You are on page 1of 40

Education in Cambodia

&&&&& Public School System Traditional education in Cambodia was handled by the local wat, and the bonzes were the teachers. The students were almost entirely young boys, and the education was limited to memorizing Buddhist chants in Pali. During the period of the French protectorate, an educational system based on the French model was inaugurated alongside the traditional system. Initially, the French neglected education in Cambodia. Only seven high school students graduated in 1931, and only 50,000 to 60,000 children were enrolled in primary school in 1936. In the year immediately following independence, the number of students rapidly increased. Vickery suggests that education of any kind was considered an "absolute good" by all Cambodians and that this attitude eventually created a large group of unemployed or underemployed graduates by the late 1960s. From the early twentieth century until 1975, the system of mass education operated on the French model. The educational system was divided into primary, secondary, higher, and specialized levels. Public education was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which exercised full control over the entire system; it established syllabi, hired and paid teachers, provided supplies, and inspected schools. An inspector of primary education, who had considerable authority, was assigned to each province. Cultural committees under the Ministry of Education were responsible for "enriching the Cambodian language." Primary education, divided into two cycles of three years each, was carried out in state-run and temple-run schools. Successful completion of a final state examination led to the award of a certificate after each cycle. The primary education curriculum consisted of arithmetic, history, ethics, civics, drafting, geography, hygiene, language, and science. In addition, the curriculum included physical education and manual work. French language instruction began in the second year. Khmer was the language of instruction in the first cycle, but French was used in the second cycle and thereafter. By the early 1970s, Khmer was used more widely in primary education. In the 1980s, primary school ran from the first to the fourth grade. Theoretically one primary school served each village. Secondary education also was divided into two cycles, one of four years taught at a college, followed by one of three years taught at a lycée. Upon completion of the first cycle, students could take a state examination. Successful candidates received a secondary diploma. Upon completion of the first two years of the second cycle, students could take a state examination for the first baccalaureate, and, following their final year, they could take a similar examination for the second baccalaureate. The Cambodian secondary curriculum was similar to that found in France. Beginning in 1967, the last three years of secondary school were split up into three sections according to major subjects--letters, mathematics and technology; agriculture; and biology. In the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the country emphasized a technical education. In the PRK, secondary education was reduced to six years. Higher education lagged well behind primary and secondary education, until the late 1950s. The only facility in the country for higher education before the 1960s was the National Institute of Legal, Political, and Economic Studies, which trained civil servants. In the late 1950s, it had about 250 students. Wealthy Cambodians and those who had government scholarships sought university-level education abroad. Students attended schools in France, but after independence increasing numbers enrolled at universities in the United States, Canada, China, the Soviet Union, and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). By 1970 universities with a total enrollment of nearly 9,000 students served Cambodia. The largest, the University of Phnom Penh, had nearly 4,570 male students and more than 730 female students in eight departments-letters and humanities, science and technology, law and economics, medicine, pharmacy, commercial science, teacher training, and higher teacher training. Universities operated in the provinces of Kampong Cham, Takev, Batdambang; and in Phnom Penh, the University of Agricultural Sciences and the University of Fine Arts offered training. The increased fighting

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

following the 1970 coup closed the three provincial universities. During the Khmer Rouge regime, education was dealt a severe setback, and the great strides made in literacy and in education during the two decades following independence were obliterated systematically. Schools were closed, and educated people and teachers were subjected to, at the least, suspicion and harsh treatment and, at the worst, execution. At the beginning of the 1970s, more than 20,000 teachers lived in Cambodia; only about 5,000 of the teachers remained 10 years later. Soviet sources report that 90 percent of all teachers were killed under the Khmer Rouge regime. Only 50 of the 725 university instructors, 207 of the 2,300 secondary school teachers, and 2,717 of the 21,311 primary school teachers survived. The meager educational fare was centered on precepts of the Khmer revolution; young people were rigidly indoctrinated, but literacy was neglected, and an entire generation of Cambodian children grew up illiterate. After the Khmer Rouge were driven from power, the educational system had to be re-created from almost nothing. Illiteracy had climbed to more than 40 percent, and most young people under the age of 14 lacked any basic education. Education began making a slow comeback, following the establishment of the PRK. In 1986 the following main institutions of higher education were reported in the PRK: the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy (reopened in 1980 with a six-year course of study); the Chamcar Daung Faculty of Agriculture (opened in 1985); the Kampuchea-USSR Friendship Technical Institute (which includes technical and engineering curricula), the Institute of Languages (Vietnamese, German, Russian, and Spanish are taught); the Institute of Commerce, the Center for Pedagogical Education (formed in 1979); the Normal Advanced School; and the School of Fine Arts. Writing about the educational system under the PRK, Vickery states, "Both the government and the people have demonstrated enthusiasm for education . . . . The list of subjects covered is little different from that of prewar years. There is perhaps more time devoted to Khmer language and literature than before the war and, until the 1984-85 school year, at least, no foreign language instruction." He notes that the secondary school syllabus calls for four hours of foreign language instruction per week in either Russian, German, or Vietnamese but that there were no teachers available. Martin describes the educational system in the PRK as based very closely on the Vietnamese model, pointing out that even the terms for primary and secondary education have been changed into direct translations of the Vietnamese terms. Under the PRK regime, according to Martin, the primary cycle had four instead of six classes, the first level of secondary education had three instead of four classes, and the second level of secondary education had three classes. Martin writes that not every young person could go to school because schooling both in towns and in the countryside required enrollment fees. Civil servants pay 25 riels per month to send a child to school, and others pay up to 150 riels per month. Once again, according to Martin, "Access to tertiary studies is reserved for children whose parents work for the regime and have demonstrated proof of their loyalty to the regime." She writes that, from the primary level on, the contents of all textbooks except for alphabet books was politically oriented and dealt "more specifically with Vietnam." From the beginning of the secondary cycle, Vietnamese language study was compulsory. Private Education For a portion of the urban population in Cambodia, private education was important in the years before the communist takeover. Some private schools were operated by ethnic or religious minorities--Chinese, Vietnamese, European, Roman Catholic, and Muslim--so that children could study their own language, culture, or religion. Other schools provided education to indigenous children who could not gain admission to a public school. Attendance at some of the private schools, especially those in Phnom Penh, conferred a certain amount of prestige on the student and on the student's family. The private educational system included Chinese-language schools, Vietnamese-language (often Roman Catholic) schools, French-language schools, English-language schools, and Khmerlanguage schools. Enrollment in private primary schools rose from 32,000 in the early

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

1960s to about 53,500 in 1970, although enrollment in private secondary schools dropped from about 19,000 to fewer than 8,700 for the same period. In 1962 there were 195 Chinese schools, 40 Khmer schools, 15 Vietnamese schools, and 14 French schools operating in Cambodia. Private secondary education was represented by several high schools, notably the Lycée Descartes in Phnom Penh. All of the Vietnamese schools in Phnom Penh and some of the Chinese schools there were closed by government decree in 1970. There was no information available in 1987 that would have indicated the presence of any private schools in the PRK, although there was some private instruction, especially in foreign languages. 1. After the devastation of the Khmer Rouge period, the PRK tried to rebuild a national education system: with generous funding from international donors. With almost total lack of resources both human and material With an emphasis on quantity over quality Using exclusively Vietnamese teachers B and C above. 2. What percentage of the Cambodian population is basically illiterate (either completely illiterate or semi-literate)? (year 2000 statistics) 5% 18 % 26 % 43 % 62 % 3. What changes in the 1990s have been important for the improvement of Cambodian education? increased government spending, rebuilding of schools, reprinting of textbooks. Increases in salaries for teachers The opening of high quality private universities A shift of funding responsibilities from parents to the government All of the above. 4. The education of girls lags far behind that of boys in Cambodia, while they are nearly half (46.2 %) of primary school students, in lower secondary school this drops to: 40 % 37 % 22 % 10 % 5. The reason parents give for why girls are kept at home is: girls are needed for household chores. It is not safe for girls to travel the longer distances to school School is too expensive All of the above. Modern education progressed very slowly in Cambodia. The French colonial rulers did not pay attention to educating Khmer. It was not until the late 1930s that the first high school opened. However, after gaining independence from France, the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk made substantial progress in the field of education in the 1950s and 1960s. Elementary and secondary education was expanded to various parts of the country, while higher learning institutions such as vocational institutions, teacher-training centers and universities were established. Unfortunately, the progress of these decades was obstructed by the civil war following the overthrow of Prince Sihanouk in the 1970 and then destroyed by the Khmer Rouge regime. In an attempt to rebuild a new Cambodia with new revolutionary men and women, the Khmer Rouge set out to eradicate the old elements of Cambodia’s society, including the old education

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

system. Like their Maoist counterparts in China, the Khmer Rouge leaders emphasized manual labor and political correctness over knowledge. They claimed "rice fields were books, and hoes were pencils." As such, Cambodia did not need an educational system. The Khmer Rouge leaders deliberately destroyed the foundations of a modern education. People with higher education such as doctors, lawyers, teachers, professors, and former college students were killed or forced to work in labor camps. The Khmer Rouge also engaged in the physical destruction of institutional infrastructure for higher education such as books, buildings, and other educational resources. It is estimated that by the end of the Khmer Rouge time, between 75 and 80 percent of Cambodian educators either were killed, died of overwork, or left the country. At least half of the written material available in the Khmer language was destroyed. After coming to power with Vietnamese help in 1979, the government of the PRK attempted to redevelop the education system. Although significant progress was made, the process of educational redevelopment was hampered by war and lack of resources, human as well as material. The PRK government undertook a massive rehabilitation program aimed at enrolling as many students as possible. The slogan of the time was "those who know more teach those who know less." Those with almost any level of education were encouraged to work as teachers, and efforts were made to identify and encourage formers teachers, professors, and bureaucrats in the field of education to participate in this difficult endeavor. Potential teachers were given shortterm training for one month, three weeks or even two weeks and then assigned teaching jobs. With many buildings destroyed, classes were taught in shacks made of leaves with dirt floors or in some places instruction was given outside under the trees. Given the enormity of destruction caused by the Khmer Rouge regime, one could see significant progress in the field of education during 1980s. From an empty handed position, the PRK government was able to reestablish a semblance of an educational system from pre-school to university. A number of students were offered scholarships by host countries in the former Soviet block to pursue higher education. Because the PRK government was engaged in fighting a civil war with the Khmer Rouge and other two non-communist resistant movements the field of education was not given much priority. With budgetary constraints, the need for manpower to serve in the army, and a centrally planned economy, the PRK government set limits on the number of students who could entered into upper secondary school, and universities. Such restrictions generated widespread corruption, favoritism, and nepotism within the educational system as wealthy and influential parents either paid bribes or used their political power to secure seats for their children in these institutions. Such practices, compounded by low skill level of educators, significantly slowed the development of the educational system. Under this system that emphasized quantity over quality, and given the destruction of the DK regime, it is easy to understand why literacy rates for Cambodia are quite low. New research conducted in 2000, which actually administered writing exercises rather than allowing selfidentification as readers, found that literacy levels for the country were lower than previously estimated. The report divided the respondents into three groups: the complete illiterate (36.3 %), the semi-literate (26.6 %) and the literate (37.1 %). The latter were further divided into those with a basic level of literacy (11.3 %), with a medium level (64 %) and a self-learning level (those who read all kinds of materials in search of new knowledge) (24.7 %). In all of these categories the rates were much lower for women with some 45.1 percent of women reported as completely illiterate and only 20 percent of the literate women fell into the self-learning category. Combining the first two categories of illiterate and semi-literate, this means that 62.9 percent of the adult population of Cambodia, or 6.5 million people, are basically illiterate (MEYS 2000). In the 1990s, after the Paris Agreements and the UN sponsored elections, there were significant changes in the educational system. As part of the country’s new election campaigning, many new school buildings were constructed. The percentage of the national budget for education has increased, reaching 7.7 percent in 2000 and 15.67 percent in 2001 (GAD/C 2002). More materials became available through donor funding. For example, in 1993-94 the expenditures on books were about 50 riels (about .02 US) per pupil or the equivalent of supplying one book per

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

student every 20 years. Seven or eight students were sharing one book (UNESCO 1998). Since then new curricula, teachers’ manuals and student textbooks have been developed for grades 1-9. These new books have been printed in sufficient numbers for one book for every child in every subject. A 1998 UNESCO report notes that for many children this is the first book they will ever own (1998:19). Teachers are being given additional training, but the educational level of teachers remains rather low over all. Six percent of Cambodia’s teachers have a primary education, 77 percent have attended lower secondary school, 14 percent upper secondary school and only 3 percent have a tertiary education (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 1998). The new curricula move away from the traditional route methods of learning common across Southeast Asia to more active learning models. While this shift has strong support among donors, there is reportedly resistance to such changes among education administrators who prefer traditional methods (see UNESCO 2000). The school system today has pre-school for children aged three to five (but only in some areas), Primary education in grades one to six, and Lower Secondary education from grades six to nine. After grade nine is an exam to pass to enter Upper Secondary school (grades ten to twelve). After grade twelve is an exam to graduate with a diploma (called bac dup). Previously there was then a separate entrance exam for the university level, but now the exams already sat are studied for highest scores in certain topical areas to decide which students will be allowed to continue to university. The existing universities include: The University of Health Sciences, the Royal University of Fine Arts, the Institute of Technology, the Faculty of Law and Economic Sciences, the Royal University of Agriculture, the Royal University of Phnom Penh, the National Institute of Management, the Maharishi Vedic University and the Faculty of Pedagogy. There is also a non-formal education system that includes literacy classes for adults. Just in the last two years (2000 – 2002) there has been an explosion of private schools, especially at the secondary and higher education levels. The government has not yet decided on accreditation standards for universities and it is difficult to determine the quality of all these new "universities" that have sprung up throughout Phnom Penh. While the funding for education has improved, and dramatic changes are underway, a litany of problems remain. The overwhelming problems are still financial and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MEYS) admits that there is little likelihood of providing the opportunity for every child to have nine years of education in the very near future. There are still enormous problems with education service delivery, including a large gap in education quality between urban and rural or remote schools (MEYS 1999). Teachers are paid as little as ten dollars per month. Since they cannot live on such wages, they must supplement their income with other jobs, which often cuts into class times. In addition, the teachers must also charge students fees to attend their classes, or offer additional for-fee classes outside the regular class times. This means that the poorest students are often locked out of classes where the real teaching occurs. A study by Mark Bray (1998) documented the high costs of education placed on Cambodian parents. This survey of 77 schools in 11 provinces and Phnom Penh found that families and communities pay 74.8 percent of the costs of primary education, with the government paying only 12.9 percent. This is one of the lowest government contributions to primary education in the world (cited in UNESCO 2000:23). For many rural families who live by subsistence agriculture, education costs are the highest expense they face annually. Often they cannot afford to educate all of their children and will have to choose certain children to attend. This is one reason why many more boys than girls attend school. Parents would like to educate both, but if forced to choose, they choose to educate boys. The percentage of female students is nearly half (46.2 %) in primary school, but drops to 37 percent in lower secondary school, and 31.8 percent in upper secondary school (MEYS 2001). Other reasons for the sexual disparity include the fact that girls are more likely to be kept at home to help with household work and to care for younger siblings (MEYS 1998). For reasons on personal security, girls are also not allowed to travel long distances and live away from family to attend upper secondary schools in provincial towns. But a 1998 report on women and education points out that the rural/urban

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

divide is even more potent than the gender factor. Rural boys have lower educational attainment than urban girls (MEYS 1998:20). Nationwide the net enrollment was 83.8 percent for the 2000-01 academic year, up from 77.8 percent in 1997-98. But this still means that 16 percent of children aged 6-11 remain outside the school system entirely. Since this varies regionally, in some remote provinces this figure reaches 50 percent (MEYS 1999). For those children within the system the repetition rate is extremely high, for grade one the rate is about 40 percent (MEYS 1999:19). This means that many of the students in the lowest grades of primary school are older and are taking the class for the second or third time. Drop out rates for grades one, two and three were 10.6 percent, 10.8 percent and 11.1 percent respectively in 2000-01 (MEYS 2001). Class sizes are also large, with an average of 50 students at the primary level (only 33.4 to 1 in urban areas) (1998:20). The daily realities for both teachers and students in the Cambodian education system are thus very challenging. Teachers face inadequate salaries and the need to charge students fees for services. Students face inadequate facilities, large classroom size, sometimes travel times to nearby villages or towns, and high costs for their families. At the upper levels these problems are compounded by the need to pay bribes to pass the upper secondary level exams and to secure admission to universities. This is one factor that has contributed to the growth in private sector education. But while the situation still appears grim, I would re-emphasize that dramatic improvements have been made in the last ten years. These improvements can continue if the government continues to increase the percentage of the total government funding that goes to education, and if funding reaches front-line teachers rather than being consumed by administrative costs. Dramatic change could occur if the government could pay teachers a living wage and shift the burden of paying for education from poor families to the government. Buddhist Education Before the French organized a Western-style educational system, the Buddhist wat, with monks as teachers, provided the only formal education in Cambodia. The monks traditionally regarded their main educational function as the teaching of Buddhist doctrine and history and the importance of gaining merit. Other subjects were regarded as secondary. At the wat schools, young boys--girls were not allowed to study in these institutions--were taught to read and to write Khmer, and they were instructed in the rudiments of Buddhism. In 1933 a secondary school system for novice monks was created within the Buddhist religious system. Many wat schools had so-called Pali schools that provided three years of elementary education from which the student could compete for entrance into the Buddhist lycées. Graduates of these lycées could sit for the entrance examination to the Buddhist University in Phnom Penh. The curriculum of the Buddhist schools consisted of the study of Pali, of Buddhist doctrine, and of Khmer, along with mathematics, Cambodian history and geography, science, hygiene, civics, and agriculture. Buddhist instruction was under the authority of the Ministry of Religion. Nearly 600 Buddhist primary schools, with an enrollment of more than 10,000 novices and with 800 monks as instructors, existed in 1962. The Preah Suramarit Buddhist Lycée--a four-year institution in Phnom Penh founded in 1955--included courses in Pali, in Sanskrit, and in Khmer, as well as in many modern disciplines. In 1962 the student body numbered 680. The school's graduates could continue their studies in the Preah Sihanouk Raj Buddhist University created in 1959. The university offered three cycles of instruction; the doctoral degree was awarded after successful completion of the third cycle. In 1962 there were 107 students enrolled in the Buddhist University. By the 1969-70 academic year, more than 27,000 students were attending Buddhist religious elementary schools, 1,328 students were at Buddhist lycées, and 176 students were enrolled at the Buddhist University. The Buddhist Institute was a research institution formed in 1930 from the Royal Library. The institute contained a library, record and photograph collections, and a museum. Several commissions were part of the institute. A folklore commission published collections of

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Cambodian folktales, a Tripitaka Commission completed a translation of the Buddhist canon into Khmer, and a dictionary commission produced a definitive two-volume dictionary of Khmer. No information was available in 1987 regarding the fate of the temple schools, but it is doubtful that they were revived after the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime.

Education in Singapore
Singapore places huge emphasis on the education system as human talent is the most valuable resource we have. Education is cheap, but where necessary, scholarships and bursaries are provided for needy students from primary to tertiary levels. Starting from the age of 5, a student typically goes through 2 years of kindergarten, 6 years of primary school, 4 years of secondary school leading to the GCE O Level exams or 5 years for the GCE N Level exams, 2 years of Junior College leading to the GCE A Levels, and 3 or 4 years of university education. Alternatively, a student may opt to take a 3-year polytechnic diploma course instead of Junior College - this does not preclude entry into University, but it does mean more competition since less poly grads get this chance. Many who are able choose to study abroad. Government Schools Children of expatriates residing in Singapore on employment passes or skilled work permits can apply for admission to government or aided schools. School fees in these schools are pegged at $3 a month for primary pupils and $5 a month for secondary students, and are much lower than those in private schools. Children whose parents are not employment pass holders, skilled work permit holders or permanent residents will need to apply for student passes through the Foreign Student Unit, Ministry of Education. The parent/guardian will receive a Letter of Certification within seven working days of the submission of the application. By presenting the Letter of Certification, the parent may contact the school of their choice to apply for an assessment test, the dates of which are decided by the school. Acceptance by the school will depend on the results of the test and the student's age. If the student is accepted, the Foreign Students Unit will send a letter requesting a contribution to the Education Fund. Malaysians must contribute $3,000 for primary education, secondary and pre-university education, while parents of other nationalities must contribute $5,000. The Student Pass can then be obtained from the Immigration Department with the Letter of Approval. (Foreign students can report for school admission only after obtaining the Student Pass.) For admission to kindergartens, private schools, universities and polytechnics, applcations can be made directly to the school, and the contribution to the Education Fund is not required. International Schools Note: As well as the listing below, please check out our comparison between current international schools, which is subject to update as more schools submit their details. Have a look here. American College Australian International School British Association of Singapore Nursery School Canadian International School Chatsworth International School Dover Court Preparatory School Dutch School Eton House (ages 2-7) German School Singapore International Community School ISS International School (Lower School)

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

ISS International School (Upper School) Japanese School LearningVision@Central (For ages 2 months to 6 years) Lycee Francais De Singapour Overseas Family School Singapore American School Swiss School Tanglin Trust School United World College of South East Asia

Japanese Education
Lucien Ellington October 2001 It is important for teachers and students to develop a broad understanding of Japanese education. Americans who are knowledgeable of teaching and learning in Japan gain insights about a different culture and are better able to clearly think about our own educational system. This digest is an introductory overview of 1) Japanese educational achievements, 2) the structure and curriculum of K-12 Japanese education, 3) Japanese higher education, 4) adult education in Japan, and 5) educational reform. Japanese Educational Achievements. Japan's greatest educational achievement is the highquality basic education most young people receive by the time they complete high school. In international mathematics tests, Japanese students rank either at, or near, the top year after year. Recent statistics indicate that well over 95 percent of Japanese are literate, which is particularly impressive since the Japanese language is one of the world's most difficult languages to read and write. Over 95 percent of Japanese also graduate from high school compared to 88 percent of American students. Some Japanese education specialists estimate that the average Japanese high school graduate has attained about the same level of education as the average American after two years of college. Japanese employees of large companies and government ministries rank among the most well-educated workers on earth. Japanese K-12 Education. Even though the Japanese adopted the American 6-3-3 model during the U.S. Occupation after World War II, elementary and secondary education is much more centralized than in the United States. Control over curriculum rests largely with the national Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Monbukagakusho) and education is compulsory through the ninth grade. Municipalities and private sources fund kindergartens, but national, prefectural, and local governments pay almost equal shares of educational costs for students in grades one through nine. Well over 90 percent of students attend public schools through the ninth grade, but over 25 percent of students go to private high schools. The percentage of national funding for high schools is quite low, with prefectures and municipalities assuming most of the costs for public high schools. There are important differences in Japanese and American teachers and administrators. High salaries, relatively high prestige, and very low birth rates make teaching jobs quite difficult to obtain in Japan while in the United States there are increasing teacher shortages. While more Japanese schools are acquiring specialists such as special education teachers and counselors, American schools have many more special subjects and support personnel than is the case in Japan. The typical Japanese school has only two administrators: a principal and a head teacher. Japanese students spend at least six weeks longer in school each year than their American counterparts since summer vacations in Japan only last half the time of most summer breaks in the U.S. Until the mid-1990s Japanese students attended school half days on Saturday, but weekend attendance is being gradually phased out and all Saturday school will terminate by the beginning of the 2002 school year in April. While the Japanese K-12 curriculum is actually quite similar in many respects to the curriculum of U.S. schools, there are important differences. Because Japanese teachers at all levels are better prepared in mathematics than their American counterparts, instruction in that subject is more

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

sophisticated in Japan. Japanese language instruction receives more attention in Japanese schools than English instruction in the United States because of the difficulty of learning written Japanese. Virtually every Japanese student takes English language courses from the seventh grade through the final year of high school. Since many digest readers are social studies teachers, a few words about those subjects are included here. Japanese elementary students study social studies in an integrated science/social studies course. Beginning in third grade and continuing through high school, there are separate civics, geography, Japanese and world history, sociology, and politics-economics courses. University-bound students may elect to take more or less social studies electives depending upon their career interests. A goal of the new educational reforms that are being implemented during the 2002 school year is an increased use of task-oriented research approaches in secondary social studies and a decreased emphasis upon retention of large amounts of factual content. One recurring problem in history instruction in Japan is the way textbooks often depict Japanese actions during World War II. Often , Japanese atrocities are minimized or ignored in school history textbooks. All Japanese texts are written and produced in the private sector, however, the texts must be approved by the Ministry of Education. The latest controversy occurred in 2001 when the Ministry of Education approved a new junior high school textbook written and edited by a group of nationalist academics. The book omitted topics such as the Japanese Army's mistreatment of women in battle zones and areas under Japanese rule and Japanese army action in China. After strong protests from the South Korean and Chinese governments, the Japanese government did have the book reviewed and revised. The book was then published in summer 2001. Although under 10 percent of all junior high schools in Japan are expected to actually use the book, the Chinese and South Korean governments were still not satisfied with the published version. The Japanese believe schools should teach not only academic skills but good character traits as well. While a small amount of hours every year are devoted to moral education in the national curriculum, there is substantial anecdotal evidence that teachers do not take the instructional time too seriously and often use it for other purposes. Still, Japanese teachers endeavor to inculcate good character traits in students through the hidden curriculum. For example, all Japanese students and teachers clean school buildings every week. Japanese students are constantly exhorted by teachers to practice widely admired societal traits such as putting forth intense effort on any task and responding to greetings from teachers in a lively manner. Many American public high schools are comprehensive. While there are a few comprehensive high schools in Japan, they are not popular. Between 75 and 80 percent of all Japanese students enroll in university preparation tracks. Most university-bound students attend separate academic high schools while students who definitely do not plan on higher education attend separate commercial or industrial high schools. In the United States, students enter secondary schools based on either school district assignment or personal choice. In Japan, the overwhelming majority of students are admitted to both high school and university primarily based upon entrance examination performance. The best Japanese high schools and universities require high entrance examination scores. Since many Japanese employers continue to base hiring decisions upon the prestige level of the educational institution one attended, ambitious students attend private cram schools, or juku, and study long hours for both high school and university entrance examinations. The futures of most Japanese high school students depend largely upon the high school they attended and their college entrance examination scores. Japanese Higher Education. Japan, with approximately three million men and women enrolled in 1,200 universities and junior colleges, has the second largest higher educational system in the developed world. In Japan, public universities usually enjoy more prestige than their private counterparts and only about 25 percent of all university-bound students manage to gain admission to public universities. Even so, Japanese universities are considered to be the weakest component in the nation's educational system. Many Japanese students have traditionally considered their university time to be more social than academic and, usually, professors demand relatively little of their charges. Graduate education in Japan is underdeveloped compared to European countries

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

and the United States with only slightly more than 7 percent of Japanese undergraduates going on to graduate school as compared to 13 percent of American undergraduates. Education in the Workplace and for Personal Growth. Large Japanese companies and government ministries normally provide employees with superb education and training. A major reason for this has been that Japanese workers are traditionally much less likely to change jobs as many times during their careers as Western employees. Increasingly though, there are signs this pattern is beginning to change. Most education and training in the large institutions takes place within the Japanese firm or ministry. Two major kinds of workplace education are job rotation, which both white-and blue-collar workers experience, and the deliberate practice by management of disseminating information in the form of reports, papers, and work-related periodical articles to all employees. Many Japanese adults also continue to learn for personal growth. Reading is extremely popular and almost as many books are published annually in Japan as in the United States, even though Japan has about half the American population. Most Japanese adults pride themselves in having hobbies that they cultivate for life. Many of these hobbies, such as the mastery of a musical instrument or the study of conversational English, involve the acquisition of new information. Cultural centers and centers where elderly people can engage in continuing education are quite popular in Japan. Educational Reform. Despite Japanese students' impressive performance when compared to their peers in other developed nations, there is widespread dissatisfaction on the part of many Japanese about the nation's educational system. Many Japanese believe that the examination system is too stressful, that the schools are too rigid and don't meet the needs of individual students, that contemporary students show little interest in studying, and that the educational system needs to produce more creative and flexible citizens for the twenty-first century. Also, large numbers of Japanese blame the schools for a perceived increase in child misbehavior, particularly in junior highs. Beginning with the 2002 school year, major curricular reform will occur in an attempt to make schools more flexible and responsive to individual student needs. Nearly one-third of the elementary and junior high curricula will be eliminated with deep cuts in all major subjects. The replacement classroom activity will be a new endeavor entitled Integrated Studies that will have few guidelines and no accompanying textbooks. The goal of Integrated Studies is to provide students and teachers the freedom to study whatever interests them whether the topic is religion, the environment, or foreign affairs. Some elementary schools that were selected as pilot sites for Integrated Studies in 2001 experimented with teaching English during this time block. There are also new controversial recommendations emanating from an educational advisory body appointed by the late Prime Minister Obuchi that call for mandatory community service for junior high school and high school students. The same advisory body, in an effort to make higher education more flexible, has called for allowing students in special cases to enter university at age fifteen instead of eighteen. There is also a recommendation that university entrance examinations be made a less central part of the educational system than is the case now. At present, there seem to be few signs that entrance examinations at any level in Japan are diminishing in importance. Unless entrance examination reform occurs, Japan's educational system will continue to emphasize the acquisition of large amounts of fact-based content. Despite the problems addressed in this digest, Japan's educational system, and in particular its K12 schools, remains one of the very best in the developed world. While change in any institution in Japan is usually incremental, there is little doubt that the Japanese will continue serious efforts to make already good educational opportunities for Japanese citizens even better.

Postsecondary Education in Japan Article written by Dr. William K. Cummings for the Asia Society's Video Letter from Japan II:

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

The College Years, 1988, pp. 6-13. As is the case with their American counterparts, Japanese high school students devote much time to selecting the college they hope to attend. Japanese young people, however, seem to experience greater anxiety over this process. To better understand the entire Japanese university experience, it helps to consider the historical development of Japanese postsecondary education. Japan had schools called daigaku, which is also the modern word for college or university, as early as the 17th century. Traditional daigaku, devoted principally to the teaching of Confucian studies, were the leading institutions in an extensive educational system that contributed to the attainment of a nearly 40 percent male literacy rate by the early 19th century. The group of young samurai who overthrew the Tokugawa government and ushered in the Meiji Restoration in 1868 were much impressed with Western science and technology, however, and sought to establish a modern educational system that would introduce all the relevant features of Western knowledge to members of Japanese society. These new leaders reviewed the strengths and weaknesses of the educational systems of various Western societies and were most impressed with the upper secondary and higher education systems of Germany and France. Thus the daigaku they established was modeled on the German university, with the purpose of advancing knowledge for the sake of the state through research and the provision of specialized education. The first daigaku to be officially recognized by the Meiji government was the Imperial University established in Tokyo in 1886 (renamed the University of Tokyo after World War 11). This institution was, and still is, highly selective. Students competed for admission to a particular faculty of the institution (law, medicine, letters, or science, for example) and proceeded to take all of their courses in that faculty; it was assumed that students would have obtained a broad background in the arts and sciences and foreign languages during their years at the immediately preceding level, the higher school. The students of the higher school were the top students from a much broader group who, on completion of primary education, had been divided into several distinct tracks: the terminal track, the vocational track, the technical/vocational track, and at the top the academic track leading to the middle and then the higher school. Given the strong background of the students, the professors at the Imperial University concentrated on providing them with opportunities for further study rather than remedial or survey courses. Because of the specialized nature of the academic program in each of the faculties, transferring between them was difficult. At that time, there was also no comparable institution outside the Imperial University to which they might transfer. Even in later years, when additional universities were established, transfer continued to be difficult. University authorities believed that a prospective student should be mature enough to make the right choice the first time; to allow a transfer in midstream was to encourage irresolution of purpose and even disloyalty to institutions. Because the entrants to the Imperial University were so carefully selected, the professors generally did not closely supervise the study habits of each student. This tradition of treating university students as mature partners in the pursuit of knowledge lives on in most of today's Japanese universities, although the composition and motivation of students has changed greatly. Even those students who spend most of their college days in club activities and other leisurely pursuits receive passing grades and are allowed to graduate. The combination of a rigorous selection process and lax grading after admission has led observers to say that the Japanese university has a narrow gate but a wide exit. The founding period of modern Japanese education had a profound impact on the subsequent development of the system. For example, the regulations issued by the central government upon establishing the Imperial University in 1886 reserved the status of daigaku, or university, for only those institutions that conformed with the structure and level of resources of the Imperial University. Japan's second official university was the Imperial University at Kyoto, recognized in 1897. Private institutions such as Keio Gijuku, established in 1858, and Waseda, established in 1877, were not granted university status or financial support by the government until 1919. One legacy of this founding period is the prominent role of the central government in the chartering,

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

regulation, and finance of higher education. Partly because of this key governmental role, the social recognition given to professors of the different types of universities as well as the job opportunities available to their graduates varied significantly. In the early decades of the modern system, only the graduates of government universities were allowed to sit for the national civil service examinations. While the exams are now open to all, the graduates of the top national universities still tend to be the most successful in passing them. Of course, the graduates of these elite institutions readily find jobs in the private sector as well. The linkage of university attendance with job prospects has also had profound consequences for the way the Japanese public regards higher education. Because the public universities established a monopoly on government jobs, private institutions were strongly motivated to cultivate close ties with employers in other sectors of the economy. Waseda, for example, established close ties with the mass media, and Keio with certain large corporations. Because of such ties to particular employers, the university a young person attends influences the range of employment opportunities available to him or her. Through World War II, the Japanese university system remained elitist and the other opportunities for advanced secondary and further education were limited. The Allied Occupation of Japan, from 1945 to 1952, sought to demilitarize and democratize Japanese society, and one of its primary targets was the elitist character of the educational system crowned by the imperial universities. In consultation with Japanese leaders, the Occupation authorities introduced a vast array of changes which led to considerable simplification and expansion at both the upper secondary and postsecondary levels. At the secondary level, the old multi-track system was disbanded and reconsolidated into a system of middle schools (grades 7-9) and comprehensive high schools (grades 10-12). Although compulsory education only extended through middle school, by 1960 over 70 percent of Japanese young people were attending high school. Today, over 95 percent attend and complete high school. The massive expansion of secondary education has provided many more young people with the basic academic qualifications necessary for seeking higher education. The Occupation reforms also enabled a rapid expansion of opportunities for higher education. The Imperial Universities at Tokyo and Kyoto, along with other prestigious government institutions such as the Science and Letters Universities at Hiroshima and Tokyo, the Tokyo Institute of Technology, and the Hitotsubashi College of Commerce, were reorganized to become the top tier of the "new system" of national universities. Additional national universities were authorized for each of Japan's 47 prefectures, and the rules for the establishment of private universities were relaxed. The basic program of courses required for a university degree was modified to match the American system in form, with each course accorded a certain number of credit hours and a total of about 120 credit hours, distributed among a variety of subject areas, required for a bachelor's degree. The established public and private universities experienced little difficulty in reorganizing their programs to meet these requirements, but some of the weaker institutions were unable to do so. Because of their difficulties, a junior college-type institution was established with a two-year program. In 1962, yet another type of institution, the technical college, was established, combining a program of three years of upper secondary education with two years of postsecondary education to produce technicians in such fields as chemical analysis, industrial design, ship-building, and other practical areas. In the 1970s, a variety of other types of postsecondary institutions emerged with specialized programs analogous to the proprietary schools (for-profit schools offering brief career-oriented courses) found in large American cities. And in 1986, the University of the Air, a degree-granting institution that relies on television broadcasts for much of the lecturing component of its educational program, admitted its first class of students. Table 1 indicates the number of each type of postsecondary institution as of 1986. The table makes it clear that Japan has a large number of postsecondary institutions. The public sector has a

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

disproportionate number of universities relative to other institutional types, and the public universities are more likely than the others to offer programs in the science and engineering fields. Also, a comparatively large number of the public institutions are located outside of the large metropolitan areas and are better funded. Thus it is sometimes said that Japan has a dual system of public and private institutions. But in reality the picture is more complicated. Within both the public and private systems there are many layers, both in terms of quality and programs. For many young people, the top private institutions are just as attractive as the leading public institutions, partly because they are also more likely to be located in the large metropolitan areas, where there are more opportunities for entertainment, part-time work, and job hunting. The majority of junior colleges are private. In the early postwar years these colleges tended to specialize in the liberal arts and related areas, but over the past decade or so many junior colleges have come to emphasize more practical specializations, ranging from nursing to the information sciences. This shift has been in response to both growing competition from non-degree propriety schools and the changing interests of their students. Table 1. Institutions of Higher Education by Establishing Body, 1986 Total Technical Colleges Junior Colleges Universities Special Training Schools Miscellaneous Schools Correspondence Junior Colleges Correspondence Universities Table 2. Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education by Gender Total Male Technical Colleges 49,174 47,151 Junior Colleges 396,455 38,554 Universities 1,879,532 1,426,851 Special Training Schools 587,609 255,297 Miscellaneous Schools 483,439 238,794 Correspondence Junior Colleges 61,435 46,923 Correspondence Universities 113,481 63,041 62 548 465 3,088 4,124 10 13 National 54 37 95 174 8 1 Prefectura Private l 4 4 52 459 36 334 176 2,738 102 4,014 10 12

Female 2,023 357,901 452,681 332,312 244,645 14,512 50,440

Table 2 summarizes enrollment by gender. As can be seen, there is a much higher representation of women in junior colleges. This is largely due to a combination of personal choice and societal expectations. Through high school, Japanese females compete favorably with males in all academic subjects, including mathematics and science. But as young women plan their future, many decide to restrict their academic careers in favor of a path that will get them into the labor market more quickly and provide them with more work experience before marriage, which for the average Japanese woman occurs at around age 25. Thus, for young women who seek full-time work followed by full-time marriage, junior college is an attractive option. On the other hand, an increasing number of contemporary Japanese women expect to continue their careers after marriage, and for them a four-year college education may be preferable. With the increase in the scale of secondary education, more Japanese young people have the basic academic background necessary to compete for entrance to the top universities, and over

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

the years the number who enter into such competition has increased. The time Japanese young people devote to university examination preparation, including attending special cram courses and schools, hiring tutors for special instruction, taking repeated mock exams, and studying late into the night evening after evening, is sometimes referred to as Japan's examination hell. While there is no question that many Japanese young people engage in such behavior, contemporary observers suggest that only a modest proportion are fanatic and that the experience is not as hellish as it is said to be. Diligent effort is respected in Japanese society, and many students devote themselves to exam preparation out of regard for the expectations of others, especially their parents. The most intense students tend to be those seeking admission to top universities. But even in the midst of exam preparation, most of these young people find time to talk with friends, watch TV, and enjoy other pleasures. And despite the stereotypes, few feel so depressed as to contemplate or commit suicide; indeed, American rates of youth suicide are higher than Japanese rates. Entrance examinations, though still predominant, are no longer the sole route to admission to a highly ranked institution in Japan. Many universities today grant admission to a limited number of students based on other criteria, such as outstanding performance in high school or completion of the International Baccalaureate while attending an overseas high school. Some of the less competitive private institutions require no more than a high school diploma and an interview as the basis for an admissions decision. These alternative procedures have been introduced in recent years to relieve the pressures associated with the traditional examination hell. There is no doubt that Japanese young people master a tremendous amount of academic material as they prepare for university entrance. Recent international tests place Japanese 12th graders at or near the top compared with high school seniors of other nations in their knowledge of science, mathematics, and geography. In addition, by the time they graduate from high school, Japanese students have completed six years of English, and those at private schools have frequently had three years of another foreign language as well. It is estimated that nearly two of every five Japanese young people attend some form of higher education, a level comparable with the United States and well above all other contemporary societies including the Soviet Union. Because Japanese university students have worked so hard to gain entrance and accomplished so much, the general consensus in Japan seems to be that they deserve a break during college. Many of the classes during their first several years are large lectures on required subjects in general education which are not likely to have much relevance for their future, and the grading in these courses is generous. As a result, many of the students are able to use this period as a time to have fun, make new friends, and participate in club activities. This pattern of relaxed study is most characteristic of students in the liberal arts; the curriculum in the science and engineering faculties of Japan's universities is relatively more demanding. Even liberal arts students begin to concentrate more on their studies toward the end of their junior year, because in most institutions they are expected to submit a senior thesis. The senior year seminar and accompanying paper is the occasion when many students demonstrate their best work; one reason for this commitment is their hope that the professor who has accepted them into the seminar will provide assistance as they search for employment after graduation. While university days in Japan are indeed easy compared with the pressures of high school, students are still expected to attend school full-time and complete their program within the required period (usually four years but sometimes as many as eight). Nevertheless, a small but increasing number of Japanese universities are beginning to offer opportunities for study abroad and work-study experience for credit. Also, an increasing number of Japanese young people are traveling abroad during the summer vacation, with a few actually taking a year off to study overseas. Many university students take on a part-time job to provide spending money. But as their senior year approaches, most begin to concentrate on job hunting. More than 80 percent of university graduates move straight into the labor market upon graduation. In Japanese society, the university experience is best thought of as a stage in the life cycle. The majority of university students begin this experience directly after the completion of high school. (Ronin begin it from one to several years after high school, years which they have devoted to

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

intense specialized study for retaking the university exams.) Most students complete their studies within the prescribed period of time. Older students find it difficult to gain entry to universities for a variety of reasons: they have forgotten the detailed information they need to do well on the entrance exams, their employers and/or spouses do not encourage them to return to the university, and society, too, frowns upon it. Only institutions such as the new University of the Air, which broadcasts lectures on television and combines them with correspondence and tutorial sessions, and special institutions for mid-career education, such as the new International University in Niigata Prefecture, are able to attract older students. Corporations and the government have tended to prefer recruits with bachelor's degrees over those with more advanced training, except possibly for engineering and some research jobs requiring scientific skills. Thus few students consider graduate study in business administration or law. Only those interested in an academic career pursue graduate study in the arts or social sciences. In recent years, however, some leaders have urged employers to give more consideration to recruits with advanced training, arguing that the work of the future will require a deeper scientific background. The Japanese government is also taking steps to expand the size of graduate schools. Thus, Japanese graduate education is likely to show considerable development over the coming decades. In conclusion, Japanese higher education has important similarities with American higher education in the exceptional diversity of institutional types (universities, colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and proprietary schools) and in the organization of the academic programs of the respective types. However, more drama and personal change may be associated with "going to college" in Japan than in the U.S. Japanese young people generally study harder before higher education than do American young people, but once in higher education they manifest a similar appetite for the fun side of collegiate life. Whereas many Americans transfer between institutions or take time off from their studies, once a Japanese student enters a particular higher educational institution, he (or she) tends to stick with that institution until graduation. And whereas many American young people proceed from college to a graduate program, most Japanese young people proceed directly from their initial higher educational program directly into the labor force. The Japanese experience has many options, but the choice of institution made by a young person in Japan has a more profound impact on job opportunities and friendships. Thus higher education is highly valued in Japan.

Australian Education System
Type of Institutes Primary and secondary schools: This is equivalent to 10+2 education in India. Certification at the end of schooling is by continous assessment within the schools or by a combination of internal assessment and public examinations.These procedures form the basis for qualification for entry to universities or other tertiary institutions. Foundation Studies: Foundation studies give international students the knowledge and skills for a smooth transition from learning in their home country to undergraduate studies in Australian universities. Foundation Studies are usually one year in duration and students are assessed and examined by their lecturers. Foundation studies are divided into various streams like arts and science studies. The common feature of foundation studies is that a university allocates a provisional place in an undergraduate course for a student who achieves the prescribed grades. English Language Schools (ELICOS): These are specifically for people who come to Australia to study English either for educational purposes or for other reasons. The Australian system of English language training is known as English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS). There are a range of courses including General English; English for Special Purposes; Vacation Courses; and Examination Preparation.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

The starting dates of courses are fairly frequent and they generally run from 4 to 10 weeks. Many universities and TAFE institutes have ELICOS centres attached to their campuses. Vocational Education and Training Institutes: Vocational education and training (VET) gives students practical skills for their careers. The VET sector is divided into two sections: a nationally recognised government system of Technical and Further Education (TAFE); and private providers. TAFE is the largest provider of tertiary education courses in Australia with about 250 institutes and over a million students including about 41,000 international students. The awards in VET sector are: certificates, advanced certificates, associate diplomas, diplomas. Studying at TAFE level is also a way of gaining entry termed a pathway - to Australia's universities. Most TAFE institutes have arrangements with specific universities, enabling students to gain credit for a portion of their study undertaken at TAFE. The VET courses include computing, design, pilot training, business managemnet, hospitality and tourism and many other courses. Universities (higher education):There are 37 public universities and two private universities in Australia which offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. The most popular courses of study for international students have been in the fields of Business, Administration and Economics, followed by Science, then Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. University study can lead to the following awards: Undergraduate - Bachelor Degrees, Bachelor Degrees (with Honours), Undergraduate Diplomas, Associate Diplomas; Postgraduate - Doctoral Degrees, Masters Degrees, Graduate Diplomas, Graduate Certificates. Type of Programs & Qualifications Undergraduate Bachelor Degree Bachelor Degree (with Honours) Undergraduate Diplomas Associate Diplomas Postgraduate Masters Degrees Doctoral Degrees Graduate Diplomas Graduate Certificates Overview of the Australian Education System By Alochona Magazine Staff Writer

Introduction Australia maintains an education system that is not only unique and effective, but also successful and affordable for students from all walks of life. Each state and territory in Australia independently runs their own form of education from grades 1 - 12. This article will mainly discuss the New South Wales and Queensland education systems. The primary advantage of allowing states to operate their education system independently is that it allows for implementation of change at much faster rate. As a result, throughout the years, education in each state has evolved into more fairer and efficient systems. The schools in Australia are divided into three main groups: Primary Schools: kindergarten or grade 1 to grades 6 or 7 (varies from state to state)

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Secondary High Schools: grades 7 or 8 to grade 12 Senior Colleges: grades 11 and 12 only In some states, school attendance is compulsory from grade 1 whilst in others from kindergarten. However, in all states, students must complete grade 10 after which they receive their Junior Certificate (SSC). Most students go straight on to complete Grades 11 and 12 and obtain their Senior Certificate (HSC). Year 12 or Adult Matriculation is necessary if students want to go on to higher education courses at universities, and also necessary for some Technical And Further Education centres (TAFEs) and private commercial courses. To enroll in grade 1/kindergarten, students must be 6 years of age or turn 6 during the school year they intend to enroll. As such, generally students are either 17 or 18 by the time they leave grade 12. There are three main types of schools in Australia, namely, public schools, non-religious private school and religious (mainly Catholic or Anglican) private school. Most public schools have coeducation, however there are a few public same sex high schools in the larger cities like Sydney and Melbourne. Most of the private schools on the other hand are however same sex schools. Assessment Unlike Bangladesh, during the primary school years (age 6 - 12), the workload given to students is very minimal, the main focus being to develop the child's basic foundation of knowledge and building on their learning abilities. Very little stress, in terms of workload and competition, is given to children during these early years. Gradually during the high school and college years, the workload is increased both in terms of amount of information taught and assessment. The main difference between schooling in Bangladesh and most states in Australia is the assessment method of SSC and HSC. In Australia, the results of SSC do not impact the student's academic record greatly; it is the results of the HSC, as in many countries, is the most important. Probably one of the most unique and complex systems of assessment in the world would be the one implemented by the Queensland Education board. Instead of grading a student based on a set of exams completed at the end of grade 12, the final result is taken from the student's overall performance in all exams throughout grades 11 and 12. Additionally, each subject offered by the board is given a specific weight; the harder a particular subject is, the more weight is assigned. For example, Physics would be given a higher weight than say for example, Accounting. This weight would then be used in conjunction with the students result for the subject to standardize the students' overall performance. Based on this information, students are given a rank within his or her school. As the rank is standardized based on the weight of the subject, all students, regardless of what type of subjects they study can be ranked within the one list. Although a standard curriculum is set by the board of education, assessments of all subjects differ from school to school as the schools conduct them independently. As such, in order to standardize all school students together, one common exam is required to be undertaken by all grade 12 students each year. This exam, known as the Core Skills Test, is not a knowledge based exam but rather a skills based exam in which students are graded from A (highest) to E (lowest). The generic test examines the student's analytic, deductive, and logic skills. There is no direct bearing on the actual results of the exam for the student; however, the results are used collectively to calculate the level of competition within schools. For example, a school with 80% "A" result has more bright students than a school with say 40% "A" results. This information is

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

then used to standardize all students into a single ranked list for the entire state. The benefits of this system are that it takes into consideration the amount of effort required to attain high marks in a particular subject. However, the obvious weakness is that it is extremely complex to compute and it becomes substantially harder for a student to get a good rank position if he or she attends an average school. Tertiary Education There are 39 universities in Australia ranging from 3,000 students to 30,000 students. Of these, only 2 are private universities. Attendance to university courses require cut off marks from HSC; however, generally speaking students within the top 50% can gain attendance to a university. University fees for undergraduate degrees can be paid upfront or they can be deferred. In cases of deferred fees, the Government pays the tuition fees initially, and when the student graduates and starts earning a threshold salary, he or she repays the fees gradually. Additional welfare payment ranging from approximate $170/week to $250/week maximum is also made to students whose parent's/spouse's income is under a certain threshold. Government Funding and Statistics The State and Territory Governments have the responsibility for most education and training, including the administration and substantial funding of primary and secondary education, as well as the administration and major funding of Vocational Education and Training (VET). The Commonwealth Government is responsible for funding of higher education institutions, and provides supplementary funding for schools and for VET. The Commonwealth Government also provides special grants to the States and Territories for areas of particular need. Apart from its significant financial role, the Commonwealth is also involved in promoting national consistency and coherence in the provision of education and training across Australia. On an accrual basis, the primary and secondary education expenses of Australian governments totaled $18,455m in 1999-2000. Table 1.0 EDUCATION OPERATING EXPENSES INCURRED BY GOVERNMENT, By Purpose - 1999-2000 Purpose Commonwealth $m State and local $m Australia $m Primary and secondary 5,330 17,752 18,455 education Tertiary education University education 3,046 84 9,377 Technical and further 1,292 3,152 3,501 education Tertiary education nec. 233 63 13,173 Preschool, special, and 273 998 1,111 other education Transportation of 817 817 students Other education 123 357 480 expenses Total education 10,299 23,225 34,036 operating exp. Source: ABS data available on request, Public Finance collection.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Table 1.1 Total grants to States, Territories and Universities Purpose AUD$m Primary and secondary education 4,615 Technical and further education 927 Universities 2,085 Other education not definable by level 159 Total l 7,787 Source: ABS data available on request, Public Finance collection Strengths and Weaknesses Probably one of the main weaknesses of the education system in Australia is the widening gap of quality of education between public and private schools. This has resulted in a heavy reliance on private schools and a lack of faith in the public schooling system. In recent years, there has been substantially more growth in the enrollments in private schools than in public. This is mainly due to the fact that students who attend private schools are more likely to complete Year 12, get better results, have higher rates of university entry, and lower rates of unemployment. More importantly however, one of the main strengths of the education system in Australia is the equal opportunity for all students, regardless of financial background to have access to a good education up to and including tertiary levels.

BRITISH EDUCATION SYSTEM
British Education has long attracted and welcomed high caliber students of different nationalities and backgrounds, and today builds on hundreds of years of experience in providing quality education to international students. To ensure that the quality is maintained, Britain has implemented unrivalled quality assurance and academic audit systems. The university departments are obliged to meet stringent standards by professional bodies. Standards are high not just in teaching but in other facilities as well : Libraries, computers, research equipment and living accommodation. British higher and further education provides value for money by offering shorter, more intensive courses than are available in many other countries, thereby reducing living expenses and time spent away from home. Closely supervised study in an intellectually and culturally stimulating environment, together with an emphasis on student welfare and close contact between staff and students also ensures that individual students get maximum support and, as a result, pass rates are high and the drop-out rate for international students is very low. Britain has long been a popular destination for Indian students. With more than 150 institutes of higher education to choose from, all equipped with extensive facilities, Britain is able to offer a broad spectrum of subjects from the highly academic to the purely practical in anything from architecture to zoology. For more details of the costs of education and living in UK and comparisons of costs of education in UK with other countries, check out the Expenses & Fees for International Students section. Details about various Qualifications offered by UK Colleges and Universities: First Degree Courses in Arts and Sciences (Bachelor's degree) are normally of three or four years' duration and are largely taught courses, sometimes including the preparation of a short written thesis. Sandwich Courses are where the coursework is accompanied by practical work. A student could either complete 2 years of college, then a year of commercial training before returning for a final year in college. Or, he/she could do a 4-year course with 3-6 months’ training interspersed each year. The main advantage is that the student gets real experience while in the learning mode. Most universities offer this type of education.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Higher National Diploma (HND) is awarded by Vocational and Technical Educational Councils. They offer a 2-year course in a vocational subject like scientific and technical business subjects. Great emphasis is placed on work experience. It is often seen as the first step towards a degree course as the credits can be transferred. Vocational Courses offer an opportunity to enter the university system slowly. Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC), General Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ), General Scottish Vocational Qualifications (GSVQ) offer recognized courses in a range of disciplines. Most students opt to take 1-2 years of, for example, BTEC courses before being transferred to a degree programme. BTEC national certificates/diplomas are usually accepted as an alternative to A-Levels. Postgraduate study may take the form of an independent piece of research under supervision or a taught course, and leads to a variety of degrees and awards. The taught courses normally last for one or sometimes two years. Completion of a doctorate normally takes a minimum of three years. Many post-experience courses are also available, either leading to a qualification or providing a refresher course for graduates wishing to update or extend their knowledge. Occasional students are admitted by some institutions in limited numbers. They attend courses or undertake research, possibly for a period of one or two years. These courses do not lead to any formal qualification or 'credit' although certificate of satisfactory attendance may be given.

USA Education System
Overview of the American Education System Primary school American children start school at the age of five years. The first year at school is called kindergarten. It is required of all American children enrolled in the American education system. The second year at school is considered the first year of primary school and is referred to as first grade. In America, the word grade has two meanings: (1) the score achieved on an exam or in a course, and (2) a year of education in primary or secondary school. Primary school most commonly consists of five years of education, referred to as first through fifth grades. Secondary school Upon completion of fifth grade (the last year of primary school), American children enrolled in the American education system advance to secondary school. Secondary school most commonly consists of a total of seven years, referred to as sixth through twelfth grades. The ninth through twelfth grades are most commonly referred to as high school. Upon completion of twelfth grade, American students are awarded a certificate called the high school diploma. In the American education system, students must have obtained a high school diploma before they are admitted into college or university. Foreign students who would like to attend an American college or university must have completed coursework that is equivalent to what is taught at an American high school. Foreign students who would like to attend an American high school, need to consider how the high school they select will give them access to the best colleges. You can also click here to learn about some of the finest boarding schools in the American education system. Undergraduate school Students who have completed high school and would like to attend college or university must attend what is referred to as an undergraduate school. These are schools that offer either a twoyear degree (called an associate degree) or a four-year degree (called a bachelor’s degree) in a specific course of study. That course of study is called the major. While most schools that offer a four-year degree will admit students who have not yet chosen a major, all students are required to select (or declare) a major by their second year at school. Students who complete an associate degree can continue their education at a four-year school and eventually complete a bachelor’s degree.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Graduate school Students who have obtained a bachelor’s degree can continue their education by pursuing one of two types of degrees. The first is a master’s degree. This is usually a two-year degree that is highly specialized in a specific field. Students are sometimes admitted to a master’s degree program only if they have a bachelor’s degree in a closely related field. However, there are many exceptions to this, such as with students who want to pursue a Master’s in Business Administration (MBA) degree. Students who want to advance their education even further in a specific field can pursue a doctorate degree, also called a PhD. A PhD degree can take between three and six years to complete, depending on the course of study chosen, the ability of the student, and the thesis that the student has selected. The thesis is a very intensive research paper that must be completed prior to earning the degree. It is always required of students pursuing a PhD, and may sometimes be required of students pursuing a master’s degree (depending on the school). Certain courses of study are only available at the graduate school level in America. The most notable of these are law, dentistry, and medicine. Students who want to pursue a degree in one of these fields must first obtain a bachelor’s degree. academic standards—measures of scholastic excellence held by a university; most require that students maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA) to continue their studies. ACT—ACT Assessment; one of two standardized achievement tests (the other is the SAT) taken by U.S. high school students and international students interested in university study in the United States. Many universities have a minimum ACT requirement for admission. assistantship—A paid graduate appointment that requires part-time teaching or research duties. Offered by IU schools or departments, these positions usually include a fee scholarship too bursar—the university office responsible for student tuition, fees, and bill paying. credit hour—a unit counted toward completion of an academic program. Each course is worth a number of credit hours (also known as "credits") the number of credit hours reflects the number of hours a student spends in class for that course per week. A typical course offers 3 credit hours. Students typically take 12–15 credit hours per semester. A bachelor's degree typically requires a total of 120–124 credit hours. dorm—shortened form of "dormitory"; also known as "residence hall." A university building where students live while going to school, often with shared rooms. extracurricular activities—organized student activities connected with school and usually carrying no academic credit, such as sports, clubs, volunteer activities. Many college applications request a list of high school extracurricular activities. fellowship—Money awarded to help pay for graduate school; fellowships sometimes cover tuition and insurance as well as provide money in exchange for teaching and research duties. financial aid—grants and loans made to students to help pay for tuition and other expenses while attending college. Also see assistantship and fellowship. financial documentation—proof, often in the form of bank statements or certificates of deposit, that students have the necessary money to study in the United States. financial statement—a document issued by banks or credit companies that tracks a person's finances, including credits and debits. GPA—grade point average; an average of grades earned, weighted by the number of credit hours earned. graduate degree—a degree earned after completing the bachelor's degree. Examples include master's degrees and doctorates (Ph.D.'s). graduate student—a student, usually working toward a master's or doctoral degree, who has already completed a bachelor's degree. Hoosier—slang for a resident of Indiana. IU students are also called "Hoosiers." immigration—the act of coming into a country to live where one is not a native resident. in-state (tuition fee)—the tuition fee charged to Indiana residents; also known as resident tuition fee. Residents of other states or countries pay out-of-state tuition. (See out-of-state.)

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

loan—money lent (usually by banks or the U.S. government) to be paid back with interest. (Note: Most U.S. banks will not give loans to non-U.S. citizens or permanent residents without a U.S. citizen or permanent resident co-signing on the loan.) major— an academic subject chosen as a field of specialization. mandatory fees—required costs charged by the university in addition to tuition: examples include student activity fee, student health fee, technology fee, and transportation fee. merit-based scholarship—money awarded to students to attend college. It is usually based on a student's academic achievements. minor— an academic subject chosen as a secondary field of specialization, less than a major. minority—a person who is a member of an ethnic group that is small in proportion to other groups. miscellaneous fees—extra costs charged by the university for services such as transcripts, admission applications, and independent study. mile—a unit of distance equal to 1,609 meters. need-based scholarship—financial aid granted to a student who lacks money to attend college based on income. neighborhood—a district or section with distinct characteristics in which a group of people live; at IU, this refers to a grouping of two or more residence halls on campus. nonresident (tuition fee)—the tuition fee charged to students whose permanent residence is outside of the state of Indiana; also known as out-of-state tuition fee. off-campus housing—apartments and houses not located on campus premises. on-campus housing—apartments, houses, and residence halls located on campus premises. out-of-state (tuition fee)—the tuition fee charged to students whose permanent residence is outside of the state of Indiana; also known as nonresident tuition fee. (See in-state.) reasonable living expenses—general estimated costs, including housing, personal expenses, and transportation, while attending college. Living expenses differ for each individual based upon personal choices so this might reflect a fairly comfortable lifestyle. resident (tuition fee)—the tuition fee charged to Indiana residents; also known as in-statetuition fee. SAT—Scholastic Assessment Test; one of two standardized achievement tests (the other is the ACT) taken by U.S. high school students and international students interested in university study in the United States. Many universities have a minimum SAT requirement for admission. SSN—Social Security number; a number assigned by the government to U.S. residents at birth and used by many universities as the student identification number. International students are assigned a random student identification number. TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language; a test that measures the ability of nonnative speakers of English to use and understand North American English. Many Indiana University academic programs have a minimum TOEFL score for admission. top tier (university)—a university that is highly ranked and well-respected academically. transcript—an official university record of courses, grades, and length of study. tuition—the cost of college instruction based on the number of courses taken. undergraduate student—a student working toward a bachelor's degree. A first-level university student. waiver—a notice given which releases you from fees or courses. For example, if you receive a fee waiver, you do not have to pay that fee. The Destruction of American Education And What We Must Do About It

By Dr. Norman D. Livergood Democracy requires an electorate that understands what is actually happening in the

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

world, beyond what the ruler-owned media tell us is happening. If American citizens receive an effective education we learn to inform ourselves and can see through the propaganda, the dictatorial actions, and the outcomes of the non-constitutional acts of our rulers. Beginning in the early part of the twentieth century, American ruling groups began to create a pseudo-educational system which produces students no longer capable of understanding such key concepts and factors as "freedom," "government of the people," "critical thinking," etc. "The economic well-being of the nation depends on the presence of a large number of men who are content to labor hard all day long. Because men are naturally lazy they will not work unless forced by necessity to do so. The education of the poor threatens to rob the nation of their productivity... Every hour those poor people spend at their books is so much time lost to society. Going to school in comparison to working is idleness." Bernard de Mandeville, The Fable of the Bees, 1714 (the book which Adam Smith used as the basis of his 1776 Wealth of Nations, the capitalist Bible) The "High Cabal" wanted a working class that was merely trained to do a particular job, not think about social or political issues. They created an educational system focused on training instead of learning, which took its lead from such physiological, materialistic "psychologists" as Wilhelm Wundt, G. Stanley Hall, James McKeen Cattell, E. L. Thorndike, and others. G. Stanley Hall was the first of Wundt's disciples to return from Leipzig in 1883. Hall joined the faculty of Baltimore's new Johns Hopkins University, which was being established after the model of the German universities. Hall organized the psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins and, in 1887, established the American Journal of Psychology. In 1889, when Clark University was established in Worcester, Massachusetts, Hall was chosen to be its first president. In 1892 Hall played a leading role in founding the American Psychological Association. Hall became known for his studies of child development and in 1904 published his two-volume Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education, welding experimental psychology to child education. We can get a clear idea of the new meaning of Wundtian-defined American education by examining Hall's definition of educational practice. "We must overcome the fetishism of the alphabet, of the multiplication tables, of grammars, of scales, and of bibliolatry . . . it would be no serious loss if a child never learned to read." (emphasis added) "Secret knowledge is the basis of all power. Your source of information depends upon who you are and what position you hold in society. Your source of information determines the reliability of what you know." Steven Jacobson, Mind Control in the United States Hall considered American working-class children as a "great army of incapables, shading down to those who should be in schools for dullards or subnormal children, for those whose mental development heredity decrees a slow pace and an early arrest."

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

However, except in a few instances, American students were never made aware of what was really going on in the world--in terms of the machinations of the "Higher Cabal." For example, the exposés of writers such as George Seldes or I. F. Stone would have been beyond the pale for most American schools. So Americans fought World War II ignorant of how U.S. companies had helped set up the Nazi regime in Germany and profitted from its killing of Allied soldiers. Beginning in the second half of the twentieth century, American education began its rapid and almost total decline. In the latter half of the twentieth and now the twenty-first century, "education" has almost entirely been turned into mere training. The very definition of "education" has been twisted to make it appear to be training. For example, • the New Century Dictionary of the English Language (1927) defined education as: "the drawing out of a person's innate talents and abilities by imparting the knowledge of languages, scientific reasoning, history, literature, rhetoric, etc.--the channels through which those abilities would flourish and serve." whereas, education was defined in An Outline of Educational Psychology in 1934 in these terms: "Learning is the result of modifiability in the paths of neural conduction. Explanation of even such forms of learning as abstraction and generalization demand of the neurones [sic] only growth, excitability, conductivity, and modifiability. The mind is the connection-system of man; and learning is the process of connecting. The situation-response formula is adequate to cover learning of any sort, and the really influential factors in learning are readiness of the neurones, sequence in time, belongingness, and satisfying consequences."

By 1968, John Goodlad, one of the educational establishment's best known spokespersons, made it clear just what was important in "education." "The most controversial issues of the twenty-first century will pertain to the ends and means of modifying human behavior and who shall determine them. The first educational question will not be 'what knowedge is of the the most worth?' but 'what kinds of human beings do we wish to produce?' The possibilities virtually defy our imagination." "Learning and Teaching in the Future," Today's Education (journal of the National Education Association)

The future role of literacy in the workplace has been succinctly stated by Pierre Dogan, the president of Granite Communications, a company that is now 'developing software for hotel housekeeping.' It seems that 'so long as maids can read room numbers, they will be able to check off tasks completed or order supplies by simply touching pictures on the screen." Dogan points out that 'you can create a work program with prompting including iconic [picture] messages.' In fact, he logically concludes, 'you can use an illiterate workforce.'javascript:Remote(); Supreme Court Justice Breyer, who dissented from the 5-4 ruling, predicted that the decision would prove highly divisive in a country with "more then 55 different religious groups." He foresees many struggles, asking, "How will the public react to government funding for schools that take controversial religious positions on topics that are of current popular interest--say, the conflict in the Middle East or the war on terrorism?"

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

Precisely! In the nineteenth century these democratic principles were advanced by such reformers as Horace Mann, who wrote in 1848: “If one class possesses all the wealth and the education, while the residue of society is ignorant and poor, it matters not by what name the relation between them may be called; the latter, in fact and in truth, will be the servile dependents and subjects of the former.” In the early part of the twentieth century, the working class took up the fight for public education, which was inseparable from the campaign against child labor. However it was only through the civil rights struggles, from the 1930s through 1960s, that universal access to the public schools was fully achieved. Now, in the twenty-first century the right to sound public education for the working class has come into collision with the plans of the "High Cabal" for a society primarily for the benefit of the wealthy. The rampant growth of class inequality has produced a state of affairs that is fundamentally incompatible with democratic principles, which are based on the equal rights of all citizens. The whole issue of public money for ideologically-based schools will prove extremely divisive throughout the nation. The Republicans, the majority of whom support vouchers, will use the issue as a way to attack any Democrat who opposes vouchers as a tool of the teacher unions. FPRIVATE "TYPE=PICT;ALT=A new birth of freedom" Americans are rapidly losing a sense of the traditional American values. Antiintellectual, racist or right-wing multiculturalism has replaced education, bought-andpaid-for-politics has replaced democracy, funneling billions to the fat-cats has replaced statesmanship, and attacks on constitutional liberties has replaced political and judicial oversight. Americans must now awaken to this horror and once again, if possible, create a public education system which will become the means to transmit to future generations an understanding of the hidden meaning of events and lost democratic concepts. If the ravages that the "High Cabal" have wreaked on the public school system are so fundamental that we cannot rejuvenate it, we may have to create our own private "democracy schools" to help us regain our sense, our ability to see what's happening, our intelligence. When our nation was founded, education was carried on primarily through just such private home schools where Americans learned the values of a democratic way of life. As some are warning, any government system--public schools or voucher-based private schools--carries government control with it. If the "High Cabal" uses the voucher system to gain total ideological control of private schools, we may have to create completely private "democracy schools" without resorting to vouchers. Education must become the transmission of true human understanding to future generations. This will require a group of people assisting others to see that current "politics" and "education" are actually counterfeits of real social values, and developing institutions which will provide insight into what is actually occurring in the world.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

U.S. Education System International students who come to the United States might wonder how their American classmates reached that educational level. The American education system appears to be very confusing. This is a brief overview. To begin, because of the country’s history and cultural values, no national education system or national curriculum exists in the United States. The federal government does not operate schools. Each of the 50 states has its own Department of Education, which sets guidelines for the schools of that state. Public colleges and universities receive funding from student tuition and the state in which they are located. Each state’s legislature decides how many tax dollars will be given to colleges and universities. Most of the control of American schools is in the hands of each local school district. Each school district is governed by a school board, a small committee of people elected by the local community. The school board sets general policies for the school district. Students do not pay tuition in grades 1-12. Generally, school districts are divided into elementary schools, middle schools or junior high schools, and high schools. Elementary schools contain students in kindergarten and 1st through 5th or 6th grades. Many children go to kindergarten when they are five years old. Children begin first grade at age six. Depending on the school district, students follow elementary school with either middle school or junior high school. Middle school contains grades 6-8. Junior high school contains grades 7-9. Following that, students go to high school. High school contains grades 9-12 or 10-12. High school students take a wide range of courses. All students are required to take English, math, science, and social studies courses. They also might be required to take a foreign language and/or physical education. A course can be one semester or two semesters long. In the United States, education is compulsory for all children until age 16 or 17. Usually, a student graduates after he or she has successfully passed all of the required courses. Grades are given to students for each course at the end of every semester or term. Grades are: A = Excellent B = Above Average C = Average D = Below Average F = Failure (A student who fails a required course must take the course again.) In 1970, about half of all American students who graduated from high school went to college. Today, nearly three out of four American high school graduates go to college. Admission to a College/University Although admission policies vary from one college and university to the next, most determine admission based on several factors such as a student’s high school course of study, high school GPA, SAT scores, written essay, and possibly a personal interview: • The college or university admission office considers whether a student has taken courses in high school that have prepared him/her for the more difficult college courses. A student’s high school grade point average (GPA) is also considered. A GPA is a quantitative figure representing a student’s accumulated grades. Each letter grade is assigned a number of points: A=4 points, B=3, C=2 , D=1, and F= 0 points. A GPA is calculated by adding all of the points earned for each course grade and dividing the total points by the total number of courses taken. For example, a GPA of 3.0 means a “B” average for all of the courses taken. • Most colleges and universities set a minimum SAT score that a student must achieve in order to gain admission. The SAT is the Scholastic Aptitude Test, a standardized quantitative examination taken by high school students throughout the United States. Each college or university decides the minimum SAT score it will accept. • Colleges and universities often require applicants to write an essay. The length and content of the essay is determined by each admission office. Depending on the college or university,

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

applicants might also have a personal interview with a representative from the admissions office. There are four types of degrees: • Associate’s (completion of a program in a specific career field), • Bachelor’s (conferred after completion of an undergraduate program), • Master’s (first graduate degree) • Doctorate (second graduate degree and final degree). At the college and university level, most courses are only one semester or one term long. Each course is assigned a number of credit hours. Credit hours are usually based on how much time is spent in class. Most courses are 3 or 4 credits. However, some courses may be 1, 2, or 5 credits. All degree programs require students to complete a minimum number of credit hours before graduation. Most Bachelor’s degree programs in the United States don’t require students to write a final thesis. A final thesis is required for most Master’s programs and all Doctorate programs. Selection for admission to a graduate program is similar to the factors used to determine admission to an undergraduate program. Instead of considering high school courses and GPA, an admissions office examines the student’s undergraduate courses and GPA. Most Master’s programs require students to have a minimum score on the GRE. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is similar to the SAT. In most Doctorate programs, students continue to take courses until they have earned enough credit hours to attempt their qualifying examinations. After students pass the qualifying exams, they can begin to write his their final theses. Because degree requirements can be very complex and vary from one program to another, all students should check with their departments and program advisors to make sure they are meeting the requirements of their particular program. Improving the Public School System Inexpensively A very straight-forward way is available to quickly and effectively improve American public schools. It is not expensive, and may even be less expensive than existing standard efforts. It involves operation of three physically separate parallel schools in a District. Attendance at specific schools would not depend on academic ability or knowledge, but on each individual student's social compatibility. Absolutely no discrimination exists because each student has the choice available to attend any of them. Initially, every student would have unlimited choice of which school to attend. As long as a student reasonably followed generally acceptable social rules in his/her conduct, that choice would remain unlimited. However, if a student exhibits violent behavior, or regularly behaves disruptively, or regularly and openly flaunts the established rules of society and school, that choice would become restricted. No Principal or teacher would determine or control such a limitation; the student would. And, even if a student's behavior caused attendance at a specific school, a number of ways are always available for him/her to earn enough respect to again have broader choice. A central premise here is that there are some students that need to learn very basic inter-personal skills in order to eventually become part of adult society. Existing public school systems don't have very effective ways of dealing with such students, and they tend to represent danger and disruption for an educational environment. Once such students learn adequate behavior skills (and attitudes), such students could become welcome participants in any classroom. This essay is meant to offer a possibility in that direction. Nearly all potential "solutions" for the terrible situation of the American public school system seem to be "top-down" concepts. A central bureaucracy decides the rules and conditions (and money) and then they try to impose that somewhat artificial environment on masses of students. Won't work! People, students, are a diverse lot! Rigid structures and rules will always fail. In addition, the whole concept of education is far more complicated than normally perceived. Rather than a teacher jamming thoughts into students' heads, it is crucially important to enable the many

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

students to first be in a receptive condition for learning to occur. Rather than any authoritarian, top-down structure, this approach is more of a "grass roots" approach, where each individual student always has most of the control of what choices are available to him/her. For this reason alone, it seems like a viable possibility! Some of the students might even come to appreciate that element of choice, rather than having to entirely live within authoritarian decrees from some distant bureaucrat! The American public school system faces an assortment of huge obstacles. Many students are apathetic. Some teachers are unmotivated or incompetent. Some schools include physically dangerous environments. All school administrators are limited by various discrimination laws in doing much about any of this. As a result, many parents have concerns for the safety and the education of their children. Many feel that their only valid choices are to send their kids to private school or to move to a house in a district or town known for adequate school system performance. There IS another alternative! The public school system COULD respond appropriately to the diversity of school children WITHOUT discriminating against anyone! ALL students will be able to receive the best possible education for that student. The cost to accomplish this can be very reasonable --- it might even be LESS EXPENSIVE overall than existing system expenditures! Students would attend one of three physically separate, different schools, NOT dependent on educational achievement or ability or test results (which would be potentially discriminatory) but rather, dependent on a number of aspects of behavior. Students that generally do their homework and attend classes and behave reasonably would always have the choice to transfer to whichever school he/she chooses. Often, that might be the high-motivation school, that could accomplish the most educating, because there would be very few disruptions or incidents of violence there. Even students that had extremely low grades or test scores could attend that school, as long as their BQ (Behavior Quotient) was satisfactory (see below). Low-achieving students can often thrive in such a motivating environment, and mixtures of students of different achievement levels would probably be good for all of the students. The intermediate-motivation school would have many "normal behavior" students. The third school would be where disruptive or violent or totally unmotivated students would attend class, and that school WOULD have metal detectors and extremely strict discipline. Each school year in a student's education would be treated separately, so a student in the trouble-makers' school who matured and discovered motivation, could begin to consistently do his/her homework and attend classes and behave in a civil manner, and he/she would be given the choice to attend one of the other two schools the following year. Motivated students, of all educational abilities, would have the opportunity to attend school in a motivated, vibrant, safe educational environment. (There are no precise ways of describing these three school environments. I have chosen to use levels of motivation to describe them, but that would not always be the case. An extremely motivated, extremely intelligent, but extremely disruptive student could certainly wind up in the lo-mot school. Similarly, a well-behaved, possibly quiet, student with limited ability and minimal motivation could easily spend an entire education in the hi-mot school.) Anyone who has interacted with the Public School system quickly sees the great diversity of motivations and abilities of students. Up to about thirty years ago, students were "tracked" into classes with other students with similar education and ability. This situation allowed teachers to teach at a rate fast enough to not bore the students but slow enough to allow most to grasp each subject area. Then, the Federal courts felt that minority school children were being effectively discriminated against by this system. The courts found that such children were commonly tracked together in the "lower tracks" due to poor performance on standardized IQ-type tests. When a teacher taught such a class, it was felt that possibly less effort would be expended in teaching them. Whether or not that was true, the conclusion was that such tests were biased TOWARD white children and AGAINST minorities who may be less proficient at taking tests. The net effect of all this was to make "tracking" illegal. All students were to be distributed equally and

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

randomly to eliminate any "tracking" and school busing was added to eliminate inter-school differences. These added aspects were intended to accomplish an additional goal. By putting disadvantaged minority youth into the same classes with white, motivated, conscientious children, it was hoped that the disadvantaged youth would become motivated to match their white classmates. Admirable goals, to be sure. They even sound pretty logical. In some individual cases, those goals were achieved. However, in general, the premise has led to an inferior modern public educational system. Various specific causes seem to be involved. Three seem to be particularly significant. One of the initial premises of the courts' rulings was that the society and mores of the white children would predominate and that minority children would learn to fit in to this (desired) social scheme. Commonly, the harsh neighborhood life of minorities has embedded a socially more active or aggressive attitude in contrast to the passive nature of many non-angry whites. The result is that the social scheme which commonly predominates today in many schools has tended to be that of the aggressive, confrontational environment, learned substantially from the minorities. Exactly the opposite of that which was desired! When a teacher has a broadly diverse class, it becomes frustrating for everyone involved. In my first year of teaching, I taught a high school freshman (9th grade) science class which included students who averaged reading scores of about 3 (allegedly equivalent to 3rd grade reading ability.) This same class included several minority kids with reading scores of about 1 (first-grade reading ability) and the highest was a white girl whose reading score was 7.2 (seventh grade reading level.) This situation represented a real dilemma for a very motivated new teacher! Most of the time I tried to aim at the bulk of the kids. Even though I was an enthusiastic, idealistic high school teacher, I found myself teaching effectively third-grade science to ninth-grade students! This was frustrating in itself for me, but I was also very aware that my slower students still didn't have a clue of what was going on and simultaneously, my "advanced" girl student was continuously bored and not learning anything. Occasionally, I taught a class aimed at her level to maintain my own sanity. Occasionally, I would try to teach at first-grade level to try to motivate the slower students. In all cases, most of the students were bored. After all, this was probably the seventh time they were being taught third-grade science! Absolutely none would have gained any reason for developing personal motivation or any inspiration in pursuing science as a career. With a wide range of motivation and behavior in a classroom, the potential for learning is continually a hostage to disruptive behavior of even a single aggressive student. Since the diversity of students from society is so broad, virtually every modern class has at least a couple of these disruptive individuals. Under these conditions, "teaching" quickly evaporates and "baby-sitting" ensues. Neither teacher nor students want this (except the one who is trying to get attention.) I once had a class that included about 8 such individuals (mostly white, by the way) out of 35 students. It was a year-long nightmare, and immensely frustrating. I sometimes wondered if I should be getting paid as a teacher because so little actual teaching/learning was ever able to happen! That experience also contributed to my deciding to leave teaching. . New Approach The premise being offered here is an alternate solution, which does not involve the environment described above but still complies to all laws. Each and every student would be in an intellectually and socially appropriate atmosphere for greatest opportunity for learning. There would result some variation of level between schools or classes, but ANY INDIVIDUAL STUDENT COULD ATTEND ANY OF THEM relatively irrespective of his or her native ability.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

This new system is based on student/parent motivation rather than the student's test-based perceived ability. In the first couple grades, all students would attend similar classes. Specific additional new records would be maintained regarding each student to maintain a year-long cumulative motivation rating, or what I call Behavior Quotient. As a starting point for discussion, I would suggest something like the following: • Negatives • Unexcused class absences (-3 each) • Skipping a full day of school (-8 each) • Late for class (-1 each) • Doesn't do homework (-1 each) • Disruptive classroom behavior (0 to -5 each incident) • Fighting (-50 or more each incident) • (etc, listing specific undesirable behavioral matters) • Positives • Volunteers to help (+1 to +5 each) • A month's perfect attendance (automatic +10 each month) • A month's complete homework set (automatic +10 each month) • Parent at PTA meeting (+10 each month) • Parent/teacher conference attendance (+10 each) • (Other desired behavior patterns) •Many of these matters could be automatically maintained by the school's existing computer system (attendance subjects). The others could easily be added to a school's current recordkeeping system with very little new expense or administrative time or effort. As a student's education progresses, this cumulative year's total would be used to determine which of three (or more) different schools he/she would attend for the following year. Since a well-behaved, motivated student could accumulate over 200 plus points, even a few "mess ups" could still happen by "real" kids and still total the +100 necessary for entrance to the most-motivated school for the next year. Scores above zero would qualify for the moderately motivated school next year. Scores below zero would cause attendance at a school for unmotivated students. Please note that the most passive, quiet, lowest-ability student would receive +90 for perfect attendance and another +90 for turning in all the required homework, so that student would easily have his/her choice of schools. Each student would have access to his/her current BQ score for that year, possibly on the report cards. If, late in a school year, a student was at +80 and really wanted to attend the highest motivation school the next year, he/she could volunteer to help several teachers or his/her parents could start attending PTA meetings and parent-teacher conferences. . Flexibility of This System An appeal system would exist for making adjustments for extenuating circumstances (in both directions) and for showing flexibility in borderline cases. Individuals or parents might even elect NOT to attend a higher motivation school if desired (possibly to participate in a stronger sports team or take a more comprehensive Shop class or for any other reason.) A hyper-active student or one otherwise affected by medical or mental conditions would have the opportunity of appeal regarding a specific personal choice of school. Since each year is treated separately, at any point any student could easily change behavior, attendance and/or homework patterns to qualify for a higher-motivated school for the following year. No one would be doomed to a "low track" forever. Even a student with poor study habits and low standardized testing scores could qualify for and belong in the highest-motivation school (although he/she may initially get poor grades as a result.) Such a student would be in an environment where improvement was likely, so even initial poor grades might quickly improve. In such a school environment, teachers could encourage students who were grasping the material

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

quickly to help those students that might be having more difficulty, and the students would probably all grow from such experiences. . Individual Student's Choice Another important aspect of this system is the (publicized) length of the school day. If the lowmotivation school day length is 6 hours, then the mid-mot day length should be 7 hours and the hi-mot day length should be 8 hours. Fore-knowledge of this will help students/parents to decide and determine their individual motivation levels. The longer day length will also allow the more motivated students more time to learn complex concepts, and to include additional elective classes. Students intending to attend college should (reasonably) try to regularly be in the hi-mot school and not be in the less motivated schools for more than two or three years in the twelve years of school. Colleges might realistically not count classes in the low-mot school as contributing to high school graduation requirements. Most people argue about who is to blame for causing such disruptive and dangerous behaviors, and they blame TV, movies, graphic news, lax parents, lack of role models, etc. Any or all of that might be true, but American society doesn't have any way of greatly improving any of those factors, even if they ARE valid. The ideas presented in this essay essentially concede that such students are going to exist because of the attitudes of modern American society. It just seems obvious to me to collect such disruptive (and often dangerous) students together in one place (a separate school) where intense discipline could be applied. After all, eventually, those students will be out in society, and if they never learn responsibility and consequences and discipline, they will be society's problems throughout their adulthood. If they are put in an environment that is essentially a Military School, they might learn acceptable social behaviors. They certainly do not have any incentive to learn such things in the modern environments of Public Schools. At the same time, the remaining students (and teachers) would be able to be in an environment where productive educational learning could flourish. Given the circumstances, it seems like an obvious direction to try. I just wish to help in any way possible to improve a terrible situation, and I am surprised at the many "shallow" approaches that are commonly tried. The ones that show much effect tend to be incredibly expensive, in some cases being on the order of $40,000 per student per school year. For less than that, a school district could hire individual personal live-in tutors for each of the students! Such "demonstrations" will obviously show positive results, but they are impracticably expensive for large scale application. The approach of this essay uses existing schools, existing teachers, and existing materials and equipment, and it is certain to show spectacular improvements in test scores of the "peaceful" schools and possibly even in the "problem children" schools, too. Traditionally, it would have been unimaginable if a school student would interrupt an instructor's lesson by standing up, walking over, and punching another student. The offending student would be seriously punished, and possibly expelled from that school. In modern American classrooms, students all know that the teachers are not allowed to strike or even touch them, because some teachers have been sent to jail for doing so. They also know that the school administration will only fill out some paperwork about the matter and send the student right back to the same classroom, essentially without punishment, and often, without even any reprimand. It is amazing. The instructor is often NOT in charge of the classroom. In America, in most Public School classrooms, at least 10 of the students believe that they can do absolutely anything they please, and the instructor is considered a minor part of the control dynamics. With peer pressures important for young kids, their various actions tend to encourage each other to more and more disruptive behavior, which often escalates to actual physical violence. And the instructor cannot even get involved to try to establish control, and becomes a bystander. .

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

RESULTS The hi-mot school figures to be close to the ideal learning environment. Motivated students (of all social and racial groups), a physically safe environment (as a physically SEPARATE school), and motivated teachers who could actually expand the students intellectual envelopes, and involved parents, would combine for wonderful results. It seems likely that most of the students would graduate from this school and that most of them would go on to continue their education in college. Even the initially disadvantaged and initially slow students! The mid-mot school figures to be similar to today's schools with some important differences. Again, a physically SEPARATE location should ensure a much safer environment than is common in large cities, since most of the trouble-makers would not be present. Such people would not be disruptive in the classroom so as to allow more productive teaching time as well. In addition, the teacher would know that these students have some, but limited, motivation which would allow adjustments in the teaching method to most benefit them. Considerably more educational growth would certainly occur in virtually all the students in this school than is generally the case in the current system. The low-mot school would almost certainly require more aggressive efforts at discipline and maintaining order. If these commonly disruptive, irreverent, disrespectful students are to learn anything toward being productive participants of society, they must learn appropriate behavior and respect first. This school would have low tolerance on anti-social behavior. It might even have some aspects of the "boot camps" and Military schools that have arisen to deal with troublesome children. If and when some of these students learn such appropriate behavior and respect, (and most would probably see selfish value in doing so), they could likely quickly qualify for the mid-mot or hi-mot school for the next year. Until they learn how to properly coexist with society, they would primarily have to deal with each other and with a strict school structure designed to handle their behavior patterns. There would probably be other incentives for students to strive to learn socially acceptable patterns to qualify for the mid-mot or hi-mot schools. One would suspect that most girls would generally qualify for one of those schools, which would leave the low-mot school primarily for unruly boys. Since these boys would have few girls to "show off" for, they may choose to learn better behavior just to be in a school which has more girls. This motivation may not be very traditional, but if ANY method assists trouble-making boys learn better social behavior patterns and self-restraint, society will ultimately benefit. The modern American educational system is filled with an assortment of problems. Many students are not learning much at all. Most students are graduating with less knowledge and capability than similar students in other industrialized countries. Classroom disruptions are surprisingly common. School violence is rampant, including the many violent incidents we all hear about in the news. Even violence on school buses is a tremendous problem. What is the answer? In general, the common approaches are to throw money at the problems, and to establish very broad guidelines and laws to solve individual problems of the system. Regarding performance issues, the teachers are generally blamed, and so better selection of teachers and better teacher training are publicly called for. Regarding violence, metal detectors and uniformed police officers roaming the halls are the common "solution." In addition, everyone demands newer, bigger, more advanced school complexes. These are all bureaucratic attempts at solutions for problems that arise on a very individual basis. Essentially, some "expert" in an ivory tower somewhere believes he/she has a universal solution for a problem he/she never actually faced in a classroom. Such "experts" have no idea of the emotions that erupt in the classroom, including the teacher, when violent behavior begins. It is a peculiar and frustrating situation to be a teacher a few feet away from two fighting students, knowing that even touching either one could send you to jail. I doubt if many of the "experts" know that feeling. Such "top-down" approaches to establishing a peaceful and safe and productive environment in

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

the classroom have little chance of ever succeeding. Each student is an individual. Each teacher is an individual. Both should be treated like individuals, with whatever amount of respect they deserve, rather than as cattle in enormous herds. You might as well take their names away now and just get them numbers, because the education system is essentially telling them that they have little importance as individuals, and they better behave like the rest of the herd if they want to avoid being in trouble. Is THIS the way young people should be "controlled"? I hope not. Such authoritarian and bureaucratic structures and attitudes diminish whatever creativity and zest everyone brings to the table. Don't I remember that this country was BUILT on the creativity and diversity of early settlers? So why should we move in directions of schools being "armed camps" where any behavior that is "different" is subject to question and doubt? Considering the tens of thousands of (public) schools in America, the total financial cost of each of the proposed "top-down" approaches is staggering. And, unfortunately, the likely benefit of each of these approaches is minimal. Yes, metal detectors at school entrances might keep most weapons out of the school buildings, and uniformed police walking the halls might lessen the number of violent incidents. What would keep an angry, vindictive adolescent from waiting outside, as happened several years ago in the South, where some kids waited outside with weapons to pick off children leaving school? All of the expensive solutions suggested have similar likelihood of success. They may reduce some aspects of symptoms of a problem, but a related, different problem will arise as a result, such that very little real advantage actually results. I find a similar situation already existing in most courthouse buildings today. A few incidents of violence had occurred in courtrooms over the years, so laws were passed where courthouses now have metal detectors and a lot of security personnel. This is VERY expensive! Is it for OUR benefit, to keep us safer in the building? Apparently not, because people are still shot outside such buildings. The Judges are probably safer now, especially since they look so different out of their robes and since they enter and leave the building by a separate private entrance. But the millions of dollars of expense for every one of those large public buildings has almost no benefit for the public. And it has a tremendous downside attached to it. I do not like to have to do any business in such buildings, because of the over-bearing feeling of military-style authority that seems to pervade the environment there. I also don't enjoy being frisk searched, under the assumption that I am a potential criminal. Is that the environment that would be conducive to young minds being open and receptive to new educational ideas? Not a chance! Instead, it foments an atmosphere that minimizes creative thought or intellectual growth, very much like our military branches INTENTIONALLY do during boot camp or basic training. As soon as metal detectors and an obvious police presence exist, the light, airy environment necessary to effective learning evaporates. IF you work in an office somewhere, do you think you'd get your work done as efficiently if you continuously saw an armed Police Officer out of the corner of your eye? You might for a little while, out of a fear factor. But, soon, you would likely have an indescribable feeling similar to paranoia, whether regarding the permanent reminder of the possible threat the Officer is supposed to thwart, or because of his presence itself. Your clarity of thinking, your creativity, your overall efficiency, your learning of new skills, would all certainly degrade. Just because he was there. This is the real world. Bad things sometimes happen. There are bad people. In principle, we could each hire permanent armed guards to stand outside our homes, 24/7. We could do the same for our vehicles. Is this the future we are looking toward? Should we live every moment of every day, dreadful of the multitudes of dangers and threats "out there"? Should we provide a public school environment that inculcates this attitude into our young people? I hope the answers are no. Does this mean that there is no answer to the problems? Not at all. I taught high school in Illinois for four years some time back, before I started my manufacturing business. I might have stayed in teaching, if it hadn't been for one characteristic that was in the

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

process of change about then. When I had been a student, the locus of authority in every classroom was in the teacher. Both the teacher and (the majority of) the students KNEW that the teacher was virtually God in that classroom. The students certainly had no authority there, and, in a sense, seemed to have few rights, except those graciously permitted by the teacher. School administrations, parents, society, all believed in and supported that environment. It may not always have been perfect, but it allowed for reasonably consistent learning to occur in classrooms. These days, people look back on those days as the "dark ages" of teaching! It was certainly true that a rare teacher would take advantage of the vast authority he/she held, and a few bad things DID happen to some children. Granted! However, most teachers comprehended the importance and the responsibility given them in that position. After all, society and the parents WERE handing the children to those teachers to mold their minds, and what could be more important than that? Wouldn't it also seem appropriate to put total trust in the teachers' judgments regarding social, moral, and ethical issues that arose in that classroom? To enable and empower each teacher to establish personal and possibly unique behavioral guidelines that would apply whenever anyone was within that specific classroom? Doesn't a similar situation apply in the workplace in privately owned companies? Doesn't the boss/owner set an assortment of rules, to which each employee must comply? In most cases, this is done to establish organization and structure and consistency in the operations of that company. (In rare cases, it is because of some character flaw in the boss/owner.) Most employees tend to stay in such environments, and comply with the existing rules. A few choose to leave, to look for some other company that has rules that seem more personally compatible. Some are successful at finding such an alternative, some are not. The Locus of Authority Has Changed! A lot of civil rights proponents and groups have altered the environment in each classroom. Even while I was teaching, it was beginning. Where, in the "dark ages", the teacher and the students all accepted without doubt the broad authority of the teacher in that classroom, no one presently believes that. The students wield the majority of the true authority in any modern classroom. The teacher may appear to be in charge or in control, but that is only the case as the students choose to let him/her. The most important aspect of this is that the students know this! Every modern student knows that, no matter what he/she does in a classroom, the teacher is NOT allowed to strike, discipline or even touch the student. This is effectively a carte blanche for many students to act without any control. If a student who knows this fact decides to start talking, or yell, or throw something, or get up and walk or run around, what can the teacher do? Not a whole lot! Multiply this by ten, in an over-crowded class of forty students, and you have a zoo! The most troublesome aspect of this is the amazing breadth of this situation. In the great majority of public school classrooms, enough of the students know this reality of the situation, to cause this to happen on a daily basis. How could ANY teacher teach under those circumstances? How could the children who were actually there to learn, ever learn much under those circumstances? It is popular to blame the teachers for poor academic performance of students. It is popular to blame school administrations for the rampant violence and disorder that exists in their hallways and classrooms. No one ever seems to blame the children for acting uncontrollably. But since political leaders have tied the hands of teachers and administrators regarding these matters (in deference to the civil rights of the students), there is not much they could do to solve or even alleviate the many problems of public schools. As I said, the beginnings of these changes were occurring while I taught. Before school began one Autumn, the Principal spent nearly an hour emphasizing that we must never even suggest corporal punishment or strike or even touch any student. He made a big point that some teacher (somewhere) had just been put in prison for a number of years, for slapping or using a ruler on the knuckles of a student. I have always been a very mild-mannered person, where I have always tried to treat all others with respect. Even before this news was generally known, my students knew that I was not likely to enforce much discipline. The great majority chose to behave well,

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

but an occasional disruptive or hyperactive student could destroy the opportunity for all to learn. Fortunately, many of my students appreciated my quiet and calm and respectful teaching style. They also liked that I kept science interesting and exciting (like Bill Nye, the Science Guy, does now on television). As it happens, a number of the athletes on the high school basketball and football teams came to really like me, and some would attend my classes, whether or not they were scheduled to do so. In one such class, a couple students were acting up one day, and I was getting frustrated at not having the opportunity to teach. (These students had all previously seen the news and knew that the school publicly announced that no teacher would ever be allowed to touch, strike or discipline any student.) A huge (300-pound) lineman from the football team suddenly stood up and said to me that he would make a point to "meet with" the offending students after school to discuss the matter. He also mentioned that if I had any similar problems in any of my other classes, that he would "speak with" those students as well. This had remarkable effect! During the remainder of that school year and all of the next (while that student was a senior), I had virtually NO disruptions in any class! I accomplished a LOT of productive teaching! (After he graduated and went to play football for the University of Southern California, my classes again had a few disruptions.) I was very fortunate to have that student establish a situation where I was actually allowed to be in authority in my classroom! The benefits were wonderful, for me, for the students, for education. As far as I know, that football player never injured anyone on my behalf, but just the possibility accomplished the desired behavior improvement. Where the students had previously felt no reason to use self-restraint, now they chose to. Interesting! One of the more interesting aspects of this whole subject is that the majority of my students seemed to have respect for me and knew I respected them. The few that were disruptive were just apparently responding to being in an environment where they perceived (correctly, unfortunately) that NO rules of conduct actually existed! We see the same situation in families where parents either do not know how to control and discipline their children or they choose not to. Guests observe children that do not recognize any authority figure and who behave in uncontrollable behaviors. The parents often then say that they just do not know how to make them behave. The parents in such families might think they have authority but they do not. The children quickly learn that no significant discipline will occur for any behavior, and they soon learn that they can "get away" with absolutely any behavior. Since many modern children see this situation at home, and equally at public school, is it any wonder that they grow up with no respect for authority? Where would they have learned to have respect for ANYONE? Including police, the possessions of others, the rights of others? Essentially, we are training many children to have a mentality that inspires a criminal approach to life. On a related subject, I do not believe in spanking or other corporal punishment for children, even by parents, especially since the parent/adult is often emotional during such incidents and might cause injury as a result. HOWEVER, I believe all children should believe in the POSSIBILITY of such punishment, for certain well-specified infractions. This is associated with establishing the locus of authority in such a relationship. I was never spanked while I was growing up, but I very clearly knew that if I did certain things (stealing, intentionally hurting someone, or a few other things) I was certain to be spanked. There was never any doubt in my mind about who had the authority. My father did. Even though he never needed to spank me, the possibility of that happening was very important in defining exactly where the authority lay. Most police officers carry handguns and other weapons, not with the hope or intent that they ever use them, but to assist in confirming their authority in any situation. In the distant past, many officers did not even carry weapons, because respect for their authority was high and no one would have ever challenged a police officer. Scenarios such as television's Mayberry and Sheriff Andy Taylor were the norm. Similarly, the teachers in Mayberry-like towns seldom had discipline problems with the children. Children understood the great power and authority that every teacher had in the classroom and considered them to be on a par with police officers. That was probably a good perception. We have given both some very important responsibilities,

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

for our safety and the education of our children. It would seem that we should probably grant them both similar abilities to establish respect and authority in the community. This is not to suggest that teachers should be allowed to bring weapons to the classroom! Rather, they should be given the public trust to carry their responsibility as they generally see fit. Certainly, peer review is appropriate and various safeguards must be in place, as they are for police officers. We allow officers to carry handguns but we carefully train them to always remain calm and prudent, then trusting their judgment in each situation. We should do the same with public school teachers. Trust them. We already trust them with the subjects that they teach to children. We should trust their judgment on whether or how they individually choose to establish discipline in their classroom, without asking questions unless truly horrendous reports come from the students. Conclusion Parents and government should and must be able to have total trust in the teachers of the children. In a classroom, it is crucially important that everyone present have a clear understanding that the teacher is in control and has all the authority. Within that classroom, the students, although being American citizens with rights, should have the impression that they have no rights except those granted by the teacher. This sounds tremendously harsh, but it doesn't have to be. Much of the basis of the attitudes of the teacher and students is created outside the classroom, by the school administration, by the parents, and by politicians who make laws governing the situation. As long as students know that public policy is that the teacher is not allowed to do many things related to discipline, many of those students will never learn personal discipline and they will instead learn patterns of selfishness and total independence to all authority. Such people, as adults, represent problems for employers, spouses, children, police, and most others, because they never had to face accountability or responsibility for their actions. Until teachers are allowed the right to establish the absolute rules for their classroom, many children will learn to disrespect authority and to develop patterns of uncontrolled behavior. In other words, the solutions to most of the litany of problems of the public education system can all be found in publicly announcing a renewed respect and trust in the judgment of all public school teachers. Then, each should be truly trusted to create a unique teaching environment in his/her own classroom. AND, they should each be publicly backed up! The rapport between student and teacher will improve rapidly, because kids respect someone that actually stands for something. Additionally, after each teacher creates a classroom environment that has few disruptions (however each teacher actually accomplishes that situation) much more productive learning will certainly occur, quickly raising Iowa test scores and actual learning. Students generally only spend one school year with each particular teacher, and in many schools, only have specific teachers for an hour during each school day. Each student will therefore get a chance to see MANY teachers' various ways of establishing order and discipline. Some of those methods, they will find acceptable. Others, they will find distasteful. The net effect is that each student will learn a diversity of methods from a cross-section of many teachers. The theory being, that each student will both understand and respect authority (by it being imposed on them) and also that they be exposed to a range of methods such that they might make a good choice for their own life behavior. Later in life, each of the students will occasionally be in a position where THEY will represent authority, so it's best if they have developed a personal method of defining their own authority. After most of the students have come to understand discipline and rules and authority and order and respect, the number of incidents of violence in schools and in society should drop drastically. Rather than needing metal detectors and an obvious police presence, school environments could be even safer while being open and airy, such that intellectual creativity and growth is possible and encouraged. THEN, even better things will happen! As individual students see their own capabilities appearing to improve, many will develop an improved self-worth, and they'll be with the program even more! Thus, the effects of better test scores and better behavior in the schools is selfperpetuating!

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

There is an additional thing that school systems could do that would enhance the effects of this even more. It is considered very old-fashioned to teach the "three R's". It has become much more fashionable to teach small amounts about MANY subjects, like social subjects like discriminations. That might have value, but when it is at the expense of the basics, it is a mistake. Tremendous amounts of repetition are necessary to firmly embed basic skills and knowledge in a child's (or person's) mind. Did you learn the alphabet because it was shown to you once? Not a chance! COUNTLESS repetitions were necessary before you came to proficiently shoot through the alphabet. A re-emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic would fit in excellently with this general improvement of the American education system. Understanding American Education American education offers a rich field of choices for the international student. From abroad, and even from within the U.S.A., there is such an array of institutions, programs and locations that the choices may overwhelm the student. To simplify the choices, a student must carefully study how each program and location can fulfill the student's goals. In order to make informed decisions, a student will need to know how the U.S. education system is organized. Let's start by examining the educational structure. Most Americans attend twelve years of primary and secondary school. With a secondary school ("high school") diploma or certificate, a student can enter college, university, vocational (job training) school, secretarial school, and other professional schools. Primary and Secondary School: Begins around age six for U.S. children. They attend five or six years of primary school. Next they go to secondary school, which consists of either two threeyear programs or a three-year and a four-year program. These are called "middle school" or "junior high school" and "senior high school" (often just called "high school"). Americans call these twelve years of primary and secondary school the first through twelfth "grades." Higher Education: After finishing high school (twelfth grade), U.S. students may go on to college or university. College or university study is known as "higher education." You should find out which level of education in your country corresponds to the twelfth grade in the U.S.A. You also should ask your educational advisor or guidance counselor whether you must spend an extra year or two preparing for U.S. admission. In some countries, employers and the government do not recognize a U.S. education if a student entered a U.S. college or university before he or she could enter university at home. Study at a college or university leading to the Bachelor's Degree is known as "undergraduate" education. Study beyond the Bachelor's Degree is known as "graduate" school, or "postgraduate" education. Advanced or graduate degrees include law, medicine, the M.B.A., and the Ph.D. (doctorate). Where you can get a U.S. higher education State College or University: A state school is supported and run by a state or local government. Each of the 50 U.S. states operates at least one state university and possibly several state colleges. Some state schools have the word "State" in their names. Private College or University: These schools are operated privately, not by a branch of the government. Tuition will usually be higher than at state schools. Often, private colleges and universities are smaller in size than state schools. Two-Year College: A two-year college admits high school graduates and awards an Associate's Degree. Some two-year colleges are state-supported, or public; others are private. You should find out if the Associate's Degree will qualify you for a job in your country. In some countries, students need a Bachelor's Degree to get a good job. Twoyear college or "junior" college graduates usually transfer to four-year colleges or universities, where they complete the Bachelor's Degree in two or more additional years. Community College: This is a two-year state, or public college. Community colleges serve a local community, usually a city or county. Many of the students are commuters who live at home, or evening students who work during the day. Often, community colleges

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

welcome international students. Many of these schools offer special services to international students such as free tutoring. Many community colleges also offer ESL or intensive English programs. Some community colleges provide housing and advising services that an international student might need. Again, find out if a community college degree will be enough for you to get a job when you return home. Most, but not all governments, recognize degrees from junior and community colleges. Professional School: A professional school trains students in fields such as art, music, engineering, business, and other professions. Some are part of universities. Others are separate schools. Some offer graduate degrees. Institute of Technology: This is a school which offers at least four years of study in science and technology. Some institutes of technology have graduate programs. Others offer shorter courses. Technical Institute: A technical institute trains students in fields such as medical technology or industrial engineering. Although the course may prepare you for the career you want, the degree may or may not be equivalent to a college or university degree. Some colleges and universities do not accept credits from students who have attended technical institutes and want to transfer. If you are considering a technical institute, find out if your government, and U.S. colleges and universities, accept the school's degree. Church-related School: Many U.S. colleges and universities were founded by religious groups. The relationship, however, between the school and the religious organization may be very flexible. Sometimes, these schools prefer to admit students who are members of the sponsoring religious group. Nearly all these schools welcome students of all religions and beliefs. Traditionally, many church-related schools have required that students take Bible courses and attend chapel services. But these practices are becoming less common. Undergraduate (College) Years Course of study: U.S. students usually study a wide variety of subjects while in college. Many students do not specialize exclusively in one field until graduate school. The first two years of college are called the "freshman" and "sophomore" years. Students in the first year are called "freshmen," and they are "sophomores" in the second year. Some schools require freshmen and sophomores to take courses in different areas of learning: literature, science, the social sciences, the arts, history, and so forth. Freshmen and sophomores are known as "underclassmen." The "junior" and "senior," or third and fourth years, are the "upper classes." Students in these years are known as "juniors" and "seniors"- "upperclassmen." When they enter their junior year, they must choose a "major" field of study. They must take a certain number of courses in this department, or field. In some schools, students also choose a "minor" field. There is usually time for students to choose several other "elective" (extra) courses in other subjects. Each student is assigned a "faculty advisor" who teaches courses in the student's major field. This advisor helps the student select a program of study. An international student will also have an "International Student Advisor." This person helps the international students adjust to U.S. life, handles visa and other paperwork problems, and organizes activities for international students. Classroom learning: Classes range from large lectures for several hundred students to smaller classes and "seminars" (discussion classes) with only a few students. Students enrolled in lecture courses are often divided into smaller groups, or "sections." The sections meet separately to discuss the lecture topics and other material. Professors usually assign textbook and other readings each week. They also require several written reports each semester (term). You will be expected to keep up to date with the required readings in order to join in class discussions and to understand the lectures. Science students are

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

also expected to spend time in the laboratory. Academic year: The school calendar usually begins in August or September and continues through May or June. It is a good idea for international students to enter U.S. universities in autumn. Most new students enter at this time, so they can adjust together. Also, many courses are designed so students will take them in sequence, starting in autumn and continuing through the year. The academic year at many schools is composed of two terms or semesters. Other schools use a three-term calendar known as the "trimester" system. Still others divide the year into the "quarter" system of four terms, including a summer session which is optional. Credits: Each course is considered to be worth a number of "credits" or "credit hours." This number is roughly the same as the number of hours a student spends in class for that course each week. A course is typically worth three to five credits. A full program at most schools is twelve or fifteen credit-hours (four or five courses per term). International students are expected to enroll in a full program during each term. Transfers: If a student enrolls in a new university before finishing a degree, usually most credits earned at the first school can be used to complete a degree at the new university. This means a student can transfer to another university and still graduate within a reasonable time. Marks: Professors give each student a mark or "grade" for each course. The marks are based upon: Classroom participation. Discussion, questions, conversation; Students are expected to participate in class discussions, especially in seminar classes. This is often a very important factor in determining a student's grade. A midterm examination. Usually given during class time. One or more research or term papers, or laboratory reports. Possible short exams or "quizzes." Sometimes the professor will give an unannounced "surprise quiz." This doesn't count heavily toward the grade but is intended to inspire students to keep up with their assignments and attendance. Final examination. Held some time after the final class meeting. Advanced placement: Some colleges and universities give college credit to students for work they have done in high school. Some schools also give advanced standing to students who prove that they have achieved college level proficiency in a certain subject. This means that a student who is just entering college, a freshman, can take courses normally only open to sophomores. The school will probably ask the student to take a test to prove that he or she can do sophomorelevel work, or the school will give advanced placement to a student who has scored exceptionally high on college admission exams. Students who have completed "A" levels at home often receive advanced placement standing. Postgraduate (Graduate) Education In order to find a professional job, a college graduate with a Bachelor's Degree today usually will want to consider graduate study. Students from some countries are only permitted to study overseas at the graduate level. Because requirements are different in many countries, you should inquire about the credentials you will need to get a job in your country before you apply to a postgraduate school in the U.S.A. Master's Degree: Many international students are able to qualify for the jobs they want after they have earned a Master's Degree. This degree is usually required in fields such as library science, engineering, or social work. The M.B.A., or Master of Business Administration, is an extremely popular degree that usually takes two years. Some Master's programs, such as journalism, only take one year.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

In an academic Master's program, students study such fields as history and philosophy. These degrees are considered stepping-stones toward a doctorate (Ph.D.). Most time in a Master's program is spent in classroom study. A Master's Degree candidate usually must prepare a long research paper called a "master's thesis." Doctorate (Ph.D.): Many graduate schools consider the Master's Degree as the first step towards attaining the Ph.D. (doctorate). But at other schools, students may prepare directly for the doctorate without also earning a Master's Degree. It may take three years or more to earn the Ph.D. Degree. For international students, this time may be as long as five or six years. For the first two years, most doctoral candidates enroll in classes and seminars. For at least another year, students will conduct firsthand research and write a thesis or dissertation. This paper must contain views, designs, or research that have not been previously published. A doctoral dissertation is a discussion and summary of the current scholarship on a given topic. Most universities awarding doctorates also require their candidates to have a reading knowledge of two foreign languages, to spend some required length of time "in residence" attending class regularly, to pass a qualifying examination that officially admits candidates to the Ph.D. program, and to pass an oral examination on the same topic as the dissertation.

PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com