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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
Transformers
1 Introduction
Michael Faraday propounded the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831. It states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the ﬂux linked with the same changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the ﬂux linkages. This ﬁnding forms the basis for many magneto electric machines. The earliest use of this phenomenon was in the development of induction coils. These coils were used to generate high voltage pulses to ignite the explosive charges in the mines. As the d.c. power system was in use at that time, very little of transformer principle was made use of. In the d.c. supply system the generating station and the load center have to be necessarily close to each other due to the requirement of economic transmission of power. Also the d.c. generators cannot be scaled up due to the limitations of the commutator. This made the world look for other eﬃcient methods for bulk power generation and transmission. During the second half of the 19th century the alternators, transformers and induction motors were invented. These machines work on alternating power supply. The role of the transformers became obvious. The transformer which consisted of two electric circuits linked by a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keeping the power invariant. The eﬃciency of such conversion was extremely high. Thus one could choose a moderate voltage for the generation of a.c. power, a high voltage for the transmission of this power over long distances and ﬁnally use a small and safe operating voltage at the user end. All these are made possible by transformers. The a.c. power systems thus got well established.
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Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
Transformers can link two or more electric circuits. In its simple form two electric circuits can be linked by a magnetic circuit, one of the electric coils is used for the creation of a time varying magnetic ﬁled. The second coil which is made to link this ﬁeld has an induced voltage in the same. The magnitude of the induced emf is decided by the number of turns used in each coil. Thus the voltage level can be increased or decreased by changing the number of turns. This excitation winding is called a primary and the output winding is called a secondary. As a magnetic medium forms the link between the primary and the secondary windings there is no conductive connection between the two electric circuits. The transformer thus provides an electric isolation between the two circuits. The frequency on the two sides will be the same. As there is no change in the nature of the power, the resulting machine is called a ‘transformer’ and not a ‘converter’. The electric power at one voltage/current level is only ‘transformed’ into electric power, at the same frequency, to another voltage/current level.
Even though most of the largepower transformers can be found in the power systems, the use of the transformers is not limited to the power systems. The use of the principle of transformers is universal. Transformers can be found operating in the frequency range starting from a few hertz going up to several mega hertz. Power ratings vary from a few milliwatts to several hundreds of megawatts. The use of the transformers is so wide spread that it is virtually impossible to think of a large power system without transformers. Demand on electric power generation doubles every decade in a developing country. For every MVA of generation the installed capacity of transformers grows by about 7MVA. These ﬁgures show the indispensable nature of power transformers.
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Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
2
Basic Principles
As mentioned earlier the transformer is a static device working on the principle of
Faraday’s law of induction. Faraday’s law states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the ﬂux linkages associated with the same changes. This emf is proportional to the rate of change of ﬂux linkages. Putting mathematically, e= dψ dt (1)
Where, e is the induced emf in volt and ψ is the ﬂux linkages in Weber turn. Fig. 1 shows a
Figure 1: Flux linkages of a coil
coil of N turns. All these N turns link ﬂux lines of φ Weber resulting in the Nφ ﬂux linkages. In such a case, ψ = Nφ and e=N dφ dt volt (3) (2)
The change in the ﬂux linkage can be brought about in a variety of ways • coil may be static and unmoving but the ﬂux linking the same may change with time. 3
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
of uniform ﬂux density B Tesla. Sasidhara Rao • ﬂux lines may be constant and not changing in time but the coil may move in space linking diﬀerent value of ﬂux with time. On the other hand if the value of B varies with time a voltage is induced in the coil linking the same coil even if the coil does not move. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Such a condition does not yield any useful machine.Electrical Machines I Prof. the ﬂux lines being normal to the plane of the paper. The magnitude of B 4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. 2 shows a region of length L m. • both 1 and 2 above may take place. L B X  + Figure 2: Static coil Fig. Sridhara Rao. Prof. The ﬂux φ linked by the turn is L ∗ B ∗ X Weber. These three cases are now elaborated in sequence below. If now B does not change with time and the loop is unmoving then no emf is induced in the coil as the ﬂux linkages do not change. The ﬂux lines may change in time with coil moving in space. with the help of a coil with a simple geometry. P. Here X is the length of overlap in meters as shown in the ﬁgure. A loop of one turn links part of this ﬂux.
ω. Prof. The polarity of the emf is as indicated. B = Bm sin ωt (4) where Bm is the peak amplitude of the ﬂux density. The ﬂux density is held constant at B Tesla. G. e= dψ π = Nφm . The peak value of the induced emf is em = Nφm . Krishna Vasudevan. Polarity of the emf is obtained by the application of Lenz’s law. presented in Fig. ψ = Nφ = NLXBm sin ωt The instantaneous value of the induced emf is given by.X. the instantaneous value of the ﬂux linkage is given by.ω and the rms value is given by E= Nφm . ω is the angular rate of change with time. sin(ωt + ) dt 2 (6) (5) Here φm = Bm . The ﬂux linked by the coil at the current position is 5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then. (7) Further. and can be expressed as. Lenz’s law states that the reaction to the change in the ﬂux linkages would be such as to oppose the cause. 2 the ﬂux linkages are assumed to be increasing. The emf if permitted to drive a current would produce a counter mmf to oppose this changing ﬂux linkage. Fig. The loop also experiences a compressive force.ω √ 2 volt.ω cos ωt = Nφm .L. P. Sasidhara Rao is assumed to be varying sinusoidally. Sridhara Rao. This emf is termed as ‘transformer’ emf and this principle is used in a transformer. In the present case.Electrical Machines I Prof. this induced emf has a phase diﬀerence of π/2 radian with respect to the ﬂux linked by the turn. Prof. 2(b) shows the same example as above but with a small diﬀerence.
This is shown in Fig. Sridhara Rao. sin ωt.2b is arrived at. Sasidhara Rao φ = B. Prof. as it arises out of the motion of the conductor. cos ωt.the actual ﬂux linked by the coil is immaterial. The polarity of the induced emf is obtained by the application of the Lenz’s law as before. d(Bm . + N. Prof. Here the changes in ﬂux linkages is produced by motion of the conductor.L. the emf induced also becomes sinusoidal.c machines and alternators. The third case under the application of the Faraday’s law arises when the ﬂux changes and also the conductor moves. G.(Here N=1) Please note.L. The current in the conductor. 2(c).X Weber. This type of induced emf is termed as speed emf or rotational emf.Bm . The induced emf is in step with the change in ψ and there is no phase shift. when the coil ends are closed. makes the conductor experience a force urging the same to the left.Bm .L. This is how the polarity of the emf shown in ﬁg. Also the mmf of the loop aids the ﬁeld mmf to oppose change in ﬂux linkages.v volt. The conductor is moved with a uniform velocity of change in the ﬂux linkages and hence induced emf is given by e = N. Only the change in the ﬂux linkages is needed to be known for the calculation of the voltage. dt dt (8) dx dt = v m/sec. V olt.X ) dx = N.L.ω. The conductor is moved with a velocity v = dx/dt normal to the ﬂux. This principle is used in d.Electrical Machines I Prof.L.L. The 6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .B.dx/dt = B. The induced emf as per the application of Faraday’s law of induction is e = N. Krishna Vasudevan. The uniform ﬂux density in space is assumed to be varying in magnitude in time as B = Bm sin ωt.X. P. cutting the ﬂux lines and changing the ﬂux linkages. If the ﬂux density B is distributed sinusoidally over the region in the horizontal direction. sin ωt.
c machines such as induction machines and also in a. The case two will be revisited under the study of the d.c. The winding which establishes the ﬁeld is called the primary. Sridhara Rao. This is easily achieved by passing a time varying current through a coil.c. Next in the study of the transformers comes the question of creating a time varying ﬁled. machines where the ﬁeld is time varying and conductors are moving under the same. It should not be forgotten that the primary also sees the same time varying ﬁeld set up by it linking its turns and has an induced emf in the same. is called a secondary. P. At ﬁrst the common constructional features of a transformer used in electric power supply system operating at 50 Hz are examined. Case three will be extensively used under the study of a. The ﬁrst case where there is a time varying ﬁeld and a stationary coil resulting in a transformer emf is the subject matter in the present section. The other winding. These aspects will be examined in the later sections.c machines and synchronous machines. When the terminals are closed such as to permit a current the conductor experiences a force and also the mmf of the coil opposes the change in ﬂux linkages. Sasidhara Rao The ﬁrst term is due to the changing ﬂux and hence is a transformer emf. Prof. The second term is due to moving conductor or is a speed emf. commutator machines. which is kept in that ﬁeld and has a voltage induced in it. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. 7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. This principle is used in a. Prof.
Power transformers of smaller sizes could be air cooled while the larger ones are oil cooled. traction etc. Sridhara Rao. These can be broadly divided into 1. These machines are highly material intensive equipments and are designed to match the applications for best operating conditions. Prof. Relative permeability µr well over 1000 are achieved by the present day materials. Over the years progressively better magnetic properties are obtained by going in for Hot rolled nonoriented to Hot rolled grain oriented steel. rectiﬁcation. Cooling aspects 3. The high value of permeability helps to give a low reluctance for the path of the ﬂux and the ﬂux lines mostly conﬁne themselves to the iron. The principle of operation of these transformers also is the same but the user requirements diﬀer. Silicon steel in the form of thin laminations is used for the core material. Here the focus is on power transformers only. Sasidhara Rao 3 Constructional features Transformers used in practice are of extremely large variety depending upon the end use. Prof. furnaces. P. Krishna Vasudevan. 8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . in power transmission and distribution. Core construction 2. This brings in a very large variety in their constructional features. a large number of special transformers are in use in applications like electronic supplies. In addition to the transformers used in power systems. G. Hence they are ‘tailor made’ to a job. Here more common constructional aspects alone are discussed.Electrical Machines I Prof. Winding arrangements 3.1 Core construction Transformer core for the power frequency application is made of highly permeable material.
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
Later better laminations in the form of cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO), High B (HiB) grades became available. The thickness of the laminations progressively got reduced from over 0.5mm to the present 0.25mm per lamination. These laminations are coated with a thin layer of insulating varnish, oxide or phosphate. The magnetic material is required to have a high permeability µ and a high saturation ﬂux density, a very low remanence Br and a small area under the BH loopto permit high ﬂux density of operation with low magnetizing current and low hysteresis loss. The resistivity of the iron sheet itself is required to be high to reduce the eddy current losses. The eddy current itself is highly reduced by making the laminations very thin. If the lamination is made too thin then the production cost of steel laminations increases. The steel should not have residual mechanical stresses which reduce their magnetic properties and hence must be annealed after cutting and stacking. In the case of very small transformers (from a few voltamperes to a few kilo voltamperes) hot rolled silicon steel laminations in the form of E & I, C & I or O as shown in Fig. 3 are used and the core cross section would be a square or a rectangle. The percentage of silicon in the steel is about 3.5. Above this value the steel becomes very brittle and also very hard to cut. The saturation ﬂux density of the present day steel lamination is about 2 Tesla. Broadly classifying, the core construction can be separated into core type and shell type. In a core type construction the winding surrounds the core. A few examples of single phase and three phase core type constructions are shown in Fig. 4. In a shell type on the other hand the iron surrounds the winding. In the case of very small transformers the conductors are very thin and round. These can be easily wound on a former with rectangular or square cross section. Thus no special care is needed for the construction of the core. The cross section of the core also would be square or rectangular. As the rating of the transformer increases the conductor size 9
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
(a )
(b)
(c) Figure 3: E and I,C and I and O Type Laminations
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Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
1.phase 3.phase
HV LV core
Single phase
LV HV
Three phase
LV HV
(a)Core type
(b) Shell type
Figure 4: Core and Shell Type Construction also increases. Flat conductors are preferred to round ones. To wind such conductor on a rectangular former is not only diﬃcult but introduces stresses in the conductor, at the bends. From the short circuit force with stand capability point of view also this is not desirable. Also, for a given area enclosed the length of the conductor becomes more. Hence it results in more load losses. In order to avoid all these problems the coils are made cylindrical and are wound on formers on heavy duty lathes. Thus the core construction is required to be such as to ﬁll the circular space inside the coil with steel laminations. Stepped core construction thus becomes mandatory for the core of large transformers. Fig. 5 shows a few typical stepped core constructions. When the core size increases it becomes extremely diﬃcult to cool the same (Even though the core losses are relatively very small). Cooling ducts have to be provided in the core. The steel laminations are grain oriented exploiting the simple geometry of the transformer to reduce the excitation losses. The iron losses in the lamination, when the ﬂux
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1 0.09 0. G.Electrical Machines I Prof.1 0. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sridhara Rao.12 0.42 0. P.07 0. Prof.12 0.07 0.3 0.16 0.16 0.71D d d duct d duct Figure 5: Stepped Core Construction 12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao 0.09 0.53 0.14 0.14 0.
Electrical Machines I Prof. Another important aspect to be carefully checked and monitored is the air gaps in Path of flux HV LV Windings Core (a) (b) Figure 6: Typical stacked Core and wound core Construction series in the path of the main ﬂux. In some power transformers the core is built up by threading a long strip of steel through the coil in the form of a toroid. Sasidhara Rao is oriented in the direction of grain orientation. 13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. 6. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Lap joints are used to provide alternate paths for ﬂux lines thus reducing the reluctance of the ﬂux paths. Some typical constructional details are shown in Fig. Prof. an air path of 1mm will require a mmf needed by a 1 meter path in iron. is about 30% of that in the normal direction. This construction is normally followed in instrument transformers to reduce the magnetizing current and hence the errors. Hence butt joints between laminations must be avoided. G. As the reluctance of air path is about 1000 times more than that of the steel. Prof.
Also the HV winding needs to be insulated more to withstand the higher voltage across it. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Large cores made up of laminations must be rendered adequately stiﬀ by the provision of stiﬀening plates usually called as ﬂitch plates. The one which is connected to a voltage source and creates the ﬂux is called as a primary winding. These aspects inﬂuence the type of the winding used for the HV or LV windings. Prof. The second winding where the voltage is induced by induction is called a secondary. If the secondary voltage is more then it is a step up transformer. Krishna Vasudevan. A step down transformer can be made a step up transformer by making the low voltage winding its primary. The winding with more number of turns will be a HV winding. If the secondary voltage is less than that of the primary the transformer is called a step down transformer. Punched through holes and bolts are progressively being avoided to reduce heating and melting of the through bolts. yoke or the body. 3. The former are very common with core type transformers while the latter one 14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Channels and angles are used for the frame and they hold the bottom yoke rigidly. HV also needs more clearance to the core. P. Hence it may be more appropriate to designate the windings as High Voltage (HV) and Low Voltage (LV) windings.2 Windings Windings form another important part of transformers. The current on the HV side will be lower as VI product is a constant and given as the VA rating of the machines.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. The whole stack is wrapped up by strong epoxy tapes to give mechanical strength to the core which can stand in upright position. Transformer coils can be broadly classiﬁed in to concentric coils and sandwiched coils Fig. In a two winding trans former two windings would be present. 7. Sridhara Rao.
Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. G. Sasidhara Rao HV LV Core LV HV (a)Concentric coil LV HV Core (b) Sandwich coil Figure 7: Concentric and Sandwich Coils 15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
This is commonly used for LV windings.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. cross over and disc coils are shown in Fig. The coil progresses as a helix. The insulation 16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Also taps are provided on HV winding when voltage change is required. G. P. 8. Sasidhara Rao are common with shell type transformers. Krishna Vasudevan. in view of the lower insulation and clearance requirements. Prof. Crossover and Helical Coil Construction Helical Windings One very common cylindrical coil arrangement is the helical winding. This is also facilitated by having the HV winding as the outer winding. helical. The HV winding is placed around the LV winding. In concentric arrangement. Prof. This is made up of large cross section rectangular conductor wound on its ﬂat side. Helical coils Disc coils cross over coils Figure 8: Disc. Three most common types of coils viz. the LV winding is placed close to the core which is at ground potential. In the ﬁgure the letters L and H indicate the low voltage and high voltage windings.
These are used for HV windings of relatively small transformers. The eddy current losses in the conductor rapidly increases. These turns are wound in several layers. as required by total voltage requirement. Sectional discs or continuous discs may be used. The modern practice is to use continuously transposed and bunched conductors.Electrical Machines I Prof. The conductor cross section becomes too large and diﬃcult to handle. Between layers no insulation (other than conductor insulation) is needed as the voltage between layers is low. Disc coils Disc coils consist of ﬂat conductors wound in a spiral form at the same place spiralling outwards. Transpositions of the parallel paths have to be adopted to reduce unequal current distribution. G. These are made of circular conductors not exceeding 5 to 6 sq mm in cross section. Prof. Sandwich coils Sandwich windings are more common with shell type core construction. P. Alternate discs are made to spiral from outside towards the center. Sridhara Rao. Hence two or more conductors have to be wound and connected in parallel. These have excellent thermal properties and the behavior of the winding is highly predictable. leaving cooling ducts in between the blocks. They permit easy control over the short circuit impedance of the transformer. Sasidhara Rao requirement also is not too high. Prof. Cross over coils The second popular winding type is the cross over coil. Krishna Vasudevan. The length and thickness of each block is made in line with cooling requirements. Winding of a continuous disc winding needs specialized skills. The complexity of this type of winding rapidly increases as the current to be handled becomes more. By bringing HV and LV coils close on the same magnetic axis the leakage is reduced and the mutual ﬂux is increased. By increasing the number of sandwiched coils the 17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The parallel circuits bring in problems of current sharing between the circuits. A number of such blocks can be connected in series.
increase by a factor of K 3 . Consider a transformer of certain rating designed with certain ﬂux density and current density. Krishna Vasudevan. 3. Prof. The conductor insulation may be called the minor insulation as the voltage required to be withstood is not high. Oil ducts are also used as part of insulation between windings. This can be explained as below. Prof. 3. The porous insulation around the conductor helps the oil to reach the conductor surface and extract the heat.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao.4 Cooling of transformers Scaling advantages make the design of larger and larger unit sizes of transformers economically attractive. P. which are proportional to the volume of the materials used. If now the linear dimensions are made larger by a factor of K keeping the current and ﬂux densities the same the core and conductor areas increase by a factor of K 2 .The rating of the machine increases by a factor of K 4 . G. It is an insulator and also a coolant. The major insulation is between the windings. The oil used in the transformer tank should be free from moisture or other contamination to be of any use as an insulator. The transformer oil thus has dual role. The losses in the machine.3 Insulation The insulation used in the case of electrical conductors in a transformer is varnish or enamel in dry type of transformers. 18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In larger transformers to improve the heat transfer characteristics the conductors are insulated using unimpregnated paper or cloth and the whole corewinding assembly is immersed in a tank containing transformer oil. Annular bakelite cylinders serve this purpose. Sasidhara Rao reactance can be substantially reduced.
Sridhara Rao. This is termed as ON (Oil Natural) type of cooling. If now a forced blast of air is also employed. Simple air cooling of the transformers is adopted in dry type transformers. the cooling method become OFB( Oil Forced Blast). The oil reaches the conductor surface and extracts the heat and transports the same to the surface of the tank by convection. Sasidhara Rao The surface area however increases by a factor of K 2 only. Hence air cooling is used in low voltage machines. This is termed as OFN (Oil Forced Natural). The substantial increase in the output is the major attraction in going in for larger units. The limit for this is reached by the time the rating is a few kVA.Electrical Machines I Prof. radiators etc. However cooling of the transformer becomes more and more diﬃcult. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Air Blast(AB) method improves on the above by directing the blast of air at the core and windings. Prof. This method permits the increase in the surface available for the cooling further by the use of ducts. with the cooling at the surface remaining natural cooling to air. OB(Oil Blast) method is an improvement over the ONtype and it directs a blast of air on the cooling surface. The rate of circulation of oil can be increased with the help of a pump. Thus the ratio of loss per surface area goes on increasing by a factor of K . In the above two cases the ﬂow of oil is by natural convective forces. As the rating increases better cooling techniques are needed. This method of cooling is termed as AN(Air Natural). A forced circulation of oil through a radiator is done with a blast of air 19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This permits some improvement in the unit sizes. G. P. Substantial improvement is obtained when the transformer is immersed in an oil tank.
B Fan motor (c) 20 Figure 9: Some Typical Cooling Arrangements Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Main tank Radiator Tubes (a) Conservator Bushing & Breather water outlet oil pump Radiator water inlet (b) Conservator& Breather Bushing Radiator Oil pump for O. G. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.F. P.Electrical Machines I Prof.
Substantial amount of heat can be removed by employing a water cooling. heat can be evacuated eﬀectively.5:2 The temperature rise permitted in the British standard speciﬁcation for power transformers are tabulated below. This gives rise to the concept of mixed cooling technique.OW OFN. G. Next in hierarchy comes OFW which is similar to OFB except that instead of blast of air a forced circulation of cool water in the radiator is used in this. 9. Krishna Vasudevan. As the load on the transformer changes the heat generated within also changes.OFB OFW 55 60 65 70 75  50 50 50 21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This gives the ratings to be in the ratio of 1:1. In many large sized transformers the cooling method is matched with the amount of heat that is required to be removed. Suitable cooling method can be pressed into service at that time.Electrical Machines I Prof. Due to the high speciﬁc heat of water. ON/OB Works as ON but with increased load additional air blast is adopted. Type winding Class A ◦ oil Class B ◦ core C C ◦ C As for adjacent winding AN. Prof. Sasidhara Rao over the radiator surface. Sridhara Rao.OB. Here the hot oil going into the radiator is cooled by a water circuit.AB ON.5 ON/OB/OFB Similarly gives the ratings in the ratio of 1:1. Prof. P. Some cooling arrangements are shown in Fig.
4. G. If the hot oil is prevented from coming into contact with atmospheric air sludge formation 22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge. Therefore deterioration in insulating property due to moisture or contamination may be more relevant. Sasidhara Rao 3.1 Properties of the transformer coil Even though the basic functions of the oil used in transformers are a) heat conduc tion and b) electrical insulation. Viscosity It is important as it determines the rate of ﬂow of the ﬂuid. The properties that are required to be looked into before selecting an oil for transformer application are as follows: Insulting property This is a very important property. there are many other properties which make a particular oil eminently suitable. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sludge formation properties have to be considered while choosing the oil as the oil slowly forms semisolid hydrocarbons. Sludge formation Thickening of oil into a semisolid form is called a sludge. However most of the oils naturally fulﬁl this. Highly viscous ﬂuids need much bigger clearances for adequate heat removal. Purity The oil must not contain impurities which are corrosive. Sulphur or its compounds as impurities cause formation of sludge and also attack metal parts. Sridhara Rao. corrode metal parts. Heat in the presence of oxygen is seen to accelerate sludge formation. These impede ﬂows and due to the acidic nature. Prof. Organic oils of vegetative or animal origin are good insulators but tend to decompose giving rise to acidic byproducts which attack the paper or cloth insulation around the conductors.Electrical Machines I Prof.
A good breather can reduce the problems due to the formation of acids. This must be as high as possible (not less than 160◦ C from the point of safety). This must be very high for the chosen oil (not less than 200◦ C ). Prof. These form corrosive vapors. The cellulose which is in the paper insulation contains good amount of moisture. Sasidhara Rao can be greatly reduced. Krishna Vasudevan. reduced risk due ﬁre and explosion. Synthetic transformer oil like chlorinated diphenyl has excellent properties like chemical stability. It is therefore necessary to check the quality of the oil periodically and take corrective steps to avoid major break downs in the transformer. These are considered to be outside the scope here. good dielectric strength. Acidity Oxidized oil normally produces CO2 and acids. moisture repellant. Prof. P. nonoxidizing. There are several other structural and insulating parts in a large transformer. 23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Flash point And Fire point Flash point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil ignites spontaneously. Inhibited oils and synthetic oils are therefore used in the transformers. G. Fire point is the temperature at which the oil ﬂashes and continuously burns.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Inhibited oils contain additives which slow down the deterioration of properties under heat and moisture and hence the degradation of oil.
P. 4. The medium can even be air. There is linear relationship between the mmf created and the ﬂux produced. If the secondary is not loaded the energy stored in the magnetic ﬁeld ﬁnds its way back to the source as the ﬂux collapses. Sridhara Rao. Indeed such arrangements are used in very high frequency transformers. Sasidhara Rao 4 Ideal Transformer Earlier it is seen that a voltage is induced in a coil when the ﬂux linkage associated with the same changed. If one can generate a time varying magnetic ﬁeld any coil placed in the ﬁeld of inﬂuence linking the same experiences an induced emf. G. Substantial amount of leakage ﬂux exists. Krishna Vasudevan. as the reluctance of the medium is very high. as the whole medium is homogeneous. Prof. The medium does not absorb and lose any energy. This is called mutual induction.Electrical Machines I Prof. The medium is nonlossy and hence no power is wasted in the medium. 2. 1. 5. It is very hard to direct the ﬂux lines as we desire. If the secondary winding is connected to a load then part of the power from the source is delivered to the load through the magnetic ﬁeld as a link. These eﬀects can be summarized as the followings. Even though the principle of transformer action is not changed. Power is required to create the ﬁeld and not to maintain the same. the ideal eﬃciency of a transformer approaches 100%. Prof. The large magnetizing 24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 3. The magnetizing current required to establish the ﬁeld is very large. Such an arrangement is called air cored transformer. the medium has considerable inﬂuence on the working of such devices. A time varying ﬁeld can be created by passing an alternating current through an electric coil. As the winding losses can be made very small by proper choice of material.
G. Sasidhara Rao Primary x Leakage flux Secondary Mutual flux (a) Leakage flux X Primary Mutual flux Secondary Iron core (b) Figure 10: Mutual Induction a) air core b) iron core 25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. P.
Krishna Vasudevan. However if now a piece of magnetic material is introduced to form the magnetic circuit Fig. As the medium is made of a conducting material eddy currents are induced in the same and produce losses. Fortunately the losses due to hysteresis and eddy current for the available grades of steel is very small at power frequencies. From the above it is seen that the introduction of magnetic core to carry the ﬂux introduced two more losses. Prof. These can be enumerated as below. 5. 1. To minimize the eddy current losses the steel core is required to be in the form of a stack of insulated laminations.Electrical Machines I Prof. 3. 6. as the BH characteristic is traversed. 10(b) the situation changes dramatically. The iron also has hysteresis type of nonlinearity due to which certain amount of power is lost in the iron (in the form of hysteresis loss). The ﬂux can be easily ‘directed’ as it takes the path through steel which gives great freedom for the designer in physical arrangement of the excitation and output windings. This can also be visualized as a dramatic increase in the ﬂux produced for a given value of magnetizing current. P. Sasidhara Rao current requirement is a major deterrent. 4. Most of the ﬂux lines are conﬁned to iron path and hence the mutual ﬂux is increased very much and leakage ﬂux is greatly reduced. Due to the large value for the permeance ( µr of the order of 1000 as compared to air) the magnetizing current requirement decreases dramatically. 2. G. Also the copper losses in the 26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The magnetic medium is linear for low values of induction and exhibits saturation type of nonlinearity at higher ﬂux densities. These are called ‘eddy current losses’. Prof. Sridhara Rao.
initially certain idealizations are made and the resulting ‘ideal’ transformer is studied. G. Fig. P. In fact the practical transformers are very close to this model and hence no major departure is made in making these assumptions. Krishna Vasudevan. 2. Sridhara Rao. This means that there are no copper losses. The consequence is that a vanishingly small current is enough to establish the given ﬂux. a vanishingly small value of current I0 is enough to setup a ﬂux which is ﬁnite. These idealizations are as follows: 1.Electrical Machines I Prof. Secondary can be connected to a load impedance for loading the transformer. The primary winding has T1 turns and is connected to a voltage source of V1 volts. Windings do not have resistance. Since the reluctance of the iron path given by R = l/µAis zero as µ −→ ∞. Prof. As all the ﬂux generated conﬁnes itself to the iron. As I0 establishes the ﬁeld inside the transformer 27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In order to have better understanding of the behavior of the transformer. nor there is any ohmic drop in the electric circuit. there is no leakage ﬂux. As a current I0 amps is passed through the primary winding of T1 turns it sets up an mmf of I0 T1 ampere which is in turn sets up a ﬂux φ through the core. Magnetic circuit is linear and has inﬁnite permeability. Prof. Sasidhara Rao winding due to magnetization current is reduced to an almost insigniﬁcant fraction of the full load losses. Hysteresis loss is negligible. Hence steel core is used in power transformers. The primary and secondary are shown on the same limb and separately for clarity. The secondary has T2 turns. 11 shows a two winding ideal transformer.
Sridhara Rao. G. Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao v1=V1mcosωt i o 0 φ µ 8 ~ + + e1 + e2 T2 T1 i1 + + v1=V1sinωt e1 + (b) Circuit form i2 e2 (a)Unloaded machine v1=V1cosωt i1 + N i2 + ZL e2 e1 + φ µ 8 T1 T2 (c)Loaded machine Figure 11: Two winding Ideal Transformer unloaded and loaded 28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P.
F lux φ = mmf I0 T1 I0 T1 Aµ = l = . G. f is the frequency of the supply. Reluctance l µA (9) This current is the result of a sinusoidal voltage V applied to the primary. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao it is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. Prof. cos ωt or the rms value ψ1peak . Writing this in terms of instantaneous values we have. This equation results in v1 = e1 or the induced emf must be same in magnitude to the applied voltage at every instant of time. e1 = dψ1 /dt but e1 = E1peak cos ωt ∴ E1 = V1 . As v1 = e1 . Thus the RMS primary induced emf is e1 = dψ1 d(ψ1peak sin ωt) = dt dt = ψ1peak . It can be easily seen that the variation of ﬂux linkages can be obtained as ψ1 = ψ1peak sin ωt. Let v1 = V1peak cos ωt where V1peak is the peak value and ω = 2πf t. at every instant of time. P.ω 2πf T1 φm √ √ = = 4.ω.Electrical Machines I Prof. The negative sign is due to the application of the Lenz’s law and shows that it is in the form of a voltage drop. v1 − e1 = 0 (10) where v1 is the instantaneous value of the applied voltage and e1 is the induced emf due to Faradays principle. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Kirchoﬀ’s law application to the loop will result in the same thing. As the current through the loop is zero (or vanishingly small). the sum of the voltages must be zero inside the same.44f φmT1 2 2 29 volts (11) (12) E1 = Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the ﬂux linkages of the primary.
Prof. e2 = dψ2 d(ψ2peak sin ωt) = dt dt = ψ2peak . Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof.ω. cos ωt or the rms value 2πf T2 φm √ = 4.φm .44f φmT2 2 T1 E1 = E2 T2 volt (13) (14) E2 = which yields the voltage ratio as (15) I1 + + V1 E1 E2 V2 I2 Figure 12: Dot Convention The voltages E1 and E2 are obtained by the same mutual ﬂux and hence they are in phase. Similar problem arises even when the sense of winding is kept the same. P. but the 30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the ﬂux linkages of the primary. if the primary is wound in clockwise sense and the secondary counter clockwise sense then if the top terminal of the ﬁrst winding is at maximum potential the bottom terminal of the second winding would be at the peak potential.. If the winding sense is opposite i. The induced emf in the secondary can be similarly obtained as . G. However the magnitude of the ﬂux linkages will be ψ2peak = T2 .e. The same mutual ﬂux links the secondary winding.
If now a load impedance ZL is connected across the terminals of the secondary winding a load current ﬂows as marked in Fig. Sasidhara Rao two windings are on opposite limbs (due to the change in the direction of ﬂux). The demagnetizing mmf produced by the secondary is neutralized by additional magnetizing mmf produces by the primary leaving the mmf and ﬂux in the core as in the case of noload. an unloaded ideal transformer is considered. Prof. (Fig. This can be established experimentally by means of a polarity test on the transformers. Thus the transformer operates under constant induced emf mode.Electrical Machines I Prof. 11(c). So far. P. The current drawn from supply increases up to a point the ﬂux in the core is restored back to its original value. (16) (17) If the reference directions for the two currents are chosen as in the Fig. 12).I2 1 = T1 T1 I2 = = E1 I1 = E2 I2 T2 I1 (18) (19) 31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Similarly a current leaving the terminal with a dot demagnetizes the core. Prof. Thus. 12. At a particular instant of time if the current enters the terminal marked with a dot it magnetizes the core. then the above equation can be written in phasor form as. ¯ ¯ I 1 T1 = I2 T2 Also E1 E2 T2 ¯ ¯ or I . G. This load current produces a demagnetizing mmf and the ﬂux tends to collapse. However this is detected by the primary immediately as both E2 and E1 tend to collapse. Hence in the circuit representation of transformers a dot convention is adopted to indicate the terminals of the windings that go high (or low) together. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. i1 T1 − i2 T2 = i0 T1 i2 T2 = i1 T1 but i0 → 0 and the rms value I2 T2 = I1 T1 .
Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. the phasor diagram for the operation of the ideal transformer is shown in Fig. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Thus voltage and current transformation ratio are inverse of one another. As 32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Transformer thus acts as an impedance converter.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. The transformer can be as ( T 2 interposed in between a source and a load to ‘match’ the impedance. V1 E1 I2 E2 I1 θ1 φ θ2 φ V2 Figure 13: Phasor diagram of Operation of an Ideal Transformer Finally. 13 in which θ1 and θ2 are power factor angles on the primary and secondary sides. If an impedance of ZL is connected across the secondary. Prof. ¯2 E ¯ I 2 = ¯ ZL ¯ ¯L = E2 or Z ¯ I 2 (20) The input impedance under such conditions is ¯ ¯ ¯i = E1 = ( T1 )2 . E2 = ( T1 )2 .Z ¯L Z ¯ ¯ T T I I 2 2 1 2 (21) 1 An impedance of ZL when viewed ‘through’ a transformer of turns ratio ( T ) is seen T2 T1 2 ) . G.ZL .
P. In the case of an ideal transformer the eﬃciency is 100% as there are no losses inside the device. Sridhara Rao. It can be used to step up or step down the voltage/current at constant voltampere. G. However. Also. Even though the isolation aspect is a desirable one its utility cannot be over emphasized. Prof. the transformer can be used for impedance matching. grounding of loads and one terminal of the transformer on the secondary/primary side are followed with the provision of leakage current detection devices to safe guard the persons working with the devices. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. from the study of the ideal transformer it is seen that the transformer provides electrical isolation between two coupled electric circuits while maintaining power invariance at its two ends. Thus. Sasidhara Rao the transformer itself does not absorb any active or reactive power it is easy to see that θ1 = θ2 . Krishna Vasudevan. 33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
H = i. if these eﬀects are removed from a working transformer what is left behind is an ideal transformer. Sridhara Rao. Hence the eﬀects of the nonidealization like ﬁnite permeability. Finite permeability of the magnetic circuit necessitates a ﬁnite value of the current to be drawn from the mains to produce the mmf required to establish the necessary ﬂux. T1 l (23) where l is the length of the magnetic path. Once saturation sets in. G. eﬃciency etc are important. voltage regulation. Krishna Vasudevan. The current and mmf required is proportional to the ﬂux density B that is required to be established in the core. B = µH . B= φ A (22) where A is the area of cross section of the iron core m2 . saturation. m. In a working transformer the performance aspects like magnetizing current. Sasidhara Rao 5 Practical Transformer An ideal transformer is useful in understanding the working of a transformer. losses.A = Aµ(iT1 ) l = permeance ∗ mmf (here that of primary ) (24) The magnetizing force and the current vary linearly with the applied voltage as long as the magnetic circuit is not saturated. But it cannot be used for the computation of the performance of a practical transformer due to the nonideal nature of the practical transformer. Prof. or φ = B. hysteresis and winding resistances have to be added to an ideal transformer to make it a practical transformer. Prof. Conversely. H is the magnetizing force which is given by. P. the current has to vary in 34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof.
P. (25) (26) For a constant voltage.6 f Pe ∝ B 2 f 2 t2 Ph Hysteresis loss. Hence the current drawn from the mains is assumed to be purely sinusoidal and directly proportional to the ﬂux density of operation. Sasidhara Rao a nonlinear manner to establish the ﬂux of sinusoidal shape.Frequency of operation. An active power consumption by the noload current can be represented in the input circuit as a resistance Rc connected in parallel to the magnetizing reactance Xm . m. These are given by the following expressions: Ph ∝ B 1.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. G. eddy current inside the magnetic core. The magnetizing current Im is given by Im = E1 /Xm where Xm is called the magnetizing reactance. This current can be represented by a current drawn by an inductive reactance in the circuit as the net energy associated with the same over a cycle is zero. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Thus the noload current I0 may be made up of Ic (loss component) and Im (magnetizing component 35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The energy absorbed when the current increases is returned to the electric circuit when the current collapses to zero. This current is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. This is discussed to some extent under harmonics. This nonlinear current can be resolved into fundamental and harmonic currents. At present the eﬀect of this nonlinear behavior is neglected as a secondary eﬀect.Flux density of operation Tesla. The magnetic circuit being lossy absorbs and dissipates the power depending upon the ﬂux density of operation. constant frequency operation B is constant and so are these losses. These losses arise out of hysteresis. Watts B . Hz t .Thickness of the laminations of the core. f .
Reactive volt amperes consumed for establishing the mutual ﬂux. the ﬂux linkages per ampere and the primary leakage inductance are constant (This is normally represented by ll1 Henry). Sridhara Rao. P. Prof. G.e. thus the windings have a ﬁnite resistance (though 36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thus this eﬀect of the ﬁnite permeability of the magnetic core can be represented as a series inductive element jxl1 . Thus these ﬂux lines do not link the secondary winding. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao as ) ¯ ¯ ¯ I 0 = Ic − j Im 2 Ic Rc – gives the total core losses (i. This is termed as the reactance due to the primary leakage ﬂux. the primary and secondary windings are wound with copper (sometimes aluminium in small transformers) conductors. As the path of the leakage ﬂux is mainly through the air the ﬂux produced varies linearly with the primary current I1 .Electrical Machines I Prof. As this leakage ﬂux varies linearly with I1 . The primary leakage reactance therefore becomes xl1 = 2πf ll1 ohm (28) A similar eﬀect takes place on the secondary side when the transformer is loaded. Prof. It is called as leakage ﬂux. This ﬂux produces a voltage drop opposing its cause. (27) Finite µ of the magnetic core makes a few lines of ﬂux take to a path through the air. Even a large value of the current produces a small value of ﬂux. which is the current I1 . The secondary leakage reactance jxl2 arising out of the secondary leakage inductance ll2 is given by xl2 = 2πf ll2 (29) Finally. hysteresis + eddy current loss) 2 Im Xm .
Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. G. Prof. Prof. Sasidhara Rao I1 V1 + r1 jxl1 Io Rc I’2 + φ ~  jXm E1  T1 r2 jxl2 I2 + V2 ZL E2  T2 (a)Physical arrangement I1 r1 jXl1 I’2 Ic V1 Rc Im Io E1 r2 jXl2 I2 jXm E2 ZL V2 (b)Equivalent circuit Figure 14: A Practical Transformer 37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
The total primary current ¯′ ¯ ¯ vectorially is I 1 = I2 + I0 Here I2 T1 = I2 T2 ′ ′ (30) ′ or I2 = I2 T2 T1 (31) (32) ¯ ¯ T2 + I ¯ Thus I 1 = I2 0 T1 By solving this circuit for any load impedance ZL one can ﬁnd out the performance of the loaded transformer. where a turns ratio T1 T2 ′ I2 = ′ I2 . active and reactive power associated with both the circuits must be the same. P. a r2 = a2 r2 . A practical transformer sans these imperfections (taken out and represented explicitly in the electric circuits) is an ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 (voltage ratio E1 : E2 ). Sridhara Rao. Thus V2 = aV2 . Prof. This is represented as a series circuit element. ′ xl2 = a2 xl2 ′ ZL = a2 ZL . ′ 38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 14. as the power lost and the drop produced in the primary and secondary are proportional to the respective currents. The circuit shown in Fig. This is seen in Fig. Krishna Vasudevan. However. If the turns ratio could be made unity by some transformation the circuit becomes very simple to use.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Then there is no change as far as their eﬀect on the primary is considered. This is done here by replacing the secondary by a ‘hypothetical’ secondary having T1 turns which is ‘equivalent ’ to the physical secondary. I2 in the circuit represents the primary current component that is required to ﬂow from the mains in the primary T1 turns to neutralize the demagnetizing secondary current I2 due to the load in the secondary turns. it is not very convenient for use due to the presence of the ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 . Sasidhara Rao small). Prof. The equivalence implies that the ampere turns. These are represented by r1 and r2 respectively on primary and secondary side. 14(b).
aE2 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) Substituting in Eqn. T2 Multiply both sides of Eqn. Prof. Such an equivalent circuit having all the parameters referred to the secondary side is shown in ﬁg. It is also possible to refer all the primary parameters to secondary by making the hypothetical equivalent primary winding on the input side having the number of turns to be T2 . ??(a). Referring to ﬁg. Prof. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. The equivalent circuit can be derived. This particular equivalent circuit is as seen from the primary side. analytically using the Kirchoﬀ’s equations applied to the primary and secondary. As the ideal transformer in this case has a turns ratio of unity the potentials on either side are the same and hence they may be conductively connected dispensing away with the ideal transformer. 14(a).34 by ‘a’ [This makes the turns ratio unity and retains the power invariance]. Krishna Vasudevan. we have (by neglecting the shunt branch) V1 = E1 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) E2 = V2 + I2 (r2 + jxl2 ) T1 I0 = T1 I1 + T2 I2 = − a = or I1 = − I2 + I0 a (33) (34) (35) I2 + Ic + Im a T1 . G.33 we have but aE2 = E1 (36) 39 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. with equal ease. 15. Sasidhara Rao This equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig.
Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao V1 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) = V2 + I1 (a2 r2 + ja2 xl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) = V2 + I1 (r1 + r2 + jxl1 + xl2 ) ′ ′ ′ ′ (37) A similar procedure can be used to refer all parameters to secondary side. Krishna Vasudevan.) r’1 jx’l1 I’1 I’o I’c I’m r2 jxl2 I2 V’1 R’c jX’m ZL V2 Figure 15: Equivalent Circuit Referred to the Secondary Side 40 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . (Shown in ﬁg. Sridhara Rao. 15. Prof. P. G. Prof.
which may be further 41 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. 16(b)) is usually used. P. G. As the noload current is less than 1% of the load current a simpliﬁed circuit known as ‘approximate’ equivalent circuit (see Fig. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 6 Phasor diagrams I1 r1 jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 Io Ic V1 Rc Im jXm V’2 Z’L (a) I1 Ic V1 Rc I’2 r1 jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 I1 R jX I’2 Io Im R=r1+r’2 Z’L jxm V’2 x=xl1+x’l2 V1 V’2 I1=I’2 (c) (b) Figure 16: Exact.approximate and simpliﬁed equivalent circuits The resulting equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. This circuit can be used for the analysis of the behavior of the transformers. Krishna Vasudevan. 16 is known as the exact equivalent circuit. Sridhara Rao.
16(c). By trial and error the position of I2 and V2 are determined. On similar lines to the ideal transformer the phasor diagram of operation can be drawn for a practical transformer also. Once I0 is known. The equivalent primary current I2 is added vectorially to I0 to yield I1 . Next we proceed to draw the phasor diagram corresponding to a loaded transformer. Prof. Sasidhara Rao simpliﬁed to the one shown in Fig. ′ 42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 17(a) as phasor diagram on noload. I1 (r1 + jxl1 )is added to E1 to yield V1 . the drop that takes place in the primary resistance and series reactance can be obtained which when added to E1 gives uniquely the position of V1 which satisﬁes all other parameters.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. But the angle θ2 is deﬁned with respect to the terminal voltage V2 and not E2 . V2 should also satisfy the Kirchoﬀ’s equation for the secondary. P. The position of the E2 vector is known from the ﬂux phasor. This is represented in Fig. Magnitude of I2 and the load power factor angle θ2 are assumed to be known. Rest of the construction of the phasor diagram then becomes routine. 17(b) as phasor diagram for a loaded transformer. Krishna Vasudevan. Now. Prof. Sridhara Rao. This is shown in ﬁg. the magnetizing and loss components of the currents can be easily represented. The E1 and E2 phasor are then uniquely known. Hence it is assumed that the phasor φ is known. The positions of the current and induced emf phasor are not known uniquely if we start from the phasor V1 .
Sasidhara Rao V1 IoX l1 E1 Ior1 E2 Io Im V1 I1X l1 Il φ (a)Noload φ E1 I’2 I1r1 E2 Il Io φ (b)Onload I2x2 I r 2 2 I2 V2 φ Figure 17: Phasor Diagram of a Practical Transformer 43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. G. P. Prof.
But if the temperature rise of the transformer is required. The ratio gives the winding resistance. Also when a transformer is rewound with diﬀerent primary and secondary windings the equivalent circuit also changes.c resistance one can get the a. resistance by applying skin eﬀect corrections. For low voltage windings a resistancebridge method can be used. Krishna Vasudevan. however a few common ones are discussed here.c voltage to the winding and measuring the current through the same. There are several tests that can be done on the transformer. Sridhara Rao. then test method is the most dependable one. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any load conditions. From the analysis of the equivalent circuit one can determine the electrical parameters.c. G. Prof. Prof. From the d. 7. The equivalent circuit parameters are available to the designer of the transformers from the various expressions that he uses for designing the transformers. P.1 Winding resistance test This is nothing but the resistance measurement of the windings by applying a small d. 44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 7 Testing of Transformers The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. more commonly feasible with high voltage windings. But for a user these are not available most of the times. In order to get the equivalent circuit parameters test methods are heavily depended upon.
Krishna Vasudevan. The dot method discussed earlier is used to indicate the polarities.test Figure 18: Polarity Test 7. V1 : V2 gives the turns ratio. If the voltage rises from A1 to A2 in the primary. V2 and V3 are noted. G.c. If more secondary terminals are present due to taps taken from the windings they can be labeled as a3 .Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. It is the voltage rising from smaller number towards larger ones in each winding. A supply voltage Vs is applied to the primary and the readings of the voltmeters V1 . It is a must for poly phase connections. at any instant it does so from a1 to a2 in the secondary. Both a. The transformer is connected to a low voltage a.c.2 Polarity Test This is needed for identifying the primary and secondary phasor polarities.C. Sridhara Rao.test A1 a1 A1 (a)A. 18(a). a5 . Prof.c methods can be used for detecting the polarities of the induced emfs.C. Sasidhara Rao V3 A2 S Vs ~ V1 a2 + a2 A2 + V2  V a1 (b)D. 45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . If V3 reads V1 −V2 then assumed dot locations are correct (for the connection shown). The beginning and end of the primary and secondary may then be marked by A1 − A2 and a1 − a2 respectively. source with the connections made as shown in the ﬁg. The same thing holds good if more secondaries are present. a4 . P. a6 . and d.
If the meter kicks back the assumed polarity is wrong. When the switch S is closed if the secondary voltage shows a positive reading. method of testing the polarity.Electrical Machines I Prof. Let these meters read V1 . W are the voltmeter. P. Krishna Vasudevan. 18(b) shows the d. In Fig.c. 19(a) V. Sasidhara Rao Fig. The no load current at rated voltage is less than 1 percent of nominal current and hence the loss and drop that take place in primary impedance r1 + jxl1 due to the no load current I0 is negligible. A. Sridhara Rao. the assumed polarity is correct. 7. The active component Ic of the no load current I0 46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. G.3 Open Circuit Test W A V1 V V2 Io Im V1 jXm Ic Rc (a)Physical Arrangement (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 19: No Load Test As the name suggests. I0 and W0 respectively. Prof. ammeter and wattmeter respectively. the secondary is kept open circuited and nominal value of the input voltage is applied to the primary winding and the input current and power are measured. with a moving coil meter. 19(b) shows the equivalent circuit of the transformer under this test.Fig.
Prof. Thus the watt meter reading W0 = V1 Ic = Pcore ∴ Ic = ∴ Im = Rc = W0 V1 2 2 I0 − Ic (38) (39) or V1 Im (40) (41) V1 Ic andXm = V1 Io Figure 20: Open Circuit Characteristics The parameters measured already are in terms of the primary. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao represents the core losses and reactive current Im is the current needed for the magnetization. G. Sridhara Rao. In this case the parameters that are obtained are in terms of LV . 47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. P. one can perform the test with LV side energized keeping the HV side open circuited. These have to be referred to HV side if we need the equivalent circuit referred to HV side. If the secondary voltage is low. Sometimes the primary voltage required may be in kiloVolts and it may not be feasible to apply nominal voltage to primary from the point of safety to personnel and equipment.
Electrical Machines I Prof. The shunt branch is thus assumed to be absent. This is a non linear curve as shown in Fig.4 Short Circuit Test The purpose of this test is to determine the series branch parameters of the equiv alent circuit of Fig. or in doubt. Krishna Vasudevan. 21(b). Prof. The reactive power consumed is that absorbed by the leakage reactance of the two windings. This graph is obtained by noting the current drawn by transformer at diﬀerent applied voltage. Sasidhara Rao Sometimes the nominal value of high voltage itself may not be known. After this value is chosen as the nominal value the parameters are calculated as mentioned above. The excitation current which is only 1 percent or less even at rated voltage becomes negligibly small during this test and hence is neglected. The supply voltage required to circulate rated current through the transformer is usually very small and is of the order of a few percent of the nominal voltage. P. keeping the secondary open circuited. which is a graph showing the applied voltage as a function of the no load current. 20. G. Sridhara Rao. 2 Wsc = Isc (r 1 + r 2 ) ′ ′ (42) (43) ′ Zsc = (xl1 + xl2 ) = ′ Vsc Isc 2 − (r + r )2 Zsc 1 2 (44) 48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the current and power input are measured keeping the secondary terminals short circuited. In such cases an open circuit characteristics is ﬁrst obtained. Isc and Wsc respectively. especially in a rewound transformer. Therefore Wsc is the sum of the copper losses in primary and secondary put together. The usual operating point selected for operation lies at some standard voltage around the knee point of the characteristic. in this test primary applied voltage. 7. As the name suggests. Also I1 = I2 as I0 ≃ 0. Prof. Let these values be Vsc .
Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Prof. Sasidhara Rao W A Vsc V (a)Physical Arrangement Isc r1 jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 Vsc (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 21: Short Circuit Test 49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. P. Prof.
when the transformer is loaded. If the ﬂash point of the oil is reached the transformer goes up in ﬂames. This heats the transformer and the temperature of the transformer increases. Sridhara Rao. Rated load is determined by loading the transformer on a continuous basis and observing the steady state temperature rise. As for the separation of xl1 and xl2 is concerned. Prof. However if the exact equivalent circuit is needed then either r1 or r2 is determined from the resistance measurement and the other separated from the total. the losses like dielectric losses and stray load losses are not modeled in the 50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The losses that are generated inside the transformer on load appear as heat. Load test is used mainly 1. This aspect of temperature rise cannot be guessed from the electrical equivalent circuit.Electrical Machines I Prof. Hence to have a reasonable life expectancy the loading of the transformer must be limited to that value which gives the maximum temperature rise tolerated by the insulation. P. Krishna Vasudevan. ′ ′ ′ ′ 7. to determine the rated load of the machine and the temperature rise 2. Sasidhara Rao If the approximate equivalent circuit is required then there is no need to separate r1 and r2 or xl1 and xl2 .5 Load Test Load Test helps to determine the total loss that takes place. The insulation of the transformer is the one to get aﬀected by this rise in the temperature. they are assumed to be equal. in the present case nominal voltage is applied across the primary and rated current is drown from the secondary. Further. G. to determine the voltage regulation and eﬃciency of the transformer. Unlike the tests described previously. Prof. This is a fairly valid assumption for many types of transformer windings as the leakage ﬂux paths are through air and are similar. Both paper and oil which are used for insulation in the transformer start getting degenerated and get decomposed.
As the rating increases it becomes diﬃcult to ﬁnd a load that can absorb the requisite power and a source to feed the necessary current. Many external means of removal of heat from the transformer in the form of diﬀerent cooling methods give rise to diﬀerent values for temperature rise of insulation. G. P. Prof. Hence these permit diﬀerent levels of loading for the same transformer. Prof. The eﬃciency of the transformer is above 99% even in modest sizes which means 1 percent of power handled by the transformer actually goes to heat up the machine. the temperature rise of the transformer is due to the losses that take place ‘inside’ the transformer. Hence the only sure way of ascertaining the rating is by conducting a load test. As the transformers come in varied transformation ratios. then load can be increased else it is decreased. Sridhara Rao. If the ﬁnal steady temperature rise is lower than the maximum permissible value. The remaining 99% of the power has to be dissipated in a load impedance external to the machine. ( If the load is of unity power factor) Thus the actual loading of the transformer is seldom resorted to. Krishna Vasudevan. 51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The load is applied and held constant till the temperature rise of transformer reaches a steady value. It is rather easy to load a transformer of small ratings. Equivalent loss methods of loading and ‘Phantom’ loading are commonly used in the case of transformers. Further. in many cases it becomes extremely diﬃcult to get suitable load impedance. That load current which gives the maximum permissible temperature rise is declared as the nominal or rated load current and the volt amperes are computed using the same.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao equivalent circuit and the actual loss under load condition will be in error to that extent. This is very wasteful in terms of energy also.
Prof. Prof. Therefore this test comes close to a load test but does not replace one. W A 2Io V1 V I’ 2 1 Io Io I2 I2 I’ 2 W A Vs V 2 Figure 22: Back to Back Test . Suitable voltage is injected into the loop formed by the two secondaries such that full load current passes through them.Electrical Machines I Prof. The windings are connected back to back as shown in Fig. Sasidhara Rao In the equivalent loss method a short circuit test is done on the transformer. The short circuit current is so chosen that the resulting loss taking place inside the transformer is equivalent to the sum of the iron losses. 22. P. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.Phantom Loading In Phantom loading method two identical transformers are needed. By this method even though one can pump in equivalent loss inside the transformer. An equiv52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . full load copper losses and assumed stray load losses. G. the actual distribution of this loss vastly diﬀers from that taking place in reality.
P. Prof. There is no power wasted in a load ( as a matter of fact there is no real load at all) and hence the name Phantom or virtual loading.Electrical Machines I Prof. The power absorbed by the second transformer which acts as a load is pushed back in to the mains. The second source supplies the load component of the current and losses due to the same. 53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The transformers work with full ﬂux drawing full load currents and hence are closest to the actual loading condition with a physical load. Sasidhara Rao alent current then passes through the primary also. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. G. The two sources put together meet the core and copper losses of the two transformers. The voltage source V1 supplies the magnetizing current and core losses for the two transformers. Prof.
The parameters of the transformer are referred to some base values and thus get scaled. ratings.Electrical Machines I Prof. The parameters of the equivalent circuits of these machines also vary over a large range. Some base parameters can be chosen as independent base values while some others become derived base parameters. If simple scaling of the parameters is done then one has to carry forward the scaling factors in the calculations. etc. Thus the per unit value is a unitless dimensionless number. Other base values like volt ampere Sbase . However if the scaling is done on a logical basis one can have a simple representation of the parameters without the bother of the scaling factors. Sridhara Rao. Also diﬀerent units of measurement are in use in the diﬀerent countries (FPS. If the transformer parameter can be freed from the units then the system becomes very simple. Prof. In the case of power system a common base value is adopted in view of diﬀerent ratings of the equipments used. Sasidhara Rao 8 Per Unit Calculations As stated earlier. Also the comparison of these machines are made simple if all the parameters are normalized. Once the base values are identiﬁed the per unit values are calculated for any parameter by dividing the same by its base value. MKS. CGS.). its own nominal parameters are used as base values. Prof. The units must be the same for both the parameters and their bases. Expressing in percent basis is one example of scaling. transformers of various sizes. short circuit impedance Zbase can be 54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The ‘per unit’ system is developed keeping these aspects in mind. In the case of individual equipments. G. Let us choose nominal voltage and nominal current on the primary side of a transformer as the base values Vbase and Ibase . P. voltage ratios can be seen being used in a power system. These units also underwent several revisions over the years. Krishna Vasudevan.
G. This is a common problem encountered in the case of parallel operation of two or more transformers.new = (Zp.old on the old base of Sbaseold and Vbaseold shall get modiﬁed on new base Sbasenew . 2 Vbase Sbase old old ) Sbase 2 Vbase new new (50) The term inside the bracket is nothing but the ohmic value of the impedance and this gets converted into the new per unit value by the new Sbase and Vbase . Zbase = Gbase . Krishna Vasudevan. Parameters of all the machines are expressed on this common base. The conversion of the base values naturally lead to change in the per unit values of their parameters. Pbase . Xbase . Sbase = Vbase ∗ Ibase Rbase .Electrical Machines I Prof. 2 Zbase (ohm) Vbase Vbase Many times. Ybase Vbase Ibase Ibase = Vbase (45) (46) (47) Normally Sbase and Vbase are known from name plate details. Qbase .old. P. Sridhara Rao. If all the equivalent circuit parameters are referred to the secondary side and per unit values of the new equivalent circuit parameters are computed with secondary voltage and 55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .u. Prof. Other base values can be derived from them. Bbase .u Zp.u. Prof. An impedance Zp. Vp. Sasidhara Rao calculated from those values.Vbasenew as Zp. Vbase (volt) I (amps) I (Amps) = Sbase = Ibase (amps) V base (48) (49) Z (ohm) Ibase Sbase = = Z (ohm) ∗ = Z (ohm). when more transformers are involved in a circuit one is required to choose a common base value for all of them.u = Ip.u V (volt) .u.
a ′ ′ ′ From the above relationships it can be seen that Zp.u.impedance as seen by secondary. = Zp. there is no change in the per unit values.as the transformer rating is unaltered..u. Sasidhara Rao current as the base values.Electrical Machines I Prof. This is further illustrated by taking the equivalent circuit of a transformer derived earlier and expressing the same in per unit form. Comparing the eﬃciencies of two transformers at any load one can say that the transformer with a higher p. P. Application of per unit values for the calculation of voltage regulation. 1 Vbase = Vbase .Zohm a2 (51) Where a . ′ This becomes obvious if we realize that the mmf of the core for establishing a given ﬂux is the same whether it is supplied through primary or the secondary. The veracity of the parameters can be readily checked. Z . Thus the per unit values help in dispensing away the scaling constants.impedance as seen by primary. Sbase = Sbase .is the turns ratio of primary to secondary Z . Sridhara Rao. eﬃciency and load sharing of parallel connected transformers will be discussed later at appropriate places. Krishna Vasudevan. S = Zohm . Also the active power and reactive power absorbed inside the transformer are not dependant on the winding connected to supply. Prof. Comparison of the parameters of the machines with those of similar ones throw in useful information about the machines. 56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.resistance has higher copper losses without actually computing the same. base ′2 Vbase ′ ′ Zp. This can be easily seen by. ′ but Zohm = ′ 1 .u. G.u.
the voltage at the load is the one which the user has to worry about.Regulation Down and Regulation up. The voltage regulation can be deﬁned in two ways . While input voltage is the responsibility of the supply provider. Sasidhara Rao 9 Voltage Regulation Modern power systems operate at some standard voltages. expressed as a fraction of the noload terminal voltage”. G. In many applications this voltage itself may not be good enough for obtaining the best operating condition for the loads. A transformer is interposed in between the load and the supply terminals in such cases. Prof. The equipments work ing on these systems are therefore given input voltages at these standard values. P. If undue voltage drop is permitted to occur inside the transformer the load voltage becomes too low and aﬀects its performance. Krishna Vasudevan. at any power factor. These two deﬁnitions diﬀer only in the reference voltage as can be seen below. This drop is termed as the voltage regulation and is expressed as a ratio of the terminal voltage (the absolute value per se is not too important). is drawn from its output leads. Regulation = Vnl  − Vl  Vnl  (52) Vnl and Vl are noload and load terminal voltages. Sridhara Rao. the noload voltage being the one given by the power 57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Regulation down: This is deﬁned as ” the change in terminal voltage when a load current at any power factor is applied. Expressed in symbolic form we have. This is the deﬁnition normally used in the case of the transformers. Prof. There are additional drops inside the transformer due to the load currents. It is therefore necessary to quantify the drop that takes place inside a transformer when certain load current. within certain agreed tolerance limits.
only the numerical diﬀerences of the voltages are taken and not vector diﬀerences. Hence a convenient starting point is the load voltage. In the expressions for the regulation. Vl is load voltage. The power factor of the load is deﬁned with respect to the terminal voltage on load. Fig. Then 58 ′ Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Hence noload voltage is taken as the reference. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The noload current I0 is neglected in view of the large magnitude of I2 . This deﬁnition if expressed in symbolic form results in Regulation = Vnl is the noload terminal voltage. He has to generate proper noload voltage at the generating station to provide the user the voltage he has asked for. and the on load voltage. Also the full load output voltage is taken from the name plate. In the case of transformers both deﬁnitions result in more or less the same value for the regulation as the transformer impedance is very low and the power factor of operation is quite high.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sasidhara Rao supply provider on which the user has no say. Normally full load regulation is of interest as the part load regulation is going to be lower. Regulation up: Here again the regulation is expressed as the ratio of the change in the terminal voltage when a load at a given power factor is thrown oﬀ. Hence regulation up has some advantage when it comes to its application. Vnl  − Vl   Vl  (53) This deﬁnition is more commonly used in the case of alternators and power systems as the userend voltage is guaranteed by the power supply provider. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. 23 shows the phasor diagram of operation of the transformer under loaded condition.
P. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. G. Sasidhara Rao Re jXe I’2 V1 V’2 (a) Equivalent Circuit V1 D O A φ V’2 θ B I2’Xe I2’Re C E I2’ (b)Phasor Diagram Figure 23: Regulation of Transformer 59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.
2 v2 v2 − 1 ≃ v1 + 2 2(1 + e1 ) 2 (ex sin φ − er cos φ)2 ∴ regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ + 2 ∴ R ≃ 1 + v1 + (61) (62) 60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V1 = I2 (Re + jXe ) + V2 OD = V1 = = φ .(Re + jXe ) = V2 + I2 (cos φ − j sin φ)(Re + jXe )  V1  −  V2  ∴ RegulationR = = ′  V2  2 2 (1 + v1 )2 + v2 ≃ (1 + v1 )2 + v2 . ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ (56) 2 (1 + v1 )2 + v2 −1 (57) 2 2 2(1 + v1 ) v2 v2 +[ ]2 = (1 + v1 + )2 (58) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) Taking the square root 2 (1 + v1 )2 + v2 = 1 + v1 + 2 v2 (59) 2(1 + v1 ) (60) where v1 = er cos φ + ex sin φ and v2 = ex cos φ − er sin φ er = I2 Re ′ =per V2 ′ unit resistance drop ex = I2 Xe ′ =per V2 ′ unit reactance drop as v1 and v2 are small.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao I1 = I2 . P. Prof.internal impedance angle=tan−1 X Re ′ ′ ′ ′ (54) [OA + AB + BC ]2 + [CD ]2 ′ ′ ′ ′ [V2 + I2 Re cos φ + I2 Xe sin φ]2 + [I2 Xe cos φ − I2 Re sin φ]2 (55) Also.power factor angle. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. V1 = V2 + I2 . G. e θ.
Sridhara Rao. Similarly. As v2 is small its second power may be neglected as a further approximation and the expression for the regulation of the transform boils down to regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ The negative sign is applicable when the power factor is leading. the full load regulation becomes zero when the power factor is leading and er cos φ = ex sin φ or tan φ = er /ex or the power factor angle φ = tan−1 (er /ex ) = tan−1 (Re /Xe ) leading. We have.u )2 + (sin φ + Xp. Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Here the phasor are resolved along the current axis and normal to it. G. the value of the regulation is maximum at a power factor angle φ = tan−1 (ex /er ) = tan−1 (Xe /Re ) lagging. It can be seen from the above expression. An alternative expression for the regulation of a transformer can be derived by the method shown in Fig. 24.(1 − v1 ) ≃ 2 2(1 + v1 ) 2 (1 − v1 ) 2 2 (63) Powers higher than 2 for v1 and v2 are negligible as v1 and v2 are already small. OD 2 = (OA + AB )2 + (BC + CD )2 ′ ′ ′ ′ (64) = (V2 cos φ + I2 Re )2 + (V2 sin φ + I2 Xe )2 (65) OD − V2 OD ∴ RegulationR = = ′ −1 ′ V2 V2 (V2 cos φ + I2 Re ) (V sin φ + I2 Xe ) + 2 −1 ′ ′ V2 V2 = 2 (cos φ + Rp. Sasidhara Rao 2 2 2 2 v2 (1 − v1 ) v2 v2 v2 ≃ . ≃ .u )−1 ′ ′ ′ (66) (67) (68) 2 ′ ′ 2 61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof.
G. Sridhara Rao. P. It is therefore very small and negligible. Sasidhara Rao V1 D V2 I2’Xe θ C O φ I2’ I2’Re A B Figure 24: An Alternate Method for the Calculation of Regulation Thus this expression may not be as convenient as the earlier one due to the square root involved. Fig. 62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 25 that the full load regulation at unity power factor is nothing but the percentage resistance of the transformer. Krishna Vasudevan. It is seen from Fig. In small transformers the designer tends to keep the Xe very low (less than 5%) so that the regulation performance of the transformer is satisfactory. Only with low power factor loads the drop in the series impedance of the transformer contributes substantially to the regulation. Prof. Prof. 25 shows the variation of full load regulation of a typical transformer as the power factor is varied from zero power factor leading. through unity power factor.Electrical Machines I Prof. to zero power factor lagging.
0 0. 5 1 2 3 4 5 1. P. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Prof. 5 leading 0 lagging Figure 25: Variation of Full Load Regulation with Power Factor 63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao 5 4 3 %Regulation 2 power factor 1 0 0.
In the case of transformers provided with taps on windings. Sasidhara Rao A low value of the short circuit impedance /reactance results in a large short circuit current in case of a short circuit.Electrical Machines I Prof. 64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. This in turn results in large mechanical forces on the winding. so that the turns ratio can be changed. In other cases care has to be exercised in the selection of the short circuit impedance as it aﬀects the voltage regulation. P. in large transformers the short circuit impedance is made high to give better short circuit protection to the transformer which results in poorer regulation performance. G. Sridhara Rao. So. Prof. Prof. the voltage regulation is not a serious issue.
The evolution of these machines was very quick. Thus a search for new sources of energy and novel gadgets received great attention. Sridhara Rao. The invention of a commutator paved the way for the birth of d. This enabled the research work on moving charges or currents. This led to the invention of an electromagnet. They rapidly attained the physical conﬁgurations that are being used even today.c. generators and motors.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao D. transformers and induction motors came into existence almost contemporarily. Prof. This can be termed as the birth of a motor. Parallel research was contemporarily being done to invent a source of energy to recharge the batteries in the form of a d.c. Prof. generators proceeded on independent paths. power system was poised for a predominant place as a preferred 1 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . source of constant amplitude (or d.C Machines 1 Introduction The steam age signalled the beginning of an industrial revolution. Hardly a year later the force exerted on a current carrying conductor placed in the magnetic ﬁeld was invented. Other useful machines like alternators.c. The d. It was soon discovered ( in 1820 ) that. These inventions generated great interest in the generation and use of electrical energy. During the second half of the 19th century these two paths merged. these electric currents are also associated with magnetic ﬁeld like a load stone. P. The advantages of machines and gadgets in helping mass production and in improving the services spurred the industrial research.c. A better understanding of the inter relationship between electric and magnetic circuits was obtained with the enumeration of laws of induction by Faraday in 1831.c. generator). motors and d. By the end of the 18th century the research on electric charges received a great boost with the invention of storage batteries.c. G. For about three decades the research on d. Krishna Vasudevan.
system. Thus a. motors have excellent control characteristics. The limitations of the d.c.c. They use the electromagnetic principles which can be further simpliﬁed at the low frequency levels at which these machines are used. The invention of induction machines in the 1880s tilted the scale in favor of a. Prof. systems the generating stations and the load centers have to be near to each other for eﬃcient transmission of energy. however could not be obliterated due to the able support of batteries. Further.c. d. Prof. In the case of d. machines are the same. Sridhara Rao.c. the underlying principles of both a.c.c. systems mainly due to the advantage oﬀered by transformers. In spite of the apparent diversity in the characteristics. with the availability of batteries for storage. Krishna Vasudevan. and d. Even today the d. motor remains an industry standard as far as the control aspects are concerned. P. 2 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .c.c. system however became more and more apparent as the power demand increased. The d.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao system for use.c. motors for getting mechanical outputs from electrical energy. G. These basic principles are discussed at ﬁrst.c.c. generators for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical form and d.c.voltage levels at constant power at extremely high eﬃciency. system took over as the preferred system for the generation transmission and utilization of electrical energy. d. machines still have a major say. which could step up or step down the a. In the lower power levels and also in regenerative systems the d.c.
This emf is proportional to the rate of change of these ﬂux linkages.1 Basic principles Electric machines can be broadly classiﬁed into electrostatic machines and electro magnetic machines.1 Law of electro magnetic induction Faraday proposed this law of Induction in 1831. In subsequent discussions the knowledge of electric and magnetic circuit laws is assumed. Though one sees a variety of electrical machines in the market. G. Krishna Vasudevan. This can be expressed mathematically.1. Magnetic circuit law Kirchof f ′ s Laws Ampere′ s Law 3. Prof. then an emf is induced in the coil. Electric circuit laws 2. The electrostatic principles do not yield practical machines for commercial electric power generation. It states that if the magnetic ﬂux lines linking a closed electric coil changes. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 1. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. 1.F araday ′s Law 4. The attention is focused on the Faraday’s law and Biot Savart’s law in the present study of the electrical machines. Sridhara Rao. To understand. design and use these machines the following laws must be studied. e∝ 3 dψ dt (1) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Law of electromagnetic induction . the basic underlying principles of all these are the same. 1. The present day machines are based on the electromagnetic principles. Law of electromagnetic interaction BiotSavart′ s Law Most of the present day machines have one or two electric circuits linking a common magnetic circuit.
The ﬂux lines. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. dt = −jBm . Prof. The changes in the ﬂux linkages associated with a turn can be brought about by (i) changing the magnitude of the ﬂux linking a static coil (ii) moving the turn outside the region of a steady ﬁeld (iii) moving the turn and changing the ﬂux simultaneously These may be termed as Case(i). 1 shows a rectangular loop of one turn (or N=1). It is analogous to the inertia in the mechanical systems. This is now explained with the help of a simple geometry. Sridhara Rao. The direction of the induced emf can be determined by the application of Lenz’s law. The ﬂux linkages of the loop is BLN weber turns. Fig. Krishna Vasudevan. an emf given by e= d (Bm . cos ωt. e∝N dΦ dt (2) Here N is the number of turns of the coil. This can be expressed as. Case(ii). Prof. cos ωt volt 4 (3) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . and Φ is the ﬂux lines in weber linking all these turns. If now the ﬂux alone changes with time such that B = Bm . G.Nω.L. sin ωt. Sasidhara Rao where ψ is the ﬂux linkages given by the product of ﬂux lines in weber that are linked and N the number of turns of the coil.L. as in Case(i). and Case(iii) respectively.Nω ).L. Conductor 1 is placed over a region with a uniform ﬂux density of B Tesla. If the ﬂux is unchanging and conductor stationary. Lenz’s law states that the direction of the induced emf is such as to produce an eﬀect to oppose this change in ﬂux linkages.N cos ωt) = −(Bm . no emf will be seen at the terminals of the loop. the conductor and the motion are in mutually perpendicular directions.
L. Sridhara Rao.L.X. as in Case(ii).Electrical Machines I Prof. sin ωt.N.L. This type of voltage is called speed emf (or rotational emf).ω.L.L. cos ωt.N dt dt dt volts (4) The emf induced in the loop is directly proportional to the uniform ﬂux density under which it is moving with a velocity v . Prof. This is termed as a ”transformer” emf. cos ωt) dX = = Bm .N.v volts (5) d(Bm . Krishna Vasudevan. − Bm . Then the change in ﬂux linkage and hence the value of e is given by e= dψ d(Bm . If ﬂux remains constant at Bm but the conductor moves with a velocity v . G. dt dt dt (6) In this case both transformer emf and speed emf are present. 5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The Case(iii) refers to the situation where B is changing with time and so also is X .X. P. then the induced emf is e= but dX =v dt ∴ e = Bm .N ) dX dψ = = Bm .L.N. Sasidhara Rao L B X  + Figure 1: Faraday’s law of Induction appears across the terminals. Prof.N.
ﬁeld and motion are not normal to each other then the mutually normal components are to be taken for the computation of the voltage. One coil carrying time varying current produces the time varying ﬁeld and a second coil kept in the vicinity of the same has an emf induced in it.Electrical Machines I Prof. This greatly simpliﬁes the computation of the induced voltage as the determination of ﬂux linkages and ﬁnding its rate of change are dispensed with. Sasidhara Rao The Case(i) has no mechanical energy associated with it.c. A coil is moved under this ﬁeld to produce the change in the ﬂux linkages and induce an emf in the same. Prof. The induced emf of this variety is often termed as the transformer emf. G. The second conductor of the turn may be assumed to be far away or unmoving. For a conductor moving at a constant velocity v the induced emf becomes just proportional to the uniform ﬂux density of the magnetic ﬁeld where the conductor is situated. current.c. In order to produce the emf on a continuous manner a cylindrical geometry is chosen for the machines. Krishna Vasudevan. P. The induced emf of this type is usually referred to as a rotational emf (due to the geometry). Sridhara Rao. A static magnetic ﬁeld is produced by a permanent magnet or by a coil carrying a d. the direction of the conductor of the coil and the direction of movement are mutually perpendicular as mentioned above in the example taken. The Case(ii) is the one which is employed in d. Application of Faradays law according to Case(iii) above for electro mechani6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . If the conductor. machines and alternators. In the example shown above. only one conductor is taken and the ﬂux ’cut’ by the same in the normal direction is used for the computation of the emf. The direction of the ﬁeld. Prof. This is the principle used in transformers.
these forces are absorbed by the supporting structure. 3. Prof. The direction of the induced emf is emf and current Force Motion F B (a) (b) Figure 2: Law of inductionGenerator action decided next. Sridhara Rao. In Case(i). commutator machines. G. Sasidhara Rao cal energy conversion results in the generation of both transformer and rotational emf to be present in the coil moving under a changing ﬁeld. Also the coil experiences a compressive force when the ﬂux tries to increase and a tensile force when the ﬂux decays. The changes in the ﬂux linkages is 7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. This is illustrated in Fig. it opposes the cause of the emf which is change in ψ and hence φ.Electrical Machines I Prof. This principle is utilized in the induction machines and a. In Case(ii).c. the direction of the induced emf is as shown. Here again one could derive the same from the application of the Lenz’s law. P. Thus. Krishna Vasudevan. the induced emf will be in such a direction as to cause a opposing mmf if the circuit is closed. If the coil is rigid. This can be obtained by the application of the Lenz’s law and the law of interaction.
This force is due to electro magnetic interaction and is proportional to the current and the ﬂux swept. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. As F opposes v and the applied force. The ﬂux lines are more on one side of the conductor than the other. Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. The current carrying conductor reacts with the ﬁeld to develop a force which urges the conductor to the right. is as shown in the ﬁgure. If one looks closely at the ﬁeld around the conductor under these conditions it is as shown in Fig. The induced emf and the current are seen to act in opposite direction resulting in the absorption of electric energy which gets converted into the mechanical form.motor operation. it is going to be more complex due to the presence of transformer 8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Motor action brought about by the sweep or movement of the conductor. However. if permitted to drive a current which produces an opposing force. mechanical energy gets absorbed in this case and the machine works as a generator. These lines seem to urge the conductor to the left with a force F .Force F B (a) (b) Figure 3: Law of interaction. Sridhara Rao. G. The induced emf. In Case (iii) also the direction of the induced emf can be determined in a similar manner. Sasidhara Rao emf current Motion.c. 3(a)and (b) similarly explain the d. Prof. 2(a)and (b). P.
it produces a reaction force on the mechanical system which absorbs the mechanical energy. The converse happens in the case of the motor. Prof. Putting mathematically.machines. Thus. If we force a current against an induced emf then the electrical power is absorbed by the same and it appears as the mechanical torque on the shaft. Prof.I Newton When the generated voltage drives a current.L. Sasidhara Rao emf and rotational emf which have phase diﬀerence between them. in the present study of d. G. Sridhara Rao. it is seen that the motoring and generating actions are easily changeable with the help of the terminal conditions.Electrical Machines I Prof. F = B. 9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Krishna Vasudevan. This absorbed mechanical energy is the one which results in the electric current and the appearance of electrical energy in the electrical circuit.c.
Sridhara Rao. on the basis of their magnetic structure. The polarity of the induced voltage can be reversed by reversing either the excitation or the direction of 10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The conductor thus sees only one pole polarity or the ﬂux directed in one sense. A simple structure where there is only one cylindrical conductor with ring brushes situated at the ends is shown in Fig. These machines can be broadly classiﬁed into two types. These are discussed in sequence below. Prof.c.c. Sasidhara Rao 2 Principles of d. 1.c. 4. machines D. A cylindrically symmetric geometry is chosen. Either north pole or south pole could be used for this purpose. The conductor can be situated on the surface of the rotor with one slipring at each end of the conductor.C. machines are the electro mechanical energy converters which work from a d. P. The excitation coil produces a ﬁeld which enters the inner member from outside all along the periphery.Electrical Machines I Prof. Since the conductor encounters the magnetic ﬂux of the same polarity every where it is called a homopolar generator. source and generate mechanical power or convert mechanical power into a d. 2. Prof. A steady voltage now appears across the brushes at any given speed of rotation. in a homopolar generator the conductors are arranged in such a manner that they always move under one polarity. power. Homopolar machines 2. They are. Heteropolar machines. G. Krishna Vasudevan.1 Homopolar machines Homopolar generators Even though the magnetic poles occur in pairs.
P. Prof. Sasidhara Rao + A N B Brush Flux S S Field coil A B N  + Figure 4: Homopolar Generator 11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof.
Even though homopolar machines are d. The magnitude of the induced emf in a conductor 10 cm long kept on a rotor of 10 cm radius rotating at 3000 rpm.1 ∗ 3000 = 3. Such sources are used in some applications like pulsecurrent and MHD generators.c.Electrical Machines I Prof. The voltage induced would be very low but the currents of very large amplitudes can be supplied by such machines. with the ﬁeld ﬂux density being 1 Tesla every where in the air gap. However. G. This series connection has to be done externally. is given by e = BLv = 1 ∗ 0. Prof. If higher voltages are required one is forced to connect many conductors in series. The steady ﬁeld can also be produced using a permanent magnet of ring shape which is radially magnetized. liquid metal pumps or plasma rockets. 2.c.1 ∗ 2π ∗ 0. The induced emf in the conductor therefore is not a constant but alternates in magnitude. For 12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Many conductors must be situated on the rotating structure each connected to a pair of slip rings.2 Heteropolar d. machine family called ”heteropolar” machines. they are not quite useful for day to day use. Sridhara Rao. this modiﬁcation introduces parasitic airgaps and makes the mechanical structure very complex. A more practical converters can be found in the d. P. generators In the case of a heteropolar generator the induced emf in a conductor goes through a cyclic change in voltage as it passes under north and south pole polarity alternately. Sasidhara Rao rotation but not both.c. generators in a strict sense that they ’generate’ steady voltages. Krishna Vasudevan.14 volt 60 The voltage drops at the brushes become very signiﬁcant at this level bringing down the eﬃciency of power conversion. Prof.
P. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sasidhara Rao b N a c B d + A S Load Figure 5: Elementary hetropolar machine Field coil Pole v v N 10 11 9 12 8 v Commutator 1 S1 A+ B  7 F1 S2 F2 S3 v Armature core 2 F3 S4 Yoke F4 6 Figure 6: Two pole machine With Gramme ring type armature 13 v 3 4 5 S Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sridhara Rao.
generators our aim is to get a steady d. If a winding satisﬁes this condition then it is suitable for use as an armature winding of a d. Similarly the sum of a set of coils also remains a constant. Fig.c.c. 5 shows an elementary heteropolar. Sridhara Rao. 2pole machine and onecoil armature. Sasidhara Rao a constant velocity of sweep the induced emf is directly proportional to the ﬂux density under which it is moving. 14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This principle is used in the a. The ends of the coil are connected to a split ring which acts like a commutator. Connection to the winding is made through the commutator only. In the case of d. the value of this emf is a constant at any given position of the conductor as the ﬁeld is stationary. The coils connected between the two brushes must be ”similarly located” with respect to the poles irrespective of the actual position of the rotor. This can be termed as the condition of symmetry. hence it is taken up here for explanation. This thought is the one which gave birth to the commutator. Krishna Vasudevan. The ring winding due to Gramme is one such. This is achieved by employing an external element. It is easy to follow the action of the d. then a sine wave voltage is generated. which is called a commutator.c generators. with the winding. machine. machine using a ring winding. As the polarity of the induced voltages changes the connection to the brush also gets switched so that the voltage seen at the brushes has a unidirectional polarity.c. Prof. P. This idea is further developed in the modern day machines with the use of commutators. If the ﬂux density variation is sinusoidal in space. Prof.c. Even though the instantaneous value of the induced emf in each conductor varies as a function of the ﬂux density under which it is moving. The idea of a commutator is an ingenious one. voltage at the terminals of the winding and not the shape of the emf in the conductors. The brushes are placed on the commutator. G.Electrical Machines I Prof.
As we wish to have a maximum value for the output voltage. The sum of the emfs is constant(nearly). Due to this form of the ﬂux density curve. In each path a set of voltages get added up. Prof. ring wound armature of a machine. A rectangular ﬂux density wave form has some advantages in the derivation of the voltage between the brushes. This variation in the output voltage is called the ’ripple’.Electrical Machines I Prof. The junction of each coil with its neighbor is connected to a commutator segment. 6 shows a 2pole. Two brushes A and B are placed on the commutator which looks like a cylinder. If one traces the connection from brush A to brush B one ﬁnds that there are two paths. the induced 15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. P. If the armature is turned by a distance of one slot pitch the sum of emfs is seen to be constant even though a diﬀerent set of coils participate in the addition. Krishna Vasudevan. Each commutator segment is insulated from its neighbor by a mica separator. 12 coil. Sridhara Rao. G. The constancy of this magnitude is altered by a small value corresponding to the coil short circuited by the brush. This is one reason why an average ﬂux density over the entire pole pitch is taken and ﬂux density curve is assumed to be rectangular. Another important observation from the working principle of a heterogeneous generator is that the actual shape of the ﬂux density curve does not matter as long as the integral of the ﬂux entering the rotor is held constant. the choice of position for the brushes would be at the neutral axis of the ﬁeld. The coil which gets short circuited has nearly zero voltage induced in the same and hence the sum does not change substantially. More the number of coils participating in the sum lesser would be the ’percentage’ ripple. The 12 coils are placed at uniform spacing around the rotor. Sasidhara Rao Fig. which means that for a given ﬂux per pole the voltage will be constant even if the shape of this ﬂux density curve changes (speed and other conditions remaining unaltered).
Length of the ’active’ conductor. The induced emf between the brushes is E = Ec . E= φ Z . Z 2b Z 2b Volts (8) (9) = Bav . Sasidhara Rao emf in each turn of the armature becomes constant and equal to each other.(2p.Y.n where p is the pairs of poles Y is the pole pitch. (L. m. then number of conductors in a series path is Z/2b. Tesla. v . Sridhara Rao. But v = (2p).Electrical Machines I Prof.Y ) 2b = φpZn b volts (11) φ (L. and n is the number of revolutions made by the armature per second.Average ﬂux density over a pole pitch. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.L.Y ) Tesla (10) The number of pairs of parallel paths is a function of the type of the winding chosen.L.L. and ﬂux per pole φ as Bav = Substituting in equation Eqn.Y. Prof. With this back ground the emf induced between the brushes can be derived. G. 9. If there are Z conductors on the armature and they form b pairs of parallel circuits between the brushes by virtue of their connections. P. L. in meters. The value of the induced in one conductor is given by Ec where Bav . Also Bav can be written in terms of pole pitch Y .v Volt (7) E = Bav .Velocity of sweep of conductor. m/sec. This 16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .v. core length L.n).
φ. Hence it absorbs mechanical energy. Thus the force directly opposes the motion.p.φ. Sridhara Rao.( )Z Nm 2π b (14) p. These current carrying conductors interact with the ﬁeld and experience force acting on the same.Ia b (13) (12) This shows that the torque generated is not a function of the speed. Sasidhara Rao will be discussed later under the section on the armature windings.Z.2. Also.Electrical Machines I Prof. knowing that Ia /2b is Ic the conductor current on the armature. 11. This absorbed mechanical power manifests itself as the converted electrical power. The law of interaction states that the force experienced by a conductor of length L kept in a 17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.1 Torque production When the armature is loaded. Krishna Vasudevan. G. This force is in such a direction as to oppose their cause which in the present case is the relative movement between the conductors and the ﬁeld.n . P. The expression for the torque generated can also be derived from the ﬁrst principles by the application of the law of interaction. it is proportional to ’total ﬂux’ and ’Total ampere conductors’ on the armature. Substituting for E from Eqn. we get 2πnT = which gives torque T as T = 1 Ia . Prof. Equating the mechanical and electrical power we have 2πnT = EIa where T is the torque in Nm. the armature conductors carry currents. The electrical power generated by an armature delivering a current of Ia to the load at an induced emf of E is EIa Watts. 2.
machines. (17) (18) (19) The above principles can easily be extended to the case of motoring mode of operation also. P. machine is made to work from a d. If the armature of the d.c.(2p.Ic .Ic .L.Y ) Joules = φ . This will be discussed next in the section on motoring operation of d.Ic . source then. machine which is at rest is connected to a d.Electrical Machines I Prof.2p.c. Krishna Vasudevan.L.n.L.2 Motoring operation of a d.L and Ic . Force on a single conductor Fc is given by. G.Z.Z.c. Prof. 2.Y L. Fc = B. b AsIc = which is nothing but EIa .n watts Ia 2b Ia = φ. This power is converted into the mechanical form.Z.c.c.c.Y Joules (16) The work done per second or the power converted by the armature is.Ic Newton (15) The total work done by an armature with Z conductors in one revolution is given by. machine In the motoring operation the d. If the ﬁeld is already excited then 18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . a current ﬂows into the armature conductors. Sasidhara Rao uniform ﬁeld of ﬂux density B carrying a current Ic is proportional to B.2.p. Pconv = φ. This is brieﬂy discussed here.2p. Sridhara Rao. Prof.Z. Wa = Bav . source and absorb electrical power.
Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Thus a ’back emf’ appears and tries to reduce the current. Sridhara Rao. 19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. G. These aspects would be discussed in detail at a later stage. This absorbed electrical power gets converted into mechanical form. Prof. The absorbed power gets converted into electrical or mechanical power. This is brieﬂy explained earlier with the help of Figure 3(a) and 3(b). Thus the same electrical machine works as a generator of electrical power or the absorber of electrical power depending upon the operating condition. The conductors now move under the ﬁeld and cut the magnetic ﬂux and hence an induced emf appears in them.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao these current carrying conductors experience a force as per the law of interaction discussed above and the armature experiences a torque. If the restraining torque could be neglected the armature starts rotating in the direction of the force. The polarity of the induced emf is such as to oppose the cause of the current which in the present case is the applied voltage. As the induced emf and the current act in opposing sense the machine acts like a sink to the electrical power which the source supplies.
c.c. 7. Poles 20 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The present day d. The major parts can be identiﬁed as. The description would also aid the understanding of the reason for selecting one form of construction or the other. Click here to see the assembling of the parts.c. Sasidhara Rao 3 Constructional aspects of d. machines were invented during the second half of the 19th century. The best conﬁgurations stood all the competition and the test of time and were adopted. Prof. To appreciate the working and the characteristics of these machines.both electrical and nonelectrical. The initial pace of development work was phenomenal. Less eﬀective options were discarded.Electrical Machines I Prof. machines As mentioned earlier the d. Body 2. G.c. 1. Figure 7: Exploded view of D.Machine machine is shown in Fig. An exploded view of a small d. Sridhara Rao. if not all. P. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.C. it is necessary to know about the diﬀerent parts of the machine . generator contains most. of the features of the machine developed over a century earlier.
Pole shoes are generally laminated. Cast steel is used as a material for the frame and yoke as the ﬂux does not vary in these parts. Sasidhara Rao 3. In many cases the shell forms part of the magnetic circuit itself. Armature 4. due to practical considerations of commutation. Body The body constitutes the outer shell within which all the other parts are housed. Compensating winding 7.c. Those are called as fabricated frames. Even though for the generation of an emf in a conductor a relative movement between the ﬁeld and the conductor would be enough. machines. P. Main poles Solid poles of fabricated steel with seperate/integral pole shoes are fastened to the frame by means of bolts. a rotating conductor conﬁguration is selected for d. Sometimes pole body and pole shoe are formed from the same laminations. Commutator and brush gear 5. In small special machines these could be made of stack of laminations suitably fastened together to form a solid structure. Prof. This will be closed at both the ends by two end covers which also support the bearings required to facilitate the rotation of the rotor and the shaft. Fabrication as against casting avoids expensive patterns. In large machines these are fabricated by suitably welding the diﬀerent parts. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Hence the shell or frame supports the poles and yoke of the magnetic system. Other mechanical parts The constructional aspects relating to these parts are now discussed brieﬂy in sequence. Commutating poles 6. Prof. Stiﬀeners are used on both 21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G.
Large sized machines employ a spider on which the laminations are stacked in segments. Prof. Two types of windings are generally employed. Armature construction process must ensure provision of suﬃcient axial and radial ducts to facilitate easy removal of heat from the armature winding. Field windings In the case of wound ﬁeld machines (as against permanent magnet excited machines) the ﬁeld winding takes the form of a concentric coil wound around the main poles. These can be solid. stacking it etc are to be done more carefully. Prof. Thickness of these lamination is kept low to reduce eddy current losses.Electrical Machines I Prof. The pole shoes are shaped so as to have a slightly increased air gap at the tips. or laminated just as the main poles. Interpoles These are small additional poles located in between the main poles. These carry the excitation current and produce the main ﬁeld in the machine. Armature The armature is where the moving conductors are located. The core is divided into packets to facilitate ventilation. As the laminations carry alternating ﬂux the choice of suitable material. These slots house the armature winding. Sasidhara Rao sides of the laminations. G. The width of the tip of the compole can be about a rotor slot pitch. End plates are suitably shaped so as to serve as ’Winding supporters’. These are also fastened to the yoke by bolts. The inter poles could be of tapered section or of uniform cross section. insulation coating on the laminations. P. The armature is constructed by stacking laminated sheets of silicon steel. In shunt winding large number of turns of small section copper conductor is 22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Open parallel sided equally spaced slots are normally punched in the rotor laminations. Krishna Vasudevan. Thus the poles are created electromagnetically. These are also called as commutating poles or compoles. Sometimes the yoke may be slotted to receive these poles. The winding cannot be placed on the surface of the rotor due to the mechanical forces coming on the same. Riveted through bolts hold the assembly together.
As these work on the same magnetic system they are in the form of concentric coils. if the armature coils are wound on the surface of the armature. they may be absent. In the case of small machines. machines of very large rating. such construction becomes mechanically weak. Such winding is called compensating winding. The function 23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The armature must be dynamically balanced to reduce the centrifugal forces at the operating speeds. P. In the case of large machines slot wedges are additionally used to restrain the coils from ﬂying away. Compensating winding One may ﬁnd a bar winding housed in the slots on the pole shoes. Sasidhara Rao used. The resistance of such winding would be an order of magnitude larger than the armature winding resistance. Prof. Hence the armature windings are in general preformed. The total ampere turns required to establish the necessary ﬂux under the poles is calculated from the magnetic circuit calculations. The mmf required to be shared between shunt and series windings are apportioned as per the design requirements. Mmf ’per pole’ is normally used in these calculations. In smaller machines. This is mostly found in d. they can be hand wound. Sridhara Rao. The end portion of the windings are taped at the free end and bound to the winding carrier ring of the armature at the commutator end. The total mmf required is divided equally between north and south poles as the poles are produced in pairs. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Armature winding As mentioned earlier. Some machines may have both the windings on the poles. In the case of series winding a few turns of heavy cross section conductor is used.c. The resistance of such windings is low and is comparable to armature resistance. Krishna Vasudevan. The coils are prevented from ﬂying out due to the centrifugal forces by means of bands of steel wire on the surface of the rotor in small groves cut into it. G. taped and lowered into the open slots on the armature. The conductors may ﬂy away when the armature starts rotating.
Normally electrographite is used as brush material.Insulating cups 3. The surface of the commutator is machined and surface is made concentric with the shaft and the current collecting brushes rest on the same. Sridhara Rao.c. P. Sasidhara Rao and the need of such windings will be discussed later on. The actual composition of the brush depends on the peripheral speed of the commutator and the working voltage.Commutator bar 4. Brush and brush holders Brushes rest on the surface of the commutator. Prof. Undercutting the mica insulators that are between these commutator segments has to be done periodically to avoid fouling of the surface of the commutator by mica when the commutator gets worn out. The whole commutator forms a rigid and solid assembly of insulated copper strips and can rotate at high speeds.Riser 5. It consists of copper segments tightly fastened together with mica/micanite insulating separators on an insulated base. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. machine of the present day possible. Each commutator segment is provided with a ’riser’ where the ends of the armature coils get connected.Insulating gasket 4 3 1 2 5 2 Figure 8: Cylindrical type commutatora longitudinal section Commutator Commutator is the key element which made the d. Some details of the construction of the commutator are seen in Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof.Clamping cone 2. 8. G. 1. The hardness of the graphite brush is selected to be lower than that of the commutator. When the 24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
P. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao brush wears out the graphite works as a solid lubricant reducing frictional coeﬃcient. Prof. More number of relatively smaller width brushes are preferred in place of large broad brushes. The brushes are kept pressed on the commutator with the help of springs. G. The connection Pigtail Pressure spring Brush Brush holder box (a) Radial Trailing Reaction Motion of commutator (b) Figure 9: Brush holder with a Brush and Positioning of the brush on the commutator from the brush is taken out by means of ﬂexible pigtail. This is to ensure proper contact between 25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. The brush holders provide slots for the brushes to be placed.
Prof. 26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Radial positioning of the brushes helps in providing similar current collection conditions for both direction of rotation.Electrical Machines I Prof. Proper machining is to be ensured for easy assembly. Also staggering of the brushes along the length of the commutator is adopted to avoid formation of ’tracks’ on the commutator. Sasidhara Rao the brushes and the commutator even under high speeds of operation. They are housed inside the end shield in such a manner that it is not necessary to remove the bearings from the shaft for dismantling. 9(b) Reaction arrangement is preferred as it results in zero side thrust on brush box and the brush can slide down or up freely. In most machines the fan is on the noncommutator end sucking the air from the commutator end and throwing the same out. Jumping of brushes must be avoided to ensure arc free current collection and to keep the brush contact drop low. fan and shaft bearings form other important mechanical parts. Fig. pedestal bearings etc are used under special cases. P. Sridhara Rao. The bearings are mounted pressﬁt on the shaft. Fans can be external or internal. Other mechanical parts End covers. For unidirectional drives trailing brush arrangement or reaction arrangement may be used in Fig. Care must be taken to see that there are no bearing currents or axial forces on the shaft both of which destroy the bearings. 9 shows a brush holder arrangement. roller bearings. Prof. For larger machines roller bearings are used especially at the driving end. Thrust bearings. Krishna Vasudevan. G. The bearings must be kept in closed housing with suitable lubricant keeping dust and other foreign materials away. Adequate quantity of hot air removal has to be ensured. End covers are completely solid or have opening for ventilation. Bearings Small machines employ ball bearings at both ends. They support the bearings which are on the shaft. This is especially true if the machine is operating in a dusty environment like the one found in cement plants.
Earlier. Sasidhara Rao 4 Armature Windings Main field X N Commutator & Brush Compole field X X x x x x x X Shaft S x x x x x x x x x S Compensating winding v x X X N Figure 10: Cross sectional view Fig. P. The Gramme ring winding is now obsolete as a better armature winding has 27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras x X x x Armature winding Yoke X . Fig. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. form the heart of the d.c. Prof. 11(a) shows one coil of an armature of Gramme ring arrangement and Fig. 11(b) shows one coil as per drum winding arrangement. machine. a simple form of this winding in the form of Gramme ring winding was presented for easy understanding. machine showing all the salient parts. Sridhara Rao. Armature windings. G. Prof. along with the commutators. 10 gives the cross sectional view of a modern d.c. This is where the emf is induced and hence its eﬀective deployment enhances the output of the machine.
Sridhara Rao. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Prof. Sasidhara Rao X X Ν X X Ν φ Α φ Α Α’ φ/2 Α’ (a) Ring winding φ/2 φ/2 (b) Drum winding φ/2 Figure 11: Ring winding and drum winding 28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P.Electrical Machines I Prof.
Thus the eﬀectiveness of the electric circuit is only 50 percent. There is no necessity for a rotor bore. if left on the surface. The distance. Both the conductors have emf induced in them. The coils could be made of single conductors (single turn coils) or more number of conductors in series (multi turn coils). Prof. Looking at it diﬀerently the total ﬂux of a pole is linked with a turn inducing much larger voltage induced in the same. Also. Thus there is no circulating current when the armature is not loaded. This is a direct consequence of the symmetry consideration. Hence slots are made on the surface and the conductors are placed in these slots and fastened by steel wires to keep them in position. Looking at it diﬀerently. the return conductor has to be wound inside the bore of the rotor. Even though the total winding is a closed one the sum of the emfs would be zero at all times. and hence the rotor diameter is larger and mounting of the rotor on the shaft is made diﬃcult. Each armature slot is partitioned into two layers. P. a top layer and a bottom layer. will ﬂy away due to centrifugal forces. G. The rotor is mechanically robust with more area being available for carrying the ﬂux. Mechanical problems that existed in ring winding are no longer there with drum windings. The forward conductor is housed in the top layer of a slot and the return conductor is housed in the bottom layer 29 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . measured along the periphery of the armature from any point under a pole to a similar point under the neighboring pole is termed as a pole pitch. half of the magnetic ﬂux per pole links with each coil. The winding is called as a double layer winding. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. The ring winding has only one conductor in a turn working as an active conductor. These coils are in turn connected to form a closed winding. The two sides of the coil. In a drum winding both forward and return conductors are housed in slots cut on the armature (or drum). The two sides of the coil lie under two poles one north and the other south. so that the induced emf in them are always additive by virtue of the end connection. The second conductor is used simply to complete the electrical connections. The rotor diameters are smaller.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao been invented in the form of a drum winding.
Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao Upper coil side S A C D B N Lower coil side A’ Upper coil side N (a) End view B S Lower coil side Inactive Active S A N A’ S Armature Inactive C D (b) Developed view Figure 12: Arrangement of a single coil of a drum winding 30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. P. Prof.
Such 2/3 coils occupy the 2/3 top coil sides of the slot. This sum gets altered by the voltage of a coil that is being switched from one circuit to the other or which is being commutated. The number of turns in a coil can be one (single turn coils) or more (multi turn coils ). 13 shows the axial side view while Fig. Sasidhara Rao of a slot which is displaced by about one pole pitch. As this coil in general lies in the magnetic neutral axis it has a small value of voltage induced in it. The brushes are placed in such a manner that a maximum voltage appears across them. In the present case the number of coils in the armature is 2S/3S. one can increase the number of coils coming in series between the brushes. The number of brushes and parallel paths thus vary considerably. 12 to illustrate its location and connection to the commutators. This change in the sum expressed as the fraction of the total induced voltage is called as the ripple. P. b and c belong to a coil. As seen earlier the sum of the instantaneous emfs appears across the brushes. The physical arrangement of a single coil is shown in Fig. Krishna Vasudevan. As the number of coils is the same as the number of slots in an armature with two coil sides per slot one is forced to increase the number of slots. 14. In the ﬁgure. 31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . While the number of parallel circuits in the case of ring winding is equal to the number of poles. the conductors a.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. However increasing the slot number makes the tooth width too narrow and makes them mechanically weak. in the case of drum winding a wide variety of windings are possible. In a double layer winding in S slots there are 2S layers. Fig. Prof. In order to reduce the ripple. The junction of two coils is terminated on a commutator segment. To solve this problem the slots are partitioned vertically to increase the number of coil sides. Two layers are occupied by a coil and hence totally there are S coils. The S junctions of these S coils are terminated on S commutator segments. Thus there are as many commutator segments as the number of coils. This is shown in Fig. G. 13(b) shows the cut and spread view of the machine.
G. Sasidhara Rao (a)End view 11 10 12 2’ 3’ 1’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 N S N S 12 1’ 2’ 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6  +  7 8 9 10 11 + Motion (b)Developed view Figure 13: Lap Winding 32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. P.
Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sasidhara Rao Press board Copper Mica Tape Press board (a) Single coilside perlayer (b) More coil sides perlayer Figure 14: Partitioning of slots 33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Sridhara Rao.
One simple method is to number only the top coil side of the coils in sequence. It should be noted that changing of the pitch ′ ′ ′ ′ 34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Such coils are called ’full pitched’ coils. The return conductor need not be numbered. indicating the second sides by 1 . P. this being symmetrically followed to include all the coils on the armature. G. Prof. For all these information to be simple and useful the numbering scheme of the coils and commutator segments becomes important. The numbering of commutators segments are done similarly. 2 − 2 etc. Similar to the pitch of a coil one can deﬁne the winding pitch and commutator pitch. Sasidhara Rao As mentioned earlier. In chorded coils the induced emfs of the two conductor may be of the same sign and hence oppose each other( for brief intervals of time). The emf induced in the two active conductors of such coils have identical emfs with opposite signs at all instants of time. If the span is more than or less than the full pitch then the coil is said to be ’chorded’. Krishna Vasudevan. 2 etc.Electrical Machines I Prof. Some times the coils are numbered as 1 − 1 . In a d. This method of numbering is simple and easy to follow. Winding pitch provides a means of indicating this. in a drum winding. Similarly the commutator pitch provides the information regarding the commutators to which the beginning and the end of a coil are connected. The commutator segment connected to top coil side of coil 1 is numbered 1. Slight short chording of the coil reduces overhang length and saves copper and also improves commutation.c. Prof. Hence when the pole pitch becomes fractional number. the coils span a pole pitch where ever possible. Sridhara Rao. the smaller whole number may be selected discarding the fractional part. As a double layer is being used the bottom coil side is placed in a slot displaced by one coil span from the top coil side. Commutator pitch is the number of ’micas’ between the ends of a coil. winding the end of one coil is connected to the beginning of another coil (not necessarily the next).
Sasidhara Rao of a coil slightly changes the induced emf in the same. The pitch of the winding however substantially alters the nature of the winding. The position of the armature is below the poles and the conductors move from left to right as indicated. The armature windings are classiﬁed into two families based on this. In a symmetrical winding the parallel paths share the total line current 35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras ... yc = m gives a multiplex lap winding of order m. 16 shows a developed view of a simple lap winding for a 4pole armature in 12 slots. Single turn coils with yc = 1 are shown here. m = 1. 2. 4. The number of parallel paths formed by the winding equals the number of poles. m is the order of the winding. Thus the lap winding is well suited for high current generators. Fig. Positive sign is used for ‘progressive’ winding and the negative sign for the ‘retrogressive’ winding. Prof. 15 shows one coil as per progressive and retrogressive lap winding arrangements. G. They are called lap winding and wave winding.Electrical Machines I Prof. The sign refers to the direction of progression of the winding. The position and polarity of the brushes are also indicated. Prof. The connections of the coils to the commutator segments are also shown. P. 3. The number of conductors that are connected in series between the brushes therefore becomes equal to Z/2b. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. For m = 1 we get a simple lap winding.1 Lap winding The commutator pitch for the lap windings is given by yc = ±m. (20) where yc is the commutator pitch. They can be simply stated in terms of the commutator pitch used for the winding. Fig. m = 2 gives duplex lap winding etc.
Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sasidhara Rao Progressive yc =+1 Retrogressive yc = 1 s1 1 s2 F1 F2 F2 s2 F3 s3 2 3 1 2 3 4 (a) Lap winding Coil span s1 1 2 F1 _1 c+ p (b) Wave winding Figure 15: Typical end connections of a coil and commutator 36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P.Electrical Machines I Prof.
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. G. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 1 2 S N S N S 13 14 1 2 + 3 4 5  6 7 8 + 9 10 11 12  Motion A1 B1 A2 B2 Figure 16: Developed view of a retrogressive Lap winding 37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao.
G.Electrical Machines I Prof. The number of such equalizer connections. the cross section for the conductor used for the equalizer etc are decided by the designer. This circulating current wastes power. the circulating current does not ﬂow through the brushes loading them. The induced emfs in the diﬀerent paths tend to diﬀer slightly due to the nonuniformities in the magnetic circuit. The coil numbers 1. the following connections are chosen. The wave windings shall be examined next. and 41 are the coils under the ﬁrst pair of poles. In order to limit the number of links to 5(say). As the name suggests these connections identify similar potential points of the diﬀerent parallel paths and connect them together to equalize the potentials. 38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . There are 50 groups like that. Sasidhara Rao equally. An example of equalizer connection is discussed now with the help of a 6pole armature having 150 commutator segments. circulating currents appear in these closed parallel paths. Then 1. The increase in the number of parallel paths in the armature winding brings about a problem of circulating current. These are connected to their counter parts displaced by 50 and 100 to yield 5 equalizer connections. P. machines to reduce this problem is to provide equalizer connections.21. 51 and 101 are identically placed under the poles of same polarity as they are one polepair apart. This will be more with the increase in the number of poles in the machine. Krishna Vasudevan. If this is left uncorrected. Sridhara Rao.31. Prof. Any diﬀerence in the potential generates a local circulating current and the voltages get equalized. One method commonly adopted in d.c. produces heat and over loads the brushes under loaded conditions. Prof. Also. There are 10 coils connected in series between any two successive links.11.
Prof. Sridhara Rao.B2 . Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sasidhara Rao 1 S N S N 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 A2 + A1 + .25 ~ Span : 1 to 6 Yc= _1 11 _1 + C+ = 21 = 2 2 10 } Commutator pitch 111 for retrogressive winding 111211020919818717v A2 A1 6165154143132121 B2 B1 (b)Parallel paths Figure 17: Developed view of a Retrogressive Wave winding 39 Indian Institute of Technology Madras v .Electrical Machines I Prof. P.B1 Motion (a)Winding layout _ 5 Full pitch: 21/4=5. Prof.
Prof. Sasidhara Rao 4. It is seen from the formula for the commutator pitch. The winding closes on itself after all the coils are connected in series. A simple wave winding for 4 poles in 21 slots is illustrated in Fig. The number of commutator segments can only be one more or one less than some multiple of pole pairs. Krishna Vasudevan. P. As the number of parallel circuits is 2 for a simple wave winding irrespective of the pole numbers it is preferred in multi polar machine of lower power levels. G. yc = (C ± m)/p yields a multiplex wave winding of order m. The coils under all the north poles are grouped together in 40 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. 17. the number of conductors in each path being 50 percent of the total conductors. As could be seen from the ﬁgure. Hence in a simple wave winding there are only two paths between the brushes.Electrical Machines I Prof. the choice of commutator segments for wave winding is restricted.2 Wave windings In wave windings the coils carrying emf in the same direction at a time are all grouped together and connected in series. the connection to the next (or previous) adjacent coil is reached after p coils are connected in series. yc should be an integer number. Here also the positive sign refers to the progressive winding and the negative sign yields a retrogressive winding. The position for the brushes is indicated in the diagram. To implement a wave winding one should select the commutator pitch as yc = C±1 p (21) where C is the total segments on the commutator. duplex wave winding has 2*2=4 etc. Sridhara Rao. As mentioned earlier the simple wave winding forms two parallel paths. C and p should satisfy this relation correctly.
nearly half the number of coils come under each circuit. A 4pole wave connected winding with 21 commutator segments is taken. G. The brush currents however are halved. This method permits the use of commutator of shorter length as lesser current is to be collected by each brush and thus saving on the cost of the commutator. Fig.11 and 6. Two brush sets are therefore adequate. Prof. This can be illustrated by an example. This arrangement does not increase the number of parallel circuits but reduces the current to be collected by each brush set. P. Sridhara Rao. The duplex windings are used under very special circumstances when the number of parallel paths had to be doubled. coil sides. one could have two brushes at 11 and 16 or any two adjacent poles. in a 6pole winding 2. yc = (21 − 1)/2 = 10 . If the brushes are kept at commutator segment 1 and 6. 16.e. If coil number 1 is assumed to be in the neutral axis then other neutral axis coils are a pole pitch apart i. 17(b) illustrates this brush arrangement with respect to a 21 slot 4 pole machine. 41 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The polarity of the brushes are positive and negative alternately. Or. Sasidhara Rao one circuit and the other circuit collects all the coils that are under all the south poles. Krishna Vasudevan. 11 and 16 and connecting 1. 6. By having four brushes at 1.16 still only two parallel circuits are obtained.4 or 6 brush sets may be used. Hence windings beyond duplex are very uncommon even though theoretically possible. The total string of connection can be laid out as shown below. Multiplex windings of order m have m times the circuits compared to a simplex winding and so also more restriction on the choice of the slots. commutator and brushes. coils 6. 11.Electrical Machines I Prof. Similarly proceeding. Prof. Occasionally people employ brush sets equal to the number of poles. A retrogressive wave winding results.
Prof. violate the symmetry conditions as armature slots and commutator segment may not match. Slightly unsymmetric winding may be tolerable in machines of smaller rating with very few poles. 42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . It serves to provide mechanical balance against centrifugal forces. This is called the use of a ’dummy’. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Each machine with a certain pole number. As mentioned earlier this approach must be avoided as far as possible by going in for proper slot numbers and commutator.3 Dummy coils and dummy commutator segments Due to the restrictions posed by lap and wave windings on the choice of number of slots and commutator segments a practical diﬃculty arises. Such designs. This will require stocking and handling many sizes of armature and commutator. voltage and power ratings may require a particular number of slots and commutator segments for a proper design. G. in the case of surplus commutator segment two adjacent commutator segments are connected together and treated as a single segment. P. These are called dummy coils and dummy commutator segments. Sasidhara Rao 4. Thus each machine may be tailor made for a given speciﬁcation. The surplus coil is electrically isolated and taped. All the coils are placed in the armature slots. one is forced to design the winding in an armature readily available in stock. Sometimes due to the nonavailability of a suitable slot number or commutator. Prof. obviously. If one is satisﬁed with approximate solutions then the designer can omit the surplus coil or surplus commutator segment and complete the design. Similarly.
the ﬁeld mmf and armature mmf are separately computed and added at each point on the surface of the armature.Electrical Machines I Prof. 18 assuming the air gap under the pole to be uniform and neglecting 43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the magnetic structure is complex and as we are interested in the ﬂux cut by the conductors. Prof.0. It is a step curve with the width being equal to the pole arc. an expression was derived for the induced emf at the terminals of the armature winding under the inﬂuence of motion of the conductors under the ﬁeld established by ﬁeld poles. we primarily focus our attention on the surface of the armature. But if the generator is to be of some use it should deliver electrical output to a load. The permeance variation at the surface is given by Fig. G. 5. Sridhara Rao. The ﬂux produced by ﬁeld and that produced by armature could be added to get the total ﬂux only in the case of a linear magnetic circuit. The convention used here is that the mmf acting across the air gap and the ﬂux density in the air gap are shown as positive when they act in a direction from the ﬁeld system to the armature. A sign convention is required for mmf as the armature and ﬁeld mmf are on two diﬀerent members of the machine. Krishna Vasudevan. The actual ﬂux produced is proportional to the total mmf and the permeance. In such a case the armature conductors also carry currents and produce a ﬁeld of their own. P. A ﬂux line is taken and the value of the current enclosed is determined.1 MMF distribution due to the ﬁeld coils acting alone Fig. Sasidhara Rao 5 Armature reaction Earlier. The mmf distribution due to the poles and armature are discussed now in sequence. 18 shows the distribution of mmf due to ﬁeld coils over two pole pitches. As the magnetic circuit is nonlinear. Prof. The interaction between the ﬁelds must therefore must be properly understood in order to understand the behavior of the loaded machine.
Sasidhara Rao N S mmf Permeance Practical Flux density Ideal flux density Figure 18: Mmf and ﬂux variation in an unloaded machine 44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof. P. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao.
Prof. as against the ﬁeld coils which are concentrated and concentric.Electrical Machines I Prof. 5. Krishna Vasudevan. The sum of the mmf due to all coils would result in a stepped triangular wave form. each coil produces a rectangular mmf distribution. MMF distribution is the integral of the ampere conductor distribution. G. The noload ﬂux density curve can be obtained by multiplying mmf and permeance. The mmf of each coil is shifted in space by the number of slots. 45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. P. For a full pitched coil. then the mmf distribution due to the armature working alone would be a triangular distribution in space since all the conductors carry equal currents. the actual ﬂux density curve would be as shown under Fig. 18.0. Allowing for the fringing of the ﬂux.2 MMF distribution due to armature conductors alone carrying currents N NPole S A SPole Generator Flux mmf Figure 19: Mmf and ﬂux distribution under the action of armature alone carrying current The armature has a distributed winding. Sasidhara Rao the slotting of the armature. If we neglect slotting and have uniformly spaced coils on the surface. Prof.
Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao This is depicted in Fig. This peak value of the mmf occurs at the inter polar area. shifted from the main pole axis by half the pole pitch when the brushes are kept in the magnetic neutral axis of the main poles. P.Electrical Machines I Prof.Z Fa = .0. 46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .3 Total mmf and ﬂux of a loaded machine Brush axis N S A D C Field flux c a Generator B B A o o’ b Armature flux Total flux Figure 20: Flux distribution in a loaded generator without brush shift The mmf of ﬁeld coils and armature coils are added up and the resultant mmf distribution is obtained as shown in Fig. Prof. 20. Prof. G. 19. This armature mmf per pole is given by 1 Ic . 2 2p where Ic is the conductor current and Z is total number of conductors on the armature. 5.
on load. Prof. machines where the normal excitation of the ﬁeld makes the machine work under some level of saturation. This is more so in modern d.c.4 Eﬀect of brush shift In some small d. A pole pitch corresponds to an electrical angle of 180 degrees.c. As seen from the ﬁgure. 5. It greatly mitigates the eﬀect of the armature reaction. This is especially true of machines with unidirectional operation and unimodal (either as a generator or as a motor) operation. Fig. 20. Also. machines the brushes are shifted from the position of the mag netic neutral axis in order to improve the commutation. Shift of brushes in the opposite to the direction of rotation is called ‘backward lead’. This lead is expressed in terms of the number of commutator segments or in terms of the electrical angle. the net ﬂux per pole gets slightly reduced. Sasidhara Rao This shows the decrease in the mmf at one tip of a pole and a substantial rise at the other tip. If the machine has a pole arc to pole pitch ratio of 0. Actual ﬂux distribution diﬀers from this slightly due to fringing. Such a shift in the direction of rotation is termed ‘lead’ (or forward lead). G. due to the saturation under one tip of the pole.7 then 70% of the armature reaction mmf gets added at this tip leading to considerable amount of saturation under full load conditions.Electrical Machines I Prof. Even though the armature reaction produced a cross magnetizing eﬀect. This is obtained by multiplying mmf and permeance waves point by point in space. the coils under going commutation have very little emf induced in them and hence better commutation is achieved.0. the ﬂux in the inter polar region is substantially lower due to the high reluctance of the medium. 21 shows the eﬀect of a forward 47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. The advantage of the salient pole ﬁeld construction is thus obvious. The air gaps under the pole tips are also increased in practice to reduce excessive saturation of this part. The ﬂux distribution also is shown in Fig. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. P.
Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sasidhara Rao Geometric Neutral axis Brush axis N S Rotation a Field flux c b Armature flux Total flux (a)Armature reaction with brush shift b’ a’ a b (b)Calculation of demagnetizing mmf per pole Figure 21: Eﬀect of brush shift on armature reaction 48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras N Rotation θ S . Prof. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof.
This may be to the tune of 20 percent in the modern d. and α is the pole arc to pole pitch ratio. This may be seen as the price we pay for improving the commutation. Knowing the pole arc to pole pitch ratio one can determine the total mmf at the leading and trailing edges of a pole without shift in the brushes.(b) The demagnetizing and cross magnetizing component of the armature ampere turn per pole can be written as 2θ .Fa π Fd = where θ is the angle of lead . In terms of the number of commutator segments they are Fd = Cl Ic Z . C 4p 4p 49 or Cl . Sasidhara Rao brush lead on the armature reaction. machines. Fa = 1 Z. Fa is armature reaction mmf per pole. P. Prof.Ic . Krishna Vasudevan.Fa π 2θ Fq = (1 − ). The brush shift gives rise to a shift in the axis of the mmf of the armature reaction.c. 21. This can be resolved into two components. G. The magnetization action due to the armature is no longer entirely cross magnetizing.Electrical Machines I Prof. 2 2p (23) (22) The net ﬂux per pole decreases due to saturation at the trailing edge and hence additional ampere turns are needed on the pole to compensate this eﬀect. Fmin = Ff − α. Prof.Ic .Fa where Ff is the ﬁeld mmf. Sridhara Rao.Fa Fmax = Ff + α. Some component of the same goes to demagnetize the main ﬁeld and the net useful ﬂux gets reduced. one in the quadrature axis and second along the pole axis as shown in Fig.Z C (26) (24) (25) Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
for a given sense of armature current. Prof.5 Armature reaction in motors As discussed earlier. Alternatively.0. The third eﬀect of the armature reaction mmf distorting the ﬂux density is that the armature teeth experience a heavy degree of saturation in this region. To avoid this eﬀect the ﬂux density distribution under the poles must be prevented from getting distorted and peaky. This increases the iron losses occurring in the armature in that region.Electrical Machines I Prof. to keep the brush position at the geometrical neutral axis if the machine goes through both motoring and generating modes. Hence it is highly desirable. G. thus resulting in increased chance of breakdown of these insulating sheets. Sridhara Rao. a forward lead given to a generator gives rise to weakening of the generator ﬁeld but strengthens the motor ﬁeld and viceversa. The second eﬀect of the armature reaction in the case of motors as well as generators is that the induced emf in the coils under the pole tips get increased when a pole tip has higher ﬂux density. Krishna Vasudevan. for a given polarity of the ﬁeld and sense of rotation. Similarly when the brush leads are considered. This increases the stress on the ‘mica’ (micanite) insulation used for the commutator. Sasidhara Rao where. even in the case of nonreversing drives. Prof. P. The saturation of the teeth may be too great as to have some ﬂux lines to link the thick end plates used for strengthening 50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. the direction of rotation would be opposite for the two modes. The leading and trailing edges of the poles change positions if direction of rotation is made opposite. the motoring and generating modes diﬀer only in the direction of the armature current. Cl is the brush lead expressed in number of commutator segments.
Sasidhara Rao the armature. The ampere conductors per unit length is maintained identical to that of 51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. G. P. The above two eﬀects can be reduced by providing a ’compensating’ mmf at Commutating pole s N S Main pole N N S Compensating winding N s Figure 22: Compensating winding the same spatial rate as the armature mmf. This is provided by having a compensating winding housed on the pole shoe which carries currents that are directly proportional to the armature current.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. The increase in iron loss could be as high as 50 percent more at full load compared to its noload value. Sridhara Rao.
Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao N S + + + + + + + + + + Rotation + + + + + + + mmf of compensating winding Resultant mmf Armature mmf Main field mmf + + compole mmf Figure 23: Armature reaction with Compensating winding 52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras + . P. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Prof. G. Prof.
Improvement in commutation condition may be achieved simply by providing a commutating pole which sets up a local ﬁeld of proper polarity. Such a design results in overcompensation under the poles. Since the compensating winding is connected in series with the armature. Compensating windings are commonly used in large generators and motors operating on weak ﬁeld working at high loads. It is better not to depend on the compensating winding for improving commutation. Prof. The axis of the mmf due to armature and the compensating winding being the same and the signs of mmf being opposite to each other the ﬂux density in the region of geometric neutral axis gets reduced thus improving the conditions for commutation. The machine can simply be modelled as a voltage 53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 23 . P. Sridhara Rao. 4p polepitch (27) Under these circumstances the ﬂux density curve remains unaltered under the poles between noload and full load. 22 and Fig. Sasidhara Rao the armature. The mmf required to be setup by the compensating winding can be found out to be Fc = Ic . The sign of the ampere conductors is made opposite to the armature. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. From the analysis of the phenomenon of armature reaction that takes place in a d. This is illustrated in Fig.c.Z polearc .Electrical Machines I Prof. G. One can design the compensating winding to completely neutralize the armature reaction mmf. machine it can be inferred that the equivalent circuit of the machine need not be modiﬁed to include the armature reaction. the relationship between armature mmf and the mmf due to compensating winding remains proper for all modes of working of the machine.
Commutation is the key process which converts the induced a. 5. The frequency of this induced emf is given by the product of the polepairs and the speed in revolutions per second. Prof. Sridhara Rao.c. Thus brush and commutator play an important role in commutation. in an armature conductor of a heteropolar machine a. In a simple wave winding in a 2p pole machine 2 coils get short circuited. G. The current in these coils become zero and get reversed as the brush moves over to the next commutator segment. In order to get maximum d.c. Sasidhara Rao source of internal resistance equal to the armature circuit resistance and a series voltage drop equal to the brush contact drop. The induced emf in a full pitch coil changes sign as the coil crosses magnetic neutral axis.c. This process of switching is called commutation. voltages in the conductors into d. 54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. voltage in the external circuit the coil should be shifted to the negative group. machine under diﬀerent modes of operation. Krishna Vasudevan. With this circuit model one can arrive at the external characteristics of the d. Thus in the case of ring winding and simple lap winding 2p coils get short circuited. voltages are induced as the conductor moves under north and south pole polarities alternately. During a short interval when the two adjacent commutator segments get bridged by the brush the coils connected in series between these two segments get short circuited.1 Commutation As seen earlier.Electrical Machines I Prof. It is important to learn about the working of the same in order to ensure a smooth and trouble free operation of the machine. Prof.c.c. under steady state.
P. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. G. Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 4 3 2 1 Ia Ia 2Ia 4 (a) 4 3 2 Ia 3 2 1 tb 1 i 2Ia Ia Motion I2 4 Thickness I1 1 3 2 (b) 4 3 x tb 2Ia Length Entering Edge dth Wi 2 Ia Ia 1 Leaving Edge 2Ia 4 (c) 3 2 1 2Ia tb (a)Location of Brush (b)Process of commutation Figure 24: Location of the brush and Commutation process 55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
2 Linear Commutation If the current density under the brush is assumed to be constant through out the commutation interval. P.3V. the current from each side of the winding is proportional to the area shared on the 56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the brush position starts to overlap with that of segment 2. The coeﬃcient of friction for these brushes are 0. Major change in contact resistance is brought about by the composition of the brush. pressure on the brushes. the brush thickness is made equal to thickness of one commutator segment. The attention is focussed next on the process of commutation.16 respectively. an increase in the current density of the brushes by 100 percent increases the brush drop by about 10 to 15 percent. the brush is initially solely resting on segment number 1. a simple model for commutation is obtained. Sridhara Rao. 24(b). As the current density is assumed to be constant. 5. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. The total current of 2Ia is collected by the brush as shown. Brush contact drop is inﬂuenced by the major factors like speed of operation. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 5. Further this brush contact resistance is not a constant.1. With the brushes commonly used. and to a smaller extent the direction of current ﬂow. For simplicity. As the commutator moves relative to the brush position.12 and 0. G.1. In Fig.6V (at the positive and negative brushes put together) while coppercarbon brush working at 15A/cm2 produces a drop of about 0. Soft graphite brushes working at a current density of about 10A/cm2 produce a drop of 1.1 Brushes Brush forms an important component in the process of commutation. The coil resistance is normally very small compared to the brush contact resistance.Electrical Machines I Prof.
This type of linear commutation is very close to the ideal method of commutation. These result in retarded and accelerated commutation and are discussed in sequence. The currents I1 and I2 in brush segments 1 and 2 are given by I1 = 2Ia (1 − giving I1 + I2 to be 2 Ia .Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Here ‘x’ is the width of the brush overlapping on segment 2. G. 25. The current in the coil undergoing commutation is i = I1 − Ia = Ia − I2 = (I1 − I2 ) 2x = Ia (1 − ) 2 tb (29) x ) and tb I2 = 2Ia x tb (28) The time required to complete this commutation is Tc = tb vc (30) where vc is the velocity of the commutator.(b) also shows the timing diagram for the currents I1 and I2 and the current densities in entering edge αe . Prof. and low speeds. In general commutation will not be linear due to the presence of emf of self induction and induced rotational emf in the coil. come close to this method of linear commutation. The process of commutation would be over when the current through segment number 1 becomes zero. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao two segments. The time variation of current in the coil undergoing commutation is shown in Fig. Fig. 25. Machines having very low coil inductances. P. Segment 1 current uniformly comes down with segment 2 current increasing uniformly keeping the total current in the brush constant.(a). 57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . operating at low load currents. Prof. leaving edge αl and also the mean current density αm in the brush.
The value of current in the coil is given by i undergoing commutation.(c) shows the same phenomenon with respect to I2 at entering edge. 26. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. 26.1. This is best explained with the help of time diagrams as shown in Fig. The variation of i is the change in the current of the coil undergoing commutation. Prof. αm is the mean current density in the brush given by total current divided by brush area of cross section. Krishna Vasudevan. As before. Here the current transfer from 1 to 2 gets retarded as the name suggests. while i is that during linear commutation.3 Retarded commutation Retarded commutation is mainly due to emf of self induction in the coil. Fig. G.(a). I1 = Ia + i and I2 = Ia − i (31) ′ 58 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . αl and αe are the current density under leaving and entering edges of the brush. Sasidhara Rao Ia 2Ia I1 I2 i 0 Tc Time αm = α’ = α" Time of communication Ia 0 Tc Time of commutation (a) Figure 25: Linear commutation (b) 5. 26(b) shows the variation of I1 and current density in the brush at the leaving edge and Fig. Prof.
G. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. Sasidhara Rao 2Ia +Ia P B α’=AB/AC i 0 +Ia Tc C I1=Ia+i αm t i’ Q Ia 0 A t Tc (a) commutation (b) Leaving edge density 2Ia E I2=Iai F α"=DF/DE 0 t D Tc t (c)Entry edge density Figure 26: Diagrams for Retarded commutation 59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
Similarly at the entering edge at the end of accelerated commutation. Hence it is very advantageous to have retarded commutation at the entry time and accelerated commutation in the second half. Prof. / dt dt di 2Ia = αm .αm DE (32) (33) At the very end of commutation. This is depicted in Fig.(b1 ). It is termed as sinusoidal commutation. Retarded commutation at entry edge is ensured by the emf of self induction which is always present. αe = αm . 27. 27. To obtain an accelerated commutation.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. P.(b). shown in Fig.αm AC DF . Krishna Vasudevan. / dt Tc ′ (34) If at this point di/dt = 0 the possibility of sudden breaking of the current and hence the creation of an arc is removed . Sasidhara Rao The variation of densities at leaving and entering edges are given as αl = αe = AB . di 2Ia / dt Tc (35) Thus retarded communication results in di/dt = 0 at the beginning of commutation (at entering edge) and accelerated communication results in the same at the end of commutation (at leaving edge). Prof. Therefore the accelerated commutation can be obtained by i) a forward 60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. the coil undergoing commutation must have in it an induced emf of such a polarity as that under the pole towards which it is moving. the current density αe di di = αm .
Sasidhara Rao α" Ia D α’ =AB/AC α" =DB/DC αm α’ i’ Tc C Ia B 0 0 i i’ Tc B Ia i A Ia (a2 ) α’ α" A αm B α’ =PR/PQ α" =SR/SQ Leaving edge Entering edge (a1 ) Ia Ia i C S R Q 0 i’ Tc time 0 Tc time i Ia P Ia (b1 ) Figure 27: Accelerated and Sinusoidal commutation (b2 ) 61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. G. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao.
The commutating pole windings are connected in series with the armature of a d. The commutating pole winding overpowers the armature mmf locally and establishes the ﬂux of suitable polarity. The compole mmf in the presence of a compensating winding on the poles 62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The air gap under compole is made large and the width of compole small. If sinusoidal commutation is required then the second component Fcp is increased by 30 to 50 percent of the value required for straight line commutation. The condition of commutation will be worse if commutating poles are provided and not excited or they are excited but wrongly. machine to get a load dependent compensation of armature reaction mmf. Prof. Sasidhara Rao lead given to the brushes or by ii) having the ﬁeld of suitable polarity at the position of the brush with the help of a small pole called a commutating pole. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. The mmf required to be produced by compole is obtained by adding to the armature reaction mmf per pole Fa the mmf to establish a ﬂux density of required polarity in the air gap under the compole Fcp .c. As the disadvantages of this brush shifts are to be avoided. It does not disturb the main ﬁeld distribution.This would ensure straight line commutation. The action of the commutating pole is local to the coil undergoing commutation. it is preferable to leave the brushes at geometric neutral axis and provide commutating poles of suitable polarity (for a generator the polarity of the pole is the one towards which the conductors are moving).Electrical Machines I Prof. The commutating pole are also known as compole or inter pole. P. In a noninter pole machine the brush shift must be changed from forward lead to backward lead depending upon generating or motoring operation. Prof. G.
The terminals reﬂect only the additional ohmic drops due to the compole and compensating windings. Permanent magnet excitation is 63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . and compensating winding add to the resistance of the armature circuit and can be considered a part of the same. and their eﬀect may be shown separately as an additional constant voltage drop equal to the brush drop. This could have been predicted as the axis of the compensating winding and armature winding is one and the same. The brushes behave like nonlinear resistance. The relative connections of armature. Thus ﬂux under the pole shoe gets distorted but not diminished (in case the ﬁeld is not saturated). Further. 5.1 Excitation circuit The excitation for establishing the required ﬁeld can be of two types a) Permanent magnet excitation(PM) b) Electro magnetic excitation. Prof. Hence all these are connected permanently inside the machine.2.c. the mmf of compensating winding opposes that of the armature reaction.Electrical Machines I Prof. the axis of compensating mmf and mmf of commutating poles act in quadrature to the main ﬁeld. Krishna Vasudevan. Also. whether the load is on the machine or not.2 Methods of excitation It is seen already that the equivalent circuit model of a d. 5. Sridhara Rao. compole and compensating winding are unaltered whether the machine is working as a generator or as a motor. machine becomes very simple in view of the fact that the armature reaction is cross magnetizing. The armature circuit can be simply modelled by a voltage source of internal resistance equal to the armature resistance + compole resistance + compensating winding resistance. Sasidhara Rao will be reduced by Fa * pole arc/pole pitch. Prof. Thus commutating pole winding. G. P.
Sridhara Rao. Prof. P. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao ly Yoke lg lt lp Field coil lt lg lp Pole la Armature da Figure 28: Magnetization of a DC machine 64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Prof.
G. For an assumed ﬂux density Bg in the pole region the ﬂux crossing each of the above regions is calculated. The required ampere turns for establishing the desired ﬂux per pole may be computed by doing the magnetic circuit calculations. Prof. the permeance of the diﬀerent segments can be computed as. MMF required for the poles. Krishna Vasudevan. P. 28 shows two poles of a 4pole machine with the ﬂux paths marked on it.Area of cross section of the part mu. an advantage of permanent magnet is that there are no losses associated with the establishment of the ﬁeld. Sridhara Rao. The mmf requirement for 65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . air gap.permeability of the medium l. armature core and stator yoke are computed and added.permeance A. Sasidhara Rao employed only in extremely small machines where providing a ﬁeld coil becomes infeasible. Even though certain amount of energy is lost in establishing the ﬁeld it has the advantages like lesser cost. Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. However. armature yoke. permanent magnet excited ﬁelds cannot be varied for control purposes. Permanent magnets for large machines are either not available or expensive.Length of the part A ﬂux loop traverses a stator yoke. Electromagnetic excitation is universally used. armature teeth in its path. ease of control. and two numbers each of poles. Also. P = A. Considering one complete ﬂux loop.µ/l Where P. armature teeth. air gap.
The second pole is obtained by induction. In large machines.A From these expressions the mmf required for each and every part in the path of the ﬂux is computed and added. It is convenient to think of mmf per pole which is nothing but the ampere turns required to be produced by a coil wound around one pole. Such method of excitation is termed as shunt excitation. This procedure saves cost as only one coil need be wound for getting a pair of poles. When both shunt winding and series winding are present. These are shown in Fig. If the shunt winding is excited by a separate voltage source 66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof. Prof. Such a winding is called a series winding and the method of excitation. half of total mmf is assigned to each pole as the mmf per pole. machine can have either of these or both these types of excitation. It can be connected across a voltage source and hence called a shunt winding. Such winding has a high value of resistance and hence a large ohmic drop. 29. This value of mmf is required to establish two poles. The total mmf required can be produced by a coil having large number of turns but taking a small current. one could have a few turns of large cross section wire carrying heavy current to produce the required ampere turns. These windings have extremely small resistance and can be connected in series with a large current path such as an armature. A d. P.c. The mmf of the two windings could be arranged to aid each other or oppose each other. On the other hand. Sasidhara Rao establishing this ﬂux in that region is computed by the expressions Flux = mmf . it is called compound excitation. series excitation.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. permeance = B. In the case of small machines all this mmf is produced by a coil wound around one pole. Accordingly they are called cumulative compounding and diﬀerential compounding. This produces an unsymmetrical ﬂux distribution in the machine and hence is not used in larger machines. Krishna Vasudevan.
G. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof.C generator connections 67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao Shunt field A2 F2 Shunt field F2 A2 F1 A1 F1 A1 (a)Separate excitation S2 (b) Self excitation Long shunt S2 Diverter Series field S1 A2 F2 Short shunt S1 A2 A1 F1 A1 (c)Series excitation (d)Compound excitation Figure 29: D. Prof. P.
A 68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Series generators can also be separately excited or self excited.m. Krishna Vasudevan. If the change in the excitation required is small.2 Separately excited shunt generators Ia=0 A2 Prime mover n=const E A1 Induced e. In all these cases the presence of a prime mover rotating the armature is assumed. P. G. Sridhara Rao. Prof. 30 shows a shunt generator with its ﬁeld connected to a voltage source Vf through a regulating resistor in potential divider form. then it is called self excitation. The current drawn by the ﬁeld winding can be regulated from zero to the maximum value. 5. Prof.m.f. The characteristics of these generators are discussed now in sequence.Electrical Machines I Prof. If the excitation power comes from the same machine.2. due to Residual Magnetism F1  Exciting Current (a) (b) Figure 30: Magnetization characteristics Fig. simple series connection of a ﬁeld regulating resistance can be used.f Decreasing Magnetisation Increasing magnetisation + F2 Vdc If e. Sasidhara Rao then it is called separate excitation.
there is no external source for providing excitation current. or noload magnetization curve or noload saturation characteristic. shows an example. G.3 Self excitation In a self excited machine. Separate excitation is advantageous as the exciting current is independent of the terminal voltage and load current and satisfactory operation is possible over the entire voltage range of the machine starting from zero. The graph showing the nature of variation of the induced emf as a function of the excitation current is called as open circuit characteristic (occ). When the armature is rotated a feeble induced emf of 2 to 5 percent appears across the brushes depending upon the speed of rotation and the residual magnetism that is present.2. This voltage 69 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 31. Sasidhara Rao separate excitation is normally used for testing of d.Electrical Machines I Prof.(a) The process of self excitation in a shunt generator takes place in the following manner. generators to determine their open circuit or magnetization characteristic. Fig. This residual voltage is about 2 to 5 percent in modern machines. The series ﬁeld continues to be in series with the armature. Prof. Due to the hysteresis exhibited by the iron in the magnetic structure.c. the induced emf does not become zero when the excitation current is reduced to zero. Sridhara Rao. This is because of the remnant ﬁeld in the iron. Self excitation is now discussed with the help of Fig. The excitation current is increased monotonically to a maximum value and then decreased in the same manner. Krishna Vasudevan. The load current is kept zero. P. The shunt ﬁeld is connected across the armature. The magnetization characteristic exhibits saturation at large values of excitation current. while noting the terminal voltage of the armature. 30(b). For series machines there is no change in connection. The speed of the generator is held at a constant value. Prof. 5.
Prof.volts oh ms ohm s oh ms 1500 rev/min 25 0 17 0 oh m s 1000 rev/min s m oh 280 F2 A2 Prime mover 120 90 60 30 0 37 5 0 14 500 rev/min n F1 A1 (a)Physical connection 1.Amperes (b) characteristics 210 Open circuit e.f.Electrical Machines I Prof. ohms 0 speed in rev/min 1500 (c)Critical resistance (d) Critical speed Figure 31: Self excitation 70 Indian Institute of Technology Madras 60 oh ms 120 .m.m.f. P. G.0 Exciting current. Sasidhara Rao 210 180 150 Open circuit e. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.volts Induced emf on open circuit 200 Critical Resistance 12 5o hm s 160 180 150 25 0o hm s 120 80 90 60 30 40 200 400 Total field circuit resistance. Prof.
If this mmf is such as to aid the residual ﬁeld then it gets strengthened and produces larger voltage across the brushes.Electrical Machines I Prof. The point of intersection of the open circuit charac 71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. It is like a positive feed back. P. Prof. If the voltage build up is ‘substantial’. G. 31(b) shows the magnetization curve of a shunt generator. Under such situation there is no further increase in the ﬁeld mmf and the build up of emf also stops. Sasidhara Rao D C Open circuit characteristic Q’ Voltage R’ Q R QL P’ P O’ P1 RL PL Q1 A’ A Armature drop characteristic 0 P" Q" Excitation current If Armature current Ia Figure 32: External characteristics of a self excited of a shunt generator gets applied across the shunt ﬁeld winding and produces a small mmf. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Fig. The ﬁeld resistance line is also shown by a straight line OC. The induced emf gradually increases till the voltage induced in the armature is just enough to meet the ohmic drop inside the ﬁeld circuit. then the machine is said to have ‘self excited’.
At this value of the ﬁeld circuit resistance the self excitation suddenly collapses. P. Prof. This value of the resistance is called the critical resistance. Remedial measures to be taken if the machine fails to self excite are brieﬂy discussed below. In this case. If the ﬁeld resistance is increased. 1. Instead of increasing the ﬁeld resistance if the speed of the machine is reduced then the same resistance line becomes a critical resistance at a new speed and the self excitation collapses at that speed. in this case C . unexcited. represents the voltage build up on self excitation. Sridhara Rao. as the speed is taken as the variable. 5. 1. 31. 31(c). 3. The residual ﬁeld will be absent in a brand new. Sasidhara Rao teristic (OCC) with the ﬁeld resistance line. The conditions for self excitation can be listed as below. Krishna Vasudevan. The ﬁeld circuit resistance must be below the critical value. hence the critical resistance increases as a function of speed Fig. 4. The polarity of excitation must aid the residual magnetism. G. See Fig. The speed of operation of the machine must be above the critical speed. at one point the resistance line becomes a tangent to the OCC.Electrical Machines I Prof. the speed is called the critical speed. The ﬁeld may be connected to a battery in such cases for a few seconds to create a residual ﬁeld. machine. The load resistance must be very large. Residual ﬁeld must be present.(b) and (d). 2. Prof. 72 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In the linear portion of the OCC the ordinates are proportional to the speed of operation.
4. The polarity may become wrong either by reversed connections or reversed direction of rotation. So ensuring good speed. Brush contact resistance is normally high at small currents. 5. To help in the creation of maximum mmf during self excitation any ﬁeld diverter if present must be 73 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 2. Sridhara Rao. Prof. changing the polarity of connections of the ﬁeld with respect to armature is normally suﬃcient for this problem. In this case the ﬁeld circuit resistance is the same as the load circuit resistance and hence it must be made very low to help self excitation.2. Field circuit resistance implies all the resistances coming in series with the ﬁeld winding like regulating resistance. The polarity of connections have to be set right. drop at the brushes. To control the ﬁeld mmf a small resistance called diverter is normally connected across the series ﬁeld. 3. 5. Prof. If the generator had been working with armature rotating in clockwise direction before stopping and if one tries to self excite the same with counter clockwise direction then the induced emf opposes residual ﬁeld. Speed must be increased suﬃciently to a high value to be above the critical speed. P.4 Self excitation of series generators The conditions for self excitation of a series generator remain similar to that of a shunt machine. contact resistance. and the armature resistance. The speed itself might be too low so that the normal ﬁeld resistance itself is very much more than the critical value. G. clean commutator and good connections should normally be suﬃcient to overcome this problem. The load switch must be opened or the load resistance is made very high. Krishna Vasudevan. The dirt on the commutator due to dust or worn out mica insulator can increase the total circuit resistance enormously.
Electrical Machines I Prof. In cumulatively compounded machines the mmf of the two ﬁelds aid each other and in a diﬀerentially compounded machine they oppose each other. P. depending up on the connections. Due to the presence of the shunt winding. the self excitation can proceed as in a shunt machine. Sasidhara Rao Terminal voltage Open circuit characteristic PS=PQPR Q S Armature characteristic B External characteristic A R P 0 Load Current Figure 33: External characteristics of a Series Generator open circuited.5 Self excitation of compound generators Most of the compound machines are basically shunt machines with the series wind ing doing the act of strengthening/weakening the ﬁeld on load. Sridhara Rao. In long shunt connection the shunt ﬁeld current passes through the series winding also. It can be a short shunt connection or a long shunt connection. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. This is shown in Fig. But it does not aﬀect the process of self excitation as the mmf contribution from the series ﬁeld is negligible. A small diﬀerence exists however depending up on the way the shunt winding is connected to the armature. 33 5.In a series generator load current being the ﬁeld current of the machine the self excitation characteristic or one and the same. Prof. G. 74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2.
Sasidhara Rao Both series ﬁeld winding and shunt ﬁeld winding are wound around the main poles. A Ra . As the armature current is cross magnetizing the demagnetization mmf due to pole tip saturation alone need be compensated by producing additional mmf by the ﬁeld. The external characteristics are of great importance in meeting the requirements of diﬀerent types of loads and in parallel operation.armature current. The designed ﬁeld windings must cater to the full range of operation of the machine at nominal armature current. also known as load characteristics. The d. External char acteristics expresses the manner in which the output voltage of the generator varies as a function of the load current.c. machines give rise to a variety of external characteristics with considerable ease.Electrical Machines I Prof. generators Load characteristics are also known as the external characteristics. If they are not held constant then there is further change in the terminal voltage. If there is any need. of these machines are discussed next. 5.3 Load characteristics of d. Prof. to have more excitation windings of one type or the other they will also ﬁnd their place on the main poles. when the speed and excitation current are held constant. The external characteristics. Prof. The terminal voltage V can be expressed in terms of the induced voltage E and armature circuit drop as V = E − Ia Ra − Vb Vb . for some control purposes. P. Sridhara Rao.brush contact drop.armature resistance + inter pole winding resistance+ series winding resistance + com75 (36) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Krishna Vasudevan.c. V Ia .
Modern machines are operated under certain degree of saturation of the magnetic path. Thus there is some slight droop in the external characteristics. Sasidhara Rao Open circuit e. it is found to depart from the one obtained from the load test.m. Prof. If the external characteristic is obtained by subtracting the armature drop from the noload terminal voltage. As seen from the equation E being function of speed and ﬂux per pole it will also change when these are not held constant.f C Induced e.Ia Figure 34: External characteristics of a separately excited shunt generator pensating winding resistance. which is good for parallel operation of the generators. This departure is due to the armature reaction which causes a saturation at one tip of each pole. Krishna Vasudevan. Experimentally the external characteristics can be determined by conducting a load test. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. P.f Terminal voltage V B Volts Ohmic Drop IaRa 0 A Load current. Sridhara Rao.m. The armature drop is an electrical drop and can be found out even when the machine is stationary and the ﬁeld poles are unexcited. 76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Hence the reduction in the ﬂux per pole with load is obvious.
P. If one determines the load magnetization curves at diﬀerent load currents then the external characteristics can be easily determined. The determination of the external characteristics of a shunt generator forms an interesting study. even when load impedance is reduced. Thus 77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . as the load is increased. As seen earlier. The terminal voltage reaches an unstable condition. The value of this mmf magnetizes/demagnetizes the ﬁeld depending on whether the lead is backward or forward. 5. After certain load current the terminal voltage decreases rapidly along with the terminal current. Prof. Load magnetization curve is a plot showing the variation of the terminal voltage as a function of the excitation current keeping the speed and armature current constant. This is due to the dependence of the excitation current also on the terminal voltage. Krishna Vasudevan. If such curves are determined for diﬀerent load currents then by determining the intersection points of these curves with ﬁeld resistance line one can get the external characteristics of a shunt generator. Also. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. a brush lead gives rise to a load current dependent mmf along the pole axis.4 External characteristics of a shunt generator For a given noload voltage a self excited machine will have more voltage drop at the terminals than a separately excited machine. Load saturation curve can be generated from noload saturation curve /OCC by subtracting the armature drop at each excitation point. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao One could easily guess that the self excited machines have slightly higher droop in the external characteristic as the induced emf E drops also due to the reduction in the applied voltage to the ﬁeld. If output voltage has to be held constant then the excitation current or the speed can be increased. in a self excited generator the noload terminal voltage itself is very sensitive to the point of intersection of the magnetizing characteristics and ﬁeld resistance line. The former is preferred due to the ease with which it can be implemented.
35 78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4. In a booster the current through the machine is decided by the external circuit and the voltage injected into that circuit is decided by the series generator. 5. Krishna Vasudevan.1 External characteristics of series generators In the case of series generators also. The armature drop characteristics can be obtained by a short circuit test as before. Instead of shifting the OCC downwards. The load characteristics in the ﬁrst half however is useful for operating the series generator as a booster. These ordinates are then plotted on the original plot. and their intercepts with OCC are found. the x axis and the ﬁeld resistance line is shifted ‘upwards’ corresponding to the drops at the diﬀerent currents. The same procedure can be repeated with diﬀerent ﬁeld circuit resistance to yield external characteristics with diﬀerent values of ﬁeld resistance. 32. G. This is shown in Fig. Prof. P. Sridhara Rao. The points of operation up to the maximum current represent a stable region of operation. The second half is the region where series generator connected to a constant resistance load could work stably. The decrease in the load resistance decreases the terminal voltage in this region. Fig. From the occ obtained by running the machine as a separately excited one. Sasidhara Rao it is seen that these family of curves are nothing but OCC shifted downwards by armature drop. the armature drops are deducted to yield external /load characteristics. the procedure for the determination of the external characteristic is the same. 33 shows the load characteristics of a series generator. The ﬁrst half of the curve is unstable for constant resistance load. This is shown clearly in Fig. The second region is unstable. Determining their intercepts with the ﬁeld resistance line gives us the requisite result.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof.
Prof. Prof. Any cumulative compounding below this value is called under compounding and those above are termed over. Krishna Vasudevan. The load current ﬂowing through the series winding aids or opposes the shunt ﬁeld ampere turns depending upon whether cumulative or diﬀerential compounding is used. If this increased emf cancels out the armature drop the terminal voltage remains practically same between no load and full load.compounding. Thus a load current dependant variation in the characteristic occurs. This increases /decreases the ﬂux per pole and the induced emf E. These are shown in Fig. The characteristics corresponding to all levels of diﬀerential compounding lie below that of a pure shunt machine as the series ﬁeld mmf opposes that of the shunt ﬁeld.E2 F1 A1 Main generator Figure 35: Series generator used as Booster 5.4. G.2 Load characteristics of compound generators In the case of compound generators the external characteristics resemble those of shunt generators at low loads. P. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. 36. Sasidhara Rao  + E2 S1 F2 E1 S2 A1 A2 A2 Booster Generator E=E1 + . 79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This is called as level compounding.
Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao IL S2 If F2 S1 A2 Load Vf # A1 Prime mover F1 (a)Connection Over compounded Level compounded Under compounded Shunt machine Terminal voltage Differential compounding Load current (b)Characteristics Figure 36: External characteristic of Compound Generator 80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. P. Sridhara Rao.
Prof. The no load emfs are made equal to E1 = E2 = E on no load. This avoids a circulating current between the machines. 5. the current delivered by each machine is zero. 37 shows two generators connected in parallel.C.Electrical Machines I Prof. generators are required to operate in parallel supplying a common load when the load is larger than the capacity of any one machine. the other machine can operate with reduced load. P. In the case of the loaded machine the diﬀerence in the induced emf makes the load sharing unequal. Sridhara Rao.5. In situations where the load is small but becomes high occasionally. Krishna Vasudevan. As the load is gradually applied a total load current of I ampere is drawn by the load. G. This approach reduces the spare capacity requirement and its cost. In cases where one machine is taken out for repair or maintenance. Prof. Sasidhara Rao External characteristics for other voltages of operation can be similarly derived by changing the speed or the ﬁeld excitation or both. In the case of generators we can alter the external characteristics easily while it is not possible with batteries.1 Shunt Generators Parallel operation of two shunt generators is similar to the operation of two storage batteries in parallel. The circulating current produces power loss even when the load is not connected. Fig. In all these cases two or more machines are connected to operate in parallel. The load voltage 81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. it may be a good idea to press a second machine into operation only as the demand increases. Before connecting the two machines the voltages of the two machines are made equal and opposing inside the loop formed by the two machines.5 Parallel operation of generators D.
Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao s1 A2 Prime mover v s2 A2 G2 Load G1 A1 F2 F2 A1 Vf1 F1 Vf2 F1 Figure 37: Connection of two shunt generators in Parallel E1 V2 k V0 E2 V Terminal Voltage j Total char a cteristic A B V2 V1 C I1 I2 I=I1+I2 O Load current D Figure 38: Characteristics of two shunt generators in Parallel 82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P.
G. Prof. Also terminal voltage of the two machines must also be V volt. Sasidhara Rao under these conditions is V volt. the no load terminal equation Vo becomes Vo = E1 − I1nl Ra1 = E2 + I2nl Ra2 83 (38) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it is easy to determine the current shared by each machine at any total load current I. 38 the external characteristics of the two machines are ﬁrst drawn as I and II . Sridhara Rao. This is based on the fact that the two machines have a common terminal voltage when connected in parallel. Prof. P. Krishna Vasudevan. This is dictated by the internal drop in each machine given by equations V = E1 − I1 Ra1 = E2 − I2 Ra2 (37) where Ra1 and Ra2 are the armature circuit resistances. A graphical method can be used with advantage when only the total load current is known and not the value of RL or V . This can be called as the resultant or total external characteristics of the two machines put together. Here OC = OA + OB . At no load the total current I is zero ie I1 + I2 = 0 or I1 = −I2 . In Fig. Looking at the voltage equations. If RL is not known then an iterative procedure has to be adopted. With this. The above procedure can be used even when the two voltages of the machines at no load are diﬀerent. For any common voltage the intercepts OA and OB are measured and added and plotted as point at C. Each machines will share this total current by delivering currents of I1 and I2 ampere such that I1 + I2 = I . If load resistance RL is known these equations can be solved analytically to determine I1 and I2 and hence the manner in which to total output power is shared.Electrical Machines I Prof. Thus a third characteristics where terminal voltage is function of the load current is obtained. Machine I gives out electrical power and machine II receives the same.
When Ra1 and Ra2 are nearly zero implying an almost ﬂat external characteristic. Some applications like electric braking may employ them and operate two or more series generates in parallel. Ultimately the current of machine II becomes negative and it also loads the ﬁrst machine. Prof. With the equalizer present.5. One remedy is for a problem as this is to make the two ﬁelds immune to the circulating current between the machines. Sasidhara Rao As can be seen larger the values of Ra1 and Ra2 larger is the tolerance for the error between the voltages E1 and E2 . so also its excitation and induced emf. the parallel operation is extremely diﬃcult. 39a . This brings in stable conditions for operation rapidly. Thus machine I takes greater and greater fraction of the load current with machine II shedding its load. a momentary disturbance does not put the two machines out of action. This is done by connecting an equalizer between the ﬁelds as shown in Fig. Krishna Vasudevan.2 Series generators Series generators are rarely used in industry for supplying loads. 84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the whole process is thus highly unstable. Virtually there is a short circuit of the two sources. Prof. Fig. The converse is also true. 39 shows two series generators connected in parallel supplying load current of I1 and I2 . 39b. As the total current is I the current supplied by machine II reduces. G. P. 5. A better solution for such problems is to cross connect the two ﬁelds as shown in Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. A tendency to supply a larger current by a machine strengthens the ﬁeld of the next machine and increases its induced emf . increasing the load current delivered. If now due to some disturbance E1 becomes E1 + ∆E1 then the excitation of the machine I increases. Sridhara Rao.
Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao I1 A2 + A2 + I1+I2 I1 A1 S2 Equaliser A1 I2  I1+I2 S2 V F1 S1 F2 S1 I1+I2 (a)Equalizer connection I1 A2 + A2 I2 + I1+I2 G1 A1 S2 A1 G2 Load V I1 I2 S2 S1  I2  S1 I1+I2 (b)Cross connection of ﬁelds Figure 39: Series Generator working in parallel 85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P.
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
F2
+
A2
F2
+
A2
F1

A1
F1

A1
Load
V
Equalizer
S2 S2
S1
S1
(a)Equalizer connection
F2
+
A2
F2
+
A2
F1

A1
F1

A1
Load
V
S2
S2
S1
S1
(b)Cross connection of series ﬁelds
Figure 40: Compound generators operating in parallel 86
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
5.5.3
Compound Generators The parallel operation of compound machines is similar to shunt generators. Dif
ferential compounding would produce a drooping external characteristics and satisfactory parallel operation is made easy. But most of the generators are used in the cumulatively compounded mode. In such cases the external characteristics will be nearly ﬂat making the parallel operation more diﬃcult. By employing equalizer connection for the series windings this problem can be mitigated. Fig. 40 shows the connection diagram for parallel operation of two compound generators.
5.6
D.C. motors
D.C. motors have a place of pride as far as electrical drives are considered. The
simplicity, and linearity of the control method makes them highly preferred machines in precision drives. In spite of the great advancements in a.c. drives these machines are still sought after by the industries. Apart from high precision application they are preferred in stand alone systems working on batteries and high speed drives oﬀ constant voltage mains. After the ﬁeld is excited if we pass a current through the armature the rotor experiences a torque and starts rotating. The direction of the torque can be readily obtained from the law of interaction. These moving conductors cut the ﬁeld and induce emf, usually called the ’back emf’ according to Lenz’s law and act as a sink of electrical power from the electrical source. This absorbed power appears as mechanical power. The converted mechanical power should overcome the frictional and iron losses before useful work could be done by the same. The connections to the supply of a d.c. shunt motor are given in Fig. 41.
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Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
F2 A2
+
F2 A2
+
A1 F1
F1
A1
(a)Separate excitation (b) Shunt excitation

s1
F2
+
s2
A2
DC Supply
F1 A1
(c)Practical arrangement Figure 41: Shunt motor connections
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P. Suitable interlock should be provided to prevent the armature switch being closed prior to / without closing of ﬁeld circuit as the armature currents reach very large values still not producing any torque or rotation.angular velocity = 2π.n pZ = Ke φ.Electrical Machines I Prof. In Fig.n where Ke = b b 1 pZ 1 p. The ﬁeld voltage is kept low in such cases for the sake of control purposes. w .φ.n 89 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. The only diﬀerence in the second connection Fig. So the torque per ampere is high in this case. Sasidhara Rao Commonly used connection is where in both the ﬁeld and the armature are energized simultaneously Fig. = Kt φIa where Kt = . 41(b). Prof. Here again the ﬁeld circuit must be energized prior to the armature. = 2π b 2π b dw and TM − TL = J dt E= (39) (40) (41) (42) TM where TL . 41. Sridhara Rao. As the ﬁeld has higher inductance and time constant torque takes some time to reach the full value corresponding to a given armature current.polar moment of inertia. the switch S1 is closed a few seconds prior to switch S2 .Motor torque J . 41. G.(c).(a) is that the shunt ﬁeld winding is connected to a separate source.c. By then the ﬁeld current would have reached the steady value.φ. machines. This connection is used when the armature and ﬁeld voltage are diﬀerent as is common in high voltage d.ZIa . Krishna Vasudevan.Z.Load torque TM . The relevant equations for the motoring operation can be written as below V − E − Ia Ra − Vb = 0 or E = V − Ia Ra − Vb p.
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
The ﬁrst one is an electrical equation, the second and the third are electro mechanical in nature and the last equation is the mechanical equation of motion. Ke and Kt are normally termed as back emf constant and torque constant respectively. Under steady speed of operation the fourth equation is not required. Using these equations one can determine the torque speed characteristics of the machine for a given applied voltage. These characteristics are similar to the external characteristics for a generator. Here the torque on the machine is assumed to be varying and the corresponding speed of operation is determined. This is termed as the torque speed characteristic of the motor.
5.7
Torque speed characteristics of a shunt motor
A constant applied voltage V is assumed across the armature. As the armature
current Ia , varies the armature drop varies proportionally and one can plot the variation of the induced emf E. The mmf of the ﬁeld is assumed to be constant. The ﬂux inside the machine however slightly falls due to the eﬀect of saturation and due to armature reaction. The variation of these parameters are shown in Fig. 42. Knowing the value of E and ﬂux one can determine the value of the speed. Also knowing the armature current and the ﬂux, the value of the torque is found out. This procedure is repeated for diﬀerent values of the assumed armature currents and the values are plotted as in Fig. 42(a). From these graphs, a graph indicating speed as a function of torque or the torquespeed characteristics is plotted Fig. 42(b)(i).
As seen from the ﬁgure the fall in the ﬂux due to load increases the speed due to the fact that the induced emf depends on the product of speed and ﬂux. Thus the speed
90
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
A
No load speed
Line voltage B Speed C Back emf
Flux, Speed and Torque
E F Torque Flux
G 0 Armature current
(a)Load characteristics
(ii) (i)
Speed
0
Torque
(b)Torque speed curve
Figure 42: DC Shunt motor characteristics
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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
of the machine remains more or less constant with load. With highly saturated machines the onload speed may even slightly increase at over load conditions. This eﬀects gets more pronounced if the machine is designed to have its normal ﬁeld ampere turns much less than the armature ampere turns. This type of external characteristics introduces instability during operation Fig. 42(b)(ii) and hence must be avoided. This may be simply achieved by providing a series stability winding which aids the shunt ﬁeld mmf.
5.8
Load characteristics of a series motor
Following the procedure described earlier under shunt motor, the torque speed
characteristics of a series motor can also be determined. The armature current also happens to be the excitation current of the series ﬁeld and hence the ﬂux variation resembles the magnetization curve of the machine. At large value of the armature currents the useful ﬂux would be less than the noload magnetization curve for the machine. Similarly for small values of the load currents the torque varies as a square of the armature currents as the ﬂux is proportional to armature current in this region. As the magnetic circuit becomes more and more saturated the torque becomes proportional to Ia as ﬂux variation becomes small. Fig. 43(a) shows the variation of E1 , ﬂux , torque and speed following the above procedure from which the torquespeed characteristics of the series motor for a given applied voltage V can be plotted as shown in Fig. 43.(b) The initial portion of this torquespeed curve is seen to be a rectangular hyperbola and the ﬁnal portion is nearly a straight line. The speed under light load conditions is many times more than the rated speed of the motor. Such high speeds are unsafe, as the centrifugal forces acting on the armature and commutator can destroy them giving rise to a catastrophic break down. Hence series motors are not recommended for use where there is a possibility of the load becoming zero. In order to 92
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof. G. Flux and Speed Speed Load current (a)Load characteristics Speed 0 Torque (b)Torque speed curve Figure 43: Load characteristics of a Series Motor 93 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao Terminal voltage Back emf No load Magnetisation curve Developed Torque Useful Flux Useful Torque Torque. P. Krishna Vasudevan.
This feature makes a cumulatively compounded machine well suited for intermittent peak loads. This mode may sometimes result due to the motoring operation of a levelcompounded generator. Sridhara Rao. it can be 94 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .9 Load characteristics of a compound motor Two situations arise in the case of compound motors. Cumulatively compounded motors are very widely used for industrial drives. Prof. in the modern machines. value of ﬂux even when the armature current is nearly zero. this ﬁeld should be connected so as to aid the series ﬁeld. 5. Also. It is needless to say. High degree of compounding will make the machine approach a series machine like characteristics but with a safe noload speed. a ﬂy wheel can be used with such motors with advantage. Thus the torque per ampere of the armature current is made high. The mmf of the shunt ﬁeld and series ﬁeld may oppose each other or they may aid each other. though small. diﬀerential compounding may result in large negative mmf under overload/starting condition and the machine may start in the reverse direction. The major beneﬁt of the compounding is that the ﬁeld is strengthened on load. The ﬁrst conﬁguration is called diﬀerential compounding and is rarely used. G. Due to the reasons provided under shunt and series motors for the provision of an additional series/shunt winding. They lead to unstable operation of the machine unless the armature mmf is small and there is no magnetic saturation. say by the failure of the prime mover. Sasidhara Rao safeguard the motor and personnel. Prof. Due to the large speed variation between light load and peak load conditions. This way the noload speed is limited to a safe maximum speed. Krishna Vasudevan. In motors intended for constant speed operation the level of compounding is very low as not to cause any problem. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. a ‘weak’ shunt ﬁeld is provided on series motors to ensure a deﬁnite.
Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. 95 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao seen that all modern machines are compound machines. P. The diﬀerence between them is only in the level of compounding.
On a similar count parallel operation of cumulative compounded motors is easier than shunt motors. Sasidhara Rao 6 Parallel operation of d. G. Prof. with their highly falling speed with the load torque. Prof. P. motors As in the case of generators motors may also be required to operate in parallel driving a common load. The beneﬁts as well as the problems in both the cases are similar. The machine with ﬂatter curve shares a larger portion of the torque demand. The operation of level compounded generators is much more diﬃcult compared to the same machines working as cumulative compounded motor. Due to the uneven wear and tear of the wheels of the locomotive the speeds of the rotation of these motors can be diﬀerent to have the same common linear velocity of the locomotive. Thus parallel operation of two shunt motors is considerably more diﬃcult compared to the operation of the same machines as generators. As the two machines are coupled to a common load the speed of the load is the common parameter in the torque speed plane. are ideal as far as the parallel operation is considered.The torque speed curves for parallel operation of series motors are given in Fig. The torque developed by each machine remains close to the other and there is no tendency for derailment. The torque shared by each machine depends on the intersection of the torque speed curves.Electrical Machines I Prof. However if these curves are ﬂat then great changes occur in torque shared by each machine. One application where several series motors operate in parallel is in electric locomotives. If the torque speed lines are drooping the point of intersection remains reasonably unaltered for small changes in the characteristics due to temperature and excitation eﬀects. Considerable diﬀerences in their characteristics still do not aﬀect adversely their parallel operation. Series motors are. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. 44 96 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .c.
Sridhara Rao. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Speed A B C D Motors I and II I II in parallel 0 Torque Figure 44: Parallel operation of Series motors 97 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. G. P.
Prof. This method is ideally suited for shunt and compound machines with nearly ﬂat torque speed characteristics. Such machines can go through high amount of dynamics without the fear of becoming unstable.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 7 Series operation of motors In the case of series operation the motors shafts of the two machines are connected to the same load and also the two armatures are series connected. Series operation of series motors is adopted during starting to improve the energy eﬃciency. This forces a common armature current through both the machines and the torques developed by the machines are proportional to the ﬂux in each machine. G. Prof. thus improving the dynamics. This conﬁguration is used in steel mills. Having two smaller machines connected to the shaft is preferred over there in place of one large machine as the moment of inertia of the motors is much reduced. 98 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sridhara Rao.
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
8
Application of d.c. motors
Some elementary principles of application alone are dealt with here. The focus is
on the mechanical equation of dynamics which is reproduced here once again. TM − TL = J dw dt (43)
Here TM and TL are the motor torque and the load torques respectively which are expressed as functions of ω . Under steady state operation dω/dt will be zero. The application of motors mainly looks at three aspects of operation. 1. Starting 2. Speed control 3. Braking The speed of the machine has to be increased from zero and brought to the operating speed. This is called starting of the motor. The operating speed itself should be varied as per the requirements of the load. This is called speed control. Finally, the running machine has to be brought to rest, by decelerating the same. This is called braking. The torque speed characteristics of the machine is modiﬁed to achieve these as it is assumed that the variation in the characteristics of the load is either not feasible or desirable. Hence the methods that are available for modifying the torque speed characteristics and the actual variations in the performance that these methods bring about are of great importance. When more than one method is available for achieving the same objective then other criteria like, initial cost, running cost, eﬃciency and ease operation are also applied for the evaluation of the methods. Due to the absence of equipment like transformer, d.c. machine operation in 99
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Electrical Machines I
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
general is assumed to be oﬀ a constant voltage d.c. supply.
The relevant expressions may be written as, n = TM TM − TL E V − Ia Ra − Vb = Ke φ pZφ/b 1 p.Z . .φIa = Kt .φ.Ia = 2π b dω = J dt (44) (45) (46)
As can be seen, speed is a function of E and φ and T is a function of φ and Ia . Using these equations, the methods for starting , speed control and braking can be discussed.
8.1
Starting of d.c. machines
For the machine to start, the torque developed by the motor at zero speed must
exceed that demanded by the load. Then TM − TL will be positive so also is dω/dt, and the machine accelerates. The induced emf at starting point is zero as the ω = 0 The armature current with rated applied voltage is given by V /Ra where Ra is armature circuit resistance. Normally the armature resistance of a d.c. machine is such as to cause 1 to 5 percent drop at full load current. Hence the starting current tends to rise to several times the full load current. The same can be told of the torque if full ﬂux is already established. The machine instantly picks up the speed. As the speed increases the induced emf appears across the terminals opposing the applied voltage. The current drawn from the mains thus decreases, so also the torque. This continues till the load torque and the motor torque are equal to each other. Machine tends to run continuously at this speed as the acceleration is zero at this point of operation. The starting is now discussed with respect to speciﬁc machines. 100
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao
8.1.1
DC shunt motor If armature and ﬁeld of d.c. shunt motor are energized together, large current is
drawn at start but the torque builds up gradually as the ﬁeld ﬂux increases gradually. To improve the torque per ampere of line current drawn it is advisable to energize the ﬁeld ﬁrst. The starting current is given by V /Ra and hence to reduce the starting current to a safe value, the voltage V can be reduced or armature circuit resistance Ra can be increased. Variable voltage V can be obtained from a motor generator set. This arrangement is called WardLeonard arrangement. A schematic diagram of WardLeonard arrangement is shown in Fig. 45. By controlling the ﬁeld of the WardLeonard generator one can get a variable voltage at its terminals which is used for starting the motor. The second method of starting with increased armature circuit resistance can be obtained by adding additional resistances in series with the armature, at start. The current and the torque get reduced. The torque speed curve under these conditions is shown in Fig. 46(a) . It can be readily seen from this graph that the unloaded machine reaches its ﬁnal speed but a loaded machine may crawl at a speed much below the normal speed. Also, the starting resistance wastes large amount of power. Hence the starting resistance must be reduced to zero at the end of the starting process. This has to be done progressively, making sure that the current does not jump up to large values. Starting of series motor and compound motors are similar to the shunt motor. Better starting torques are obtained for compound motors as the torque per ampere is more. Characteristics for series motors are given in ﬁg. 47.
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Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. G. Sasidhara Rao + A2 Load M  A2 variable voltage G A2 M A1 F2 A1 F2 A1 + + + F2 F1 constant voltage mains F1 (a) +   F1 A2 Variable voltage dc Auto transformer Diode bridge Load A1 Constant voltage ac mains F2 Static Ward Leonard system + F1  (b) Figure 45: WardLeonard arrangement 102 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.
Prof. P. G. Sasidhara Rao v Rext +  Rext = 0 Rext increasing F2 E1 A2 F1 A1 Constant voltage 0 source Speed Torque (a) v +  F2 Rext If > E1 A2 If2 < If rated Speed Vf F1 If2 If rated A1 Constant voltage source 0 Torque (b) + V1 V F2 A2 E1 Vf F1 V2 Speed A1 V3 V3 < V2 < V1 Variable voltage source 103 0 Torque (c) Indian Institute of Technology Madras Figure 46: Shunt Motor characteristics . Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.
Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. P. Sasidhara Rao v S2 Rext S1 E1 +  A2 Speed A1 Constant voltage 0 sources Rext = 0 Rext > 0 Torque (a) + S2 v  Rd A2 Speed S1 E1 Rd = A1 Constant voltage 0 sources Rd reducing Torque (b) S2 S1 +  Speed A2 V M Variable voltage Vrated A1 104 (c) Indian Institute of Technology Madras V reducing 0 Torque Figure 47: Series motor control 8 .
Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao A2 F2 Rn+1 A1 ra n+1 n n1 3 2 1 rn rn1 r2 r1 R3 R2 R1 F1 (a)Physical connection graphical method Rn+1 Rn Rn1 Volts Starting current with time Imax R3 R2 Imin 0 Ia Imin R1 Imax 0 Time (b) Characteristics (c) Timecurrent plot Figure 48: Calculation of starter resistance steps 105 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof.
we have Im in = V −E Ri Im ax = V −E Ri+1 or Im ax Ri = Im in Ri+1 (47) Proceeding this way for all the steps Im ax R2 Rn−1 Rn R1 = = . + rn ) + ra . Prof. P... Thus during the starting the current changes between two limits Im ax and Im in. In the ﬁgure an n element or n+1 step starter is shown. The armature resistance when all the external resistances are cut oﬀ is ra . One resistance element is cut from the circuit when the current falls down to Im in . The calculations for a starter resistance of a shunt motor are shown below with the help of Fig. Prof.2 Grading of starting resistance for a shunt motor If the starting resistor is reduced in uniform steps then the current peaks reached as we cut down the resistances progressively increase. To ascertain that at no step does the current jump to a large value nonuniform reduction of resistances must be assorted to. The ﬁeld winding is connected across the supply. During the instant when the element is cut the speed and hence the induced emf does not change but the current jumps back to Im ax . This use of a nonuniform resistance step is called ‘grading’ of the resistors. The total armature circuit resistance at step 1 is R1 = (r1 + r2 + . The starting current reaches a maximum value Im ax when we move on to a step. Sasidhara Rao 8. Writing the expression for the current before and after the resistance is changed on step Ri and Ri+1 ..Electrical Machines I Prof. ∗ = = k= R2 R3 Rn+1 Rn+1 ra (48) n R1 ra (49) 106 Indian Institute of Technology Madras ... 48. = = = k (say ) = Im in R2 R3 Rn Rn+1 R1 R2 Rn R1 R1 kn = ∗ ∗ . G. Krishna Vasudevan.1. Sridhara Rao..
This is some times called a static WardLeonard arrangement. Hence this method is not advised when frequent starting of the motor is required. Sridhara Rao.c. Similar method exists in the case of series motors and compound motors. Im ax is set by the maximum possible starting current from the point of view of commutation. In these cases the ratio of currents and the ratio of ﬂuxes are needed. Then the number of steps required can be calculated as 1 log R R1 ra n log k = log . it is not possible to choose n and k independently. Resistance method of starting is cheaper and simple and hence is used universally. 107 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Smaller the number of steps larger is the ratio of maximum to minimum current. Prof. R= n V = I1 ra n V = RI2 ra n+1 V I2 ra (51) From these expressions it is seen that to have the ratio k to be unity. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof.n = ra log k log R1 − log Rn log k (50) Also. This method is becoming more popular over the rotating machine counter part. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Sometimes the ratio k may be required to be ﬁxed. WardLeonard method gives a energy eﬃcient method of starting.c power source. Im in is found from the minimum torque against which the starting is required to be performed. G. With the help of a auto transformer and rectiﬁer set one can get variable voltage d. Also. the number of steps should be inﬁnity. supply from a constant voltage a. The equation becomes nonlinear and a graphical method is normally adopted for the design of the resistances in those cases. P. But it wastes energy in the starting resistor.
This method is commonly used when the speed ratio required is large. Field control or ﬂux control is also used for speed control purposes. G. Prof. For weakening the ﬁeld. Strengthening the ﬁeld has little scope for speed control as the machines are already in a state of saturation and large ﬁeld mmf is needed for small increase in the ﬂux. That means considerable energy is lost in these resistors. Sridhara Rao. The variable voltage source on the other hand gives the motor the voltage just needed by it and the losses in the control gear is a minimum. motors In the case of speed control. Krishna Vasudevan. P. The machine is said to be in constant power mode under ﬁeld weakening mode of control. constant ﬂux mode with increased applied voltage can be used. Above the nominal speed of operation. In the case of series motors however ﬁeld weakening 108 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . as also the power rating. series resistances are used for shunt as well as compound motors. Normally ﬁeld weakening is used.c. This causes operation at higher speeds than the nominal speed. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 8. Unlike the starting conditions the series resistance has to be in the circuit throughout in the case of speed control. The voltage control can be from a variable voltage source like WardLeonard arrangement or by the use of series armature resistance. Even though ﬂux weakening gives higher speeds of operation it reduces the torque produced by the machine for a given armature current and hence the power delivered does not increase at any armature current.2 Speed control of d. Further these resistors must be adequately cooled for continuous operation. but this is never done as the stress on the commutator insulation increases. armature voltage control and ﬂux control methods are available. Thus operation below nominal speed is done by voltage control. Above the nominal speed ﬁeld weakening is adopted.
Where the safety of the personnel or the equipment is at stake the machine may be required to stop instantly. 3. This is called regeneration. Electric braking can help in these situations also. In the case of emergencies to step the machine instantly. To save the life of the mechanical brakes. 8. G. Diverters are resistances that are connected in parallel to the series winding to reduce the ﬁeld current without aﬀecting the armature current. 4. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. P. To improve the through put in many production process by reducing the stopping time. The electric braking may be done for various reasons such as those mentioned below: 1. Extremely large brake power is needed under those conditions.Electrical Machines I Prof. In many cases electric braking makes more brake power available to the braking process where mechanical brakes are applied. Prof.c. By recovering the mechanical energy stored in the rotating parts and pumping it into the supply lines the overall energy eﬃciency is improved. This reduces the wear and tear of the mechanical brakes and reduces the frequency of the replacement of these parts.3 Braking the d. 5. Prof. To regenerate the electrical power and improve the energy eﬃciency. In many cases mechanical braking is adopted. To augment the brake power of the mechanical brakes. motors When a motor is switched oﬀ it ‘coasts’ to rest under the action of frictional forces. Sasidhara Rao is done by the use of ’diverters’ . Braking is employed when rapid stopping is required. 2. In processes where frequent starting and stopping is involved the 109 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
The 110 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The direction of this current is opposite to the one which was ﬂowing before change in the connection. In and Fig. The electric motor can be made to work as a generator by suitable terminal conditions and absorb mechanical energy.series and compound motors. This converted mechanical power is dissipated/used on the electrical network suitably.Electrical Machines I Prof.1 Dynamic braking • Shunt machine In dynamic braking the motor is disconnected from the supply and connected to a dynamic braking resistance RDB . Regenerative 3. Sasidhara Rao process time requirement can be reduced if braking time is reduced. The machine acts like a brake. Due to the rotation of the armature during motoring mode and due to the inertia. Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. the armature continues to rotate. The supply to the ﬁeld should not be removed. Therefore. 8.3. G. The reduction of the process time improves the throughput. torque developed also gets reversed. Dynamic 2. Braking can be broadly classiﬁed into: 1. Prof. 49 this is done by changing the switch from position 1 to 2 . An emf is induced due to the presence of the ﬁeld and the rotation. Reverse voltage braking or plugging These are now explained brieﬂy with reference to shunt . Basically the electric braking involved is fairly simple. P. This voltage drives a current through the braking resistance.
In order to achieve dynamic braking the series ﬁeld must be isolated and connected to a low voltage high current source to provide the ﬁeld. It is therefore necessary to reverse the series ﬁeld if large braking torques are desired. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sasidhara Rao torque speed characteristics separate by excited shunt of the machine under dynamic braking mode is as shown in Fig. dynamic braking is feasible. Series connection of all the series ﬁelds with parallel connection of all the armatures connected across a single dynamic braking resistor is used in that case. Prof. Prof. the situation is like in a shunt machine. the motor is made to work like a separately excited machine. Here the machine behaves as a self excited generator. The positive torque corresponds to the motoring operation. Fig. Sridhara Rao. • Compound generators In the case of compound machine. 111 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A separately excited shunt ﬁeld and the armature connected across the braking resistance are used. When several machines are available at any spot. Rather. Below a certain speed the selfexcitation collapses and the braking action becomes Zero. 50 shows the dynamic braking of a shunt excited motor and the corresponding torquespeed curve. G. 49(b) for a particular value of RDB . as in railway locomotives. A cumulatively connected motor becomes diﬀerentially compounded generator and the braking torque generated comes down. • Series machine In the case of a series machine the excitation current becomes zero as soon as the armature is disconnected from the mains and hence the induced emf also vanishes.Electrical Machines I Prof.
Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao 2 F2 + Vf E 1 + A2 RDB F1  A1 2 1 (a)Connections Torque (b)Characteristics 0 Figure 49: Dynamic Braking of a shunt motor 112 Indian Institute of Technology Madras Speed RDB increasing .Electrical Machines I Prof. G. P. Prof. Prof.
Sridhara Rao. G. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao 2 F2 + Vf E 1 + A2 RDB F1  A1 2 1 (a)Connections Torque (b)Characteristics 0 Figure 50: Dynamic braking of shunt excited shunt machine 113 Indian Institute of Technology Madras Speed RDB increasing . Prof. P. Prof.
If now the switch is moved to position 2. This has many advantages over its rotating machine counter part. which may be of the order of 10 to 15%. power source. In modern times static WardLeonard scheme is used for getting the variable d. 8. and silent in operation. Braking torque can be obtained right up to zero speed.Electrical Machines I Prof.c.3. Hence the best method for obtaining the regenerative braking is to operate.Fig. requires lesser space. the machine on a variable voltage supply. then a reverse voltage is applied across the armature. has higher eﬃciency. The ﬁeld current is held constant by means of separate excitation. unidirectional power ﬂow and low over load capacity. Series motors cannot be regeneratively braked as the characteristics do not extend to the second quadrant.3. The armature current can be made to reverse for a constant voltage operation by increase in speed/excitation only. Prof. Thus this type of braking improves the energy eﬃciency of the machine. Initially the machine is connected to the supply with the switch S in position number 1. Sridhara Rao. 52 shows the method of connection for the plugging of a shunt motor.c.2 Regenerative braking In regenerative braking as the name suggests the energy recovered from the rotating masses is fed back into the d. The variable d. 51. G. however it suﬀers from drawbacks like large ripple at low voltage levels. voltage. Sasidhara Rao 8. supply voltage can be obtained by WardLeonard arrangement.3 Plugging The third method for braking is by plugging. Prof.c. Krishna Vasudevan. The induced armature voltage E and supply voltage 114 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . As the voltage is continuously pulled below the value of the induced emf the speed steadily comes down. shown schematically in Fig. Bidirectional power ﬂow capacity is a must if regenerative braking is required. Increase in speed does not result in braking and the increase in excitation is feasible only over a small range. P. Static set is compact.
Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sridhara Rao. P. Sasidhara Rao + If F2 A2 Variable votage V source Vf F1 E A1 (a)Physical connection Speed A B C V1 V2 V1 > V2 0 Torque (b)Characteristics Figure 51: Regenerative braking of a shunt machine 115 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.
Sridhara Rao. G. P. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 2 RB +  F2 + 1 A2 Vf F1  V E 2 A1 1 (a)Physical connection A B C Speed 0 T orque (b)Characteristics Figure 52: Plugging or reverse voltage braking of a shunt motor 116 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof.
P.Electrical Machines I Prof.c. Krishna Vasudevan. If we need the plugging only for bringing the speed to zero. and increases the duration of the large braking current. This type of braking therefore has two modes viz.c. G. 1) plug to reverse and 2) plug to stop. If nothing is done it is plug to reverse mode. in operating a d. to reduce the stress on the mechanical system and the commutator. A cumulatively compounded motor becomes diﬀerentially compounded on plugging. However some precautions have to be observed due to the presence of series ﬁeld winding. This is done by adding additional resistance in series with the armature during plugging. during plugging also it is necessary to limit the current and thus the torque. The machine instantly comes to rest. The mmf due to the series ﬁeld can ’over power’ the shunt ﬁeld forcing the ﬂux to low values or even reverse the net ﬁeld. This decreases the braking torque. Plugging is a convenient mode for quick reversal of direction of rotation in reversible drives. Series motors thus qualify to be called as ‘Universal motors’. If the motor is not switched oﬀ at this instant the direction of rotation reverses and the motor starts rotating the reverse direction. This fact is used with advantage. series motor on d. then we have to open the switch S at zero speed. or a. Prof. supply. Prof. Hence plugging is also termed as reverse voltage braking. • Compound motors Plugging of compound motors proceeds on similar lines as the shunt motors. To avoid this it may be advisable to deactivate 117 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This produces a large negative torque or braking torque. Just as in starting. This keeps the direction of the torque produced unchanged. • Series motors In the case of series motors plugging cannot be employed as the ﬁeld current too gets reversed when reverse voltage is applied across the machine. Sasidhara Rao V aid each other and a large reverse current ﬂows through the armature.c. Sridhara Rao.
Sridhara Rao.c. Loads are broadly divided into. The need for generating these characteristics will be clear only when they are seen along with the characteristics of the loads that they operate with.4 Application of d. 8. Prof. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. (a) Passive loads (b) Active loads They may be unidirectional in operation or work in either direction (Reversible loads). P. If plugging is done to operate the motor in the negative direction of rotation as well. Passive loads absorb the mechanical energy developed by the motors while active loads are capable of working as both sinks and sources for mechanical energy. In such cases the braking proceeds just as in a shunt motor. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao the series ﬁeld at the time of braking by short circuiting the same. plugging makes the motor work on reverse motoring mode. it may be useful to look into the typical torquespeed characteristics of some of the common loads. Even though a detailed treatment of motor load systems is outside the scope here. Normally the 118 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Unlike dynamic braking and regenerative braking where the motor is made to work as a generator during braking period. then the series ﬁeld has to be reversed and connected for getting the proper mmf.machine is capable of having variety of torquespeed characteristics depending on the circuit conditions.c motors and generators It is seen from the earlier sections that the d. The direction of rotation may be taken to be clockwise/counter clockwise rotation. Prof.
Here the counter weight is assumed to be heavier than the cage and similarly the loaded cage in assumed to be heavier than the counter weight. I and III in Fig. Sasidhara Rao direction in which the load operates most of the time. With this rotation torques of motors. Sridhara Rao. the cutting toque is proportional to the speed and the fan torque varies as the square of the speed. Hence it is called as an active load. Similar loads produce characteristics in quadrant IV for negative direction of rotation. P. Yaxis represents the speed. Here an elevator is taken as an example. G. 54 the torque is constant and depends on the diﬀerence in the weight of the case and the counter weight. The characteristics of the load exists in all the four quadrants and is capable of delivering as well as absorbing mechanical power. 54 shows a typical behaviour of an active load. Prof. 53(b) shows a few typical load characteristics on a four quadrantal diagram.and c correspond to frictional torque. The characteristics a. Prof. Any torque which accelerates the motor load system in the positive direction of rotation is termed as a positive toque. While the frictional torque is not a function of speed. The torque being taken as an independent variable. is taken as the positive direction of rotation. and the radius of the drum. Fig. generators or loads can be represented graphically on a four quadrantal diagram. Quadrants II and IV similarly represent generating/braking quadrants as they absorb mechanical power and cause braking action. Krishna Vasudevan. cutting torque and fan torque respectively. Fig. These can only absorb mechanical power and hence are represented in quadrantal II for positive direction of rotation. Quadrants. 53(a) represent ‘forward motoring’ and ‘reverse motoring’ operation respectively. As seen from the Fig. The governing equation when the motor and a load are connected together is TM (w ) − TL (w ) = J dw dt (52) 119 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . b.Electrical Machines I Prof. is represented along the xaxis.
Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Speed II I Torque III IV (a) b a Speed c Torque c a (b) b Figure 53: Typical load characteristics on a four quadrantal diagram 120 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao.
Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sasidhara Rao W T speed Hoisting an empty cage W T Hoisting a loaded cage Torque o W T Lowering an empty cage T W Lowering a loaded cage Figure 54: Four quadrantal diagram 121 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
d. compound motor lathes. P. Both motor and load torques are expressed as functions of the speed.c. varying the motor characteristics to achieve speed control. By varying the characteristics of the motor (or the load).c. J is the polar moment of inertia of the motor and load put together at the motor shaft. high speed tools Rolling mills and other loads requiring large momentary toques. G. Sridhara Rao.c. dw dt is made positive when the speed has to be increased in the positive direction and negative when reducing the speed. series motor d. Electric traction. Sasidhara Rao where TM (w ) and TM (w ) are motor and load torques respectively. Prof. Prof. shunt motor d. Normally the torque speed characteristics of a load cannot be changed easily. Krishna Vasudevan. Thus most speed control methods adopt. 122 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. Some typical loads and the motors commonly used to drive the same are tabulated in Table. The speed at which motor and load torques are equal and opposite is the steady state operating speed.pumps disc and band saw drive requiring moderate torques. Under steady operation TM (w ) − TL (W ) = 0.fans. this speed can be changed to suit our requirements.
It is a graph showing the variation 123 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Sasidhara Rao 9 Testing of d. 9. 55. An equation of V = Vb + IRa form is ﬁtted through these test points shown graphically in Fig. Field is not excited during this test. The brush contact drop behaves like a nonlinear resistance. Krishna Vasudevan. 9. Prof. Sridhara Rao. the highest permissible voltage/current is chosen during the test to minimize the errors.1 Measurement of armature resistance Measurement of winding resistances of ﬁeld windings and armature winding are performed by vi method. If the value of brush drop Vb can be neglected then the armature resistance Ra = V /I ohm.c. They are armature winding resistance and resistance due to the brushes and the brush drop.Electrical Machines I Prof. one can ﬁnd the eﬃciency. G. The armature circuit consists of two resistances in series. Also. machine has to be tested for proper fabrication and trouble free operation. Even though any value of applied voltage can be used. rating and temperature rise of the machine. Prof. For large values of I the equivalent armature resistance is taken to be V /I ohm.c. machines A d. Some of the tests are discussed in sequence now.2 Open Circuit Characteristic (OCC) The OCC is of great value as it shows the mmf and hence the ﬁeld current required to generate a given voltage at any speed. To separate this from the armature circuit resistance and brush resistance a number of vi readings are taken. on no load. From the tests one can determine the external characteristics needed for application of these machines.
Characteristic Ra =  dv di dv di V Vb 0 I (b)Characteristics Figure 55: Measurement of Armature resistance and Brush drop 124 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sasidhara Rao v A + A2 V DC Supply A1 (a)Physical connection I. Prof. Prof. P. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof.V.
Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Prof. The variation of the short circuit current as a function of excitation current is plotted as the SCC. ultimately leading to the breakdown of the insulation and the machine. P. 9. Krishna Vasudevan. it gives the temperature rise of the machine. The maximum continuous load that can be 125 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. The load test gives the information about the eﬃciency of a given machine at any load condition. 9. This is experimentally determined by running the machine as a separately excited generator on noload at a constant speed and noting the terminal voltage as a function of the excitation current. The speed is to be held constant during this test also.3 Short circuit characteristics:(SCC) In the case of short circuit test the armature is kept short circuited through an ammeter. If the temperature rise is excessive then it aﬀects the insulations. If the temperature rise is below the permissible value for the insulation then the machine can be safely operated at that load. Prof. It is also called the noload saturation curve or no load magnetization characteristic.4 Load test To assess the rating of a machine a load test has to be conducted. The machine is demagnetized and an extremely small ﬁeld current is passed through the ﬁeld. when the speed is held constant. Also. The short circuit test gives an idea of the armature drop at any load current. certain fraction of the input is lost inside the machine and appears as heat. This curve can be used to ﬁnd the OCC at other speeds and also the self excited voltage when the machine works as a shunt generator. Sasidhara Rao of the induced emf as a function of excitation current. else the load has to be reduced. When the machine is loaded. with the load current being zero. increasing the temperature of the machine.
Sridhara Rao. Thus the load test alone can give us the proper information of the rating and also can help in the direct measurement of the eﬃciency. is termed as the continuous rating of the machine. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao delivered by the machine without exceeding the temperature rise for the insulation used. The torque lost at any speed is calculated by running the motor at that speed steadily on no load and noting the power input.From this power the losses that takes place in the armature and ﬁeld are deducted to get the power converted into mechanical form. P. The test works on the principle that when a motor is switched oﬀ from the mains it decelerates and comes to rest. The lost torque at any speed can be written as PL = Tlost . Prof.ω Tlost = PL /w = J Here the dw dt (53) dw dt is the slope of the retardation curve and the (Tlost ) is the torque required to be 126 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. In a retardation test the motor speed is taken to some high value and the power to the motor is switched oﬀ. This can be repeated at any deﬁned speed to get the lost power (PL ) and torque lost (Tlost ) due to mechanical losses. 9. G. The inertia can be determined by a retardation test.5 Measurement of rotor inertia The moment of inertia value is very important for the selection of a proper motor for drives involving many starts and stops or requiring very good speed control characteristics. The angular retardation at any speed is proportional to the retarding torque and is inversely proportional to the inertia. Prof. All this power is spent in over coming the mechanical losses at that speed. The torque required by the losses is supplied by the energy stored in the motor inertia.
machine A machine when loaded yields an output. Krishna Vasudevan. Armature copper loss. machine. For the segregation of losses one must know the losses that take place inside a d. 2.c. Commutating pole loss 127 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . dw dt (54) 9. Brush and brush contact loss. machine can be listed as below. Sridhara Rao.c. Prof. 3.Electrical Machines I Prof.6 Eﬃciency of a d. P.c. The losses that take place inside a d. The the eﬃciency in per unit is given as the ratio of output power to input power. The other two deﬁnitions are known as determination of eﬃciency using the loss segregation. Prof. Sasidhara Rao met at the given speed. η = output power input power Input power − power lost inside the machine = input power output power = output power + power lost inside the machine (55) The ﬁrst deﬁnition is used in the direct estimation of the eﬃciency . 1. G. From these values the moment of inertia can be computed as J= Tlost dw dt = PL kgm2 w. The input to the machine is measured at that operating point. Shunt ﬁeld loss 4. Series ﬁeld loss 5.
it is classiﬁed under constant losses as the excitation current is held constant during loading.c. 128 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao 6. Compensating winding loss 7. The eﬃciency of power conversion is given by the ratio of output power to input power.8 and 9 will be present in all the d. Iron losses change with the degree of saturation and distortion of the shape of the ﬁeld ﬂux distribution under the poles. Krishna Vasudevan. Iron losses 9. Mechanical losses vary with variation in speed. Stray load losses Out of these items 1. machine is loaded using a suitable load the output delivered by the machine increases. When a d. machines. These losses change with temperature of operation. The input requirement also increases along with the output. The diﬀerence between the input and output powers is the power lost inside the machine as loss. P. Mechanical losses 8. Prof.2. η= V I − losses VI (56) for constant speed operation. Putting in mathematical form for a motor.7.c. the loss that takes place in the resistance of the armature is proportional to the square of the load current. G. Out of the remaining one or more may be present depending on which winding is present. the speed dependant losses remain constant. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. While the loss that takes place in the brush drop in the brushes is proportional to the load current. Prof. The load dependant losses form the variable losses. Even though the loss that takes place in a ﬁeld winding is proportional to the square of the current through that winding.
Prof. The term inside the brackets is sometimes referred to as the deﬁciency.c.motor these are plotted in Fig. motor can be expressed in the form PL = a + bI + cI 2 η= When A = a V (57) (58) V I − PL A = 1 − ( + B + CI ) VI I . I Fig.c in the ﬁgure represent the eﬃciency curve taking one component of the loss at a time.b. Prof.B = b V and C = cV . Sasidhara Rao Thus the total losses in a d.machine. The curves a. For a typical d.c. The resultant curve exhibits a maximum. Sridhara Rao.c.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. 56(b) depicts a typical output vs η curve of a d. 56(a) as a function of the load current. P. The curve d is the eﬃciency curve with all three components taken together. A = CI or A = CI 2 . G. This can be easily seen from the graph that this maximum occurs when constant losses equal the variable losses. 129 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .
G. P. Sasidhara Rao b c Efficiency a d current (a)Eﬃciency Vs Load current Efficiency Output (b)Output Vs Eﬃciency Figure 56: Eﬃciency of a D.C.machine 130 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao.
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