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Brojeswari Das, Ph.D., Apurba Das, Ph.D., Vijay Kothari, Ph.D., Raul Fanguiero, Ph.D., Mario D. Araujo, Ph.D. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, INDIA Correspondence To: Apurba Das, Ph.D., firstname.lastname@example.org
Moisture flow through blended material is a complex phenomenon. Clothing should possess good water vapour as well as liquid moisture transmission property, for providing the thermophysiological clothing comfort. The clothing should take up the moisture from the skin as well as transmit it to the atmosphere. Higher hydrophilicity of a material is known for good absorption, but how it really helps to transmit the moisture, has been studied in the present work. Polyester and viscose have been chosen as the blending fibers and 8 fabrics with different blend proportions were developed. Water vapour transmission of the fabrics was measured using the PERMETEST. Liquid water transmission property of the fabrics was examined using a gravimetric inplane wicking tester and a vertical wicking tester. From the experimental result it has been observed that water vapour permeability and absorbency of the material increases with the increase in number of hydrophilic group in the material, but it has an adverse effect on the liquid moisture transmission behavior of the material. The vertical as well as horizontal wicking of the material decreases with the increase in viscose proportion in the polyester/viscose blended fabrics.
molecules and thus show higher moisture regain at a standard atmospheric condition. Regain of a blended material can be considered as a scale for quantifying hydrophilicity. Moisture regain and liquid water absorbency of the material respectively determines how much water vapour or liquid water can be absorbed by the clothing material from the skin. Along with the absorption characteristic there are other moisture related properties which affect the thermophysiological clothing comfort, such as drying time, water vapour permeability and wicking property of the material. Human body perspires in two forms – insensible (in vapour form) and sensible perspiration (in liquid form), and to be in a comfortable state, the clothing which will be worn should allow both the type of perspirations to transmit from the skin to the outer surface. Water vapour permeability determines breathability of the clothing material. The mechanism involved in water vapour transmission through fabric from the skin to the outer surface by diffusion and absorptiondesorption method [Das et al.1]. In absorptiontransmission-desorption method hygroscopic material acts as a sink, by absorbing the perspiration from the skin and water vapour get transmitted from it to the outer surface. It maintains a constant vapour concentration in the air immediately surrounding it. During a movement cycle, it will absorb and desorb small amounts of moisture while maintaining a constant relative humidity in the adjoining air [Nordon and David2, Yasuda, Miyama and Yasuda3]. According to Yasuda, Miyama and Yasuda4 water vapour transport through a fabric is mainly governed by the differential pressure across the fabric layer and if the porosity of the fabrics is similar, the characteristics permeability of the fabrics is nearly
INTRODUCTION Although the major purpose of blending fibers in textiles is to provide better balance of mechanical and comfort properties, exact influence of incorporating hydrophilic fiber on moisture flow is least explored. Moisture flow through the textiles is an important parameter governing the comfort properties. Hydrophillic fibers absorb higher number of water
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4, Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India
Whereas according to Wehner. 3. and spin finish on the fiber. ASTM D737 has been followed. U Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Eight sets of plain woven fabrics have been developed using polyester/viscose blended spun yarns with different blend proportion. Wicking characteristic of the material determines how fast it can transfer the sweat to another layer or to the outer surface. In the present study. card. The thickness of the fabrics was measured according to ASTM D1777-96 standard with the SDL digital thickness gauge at a pressure of 100 Pa. U Fabric Particulars The fabric samples were analysed after processing. Water vapour transmission plays very important role when there is only insensible perspiration or else very little sweating. fabric weight per unit area and fabric thickness.jeffjournal. But a considerable reduction in the wicking property has been noticed with the increase in hydrophilicity of the material. Warp and weft densities were measured using the counting glass according to ASTM D3775-03 standard. Kamath et al. An amount of moisture slightly in excess of the equilibrium regain for the surrounding ambient conditions. Yarn linear density and fabric weight per unit area were determined according to ASTM D1059 standard using electronic weighing scales. When the moisture content in the fibers reaches to saturation capillary action starts and at saturation or above that moisture level.identical regardless fiber type being used. draw frame.5% soap solution (Lisapol) at 80-900 C for 1 hour and bleaching has been done using hydrogen peroxide (8 g/l) for 1 hr at 900 C at a PH 10. as per the study conducted by Adler and Walsh7. The blending has been done during blow room stage. work has been done to understand the influence of the hydrophilic nature of a blended material on its moisture transmission properties. wool – polyester. Das et al. The spindle speed of the ring frame was kept at 18000 rpm.org . But the effect of the hygroscopicity of the blended materials on moisture flow is least investigated. Standard atmospheric conditions have been maintained for all experiments. yarn count is 20s Ne and T. The details of the processed polyester/viscose fabric samples have been given in Table I. Scouring of the loom stage fabric has been done using 0. U U Methods Measurement methods have been briefly explained below. fiber cross section.M. In the present study polyester and viscose have been chosen as the blending fibers due to their contrasting nature with respect to hygroscopicity and it was possible to select the fiber of same denier and length.5. Fabric sett has also been kept same for all the fabrics during weaving stage.9. roving frame and ring frame. on the wicking behavior of fabric [Goswami8. Using the same yarn in warp and weft the fabrics were woven in a CCI narrow loom (rapier). The fineness and staple length of polyester and viscose fibers are 5. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 21 http://www. So at higher activity condition when liquid perspiration production becomes high. Commonly used blends in apparel industries are polyester – cotton. The fabric parameters have also been mentioned in Table I.10].4 dTex and 33 mm. Number of studies has been carried out on the influence of different fiber properties as fiber diameter. polyester – viscose. produce sensations of dampness during skin contact [Plante. capillary wicking is the major mechanism of moisture transport.blowroom. The spinning condition has been kept same for all the samples in order to assure same yarn structure for all the samples. Holcombe and Stephens6]. Miller and Rebenfeld5 the moisture vapour transmission during the transient stage is higher in case of hygroscopic material due to the combined effect of diffusion and absorptiondesorption. liquid water absorbency% and water vapour permeability through the experiment. Proportion of viscose is responsible for hydrophilicity which in turn has been observed to increase the regain. U Air Permeability Air permeability of the fabric has been measured using TEXTEST FX 3300 air permeability tester at a pressure of 100Pa.The yarns have been spun by the following processes . to feel comfortable the clothing should possess good liquid transmission property.5. although diffusion takes place but the amount of moisture transported due to the diffusion reaches maximum at around 30% regain for cotton cloth and after that remains constant. warp and weft count. The fabric details measured were: warp and weft sett.
00 15.0 43.02 21.76 160.7:18. The liquid absorptive capacity is given as a percentage of the original mass of the test specimen.22 13.344 10. the relative water vapour permeability and the absolute vapour resistance.Water Vapour Permeability The water vapour permeability of the samples has been measured using the PERMETEST according to ISO 11092 standard.0:47. Each specimen dimension was 76mm 76mm.49 152.38 26.25 7.375 0. (1).93 152.379 0. (B . After determining absorbency time specimens were left submerged for a further 10 seconds before removing specimen and basket and allowing draining for 10 seconds prior to weighing. by measuring two parameters.02 Thread density Crimp % 26.98 25.11 12.89 6.13 23. some amount of heat is lost.78 13.H.8:33.28 12.91 23. Specimens were tested in distilled water at 20 ºC. Absorbency time is the time required for the complete wetting of a specimen strip which has been loosely rolled into a cylindrical wire basket and dropped on to the surface of the water from a height of 25mm.72 6. A = specimen weight before immersion.84 156.18 25.7:56.16 21.11 153.381 0.org . The samples were conditioned for 36 hrs at 65-67% R. The time taken for U the basket to completely sink below the surface of the liquid was recorded. During the test in Sartorius the time taken by the samples to get oven dried has been noted down.77 7.41 23.29 21.91 27. works on the principle of Infra-red drying.22 21.24 162.2 53.9:30. U U Relative water vapour permeability (%) = Heat lost with fabric on the measuring head (u1 ) 100 Heat lost from the bare measuring head (u0 ) (1) PERMETEST characterizes the capability of the fabric to transfer water vapour.378 0.08 6.11 12.A) Water absorbency% = x 100 (2) A Where.22 9.31 21.5 69.36 21.26 Fabric thickness (mm) 0. For each sample five specimens were tested.39 4. Absorptive capacity provides a measure of the amount of liquid held within a test specimen after specified times of immersion and drainage. g.75 24.88 152. The specimens used to determine absorbency time were also used to determine absorptive capacity. Moisture Regain The Moisture regain of a material is expressed as a percentage of the amount of moisture present in it to its moisture-free weight.4 72.73 Fabric g/m2 163.39 24.67 analyser. The relative water vapour permeability of the fabric sample is calculated by the ratio of heat loss from the measuring head with fabric (u1) and without fabric (u0) as given in Eq.jeffjournal. When water flows into the measuring head.23 21. The instrument works on the principle of heat flux sensing.370 0.09 24.3 0:100 Fabric cover End/cm Pick/cm Warp Weft factor 25. and at 20oC. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 22 http://www. The temperature of the measuring head is maintained at room temperature for isothermal conditions.72 23. This instrument measures the heat loss from the measuring head due to the evaporation of water in bare condition and with being covered by the fabric. Moisture regain of the samples were measured by using Sartorius moisture TABLE I: Fabric Parameters Sample name PV1 PV2 PV3 PV4 PV5 PV6 PV7 VIS Nominal Poly:Vis proportion 80:20 75:25 70:30 65:35 60:40 50:50 40:60 0:100 Actual Poly:Vis proportion 81. g and B = specimen weight after immersion.67 11.1 66. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4.6:27. Absorptive Capacity and Absorbency Time The test for absorptive capacity and absorbency time were conducted following the principles of test described in ASTM D1117-80.10 26.374 0.376 0.3 77.14 15.28 26.45 23.6:22.17 21.
81 5.org . The method used for the absorbency test are basically U Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4.44 6. the height reached by water in the fabric was measured with respect to the clamped scale by capturing images at regular interval by a fixed camera.125x + 0. the result has been plotted in Figure 1.jeffjournal.92 2 PV2 PV3 PV4 PV5 PV6 PV7 VIS 75 70 65 60 50 40 0 25 30 35 40 50 60 100 3.H. increases with the increase in viscose proportion as shown in Table II. It has been observed that as the viscose proportion increases the absorbency of the material increases linearly (the data fits in a straight line equation with very good correlation co-efficient value).4 for polyester at 65 R. The effect of blend proportion on absorbency of the material has been shown in Figure 2. As the viscose proportion increases the time required for oven drying of the sample also increases. But in this method the liquid water absorption capacity of the material is being measured.Vertical Wicking Test Effect of viscose proportion on the vertical wicking of the fabrics has been determined by measuring the wicking height against gravity along the warp and weft direction of the fabric. connected with a constant water source. The test has been conducted using a vertical wicking tester according to DIN 53924 method [Das et al. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 23 http://www.18 4.55 4.% and 200 C [Morton11]) were compared. to which 1% reactive dye (Prussian blue) was added for tracking the movement of water and at a regular time interval. M ×C Moisture regain (R) = w 100 (3) γ×M 0 Where.96 13 3 4 5 6 7 8 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Moisture Regain Moisture regain of the fabric has been observed to be increased with the increase in viscose proportion. taking moisture regain value of 13 for viscose and 0. This behavior can also be explained by the hydrophilic property of the material.3902 R = 0. Moisture regain% 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 y = 0.9]. which comes as higher moisture regain of the material. which is kept horizontally on the base plate having a hole at the middle. The result of the measured moisture regains and the theoretical moisture regains (as calculated in Table II. is the ratio of total mass of material and mass of absorbing material (amorphous portion) and M0 is the molecular weight of the absorbing site. number of water absorbing group increases. Effect of viscose proportion on moisture regain% of the fabrics TABLE II: Theoretical calculation of moisture regain of the fabrics Sample Sample Polyester% Viscose% Theoretical number name 1 PV1 80 20 2. U FIGURE 1. With the increase in the viscose proportion the mass of absorbing sites increases. As the viscose proportion increases in the fabric. The instrument offers the water uptake value of the fabric sample with time.7 7. A strip of fabric (200mm 25mm) was suspended vertically with its lower end (30mm) immersed in a reservoir of distilled water. Mw is the molecular weight of water. C is the total number of water molecule per absorbent site.9]. U material. the similar effect as has been seen in case of moisture regain. leading to higher hydrophilicity. 16cm 16cm sample was taken for the test purpose. increasing the regain of the U Absorbency and Sinking Time Considering absorption the first thing come into account is the interaction of the water molecules and the molecules of the fiber substance.996 Theoretical Experimental Linear 20 40 60 80 100 2 Viscose% In Plane Wicking Test In-plane wicking behaviour of the fabrics has been determined by measuring the initial wicking rate (g/min) using a gravimetric in-plane wicking tester [Das et al. The time taken by the material to get oven dried.
rather than an internally absorbed [Plante12]. At a specific concentration gradient the diffusion rate along the textile material depends on the porosity of the material and also on the water vapour diffusivity of the fiber.5 4 6 R 2 = 0. So the absorption of the water molecules by fiber is going to be increased as the number of hydrophilic group will increase in the material. The measured values of permeability. As the viscose proportion in the fabric will increase. Diffusivity of the material increases with the increase in moisture regain [Morton11]. In the same way it has been seen that vapour resistance (Figure 5) of the fabric increases as the polyester proportion increases in the fabric.provides the combined value of absorption of water by fiber molecules as well the moisture fill up in the inter-fiber and inter-yarn pores of the material. So as the fabric sett and structure of all the fabric were same diffusion through air will be same for all the fabrics.org . the time is decreases but there is a very poor correlation. resistance and absorbency of the fabrics have been given in Table III. Here as the cover of the fabrics are nearly similar. Water vapour diffuses through a textile structure in two ways. all the materials are having same porosity. U Water Vapour Permeability From the experimental results obtained from PERMETEST measurement it is seen that with the increase in polyester% in PV blended fabrics. Whereas fabric with less hygroscopicity will provide higher resistance to the water vapour transfer. diffusion and sorption-desorption. as has been plotted in Figure 4. simple diffusion through the air spaces between the fibers and yarns and along the fiber itself [Das et al. water vapour permeability of the fabric reduces.5 5 48 L n(x ) + 13 . as per the curve in Figure 3. A hygroscopic fabric absorbs water vapour from the humid air close to the sweating skin and releases it in dry air. Regarding sinking time though there is a trend that with higher viscose proportion.2 4 07 FIGURE 3. On the other hand the amount of water taken up by the pores will be dependent on the porosity of the material. the absorption value mainly has been changed by the presence of hydrophilic group in the material.jeffjournal. So. This behavior can be explained by the moisture vapour transmission mechanism. In the same way moisture transfer through sorption-desorption process will increase with the hygroscopicity of the material. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 24 http://www. The perception of dampness will be higher when the moisture is held as free liquid. From the air permeability test it has been observed that all the fabrics are having nearly same air permeability. Effect of viscose proportion on sinking time Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4. When vapour transmits through a textile layer two processes are involved in that. which interprets that all the fabrics are having similar porosity. This enhances the flow of water vapour from the skin to the environment comparatively to a fabric which does not absorb and reduces the moisture built up in the microclimate. So the difference in the water vapour permeability of the fabric happens because of something else rather than the openness of the material. 14 Sinking tim e (sec) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 V i sco se% 60 80 10 0 y = -1 .1]. So. due to very low moisture regain of polyester wearer with polyester fabric will feel damper than the viscose one at same percentage of excess moisture. moisture regain of the material will be increased causing higher diffusivity. If the porosity increases water entrapment by the pores will also increase.
8666 y=3.5 R2=0. Effect of viscose proportion on water vapour permeability of the fabrics FIGURE 5. water vapour permeability% 62 61 y=62.8 2.97- Absolute vapour resistance 3.7 2.57-0.Rel.1 3 2.jeffjournal. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 25 http://www.6 0 60 59 20 40 82.2 3.098x 0.58 x R2=0.8781 Viscose% 60 80 100 25 Viscose% 50 75 100 FIGURE 4.9 2.org . Effect of viscose proportion on water vapour resistance of the fabrics Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4.
liquid surface is dragged very smoothly. in comparative to that of.75 y=4.75 Wicking height (cm) 4. describe as the viscose proportion increases wicking of polyester-viscose blended fabric reduce. Effect of viscose proportion on vertical wicking (Warp way. Viscose is a highly hydrophilic fiber. The empirical equations fitted using the experimental results in Figure 6 and 7 respectively for warp and weft direction of the fabric.9363 3. in case of 100% viscose fabric.25 0 25 50 75 100 Viscose% FIGURE 6. which results very less movement of water along the fabric. so in case of 100% viscose the movement of water is mainly governed by the absorption of water by the fibers and its movement along the fiber. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 26 http://www. 4. but also due to U its positive contact angle (75o). So. it acts as a channel to the water which comes in the capillary and enhances the wicking phenomena.25 3.42e-06x 3 R2=0. This behaviour can be explained by absorption and wicking phenomena.jeffjournal.52-1. Whereas being hydrophobic in nature polyester does not form bonds with water molecules. it has a good absorbency but due to its high affinity to water when water molecule reaches in the capillary. which inhibits the capillary flow along the channel formed by the fiber surfaces. it forms bond with the absorbing group of the fiber molecules. at 1 min) Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4. which offers high wicking in case of polyester. The height of water at different time period has been tabulated in Table IV.org .Vertical Wicking From the result it has been observed that addition of a small portion of polyester increase the water wicking height to a great extent. when a small proportion of polyester is added in the system.
it will offer quicker absorption of the sweat from the skin.4.jeffjournal. at 1 min) In-Plane Wicking Water uptake by the fabric samples at different time period in in-plane wicking test has been tabulated in Table IV.  Yasuda T.307-1.8913 25 Viscose% 50 75 100 Figure 7. From the present study it has been observed that water vapour permeability and absorbency of the material increases with the increased hydrophilicity of the material. which accounts for moisture accumulation in the clothing causing damp and sticky feeling.709 x R2=0. Vol 7. June 2007.393e-04x 2 R2 =0. Text.5 min by the fabrics with different blend proportion has been plotted. due to its high wicking property. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 27 http://www. Therefore when sweat production is high. “Moisture Transmission Through Textiles. 1994.5 3 2. A hygroscopic material can absorb water vapour from the humid air close to the sweating skin or in direct contact with the skin and releases it in dry air. Vol 64. Effect of viscose proportion on vertical wicking (Weft way. In Figure 8 the water uptake at 0. But higher hydrophilicity causes reduced liquid spreading.  Yasuda T.  Nordon P and David H G. No 8. Water uptake has been found to decrease with the increase in viscose proportion. J. Small viscose proportion will act for the quick absorption of the perspiration from the skin and higher polyester proportion will help to spread the absorbed liquid to the outer surface of the fabric. So higher is the hydrophilic proportion in the blended material. a higher proportion of polyester fiber will be helpful. Wicking height (cm) 4 Water uptake (g) 3.5 0 y=4. Autex Res. pp.. J. Fangueiro R and Araujo M.5 4 3. Part I: Processes Involved In Moisture Transmission And The Factors At Play”. The simple empirical equation clearly tells as the viscose proportion (x) increases the water uptake value by the fabric (y) decreases. Heat Mass Transfer. Das A. pp. pp.. 1967. Int. “Coupled diffusion of moisture and heat in hygroscopic textile materials”. Res. Effect of viscose proportion on in-plane wicking of the fabrics (At 0. “Dynamic water vapour and heat transport through layered Viscose% FIGURE 8. By analysing the curves it is observed that the distance travelled by water is very short in the case of the 100% viscose fabric but it increases markedly with the addition of small percentages of polyester and it increases till 80:20 polyester:viscose sample (the maximum range which has been taken here). 100-110. No 10. but hydrophilic proportion has an adverse effect on the liquid moisture transmission behavior.5 2 1.org .5 min) Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4.5 3 2. Kothari V K. Miyama M and Yasuda H.9473 REFERENCES  Das Brojeswari. Part III: Surface temperature change”. leaving it dry. 853-865. Miyama M and Yasuda H. 457-465. No 2. The rapidity or rates here greatly influence the thermophysiological comfort. U CONCLUSIONS Blending has an important role in moisture related comfort properties of clothing. J.5 0 25 50 75 100 y=1. “Dynamic water vapour and heat transport through layered fabrics. The vertical as well as horizontal wicking of the material decreases with the increase in viscose proportion in the polyester/viscose blended fabrics.216+ 48.
Vol 62. AUTHOR’S ADDRESSES Brojeswari Das.. No 5. pp. Kothari V K. Vol 65. Vol 58. Part I: Subjective Trial. J. Accepted.. Vijay Kothari. pp.. Res.  Wehner J A. “Wicking of spin finishes and related liquids into continuous filament yarns”. “Dynamics of water vapour transmission through fabric barriers”. Campus De Azurem Guimares 4800-058 PORTUGAL Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics Volume 4. No 1. Ph.  Plante A M. G. Hornby S B. Apurba Das. Fiber hygroscopicity and perceptions of dampness. Ph. Part I: Subjective Trial”. Mario D Araujo. Weigman H D and Wilde M F.. J. University Of Minho Textile Engineering Dept. Ph. Vol 65. 1962.  Adler M M and Walsh W K. Holcombe B V and Stephens L G. Vol 54. 1995. J.jeffjournal.D. 1992. Issue 4 – 2009 Fiber and Textile Research in India 28 http://www. Ph. 1984. “Fiber hygroscopicity and perceptions of dampness. “Capillary Surface Materials (CSM)”Autex Conference. pp. Manchester. 227-235. Vol 64. Text. 293-298. U.D. New Delhi 110 016 INDIA Raul Fanguiero. Fangueiro R and Araujo M.  Goswami B C.  Morton W E and Hearle J W S. Res. Fibers and Polymers. Text. No 5. “Physical properties of textile fibers”. Holcombe and L.D. Text. Res. Res. Plante. The Textile Institute. “Mechanism of transient moisture transport between fabrics”. 293-298. J. “Effect of fiber diameter and cross-sectional shape on moisture transmission through fabrics”. No 5.. 170. 2001. 1995. pp.org .  A.fabrics. Miller B and Rebenfeld L. No 10. M. Indian Institute of Technology Hauz Khas. V..K. 1988. Text. 1994. 33-40.. pp. Text. Res.  Das Brojeswari..D. Ph. Res. 334-343. Part I: Subjective of dampness..  Kamath Y K. 581-592. B. Part II: Effect of chemical nature of fibers”. Das A.D. Text. pp. pp.. J. 4.Stephens. No. J.
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