A GKAIJ F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H + F=HA AIJA HAIK J=@ ? -NA F  # = F CE =  -NA F ! . !& . nπ nπ 7I= @ = AGK=  "@ A HAIK J=@ @= AGK=  != >JA I ibn = i (−i) 2i cos(nπ ) − 1 − cos(nπ ) − 1 = cos(nπ ) − 1 . 2 1 an + ibn . F=H bn = 0 . 0≤x<1 . H K HE F CE = #! 4 nπ >JA I F=H . 2  "=  "> @ @A B= A @  "=+ "> : B= A @  ">− "= : 7I= @ = AGK=  "? A an = cn + cn . nπ C bn = A KI= @ = AGK=  . . −1 ≤ x < 0 x .AJAH E A = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .

−  ! 2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  4AB= = I ? ?K I @ -NA F  F CE = !$ E JACH= @ I >HA !' E JAHL= . IA n IA n F=H .ECKH=  # @=@= F H f (x) ∼ 1 2 − 2 π2 k∈ 1 ei(2k+1)πx . .  #= J H = IA  #= 2A = AGK= # . KHEAH + F AN= @=  #? )IIE IK>IJEJKE @ ω0 = π = AGK   = HAFHAIA J= @= JHE= CK =H @= . . . . F=H A 5 HEA @A .5K>IJEJKE @ ω0 = π = AGK= cn = = 1 2 1 2    cn ?= 1 −1 0 −1 f (x)e−inπx dx −xe−inπx dx + 0 1 xe−inπx dx . (2k + 1)2 K = B H = ANF= @E@= 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 e−5iπx − 2 e−3iπx − 2 e−iπx + − 2 eiπx − 2 e3iπx − 2 e5iπx − . 25π 2 9π π 2 π 9π π f (x) ∼ . . H K HE F CE = #! ? ω0 = π = AGK= cn = = ix ix 1 1 1 0 1 − + 2 2 e−inπx −1 + + 2 2 e−inπx 0 2 nπ n π nπ n π 1 1 i 1 i 1 1 − 2 2+ − + 2 2 einπ + + 2 2 e−inπ − 2 2 . 2 n π nπ n π nπ n π n π A? F=H= n ∈ Z einπ = cos(nπ ) = cos(−nπ ) = e−inπ cn = >JA I  #> 1 2 2 1 − 2 2 + 2 2 cos(nπ ) = 2 2 cos(nπ ) − 1 . 2 n π n π n π  #> F EI HAIK J=HE= A >IAHLA GKA c0 F @A IAH ?= ?K =@ FA = AGK= C @ALA I ?= ?K IAF=H=@= A JA c0 = 1 2 1 @ELEI F H AH 1 2 f (x)dx = −1 1 2 0 1 −xdx + −1 0 xdx = 1 x2 − 2π 2 0 −1 + x2 2 1 0 = 1 1 1 + 2 2 2 = 7I= @ = AGK=  = AGK=  #> J H = IA cn = 0 − n22π2 .

0 ≤ x < π F AJ= f (x) = sen(x). 2π ]   4AB= = I ? ?K I @ -NA F = [0. 0≤x<1 0 . 3−x . 1 . f (x) = f (x + 2π ). −π ≤ x < 0 . f (x + 2π ) = f (x). 0 ≤ x < π. f (x) = f (x + 6). x . KHEAH + = f (x) = > f (x) = ? f (x) = ? A K F AN= E JAHL= @A JH I FAH @ I A 0 . KHEAH 6HEC JHE?= & ) = EIA =I AGK= AI  $ A   F=H= IA ? LA ?AH GKA A A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH 6HEC JHE?= >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 0≤x<3 AE= @= ? @= f (x) = @ HAJE ?=@ H @A A HAJE ?=@ H @A # $ % 0 . sen(x) .= [0. 0≤x<π −3 − x . >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 4π ] E JAHL= ! F CE = !& E JACH= @ I >HA > [−2. 0] ? [2. f (x) = f (x + π ). 4] ! ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? F AN I cn @ -NA F ! @AJAH E A I ? A ?EA JAI JHEC JHE? I a0 an A bn + F=HA HAIK J=@ ? -NA F  $ = F CE = ! " 2=H= ?=@= BK FAHE @E?= = IACKEH AI> ?A IAK CH A ? JHA IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH 6HEC JHE?= >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH 5 HEA @A . 0] ? [2π. −1 ≤ x < 0 . f (x) = f (x + 2). KHEAH = 5A f F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H A J I ? A ?EA JAI cn @A IK= ANF= I + F AN= I AH I HA=EI FKH I > 5A f F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H A J I ? A ?EA JAI cn @A IK= ANF= I + F AN= I AH I E =CE HE I FKH I " . −π ≤ x < 0 . KHEAH +  & @= F CE = = F=HJEH @A IK= HAFHAIA J= A F AN= @= BK FAHE @E?= @ -NA F 5 HEA @A . −3 ≤ x < 0 . KHEAH + F AN= @= BK FAHE @E?= @ 2H > A = ! @= F CE = # = F=HJEH @A IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . 2] > [−2π. KHEAH + F AN= @= BK FAHE @E?= @ 2H > A = " @= F CE = # = F=HJEH @A IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .

ECKH=  E KIJH= J= HAFHAIA J= AEN E =CE 6 HE y |z |         φ     b z = x + iy = (x. H =I @A 4AFHAIA J= ) JAI @A => H@=H I I AIFA?JH I @EI?HAJ I HA A >H= I H=FE@= A JA = CK I HAIK J=@ I BK @= A J=EI I >HA I AH I ? F AN I AEJ H GKA IA IA JA ? B HJ LA ? = CA>H= A A A J=H A =I @ELAHI=I B H =I @A HAFHAIA J= @ I AH I ? F AN I F @A F=II=H @EHAJ= A JA F=H= = 5A ! AH I + 7 AH ? F AN I F AN K . y )      x @ AH ? - AEN HA= F= ? F AN . y ) @ F = ? F AN 2 H AIJ= H= K = KJH= = AEH= @A IA @A J=H K AH ? F AN z = x + iy =JH=L I @ F=H H@A =@ (x.AH I + F AN I . y ).=@ K AH ? F AN CH=B= I IK= F=HJA HA= AEN D HE J= ?D= =@ AEN HA=  A IK= F=HJA E =CE HE= AEN LAHJE?= ?D= =@ AEN E =CE HE  ) . y ) EIJ z = x + iy = (x. H = +=HJAIE= = AH @= B H = z = x + iy I x = Re[z ] I y = Im[z ] @A • x • y = F=HJA HA= @A z A AI?HALA = F=HJA E =CE HE= @A z A AI?HALA I AH I ? F AN I F @A IAH HAFHAIA J=@ I F H F J I A K F = ?=HJAIE= -IJA F =  @A E =@ F = ? F AN K @E=CH= = @A )HC= @ .  K A= 4 >AHJ )HC= @ %$& &  =JA JE? BH= ? I 5AK =HJEC I >HA F = ? F AN =F=HA?AK A &$ ) ?=@= AH ? F AN AIJ =II ?E=@ K E? F J @ F = A = ?=@= F J @ F = AIJ =II ?E=@ E? AH ? F AN " .ECKH=  4AFHAIA J= F AN z = x + iy )IIE ?=@= AH ? F AN z = x + iy AIJ =II ?E=@ >EK EL ?= A JA = F J (x.

y = 0. " IA IA IA IA IA x=0Ay=0 x=0Ay>0 x=0Ay<0 .=@ K EJK@A @A @K  A = B=IA =HCK A J  @A K AH ? @K F AN K =C AH ? F AN z = x + iy IK= = F EJK@A  K J=@= |z | @=@= F H |z | = x2 + y 2 .ECKH=  AH ? F AN @= B H = z = x + i0 = x K IA = K AH HA= FKH HAFHAIA J= AIJ I >HA AEN HA= L= H @A IK= B=IA @AFA @A @ IE = @= E IA x > 0 A J EE IA x < 0 A J arg (z ) = φ = 0 LA = arg (z ) = φ = −π LA = AH z3 = . . . y=0Ax>0 y=0Ax<0  & . x = 0.ECKH=  AH z2 = .ECKH=  AH ? F AN z = x + iy )CHKF= @ AIJAI HAIK J=@ I ? = AGK= @=@= F H  y arctg x    π   2 −π φ= 2   0    π  % = B=IA @A K . K L= H =>I KJ  $ EIJ = = F EJK@A @A K AH ? F AN = H=E GK=@H=@= @= I = @ GK=@H=@ @= F=HJA HA= ? GK=@H=@ @= F=HJA E =CE HE= /A AJHE?= A JA = = F EJK@A @A K AH ? F AN I @ = @EIJ ?E= @ F J GKA HAFHAIA J= HECA @ F = ? F AN 2=H= LAH EIJ >=IJ= =F E?=H 6A HA = @A 2EJ C H=I = . .?D= =@= B H = ?=HJAIE= = @ ? F A JA @ F=H H@A =@ F=HJA E =CE HE= AH ? F AN = F=HJA HA= @ = B H = ?=HJAIE= = ?= E F ?EJ GKA = FHE AEH= AH ? F AN A = IACK @= ? F A JA IK= ) = F EJK@A  .ECKH=  AH z4 = .ECKH=  ) B=IA  K =HCK A J  @A z = x + iy = GK= @A J=HA I F H arg (z ) K FA = AJH= φ CK B H =@ A JHA IA E AEN HA= F IEJEL A IAC A J GKA HAFHAIA J= |z | .ECKH=  A F @A IAH >JE@= FA = ANFHAII φ = arctg y . . x AH ? F AN z = x + iy B H 8A = I =I F IIE>E E@=@AI  % K= = 5A = F=HJA HA= x K = F=HJA E =CE HE= y @A K @AJAH E = @A IK= B=IA J H = IA K F K? =EI IKJE II AH ? F AN @= B H = z = 0 + iy = iy K IA = = 5A x = 0 E =CE HE FKH A F J GKA HAFHAIA J= AIJ I >HA AEN E =CE HE B=IA @AFA @A @ IE = @= F=HJA E =CE HE= y E IA y > 0 A J EE IA y < 0 A J > 5A y = 0 II A F J GKA F=HJA HA= x K AH L= H @A IK= arg (z ) = φ = π 2 LA = arg (z ) = φ = − π 2 LA = AH z1 = .

ECKH=  >IAHL= I GKA x = |z |cos(φ) A y = |z |sen(φ) @A z = x + iy F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ = B H = z = x + iy = |z |cos(φ) + i |z |sen(φ). H = -NF A ?E= >IAHL= I GKA A ?E= ? F AN= ex+iy = ex [cos(y ) + isen(x)] cos(φ) + isen(φ) = eiφ . @A @ GKA = B H = F =H @=@= FA = AGK=  ' F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ= ?   z = |z |eiφ . K IA = z = |z |[cos(φ) + isen(φ)].AEN E =CE 6 HE π 2 b z1 = i φ = z b 4 = −7 φ = π z b3 = 4 φ = 0 . H = . H = 2 =H  K 6HEC JHE?= @ GKA AH ? F AN = . ?D= =@= B H = F =H K JHEC JHE?= @A z  ' AH I + 2A = @A E F AN I @= ANF .ECKH= ) CK I AH I ? F AN I A IK=I HAIFA?JEL=I B=IAI =HCK A J I AH I + F AN I . φ .AEN HA= b z2 = −2i φ = − π 2 . "! .=I HE= AH ? F AN =JH=L I @A IK= B H = B=I HE=   = AEH= @A IA HAFHAIA J=H K z = |z |. ?D= =@= B H = ANF A ?E= @A z AH I + 7 = KJH= F AN I .

ECKH= ! ) CK I AH I ? F AN I B H = ?=HJAIE= = A B H = B=I HE=  2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  4AFHAIA JA ?=@= AH ? F AN = IACKEH A K AI F= ? F AN ) IACKEH @AJAH E A IK= = F EJK@A A IK= B=IA A HAAI?HAL= =I B H =I ?=HJAIE= = F =H ANF A ?E= A B=I HE= √ A z = −2 + 3i E z = 3 = z = 2 + 2i √ > z = 3 − 3i B z = 1 − 3i   z = −5 √ ? z = −1 − i C z = −1 − 3i   z = 2i √ @ z = 2 + 3i D z = 2 + 2i   z = −4i "" . − 34 b . 0) b . 0) ≡ (3.ECKH= ! E KIJH= = CK I ANA F I @A FHE AEH F=H H@A =@ HAFHAIA J= AH ? F AN = B H = ?=HJAIE= = A IACK @ HAFHAIA J= AH ? F AN = B H = B=I HE= AEN E =CE 6 HE b (2. 2) ≡ 2√2. π ) b (3. −2) ≡ 2 2. π 2 (−3. −1) ≡ 1. 0) ≡ (3. − π 2 √ π (−2. π 4 b (0.AEN HA= b (0.EIJ =JH=L I @A K F=H H@A =@ @A = FHE AEH= ? F A JA I @ = = F EJK@A @ AH ? F AN A = IACK @= ? F A JA I @ IK= B=IA ) . 1) ≡ 1.

KHEAH >IAHL= I GKA I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI KJE E = BK @= A J=  ? L=HE LA E @AFA @A JA A IE F AI A JA n BHAG ?E=I @ I E EJ I D=H E? I GKA ? HHA = ANF= I A "# . φn A = IACKEH JH= = I I CH ? I |f (n)| × n A φn × n IAF=H=@= A JA 7I= @ IACK @ H=?E ? E F @A I HAFHAIA J=H cn =JH=L I @A @ EI @E=CH= =I " K F=H= =I = F EJK@AI ? DA?E@ ? AIFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI A KJH F=H= =I B=IAI ? DA?E@ ? AIFA?JH @A B=IAI • -IFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI K @E=CH= = @A CH=B= I I L= HAI @=I = F EJK@AI |cn | @ I ? A ?EA JAI @A .=IA I ? A ?EA JAI cn @= ANF= I @A K = BK A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH LAHIKI nω0 EIJ K CH @A CH=B= I I L= HAI @=I B=IAI φn @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? @= B H = φn × nω0 .A? F I =I E =CA I f (n) A IK=I F=HJAI HA= A E =CE HE= EIJ f (n) = Re[f (n)] + i Im[f (n)] A = IACKEH I JH= = I I CH ? I Re[f (n)] × n A Im[f (n)] × n IAF=H=@= A JA 6= HAFHA IA J= =FAI=H @A FAHBAEJ= A JA F =KI LA F IIKE F K?= KJE E@=@A F EI CAH= A JA AIJ= I E JAHAII=@ I I ? F HJ= A J I @A Re[f (n)] A Im[f (n)] @A B H = EI =@= > 7 = IACK @= F IIE>E E@=@A HAAI?HALAH I f (n) = B H = B=I HE= f (n) = |f (n)|. FH NE ! -NA F E KIJH= = ? IJHK @AIJAI AIFA?JH I I nω0 EIJ JEF I E JAEH I @= BHAG ?E= JEL IE F AI nω0 I AN=J= A JA =I 5 HEA @A . KHEAH + F AN= I AH I ? F AN I = LAH@=@A @ALA I A JA @AH cn ? K = BK ? F AN= @A @ E @EI?HAJ Z EIJ K = BK @= B H = cn : Z −→ C. KHEAH LAHIKI nω0 EIJ K CH ? @= B H =! |cn | × nω0 . GKA =II ?E= = ?=@= E JAEH n ∈ Z K AH ? F AN cn ∈ C 2 H IA JH=J=H @A K = BK C IJ=H = I @A HAFHAIA J=H cn = B H = CH ?= cn × n )? JA?A GKA J= HAFHAIA J= F II LA K = LA GKA =I E =CA I cn I ? F AN=I 2=H= HAFHAIA J=H I CH= ?= A JA K = BK ? F AN= @EI?HAJ= f : Z −→ C JA I @K=I F IIE>E E@=@AI = .! I AIFA?JH I @A ) F EJK@A A @A . • -IFA?JH @A B=IA K @E=CH= = @A .

IA n = 0. . 0) 1 π n. IA n > 0 A n F=H K IA n < 0 A n F=H.ECKH= " E KIJH= AIFA?JH >JE@ 2=H= >JAH I AIFA?JH @A B=IAI CH=B= I φn = IACK @= ? F A JA @A ?=@= F=H H@A =@ @= B H = B=I HE=  A BK @A nω0 AIJA ?=I A BK @A nπ ) .ECKH=   F CE = # + B H A LE I -NA F  ' AIJ= @= GK=@H=@= JA A J= ω0 = 1 A B H = = = JE?= " .-NA F F  ' F CE = " IJH=@= = . . 8E I J= > GKA I ? A ?EA JAI JHEC JHE? I I a0 = an = 0 A 2 bn = − cos(nπ ). n ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI JHEC I cn 2A = AGK=  $ JA I cn = JHE? I KI= I =I AGK= AI  $ A   F=H= @AJAH E =H 1 1 2 cos(nπ ) an − ibn = 0 + i cos(nπ ) = i . IA −π ≤ x < π A f (x) = f (x + 2π ). .  . 2 1 π n.AJAH E A I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI @= @= @A JA @A IAHH= @ -NA ?E= BK @= FAH @ T = 2π BHAG f (x) = x. IA n > 0 A n F=H K IA n < 0 A n F=H.ECKH= # E KIJH= AIFA?JH >JE@ ! + A J HE I I >HA I -IFA?JH I @A ) F EJK@AI A @A . IA n > 0 A n F=H K IA n < 0 A n F=H. (0. 2=H= >JAH I AIFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI CH=B= I |cn | = FHE AEH= ? F A JA @A ?=@= F=H H@A =@ @= B H = B=I HE=  A BK @A nω0 AIJA ?=I A BK @A nπ ) . IA n > 0 A n F=H K IA n < 0 A n F=H. 2 2 n n = 0 7I= @ = AGK= .=IAI IE = @=@ E @= BHAG @ ?E= E @ JA F I AIFA?JH I HAFHAIA J= AN=J= A JA E /AH= A JA K IE = @ "$ . . H K HE   A FA = AGK=   JA I c0 HAAI?HALAH = AGK=  ?   0 i cn =  n i −n K = B H = B=I HE=   cn = |cn |. − 2 . φn =  F CE = #! F @A I IA n = 0.

ECKH= " A AIFA?JH @A B=IAI F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H LA = .ECKH=   π 2 b π 2 b π 2 b bπ 2 bπ 2 −4π −5π −3π −2π −π b 0 π 2π 3π 4π 5π nω0 b −π 2 b −π 2 b−π 2 b−π 2 b−π 2 .ECKH= " -IFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI @= φn 6 @= @A JA @A IAHH= @= .ALE@ = J=EI IE AJHE=I = CK =I LA AI I AIFA?JH I I JH= =@ I =FA =I F=H= n ≥ 0 I IEC E ?=@ @ I AIFA?JH I E E?E= A JA >IAHL= I GKA ?=@= D=H EL 2=H= E JAHFHAJ=H "% .ECKH= # -IFA?JH @A B=IAI @= @= @A JA @A IAHH= @= .ECKH= " ) LAHE ?= @AIJAI HAIK J=@ I ?= = ?=HC @ AEJ H 2H > A = " .ECKH=   EE 5A @ IE = FAHE @E? @ E @ JA F I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI I AIFA?JH I @EI?HAJ I K = LA GKA =FA =I I D=H E? I ?K =I BHAG ?E=I I JEF I E JAEH I @= BHAG ?E= @ IE =  K IA = JEF I E JAEH I @= BHAG ?E= BK @= A J=  I A?AII HE I F=H= IK= I JAIA EEE AIFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H LA = = .|cn | 6 1 b b1 1 2 1 5 b b1 2 b 1 4 b 1 3 b b 0 b1 3 b1 4 b1 5 −5π −4π −3π −2π −π π 2π 3π 4π 5π nω0 .

KHEAH @ IE = ?K I AIFA?JH I I @=@ I "& .ECKH= # IEC E ?= GKA D=H E? @A BHAG ?E= 3 π EIJ D=H E? ei3πx F J 3π. KHEAH >=IJ= @ HAAI?HALAH I ? A ?EA JAI cn = B H = ANF A ?E= @=@= FA = AGK=   )IIE cn = |cn |ei φn . − π 2 2 1 @ALA JAH IK= B=IA =JH=I=@= @AI ?=@= F=H= = @EHAEJ= @A π/ 3π = 6 H=@E= I = I JAIA @ IE = . )IIE ?=@= JAH = 5 HEA + F AN= @=@= FA = AGK=   F @A IAH HAAI?HEJ ? cn einω0 x = |cn |ei φn einω0 x = |cn |ei(nω0 x+φn ) = |cn | cos(nω0 x + φn ) + i sen(nω0 x + φn ) φn φn = |cn | cos nω0 (x + ) + i sen nω0 (x + ) . 7I= @ = AGK=   F @A I HAAI?HALAH I ? A ?EA JAI cn = B H = cn = |cn |ei φn .ECKH=I # >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= $A % A 5 HEA @A .ECKH= " F J 3π.  " @A |cn | >JE@ = F=HJEH @ I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A φn B=IAI FH NE -NA F E KIJH= AIJA FH ?A@E A J >JE@ = F=HJEH @ AIFA?JH @A -NA F =I .E? ANF A ?E= ? IEJK @ @A K = I = @A D=H E? I IA E@=EI einω0 x = cos(nω0 x) + i sen(nω0 x).A F IIA @ I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI @ IE = F II LA >JAH I IK= HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . nω0 nω0  ! • 2A = AGK=  ! = E JAHFHAJ= @ AIFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI E A@E=J= I IJH= = = F EJK@A @A ?=@= D=H E? A ?=@= K = @=I BHAG ?E=I GKA ? IJEJKA IE = 2 H ANA F = . 1 D=H E? @A BHAG ?E= 3 IEC E ?= GKA 1 3π EIJ D=H E? ei3πx F IIKE = F EJK@A 3 @ AIFA?JH @A B=IAI =EI IKJE FA = AGK=  ! >IAHL= I GKA • ) E JAHFHAJ= = JH= I = D HE J= =L= K =JH=I  @A ?=@= D=H E? GKA ? IJEJKA IE = φn @=@= F H nω )IIE ? AIFA?JH @A B=IAI I @ = B=IA @ I ? A ?EA JAI cn 0 F=H= >JAH I = JH= I = D HE J= @A ?=@= D=H E? @ALA I @ELE@EH φn = B=IA @ ? A ?EA JA F H nω0 = BHAG ?E= @ D=H E?  2 H ANA F = .

ECKH= % φn = $ >IAHL= 0 2 n2 π 2 1 4 I GKA  #= . IA n F=H  #? )IIE @A =? H@ ? = AGK=   >IAHL= @ I AIFA?JH I GKA ω0 = π  = HAFHAIA " J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH ? F AN= @AIJA IE = @=@= F H f (x) ∼ " 1 2 − 2 4 π k∈ 1 ei(2k+1)πx . cn =  − n22π2 . . .|cn | 6 b1 4 b b 2 π2 b b b b b −π π b 2 9π 2 b b b 2π 3π 1 25π 2 b b 4π 5π b 6π 1 49π 2 −7π −6π −5π −4π −3π −2π 7π nω0 . IA n = 0 IA n F=H .ECKH=   |cn | =  AIFA?JH @A B=IAI . π . IA n IA n A F=H . F=H #> F @A  #> 7I= @ = AGK=  " =I AGK= AI  #= iπ  A >H= @ IA GKA e = cos(π ) + isen(π ) = −1  1 . IAH ? >E =@=I F=H= >JAH I IA n = 0 IA n F=H .ECKH= $ -IFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI @ -NA F # 2A AIFA?JH @A = F EJK@AI . (2k + 1)2 + F=HA ? = AGK=  #? "' . IA n F=H A FA 0 .  4 0 .

25π 2 9π π 4 π 9π 25π 2 f (x) ∼ .ECKH= % -IFA?JH @A B=IAI @ -NA F # K = B H = ANF= @E@= 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 e−5iπx − 2 e−3iπx − 2 e−iπx + − 2 eiπx − 2 e3iπx − e−5iπx − . . KHEAH JHEC JHE?= @AIJA IE = @=@= F H# f (x) ∼ 1 4 − 2 4 π ∞ k=1 1 cos [(2k − 1)πx] .φn 6 b b b b bπ b b b b b b −π b π b 2π 3π b 4π 5π b 6π 7π −7π −6π −5π −4π −3π −2π nω0 .E = A JA FA = AGK=   JA I a0 = 1 2 HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . . (2k − 1)2 K = B H = ANF= @E@= f (x) ∼ # 1 4 4 4 − 2 cos(πx) − 2 cos(3πx) − cos(5πx) + . @ @A bn = 0. − 2=H= >JAH I I ? A ?EA JAI JHEC JHE? I E E?E= GKA cn = cn )IIE FA = AGK=  "? JA I an = cn + cn = 0 − n24π2 . . F=H I FA = AGK=  #? A FA = AGK=  "@ ibn = cn − cn = 0. A JA >IAHL= IA n IA n F=H . . 2 π 9π 25π 2  !? + F=HA ? = AGK= # . = AGK=   = )IIE @A =? H@ ? . . . .

ECKH=   F CE = ! " IJHA GKA I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI IA FHA F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H A IA FHA F IIKE IE AJHE= F=H AIFA?JH @A B=IAI |cn | 2 6 a 1 a2 π φn 6 aπ 2 a a a a 32 π a 52 π a π 2π 3π a 4π 5π a 6π a 72 π 7π a 8π nω0 π a 2π 3π a 4π 5π a 6π 7π a 8π nω0 = -IFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI @ 2H > A = # > -IFA?JH I @A B=IAI @ 2H > A = # .ECKH= ' F AN= A 6HEC F AN= A 6HEC JHE?= @ IE = ?K I JHE?= @ IE = ?K I IJHA GKA F=H= K = BK FAHE @E?= K =JH=I τ JA F JA A DK ABAEJ I >HA AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI =I = JAH= AIFA?JH @A B=IAI F H −nω0 τ EIJ CAH= K =JH=I @A nω0 τ F=H= = ? F A AJA @A BHAG ?E= nω0 # .! 2H > A =I 2H F IJ I  ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? F AN I >JE@ I -NA F  F CE = !$ JH=?A I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI @= @= GK=@H=@= @= .ECKH= & -IFA?JH I @ 2H > A = # # $ % >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A . KHEAH + AIFA?JH I I @=@ I = . KHEAH + AIFA?JH I I @=@ I = .ECKH= & >JA D= = HAFHAIA J= A 5 HEA @A .ECKH=  # F CE = ! ! ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? F AN I >JE@ I 2H > A = % F CE = " JH=?A I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI @= @= @= .ECKH=  " F CE =    ) F=HJEH @ I ? A ?EA JAI ? F AN I >JE@ I -NA F ! F CE = !& JH=?A I AIFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI A @A B=IAI @= @= JHE= CK =H @= .

|cn | 6 a1 φn π 6 a4 a a a1 2 a1 3 1 a4 2 1 3 4 5 nω0 a 1 2 3 4 a1 5 5 nω0 a−π 4 a = -IFA?JH I @A = F EJK@AI @ 2H > A = $ > -IFA?JH I @A B=IAI @ 2H > A = $ .ECKH= ' -IFA?JH I @ 2H > A = $ # .

#! . −1 . ∀ n ∈ Z. ∀ n ∈ Z. IA n IA n F=H . x2 cos(nω0 x)dx = x2 nω0 sen(nω0 x) + 2x 2 n2 ω0 cos(nω0 x) − 2 3 n3 ω0 sen(nω0 x). H K HE 4AIK E I =GKE = CK I HAIK J=@ I A = CK =I FHE EJEL=I ? HHA JA A JA KJE E =@=I GK= @ JH= >= D= I ? 5 HEAI @A . ix nω0 + e−inω0 x . F=H sen(nω0 x). ! " # $ % x xsen(nω0 x)dx = − nω cos(nω0 x) + 0 1 2 n2 ω0 1 . KHEAH 5KCAHE I = AEJ H LAHE ?=H = LAH=?E@=@A @A ?=@= K @AIJAI HAIK J=@ I GK= @ KJE E I FA = FHE AEH= LA  cos(nπ ) = (−1)n =   sen(nπ ) = 0. xcos(nω0 x)dx = xe−inω0 x dx = x nω0 sen(nω0 x) + 1 2 n2 ω0 2 1 2 n2 ω 0 cos(nω0 x). 2x 2 n2 ω0 x x2 sen(nω0 x)dx = − nω cos(nω0 x) + 0 sen(nω0 x) + 2 3 n3 ω0 cos(nω0 x)..

-GK= 6AH?AEH= -@E AI .ECKAEHA@ .A A J=HAI A 2H > A =I @A 8= HAI @A + J H 6AH?AEH= -@E -@EJ H= /K= =>=H= C= 5 ) 4E @A = AEH 4 '' 2H > A =I @A 8= HAI @A + 4E @A = AEH ! 4 ''# -@M=H@I''# -@M=H@I H + 0 2A J H AO .4ABAH  ?E=I *E> E CH ?=I * O?A'' * O?A 9E E= .EBAHA ?E=EI .EBAHA ?E=EI .A A J=HAI A -@EJ H= 2HA JE?A 0= @ *H=IE . =EH /KA@AI ) EIA @A .EBAHA ?E=EI 2=H?E=EI 4E @A = AEH 1 IJEJKJ @A =JA JE?= 2KH= A )F E?=@= + 2G '%% 2H AJ -K? E@AI 0IK'% 0IK 0MAE 2 ) = AEH /K= =>=H= '% " EIA @A . .. =EH '%% .EFHE = 4E?D=H@ + -GK= AI . KHEAH A -GK= AI . KHEAH ELH I 6 ? E? I A +EA J ? I J@= 4E @A #" .

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