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The following “Guidelines for the conservation of leather and parchment bookbinding’s”, are written and edited by conservation scientists and conservators from the Royal Library, The Hague (KB) and from the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage, Amsterdam(ICN) with additional chapters from other Dutch specialists. Until now these “guidelines” were only accessible on the web side of the Royal Library. From this moment on they will also be present on the web site of The Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN) in PDF format. This document represents the level of knowledge available at the time of preparation, the year 1997. For this reason at the moment specialists from the original team of writers from both Institutions are preparing in a combined project a revised, updated edition with the latest technical information and for instance results from recently finished EEC projects. It is our intention to put this new edition on the market also in hard copy. A number of chapters will be revised based upon additional information selected and gathered from a number of workshops with book binders, dealing with the practical use of the guidelines. Some of the topics that are in need of revision and adaptation are: - pH measurement, practical execution of different methods with advantages and disadvantages - Purpose of measurement of the differential number - Impregnation materials versus consolidation materials - Results of European projects - Sulphate and ammonia content (connection with conservation treatment) - History of leather conservation (more on surface treatments) - Degradation (more on theoretical background) - Parchment (degradation and effect of UV light) - Constructive damage (additional information) - Application of buffering materials (theoretical background and effect on material - Deacidification methods (comparison of existing methods)
Links: http://www.atelierstrebel.ch/aktuell/konservierung.htm http://www.kb.nl/cons/leather/index-en.html http://www.icn.nl
P. B. Hallebeek Conservation Scientist ICN, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
This publication is a translated and revised edition of the Richtlijnen voor de conservering van leren en perkamenten boekbanden issued in 1995 by the KB and the Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science (since April 1997: Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN)). The guidelines set out in this publication, make it possible to classify types of damage to book bindings. Also described are the various stages of actual conservation treatment which can be determined. Some chapters are devoted to related subjects, explaining in more general terms the problems involved in bookbinding conservation.
Foreword Acknowledgements Introduction and summary 1.Overview of leather and parchment manufacture 2.Concise survey of conservation treatments 3.Causes and phenomena of leather and parchment decay 4.Damage categories and treatment 5.Procedures and formulas for the conservation of leather book bindings and the treatment of specific kinds of damage 6.Procedures and formulas for the conservation of parchment book bindings 7.Analytical tests 8. Documentation 9.Storage and handling 10.List of formulas 11.Concise bibliography
This publication is a translated and revised edition of the Richtlijnen voor de conservering van leren en perkamenten boekbanden issued in 1995 by the KB and the Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science. The fact that the 1995 edition sold out within a year is clear proof of the importance of the subject. Because of the interest from abroad it was decided in 1996 to translate the publication into English. This also made it possible to incorporate modifications, based on the experiences of several workshops organised at the end of 1996 and early 1997. In these workshops, in which some 80 conservators participated, the theoretical and practical aspects of leather and parchment conservation were extensively discussed with the authors of the Richtlijnen, while practical experiences with the recommendations put forward in the report were exchanged. This co-production of the KB and the Central Research Laboratory (since April 1997: Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage) underscores the importance of sound collaboration between research institutes and the field.
RHC Vos Director Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage
The original plan for these guidelines envisaged a number of texts written by different specialists. However, combining these disparate building blocks into a balanced structure turned out to be no easy task. In an earlier, provisional version there was a lack of cohesion among the individual chapters and subdivisions. We have therefore taken it upon ourselves, as final editors, to revise the whole text. In order to obtain the desired internal cohesion it often proved necessary to make drastic changes in the texts delivered to us, but the final result is based on the essential elements provided in the original texts. The authors of these texts, Peter Goddijn, Henk de Groot, Peter Hallebeek, Henk van Soest, Guus Taconis and Marijn de Valk, consequently deserve a special word of thanks for their contributions. We would also like to express our thanks to Rolando Biondi and Ko van de Watering, who carried out the practical research together with Henk van Soest, and to other contributing colleagues from the participating institutions. Thanks are also due to the translator, Lysbeth Croiset van Uchelen-Brouwer, who spent many hours consulting with the editors on the fine detail of the text. Ko van de Watering offered valuable help with the translation of specific technical terms. Please note that local/national regulations for storage and handling must be observed when using chemicals and materials recommended in this publication. Wim JTh Smit Head Conservation & Optical Technology Koninklijke Bibliotheek Henk J Porck Conservation Scientist, Library Research & Scientific Documentation Koninklijke Bibliotheek
Introduction and summary
In 1979 the Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art & Science and the KB set up the working group Book Restoration. Over the years this working group has discussed many problems connected with the conservation and restoration of both 'old' books and 'modern' paper. The Central Laboratory attached so much value to consultation and collaboration with people in the field that some time later a second working group Archive Restoration was founded to deal with problems specific to archives. In 1991, practical considerations led to the two working groups being merged to form the working group Archive and Book Conservation. Conservation of bookbindings was one of the first concerns of the working group book restoration. The treatment of the cover material of the bookbindings is a logical first step in the whole process of conservation. It is also an operation which can be seen as 'mass treatment'. The members of the working group had grave doubts about the effectiveness of the various products available, especially those intended for leather conservation. A number of existing leather conservation products were therefore tested on different kinds of leather. Research showed that the fats in pastes remain on the surface so that they have no useful effect on the underlying fibres at all: the effect of such pastes is cosmetic rather than remedial. Research also showed that the dressings contained far too many fats. Most of these fats, owing to the rapid evaporation of the added solvents, rise to the surface of the leather again, a process that is generally visible as a dark discoloration of the leather. Nevertheless, a number of ingredients in the existing dressings, such as neatsfoot oil and wool fat (lanolin), are very useful for conserving leather. The problem was to find a good solvent: a solvent that would not evaporate too quickly (the fat needs time to adhere to the fibres) or leave behind any harmful by-products. In addition, a suitable method for neutralising the surplus acids had to be found. In the early 1980s both institutions published guidelines for the treatment of bookbinding leather and parchment. (Voorlopige richtlijnen voor het conserveren van leer en perkament van boekbanden. Amsterdam/Den Haag 1982.) These were of a provisional nature because their compilers realised that further research into the effects of leather cleaning and conservation products was necessary. A more definitive version of the guidelines was eventually published in Dutch in 1987 (Goddijn, 1987). The recommended treatments were primarily intended for the conservation of the majority of leather bookbindings. As yet no effective treatment had been found for alum-tawed and parchment bindings. The aim of the guidelines was to provide an instrument for both the restoration studio and the individual book owner. But in the course of a few years it became increasingly clear that this intention did not work. There was a need for a more differentiated approach to bookbinding conservation and (hence) for a more conservator-oriented approach. Moreover, the standard procedure of adding a buffer to the dressing was now being questioned, partly because of critical remarks made during discussions at the congress of the working group Leathercraft Related Objects of the ICOM Committee for Conservation, at Offenbach in 1989. Encouraged by signals from conservators, the KB and the Central Laboratory decided to produce a new version of the Richtlijnen voor het conserveren van leer en perkament van boekbanden, aimed specifically at the book conservator. The new guidelines aimed to: devise a selection method for targeted treatment of each individual binding based on its specific damage, on the assumption that not every book needs treatment, let alone radical treatment. introduce differentiation in the methods of treatment and the products used, based on the present 'standard' dressing. develop methods and processes for the conservation of alum-tawed and parchment bindings.
In preparation for the new guidelines, an inventory was drawn up of practical problems affecting the conservation of bookbinding leather and parchment. This involved, among other things, conducting an inquiry among book and paper conservators. Although these new guidelines, as noted above, are intended primarily for the (experienced) conservator, the possibility of wider public interest has not been overlooked. In addition to the actual guidelines for classifying by type of damage, procedural descriptions, and formula preparations, some chapters have also been devoted to related subjects, thus providing a more general idea of the problems involved in bookbinding conservation. It should be emphasised that it is impossible to cover every detail of a subject in a single chapter; the material is often too complex or too comprehensive. Readers are consequently advised to consult the specialist libraries of both institutions for supplementary information. To help the reader, a concise bibliography has been added at the end of these guidelines. Although we have tried to be as comprehensive as possible, some aspects of bookbinding conservation have not been discussed. But the publication of these guidelines does not signal the end of research into methods and materials: the report should be seen as reflecting the current state of knowledge and experience in this field. A brief summary of the chapter contents is given below. 1. Overview of leather and parchment manufacture Although a conservator may in principle be expected to know the basics of leather and parchment manufacture, the editorial board thought it useful, especially for the (as yet) inexperienced conservator, to pay some attention to this. Aspects like bating, tanning and finishing greatly affect the durability and permanence of leather. The useful life of parchment, for instance, is closely related to the method of unhairing. In the manufacture of 'modern' parchment in particular there is a tendency to resort to harmful chemicals for this process. 2. Concise survey of conservation treatments From time immemorial man has felt the need to 'rub something' into bookbindings, often in order to enhance their appearance, for example, to make them gloss. On the other hand bindings were, of course, also treated in order to preserve the leather. The diversity of means used for this purpose is amazing. This chapter provides a brief summary based on the literature. 3. Causes and phenomena of leather and parchment decay This chapter discusses the major causes of decline in the quality of leather and parchment. Chemical damage can result from the use of certain chemicals in the manufacture of leather and parchment. In addition, air polluting substances also play a major role in this kind of damage. Physico-mechanical damage can be caused by incorrect and/or fluctuating temperatures and humidity, but also by too much or too little fat or moisture. Biological damage in the form of fungi may occur, especially in parchment. Finally, physical damage is a form of damage caused, for instance, by thoughtless handling and/or improper storage. The forms of damage discussed are illustrated with a few representative examples. 4. Damage categories and treatment Visual assessment of the binding is basic to damage classification. It should be possible to decide on the basis of an external examination whether a book is suffering a specific kind of damage requiring treatment or simply needs to have an accumulation of dust and dirt removed. If a particular type of damage, either chemical or physico-mechanical is observed, the pH value of the leather or parchment is determined. Partly on the basis of this pH value, the book is then assigned to a damage category and an appropriate treatment procedure. Leather and parchment bookbindings are dealt
with separately here because the damage classification and treatment for leather and parchment are not identical. 5. Procedures and formulas for the conservation of leaather bookbindings and the treatment of specific kinds of damage This chapter describes the various stages of the actual conservation treatment: cleaning, deacidification, buffering, conditioning, treating with emulsions or dressings, and impregnating. The conservation of several specific leathers, such as alum-tawed leather and leather with pigmented finishes, not covered in chapter 4, are discussed here. Also dealt with in this chapter are a recommended treatment for leather and parchment bindings overtreated with fat and ways of dealing with biological damage. 6. Procedures and formulas for the conservation of parchment bookbindings In the past, reports dealing with the conservation of bookbindings usually neglected parchment (or, in some cases, unfortunately treated it as if it were identical with leather). Research into the proper treatment of parchment bookbindings was still in its early stages so no treatment for parchment was recommended, and rightly so. Besides, for a long time there was a commonly held fallacy that parchment needed no conservation because its inbuilt buffer of calcium carbonate (chalk) would protect it from pollution. But parchment can indeed be affected by pollution as well as by chemicals added during manufacturing or by dust and dirt in the environment. The various stages of parchment conservation are discussed; whenever these are the same as for the treatment of leather readers are referred to the chapter on leather conservation. 7. Analytical tests By means of special pH indicator paper a reliable measure of acidity can be obtained. This is important in assigning the binding to a damage category and in determining the treatment procedure. Also important for an accurate insight into the 'background' of damage to leather and parchment are the ammonium and sulphate levels. These can be determined by the book conservator, although a correct interpretation of the results of this analysis will often require consultation with an expert in this field. 8. Documentation In principle every treatment of a history artefact should be documented. It has become more or less standard procedure in institutions to draw up a report of both the restoration process and the conservation method applied to the binding. Later on supplementary information, such as a new buffer treatment, can be added to the report. 9. Storage and handling Sound material care plays a primary role in preventing damage to books and their covering materials and is therefore an important part of conservation. The term material care refers not only to the way books are stored - lying or standing, in steel or wooden cases, in boxes or not - but also to the control of ambient conditions. This chapter looks at some important aspects, such as handling books, bookcases, storage materials, shelf-marks, climate control, lighting and exhibiting. 10. List of formulas This chapter contains all the formulas referred to in these guidelines. 11. Concise bibliography The bibliography provides a compilation of the references and other sources as indicated at the end of the chapters. This is supplemented by a number of other relevant publications which provide an opportunity for going into the subject more deeply.
1. Overview of leather and parchment manufacture
Manufacture of leather Leather is made from animal skin, generally the skins of mammals. Evidence that prehistoric man used skins or leather comes from tools and images on rocks and cave walls. Sometimes prehistoric leather objects are found: a 6,000 year-old leather bowl, a 4,000 year-old shoe from the Buinerveen (the Netherlands) or leather items belonging to a man who lived in the Alps some 5,000 years ago. In the Middle East alum and oak gall from the dwarf-oak (Quercus infectoria) were much used for tanning, but acacia pods (Acacia nilotica) were also used. In addition to these tanning agents, the Romans used the bark of oak trees. Starting in the eighth century, when the Moors arrived in Spain, Cordoba developed into a centre of leather making and indigenous and imported techniques merged. The term 'Spanish leather' referred not to one specific kind of leather but to leather (usually goatskin) that had been prepared and finished in a number of different ways. By the eleventh century the techniques known at the time were firmly anchored throughout Western Europe. In the fifteenth century sumac was introduced into Cordoba for tanning. Until the nineteenth century the tanning process altered very little, except for a few changes in actual procedure. Leather making is a fairly complicated process. This chapter can do no more than sketch a general picture which does not pretend to record all operations. Furthermore, not only are there many different types of leather but many leather manufacturers also have their own methods of preparation so that even the same kinds of leather are not always prepared in the same way and various leathers enter the market under their own trademark. Many kinds of leather with oldestablished names, such as Russia leather, are nowadays made in a different way, while leathers bearing the same name were not always made in the same way even in the past. Bookbinding leather falls into a category known in the leather industry as 'light leather'. Other end-products for this kind of leather are gloves, bags, purses, watch-straps, and shoe linings. They are usually made from calf-, goat- or sheepskins. 'Light leather' must meet specific demands with regard to thickness, suppleness, durability, and suitability for the various finishing processes. Consequently, special conditions apply to the bating process, tanning method and tanning ingredients used in its manufacture. Preparation of skins used to make this kind of leather is much the same as for skins intended for other purposes.
Animal skin A flayed skin that is not prepared will rapidly decompose due to the action of micro-organisms that secrete proteolytic enzymes. To prevent or slow down this action, the skin must be preserved. This can be done by salting and/or drying. This dehydrates the skin to some extent, thereby significantly decreasing the micro-organisms' chances of survival. Salt (NaCl), moreover, has a mild disinfectant effect. Drying causes the skin to lose its soft and supple nature, turning it as hard as horn and transparent. Preservation alone is not sufficient to guarantee maximum retention of the favourable properties of the material: the skin needs to be tanned as well. Under normal circum-stances tanning renders the skin impervious to bacterial activity. It also makes it possible to retain the suppleness, softness, and mechanical resistance of the skin. All leathers consist of a network of fibres made up of proteins. Collagen is the most important protein occurring in leather. The skin of mammals consists of the epidermis, the dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. For the manufacture of leather only the dermis is important (drawing 1). Epidermis
The upper layers of the epidermis consist the skin flakes, while from the bottom of is made up of living cells, new tissue is stratum basale is made up of soft keratin attack. The epidermis is firmly rooted in
of (dead) hard keratin. The surface of the epidermis (stratum basale), which constantly added to the epidermis. The and is highly susceptible to chemical the dermis by means of the hairs.
Drawing 1. Vertical cross-section of a calfskin. Dermis The dermis consists of the grain (layer) and the fibre network layer. The grain extends from the bottom of the hair follicles to the top of the dermis and consists of fine fibres, which are practically horizontal on the top where the fibres are very fine and compactly interwoven (grain membrane). At the level of the hair follicles - in other words, on the underside of the grain - are the sweat and sebaceous glands and also blood and lymph vessels. During leather manufacture the remains of the contents of these glands and vessels is removed, with the result that the junction (hyaline layer) between the grain and the fibre network layer is weak. The tissue in the fibre network layer is made up of fibres that are thicker than those in the grain. They are all jumbled up together and are composed of fine fibrils. The fibrils are separated by an interfibrillar substance. The relative thickness of the grain and fibre network layers depends in the first instance on the kind of animal, its sex and its age. In general one can say that the thinner the coat of hair, the thicker the fibre network layer.
The thickness of the fibre network layer and the thickness and orientation of the fibres usually determine the strength and durability of leather. Horizontal fibres usually give good tensile strength, while the more upright fibres improve wear resistance. Subcutaneous layer The subcutaneous layer forms the transition between the dermis and the flesh, and has a loose structure. This tissue is separated from the dermis with knives and is not used for the manufacture of leather.
Preparation of the skin In the leather trade (but not in this book) a distinction is made between skins and hides. A hide has a fresh weight of up to about 15 kilogrammes. Anything over this weight is called a skin. Preservation To prevent the onset of decomposition, fresh (green) skins must be preserved within about three hours after stripping. There are several methods for preserving skins: they can be dried, salted, drysalted, pickled (a combination of treatments with salt and acids), or pretanned. In salting, the skins are first stirred in a salt bath, after which they are spread out and sprinkled with a layer of salt. Dry-salted skins are made by moving the skins in a salt bath and then drying them. Sheepskins are first shorn of wool in their country of origin, after which they are usually preserved by pickling and then dispatched in barrels. The skin of hybrid sheep - a race produced by crossbreeding wool and hair sheep - are often pre-tanned using vegetable tannins and then traded. The dried and salted skins are stored at low temperatures (about 5º C) in the tannery stockroom. They then go to the 'wethouse' to be prepared for tanning, a process that in the past could take from several days to a few weeks and involved pits and paddles (drawing 2a). Nowadays drums (drawing 2b) are used in the wethouse and the skins remain in the same drum throughout treatment, thus reducing their time in the wethouse to 14 - 16 hours.
Drawing 2a. Paddle.
Drawing 2b. Drum.
Soaking, unhairing and liming Because the skins lose a lot of moisture during preservation, they are soaked to restore their original water content. Initially the running water of a brook or river was used, lateron pits and paddles, and nowadays drums. Once the skins have been well soaked and have expanded sufficiently, they go to 'trimmers', who remove the claws, ears, and tails. Next the epidermis (with hair) is removed. Before the middle of the last century this layer of hair was loosened by means of 'sweltering' or 'sweating'. This involved lightly salting the skins and folding them. Several skins were then piled on top of one other and covered over. The resulting rise in temperature caused the skins to start to rot and eventually the epidermis with the hairs came away from the base. In the middle of last century sodium sulphide was first used for unhairing. The next step is liming, in which the bonds between the fibrils are partly broken, so that the fibres are slightly split up. The lime also removes part of the interfibrillar skin matter, so that the fibres become less fixed. At the same time liming loosens the subcutaneous layer so that it is more easily removed lateron. Liming takes 12 - 14 hours. At the end of the process the skin is very alkaline (pH 13-14). Deliming, fleshing and scudding After liming the skin must be delimed in order to neutralise most of the alkaline substances now present in the skin. If this were not done, the acid environment during tanning would result in a rapid and unnecessary hardening of the fibres, especially those of the grain. Lime, moreover, forms insoluble compounds with most tanning substances. For example, vegetable tannins and lime combine to form insoluble calcium tannates, which can cause lime spots at a later stage of the process. For lighter kinds of leather a separate deliming process is omitted and a certain amount of deliming is achieved during bating.
The next phase in the manufacture of leather is fleshing: the removal of the subcuta-neous layer. Traditionally, this was done by means of a wooden beam and a fleshing knife (drawings 3 and 4), but nowadays it is done by machines. The next stage is scudding which involves cleaning the grain once more of epidermis remnants, such as hair-roots, pigments and the content of glands and vessels. This was done using a blunt knife. For very thin or delicate skins a slate knife was used. After scudding the grain is more open, so that the tannin is able to penetrate more easily during tanning. Skins can be split lengthwise; very thick skins can even be split into more than two layers, leaving the grain on the 'outer split'. The grainless 'flesh split' was less valuable for certain applications, including bookbindings. Before the development of splitting machines - in the course of the nineteenth century - skins were shaved to make them thinner. Shaving was done using a flat shaving beam and a shaving knife (drawing 5) or by treating a stretched skin with a round shaving knife.
Drawing 3. Wooden beam.
Drawing 4. Fleshing knives.
Drawing 5. Shaving beam and shaving knife.
Bating Bookbinding leather and other light leathers which require a fine, silky, supple and elastic grain, are bated after liming and fleshing. The object of bating is: Further measure of deliming. Breakdown of the lime-soap generated during liming. Further action on the protein fibres with a view to increasing the elasticity of the leather. To obtain a fine silky grain.
The bating preparation contains proteolytic enzymes which accomplish a controlled disintegration of the skin substance. Any remaining bits of epidermis are also removed during bating. Meticulous adjustment of dose, temperature, pH, and duration of bating make it possible to regulate the process very precisely. Nowadays bating substances based on pancreatic enzymes have replaced the dog and bird manure favoured in earlier times. As soon as the bating process is finished the skins are rinsed with water for a period of time varying from a few hours to several days. Finally the skin is purged of any remaining bits of connective tissue, etc. Tanning To put it very briefly, during tanning certain active groups in a tannin form chemical bonds with certain active groups in the collagen in the skin. This process is greatly affected by various circumstances, such as the condition of the skin, the pH, and the temperature. Tanning can be done in various ways, depending on the kind of tannin used. Tannins can be divided into four different groups: Vegetable tannins Mineral tannins Aldehyde tannins Synthetic tannins (syntans)
Tannins can be used alone or in combination.
Vegetable tannins Vegetable tannins are obtained from the bark, wood, roots, leaves, fruits and growths of certain plants. In the past, the bark of oak and spruce trees was widely used in Europe and occasionally willow bark. Vegetable tannins can be classified by origin: barks, type of wood, fruit, leaves and gallnuts. There is also a chemical classification (Proctor-Stenhouse) which differentiates between pyrogallol and pyrocatechol tannins and is based on the behaviour of vegetable tannins after being heated to 180-200 oC: the ensuing main products being pyrogallol and pyrocatechol respectively. An even better classification (Freudenberg) is that between hydrolysable and conden-sed tannins. Hydrolysable tannins can be dissociated into smaller molecules by hydrolytic enzymes or by acids. As a result of the action of strong acids or oxidising substances, condensed tannins form high molecular, insoluble phlobaphenes (reds). Examples of hydrolysable tannins are tannins derived from chestnuts, valonia, myrobalans, algarobas, sumac, divi-divi, and various types of galls. Mimosa, quebracho, mangrove, myrtle, and spruce are examples of condensed tannins. Oak bark has characteristics of both hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Leather tanned with hydrolysable tannins has a higher permanence than leather tanned with condensed tannins. In the Netherlands the most popular tannin was coarsely ground oak bark (tanbark). The bark of 10-15 year-old trees was the most suitable. The skins were put into a pit or vat, inter-spersed with layers of tan-bark. Water was poured over them and planks weighted with stones were placed on top. After about two months the tannin was completely absorbed. This treatment might be repeated several times, depending on the type and thickness of the skin. The lightest skins took 4-6 months to fully absorb the tannin. It was possible to accelerate the tanning process by using vegetable tannin extracts. This method involved suspending the skins in vats containing a tannin solution. The skins passed through a series of vats containing increasingly stronger solutions. The leather was then retanned in a rotating tanning drum. Nowadays rotating drums are generally used from the very beginning of the process. Mineral tannins The most important mineral tannins are the alkaline chrome salts, followed at a great distance by aluminium and zirconium salts. It was not until the end of the nineteenth century that tanning with chrome salts was sufficiently developed to be used commercially. These days at least 80% of the leather produced is tanned partly or completely with chrome salts. Chrome tannage requires an acid treatment, because the pH value after bating is about 8. For good chrome tannage the pH - depending on the process chosen needs to be brought down into the acid range. Acid conditions were obtained by using a mixture of acids and salt (pickling). The salt counteracts the swelling the acid would cause if it were working alone. After the tannin has been absorbed by the skin, the tanning bath is basified (alkalinised), which promotes the tanning effect, i.e. the formation of chemical bonds between the tannin and the skin fibres. Because alkalinization is a very exacting and time-consuming process, self-basifying chrome tannins have been developed. One mineral tannage that was formerly used more often than now, is tanning with aluminium salts (metal salt tannage): alum tawing. The Assyrians and Egyptians used earth containing aluminium for tanning which makes this method one of the oldest, alongside tanning using smoke, unsaturated oils and fats, and vegetable tannins. Aluminium salts are a far less effective tanning medium than chrome salts. Aluminium is not a strong complex former, so that there is little bonding between the alkaline aluminium compounds and the skin fibres. Leather tanned with pure aluminium salts is consequently not waterproof. Tanning can be enhanced by the addition of extra complex formers. Aluminium salts turn the leather white. Alum-tawed bindings have a high sulphate content because of the presence of alum.
Aldehyde tannins For the manufacture of chamois leather, skins are kneaded with fish oil, a procedure nowadays carried out in a vat. In the past this was done with pounders, usually driven by a mill or by foot. After being kneaded (12-36 hours) the skins are stacked in a warm place (35-40 ºC) and turned from time to time. The resulting oxidation generates heat which in turn releases acrolein (an aldehyde) that is bound by polymerisation to the skin fibres. Superfluous fish oil is then removed. Because it is washable, chamois leather was used from a very early time to make clothing. It was generally made from sheepskin but the skins of red deer, roe-deer, reindeer and goats are also suitable. For the manufacturing of chamois leather the grain has to be removed. Skins can also be tanned using formaldehyde (another aldehyde) after which they are neutralised by being rinsed with ammonium sulphate. The dry leather can stand temperatures up to 110 ºC. The formaldehyde bonding is broken up by an acid environment. Before the development of aldehyde tanning proper, skins were hung in the smoke given off by fresh plants and parts of plants, such as leaves, which release aldehydes as they burn. The smoke also contains tar particles and chinone. Nowadays aldehydes are mostly used in combination with other tannins. Sometimes skins are subjected to retannage with fish oil. Synthetic tannins (syntans) The rise of the chemical industry has led to the development of synthetic tannins. The different types of synthetic tannins are classified according to their usage. Some are suitable for pre-tanning, others as combination tannins (used together with other tannins), replacement tannins, retannins, tannins to shrink leather, tannins for produ-cing alum-tawed leather, tannins with a bleaching, dispersive or neutralising effect, or auxilliary tannins.
Post-tannage processing Once the skins have been turned into leather they must undergo several additional processes. Originally this was a task for the leather dresser, who received the leather from the tanner. Nowadays finishing takes place in the leather factory itself. Fatliquoring or lubricating As leather dries after tanning, it becomes hard and stiff, lacking in pliability, and with a fragile grain. The fibres now lie right up against each other and this can lead to considerable frictional resistance. Fatliquoring or lubricating reduces this resistance and renders the leather supple. There are various methods by which this can be accomplished. For some kinds of leather fat is added as an emulsion (dispersi-on in water), which is deposited chiefly in the outer layers. Vegetable-tanned leathers can be lubricated with oil. The oils also serve to inhibit oxidation of the tannins in the grain (darkening) and to prevent migration of non-bound tannins. Staking While the leather is still damp it is flexed from the middle to the sides with a blunt knife on a flat table. This makes the leather flatter and larger and improves its softness. Nowadays this is usually done by machine with blunt, rotating blades of a working cylinder. Dyeing There is evidence that people have been colouring leather (with natural dyes) since 5000 BC. The leather was placed in dye baths and coloured with red dyes such as carmine from the cochineal insect (especially alum-tawed sheepskin), turmeric and pomegranates, and with yellow dye from the berries of the rhamnus (Christ's thorn). Blue could be obtained with indigo, black with iron acetate,
green with 'Spanish green' (alkaline copper acetate) or a mixture of yellow and blue. Until water soluble aniline dyes were developed in the nineteenth century, a lot of American woods containing dyes were also used: Brazilwood (redwood), fustic (yellowwood), and logwood (bluewood). These provided a large range of colours when mixed. Many simple general-purpose books are bound in alum-tawed, red-dyed sheepskin. The red colour has been applied to the leather in the form of a pigmented finish with a protein-containing binding medium. The paint layer is often found to have crac-kled, for example, as a result of usage. Coloured finishing coatings began to be used at the beginning of the nineteenth century: first the water- and solvent-based finishes, and in the twentieth century the dispersi-on-based finishing coatings. These layers - which will be described in more detail under 'Finishing' - were used to add not only colour but also an artificial grain. The latter was usually applied in an attempt to imitate other (more expensive) kinds of leather. Drying After tanning and dyeing in a bath, the moisture content of the leather is about 65-70%. This must then be lowered to around 15%. When leather is being dried care must be taken to allow the water molecules to evaporate while leaving the fat molecules in place. Leather can be dried in a variety of ways. Formerly it was hung in drying lofts fitted with shutters and sometimes there were several such floors (drying towers). Leather liable to heavy shrinkage (particularly chrome-tanned leather) is pegged out on stretching frames and tunnel-dried. Finishing After it has gone through all previous processes the leather is ready to be given a finishing touch: a dry finish or a finishing coating (the finish). A finishing coating may embellish the leather without affecting its character, but it can also be so thick as to make the leather look like imitation leather. On the whole the dry finish is meant to smooth the colour of the grain, to make the leather pleasant to the touch, to adjust the reflection characteristics of the leather, to smooth away any blemishes, and to protect the sensitive grain from damage. The kind of finish that is applied depends on the quality of the leather. If its surface is undamaged and has an even (aniline) basic colour, a transparent glazed layer containing a little aniline dye can be applied. If the basic colour is not even, an opaque layer with added aniline dyes can be applied. If leather is not too badly damaged various finishing coatings can be used. Several of the most important finishing coatings used on bookbinding leather, especially on nineteenth-century leather bindings, will be discussed below. For the most part they have a characteristic (vivid) crimson colour although one also finds green, blue and other colours. They have often been embossed in order to achieve a particular structure, for example an imitation of goatskin (formerly often described in the literature as imitation saffian or morocco), a pattern of fine checks, or small 'dots' in imitation of shark's leather. 1. Water-based finishes The binding agent of water-based finishes consists of a protein, such as casein, albumen, or gelatin, applied separately or in combination. Natural and synthetic pigments are used as colorants, and sulphonated oils (castor oil, neatsfoot oil) as plasticisers to give the paint layer the necessary elasticity. Emulsified waxes are added for glazing and, if necessary, phenol compounds, which have a strong bactericidal and fungicidal effect. To promote adhesion between leather and dye, fixatives such as formalin or chrome solutions are used. The dye is applied in very thin layers with a plush cloth or a soft brush, with brief pauses for drying between each layer. This procedure serves to retain the profile of the grain. In order to make the dye less soluble in water and to give a lustrous finish to the leather, the dyed leather is 'glazed' (polished) using casein and albumen. In glazing an agate or frosted glass cylinder is moved mechanically and horizontally under some
pressure over the skin in the direction of the fibres (hair growth directi-on). The wax in the finish is plasticised by the generated heat and forms a smooth, lustrous surface when cool. A grained effect can be achieved by boarding: the skin is folded double, the grain surface inside, and pressure is applied by means of special graining boards (drawing 6). The water-based finishing coatings are not very resistant to contact with alkaline solutions such as ammonia or water containing neutral soap (non-ionic soap). Also they have a small wet-rub resistance.
Drawing 6. Hand boarding / Arm boarding.
2. Solvent-based finishes Often the binding medium of solvent-based finishes is cellulose nitrate (collodion). Natural as well as synthetic pigments are used for colouring. Cellulose nitrate is dissolved in organic solvents consisting of ketones and/or esters. The preparation is diluted as required with alcohols and/or esters to which plastici-sers such as sulphonated castor and linseed oil have been added. Nowadays synthetic plasticisers, such as dibutylphtalate, are used in addition to these oils. No fixatives are added to the dye. Solvent-based finishes were - and are - nearly always applied with a spraying machine, and more recently also by means of curtain coating. The paint layer applied in this way cannot be glazed; instead the lustre is achieved with a kind of iron or a flat plate in a process known as 'ironing'. Solvent-based finshing coatings blur the grain structure and often make the leather resistant to cracks, because the softeners seep through the dye into the leather. This is particularly likely when there are great fluctuations in the moisture of the leather, which cause the plasticiser in the finish to be absorbed into the leather. Dirt does not stick easily to solvent-based finishing coatings, so that dust and other impurities can be easily removed. They have a high wet-rub resistance. 3. Dispersion-based finishes The binding medium of dispersion-based finishing coatings consists of synthetic polyme-rs and co-polymers, which are available as dispersions in water and are also mixed with casein. Natural as well as synthetic pigments are used as dyes. As with water-based finishes, sulphonated castor or neatsfoot oil is used, with phenol compounds as bactericides. Dispersion-based finishes are also applied in very thin layers with brief pauses for drying between each layer. After sufficient even layers have been applied and allowed to dry, the leather is
'ironed' or embossed with the required grain pattern, at a temperature of 45 50ºC. Dispersion-based finishes are also frequently used as primers for other finishes. Dirt does not stick easily to dispersion-based finishes, so that dust and other impurities can be easily removed. They have a high wet-rub resistance; the paint layer does not absorb liquids.
Leather terminology The kinds of leather used by bookbinders were also frequently used for other purposes. Since very few manufacturers tanned especially for the bookbinder, he had to scour the leather market for the most suitable products. Certain leathers with a long history of use in the binding trade are still used for bookbinding today. One of the oldest Dutch publications on the manufacture of leather is a treatise by P.J. Kasteleijn, entitled De leerlooijer, leertouwer, wit- en zeemlooijer (The tanner, leather dresser, and tanner of alum-tawed and chamois leather). The book appeared in 1789 as the fourth volume of the series 'Volledige beschrijving van alle konsten, ambach-ten, handwerken, fabrieken, trafieken, derzelver werkhuisen, gereedschappen, enz.' (Complete description of all arts, crafts, trades, factories, processing industries, places of work, tools, etc.), published by A. Blussë & Son in Dordrecht. Besides discussing ordinary, widely used kinds of leathers, Kasteleijn also deals with less wellknown kinds, such as Russia leather, Hungarian alum-tawed leather, English sole and calfskin leather, 'Bauzener' leather, Danish glove leather, French or 'Erlanger' glazed leather, Brussels leather, granular/embossed or English saddle leather, black leather for mourning, morocco, cordovan, and shagreen. Kasteleijn drew on books by foreign writers for his treatise: La Lande, von Justi, Jung, Schreber, Sprenger and Beckman. A study of older literature on tanning, binding, etc., reveals a lack of any consistent or coherent leather terminology. It is almost impossible to discover whether certain regularly encountered names are indeed the original ones. Leather called after a particular region or place (of origin) may already be in use somewhere else where it is known by a different name referring to a different place of origin. This often makes it difficult to find out from historical sources what kind of leather is meant by a particular name. One must remember that a term denoting origin used in one country, does not necessarily refer to the same leather when translated into a foreign language. Further complications arise with names which, though they originally denoted a specific kind of leather, have become a mere phantasy name or trademark and where nothing is known of the kind of processing the leather has undergone. Nor is this situation improved by the occasional addition of 'genuine' or 'imitation' (as in genuine or imitation morocco). It is almost impossible to make an exhaustive descriptive inventory of all 'historical' names. Moreover, such a task lies outside the framework of the present publication. To prevent confusion it is necessary to use unambiguous terms and notions, which is something that can be achieved by national and international agreements. In 1992 the Koninklijke Bibliotheek published Kneep en Binding - Een terminologie voor de beschrijving van constructies van oude boekbanden. In this publication the authors WK Gnirrep, JP Gumbert and JA Szirmai also defined terms for a number of materials, including leather and parchment. As they are also relevant to the conservation of bookbindings, a number of terms from Kneep en Binding referring to leather and parchment are listed below.
Goatskin Goatskin leather has a characteristic follicle pattern consisting of rows of hair pores, sometimes predominantly parallel and lying in the grooves of the grain. The grain exhibits numerous variations. Terms best avoided: Turkish leather, morocco, shagreen, and saffian.
Sheepskin As a rule sheepskin leather - notably that of wool sheep, rather than hair sheep - has a smoother surface and a less pronounced grain than goatskin; the hair pores are arranged in groups rather than rows. Sheepskin makes an inferior covering material: the removal of the high amount of fat (up to 30 %) during manufacture gives it a loose structure. Moreover, the upper layer is weak and easily damaged (chafed). Sheepskin is often impressed with an artificial grain (especially in the nineteenth century after being finished with water- and solvent-based finishes - editorial note) in imitation of better/more expensive kinds of leather. Alum-tawed, red-dyed sheepskin is often used for binding purposes. Basan is a vegetable-tanned, natural sheepskin (its beige colour comes from the tanning). Calfskin Calfskin has a smooth surface and a very dense and random follicle pattern. Although usually vegetable-tanned it is occasionally alum-tawed. It is often dyed, sprinkled and so forth. Cowhide is too thick to be used for covering material, but has been used for straps and (usually alum-tawed) for bands. Russia leather The leather of young cattle, tanned with willow bark and impregnated with birch tar oil is called Russia leather. In most cases it is finished with an artificially applied check pattern. Pigskin Pigskin has a characteristic follicle pattern made up of groups of three and visible to the naked eye, and a not particularly pronounced grain. It is usually alum-tawed (and has often turned sallow and stiff). Sealskin Sealskin comes in fine and coarse grain variants. The follicle pattern is irregular and independent of the grain (hence it is found on the rises as well as in the hollows). There is some resemblance to goatskin and it has an oily feel. Alum-tawed leather Leather tanned with alum (with or without the addition of other minerals) is often made of pigskin, but other skins are also used. It is white or light yellow/sallow and is used for bands, straps and covering material. Chamois leather Leather tanned with oils or fat is called chamois leather. It is often made from the skin of wild animals such as red deer and roe-deer, but sheep and goat skins are also used. Tannage consists of rubbing fat or oil into the skin and exposing it to smoke (which causes the fatty acids to oxidise). The hair side is usually ground away. Chamois leather is yellowish and very supple. It is used as covering material and also for straps and protective spines. Chamois leather is sometimes confused with 'reversed' leather, that is to say, leather used as covering material with the flesh side turned outside.
Manufacture of parchment Parchment was used chiefly for writing, first on a scroll - as is still the case in Israel - and from the second century BC onwards in book form. To make a book, the rectangular cut sheets might be folded one or more times. The skins of sheep and goats from the areas round the Mediterranean were rarely more than 50 cm long by 40 cm wide. In northern regions we find larger skins and also calfskins being used to make books. The term pergamena is first used in the Edict of Diocletian (301 AD); until that time the term membrana had been used. It is generally accepted that the use of a
new term indicates a new or modified product, but so little is known about the parchment of those days that it is impossible to say with any certainty whether this was the case here. One of our few informants about pre-Christian times is the (unreliable) Roman historian Pliny. He writes that the king of Pergamon (in present-day Turkey), Eumenes II (197-159 BC), was forced to look for alternative writing materials when the import of papyrus from Egypt was suspended. This is supposed to have led to the invention of parchment. Although parchment had been known at least eight hundred years before this date, Pergamon did have a reputation for good quality parchment in classical antiquity. The great change occurred around the fourth century AD, when people started manufacturing parchment using lime water. Until the fourth century skins were mostly treated with salt, flour and other vegetable products that were used to remove the hairs and to prepare the skin. The lime water method may have been introduced by Jews and Arabs to Spain in the early Middle Ages, after which it spread throughout the rest of Europe. Jewish parchment was lightly tanned on the surface with vegetable tannins. Another technique, the splitting of skins, was also known to the Jews and Arabs, even before the Middle Ages. In the West the traditio-nal procedure to obtain the required thickness was to shave the full skin. Formulas and depictions of parchment manufacturing have come down to us, especially from the late Middle Ages. There is considerable correspondence between these mediaeval formulas and those used by modern parchment makers, and even the processing and tools have not changed fundamentally. For the most part, parchment manufacture is still a matter of handwork.
Manufacture The definition of parchment used in this publication and taken from Kneep en Binding, states that it is a skin treated with lime water and dried while stretched. This implies that all parchment-like skins that are treated with other substances, such as alum and enzymes, or have been given a surface tanning, or been dried unstret-ched, cannot properly be called parchment. However, these variants are seldom encountered in bookbinding conservation. One of the oldest and most detailed descriptions of this lime water method is found in an early twelfth-century formula. (Theophilus Presbyter, Schedula diversarium artium. British Museum MS. Harley 3915, fol. 128r.) More modern formulas (i.e. up to the end of last century), indicate how parchment is made 'nowadays'. If we compare the different formulas we find that the oldest does not explain the process whereas modern formula preparations often give very elaborate explanations. Modern formulas, like those of the twelfth century, begin by soaking the skins in water so as to restore the moisture lost between fleecing and preservation. Soaking swells the skin, thus allowing the lime to penetrate more deeply, and rinses away the salt used as preservative. In the twelfth century the skins were then put into a lime-water bath that had usually already been used for unhairing. The skins remained in this bath for about eight days (but twice as long in winter). In modern formulas the rinsed skins are not put into a lime-water bath, but placed over a wooden beam and trimmed on the flesh side with a blunt knife. This stretches them a little and removes dirt and remnants of flesh. It seems reasonable to assume that this was also done in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages unhairing was done on the wooden beam straight after the lime-water bath. Modern formulas sometimes refer to a 'lime dressing' applied to the grain side of the skins, after which unhairing takes place. However, lime water was also used. In the course of the nineteenth century, sodium sulphide was added to the lime water to speed up the unhairing process. During unhairing - with a curved or straight knife - the hair roots and the content of the sebaceous and sweat glands were also removed as much as possible. The skins were then put into a fresh lime-water bath (about eight days in the Middle Ages, one to three weeks
in around 1900, depending on the size of the skins). This opens the skins up for the new, fresh lime and care must be taken not to 'burn' the skins with an excessively strong lime solution. After removal from the lime water the skins are returned to the wooden beam to be scraped clean once again on the flesh side. Threads attached to tapered wooden pegs are then fastened to the edge of the wet skin. The pegs in turn are inserted in holes around the edge of a square, round or rectangular stretching frame. By turning the pegs the skin can be stretched into a smooth, creaseless surface. Stretch drying is essential for making parchment for it causes the fibres to lie in a flat plane parallel to the surface. Stretching also makes the parchment opaque. Rewetting manufactured parchment allows the stretched fibres to relax with the result that when the material dries again it becomes rough and horn-like. Consequently, parchment should only be dampened if it is allowed to dry in a stretched condition. In the medieval formula stretched skins are scraped on the flesh side with a sharp, semicircular knife (drawing 7), and left to dry in the shade for two days. After drying they are dampened again and the flesh side scraped with powde-red pumice. In modern formula preparations the skin is also scraped smooth on the flesh side with a similar semicircular knife. Scraping is accompanied by the continuous addition of lime water. For this operation slaked lime is used, prepared by temporary exposure to air in order to diminish the etching effect. During this treatment the stretcher is in a horizontal position, with the flesh side up. The grain side is treated only with powdered chalk, which has a polishing effect. This is followed by further polishing with pumice or powdered pumice. Split skins are treated in the same way on both sides. Scraping and polishing is done several times until all loose fragments of skin on the flesh side and the papillary layer of the grain side have been removed. Removing the papillary layer is important because it also removes the pigmentation from the skin (black-patched calves!). After scraping and polishing the parchment is dried in the shade for some days. When it is thoroughly dry, it is taken from the stretcher and, if necessary, cut to measure. The old and the later formula preparations use much the same method of treatment. Similarly, tools and equipment, such as stretchers and knives, are virtually the same. In eight hundred years little has changed in the manufacturing of parchment; the main difference between then and now is in the use of chemicals. Modern machines make it possible to split the skins to the required thickness before they are turned into parchment. This produces a flesh split and a grain split. In antiquity sheepskins were also split into two layers, without the help of machines. This was possible because sheepskins consist naturally of two clear layers separated by a loose, fatty layer. The practice of splitting skins ended after the third century, however. In order to give both sides of the skin the same surface, the grain was scraped off with a razor-sharp, semicircular or round knife. A knife-sharpener was used to make a burr on the edge of the blade, thus turning it into a kind of scraper. With the grain removed, the surface became velvety to the touch. This parchment was particularly suitable for books, because there was little difference between the verso and recto sides of the pages. Nowadays, too, the grain is often scraped (using machines and sandpaper) instead of being split. Where the whole skin (grain and fibre network layer) is left unscraped, as for instance for bookbinding parchment, pigmentation is removed with alum, enzymes or a bleaching agent (hydrogen peroxide). Parchment terminology Like leather, parchment is also given various trivial names. Many of the terms we use hail from abroad, and this may cause confusion. It all started in France, where the term velin was used alongside parchemin. This gave rise to vellum which is used especially in Great Britain and, sometimes incorrectly, in the Netherlands. The British parchment manufacturer makes a distinction between
parchment and vellum. Parchment is traditionally used for the split skin, vellum for the complete skin. In British technical jargon the terms sheepskin vellum and sheeps-kin parchment are used, although not always consistently. Dutch terms such as francijn and forril give no indication as to either the original animal or the method of manufacture. It is important, especially for documentation relating to parchment conservation, that the terminology used be as unambiguous as possible. For parchment, as for leather, this publication has adopted the terminology as used in Kneep en Binding where parchment is defined as an 'animal skin, preserved by treatment with lime, stripped of hair and remnants of flesh, and dried while stretched, which causes the arrange-ment of the skin fibres to change, and its characteristic qualities to appear (slight thickness, a certain transparency and a light colour). It is sometimes possible to distinguish between the hair side (traces of hair pores; often smoother) and the flesh side (rougher structure); but some forms of treatment make it almost impossible to make this distinction. Most parchment is made from sheep, goat or calves: sheep, goat or calf parchment; these are distinguished mainly by the hair patterns.'
Drawing 7. Sharp, semicircular knife.
Literature Albrecht, R. and Nerger H., Lederkunde. Leipzig, 1942. Bravo, G.H. and Trupke, J., 100.000 Jahre Leder. Basel 1970. Diderot et d'Alembert, L'Encyclopédie. Eitel, K., 'Leder', in: Ulmanns Encyklopedie der Technischen Chemie, Weinheim, 1979. Fast, J.D., Materie en leven. Heerlen, 1972. The Fibre Structure of Leather. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1981. Gerben - Färben - Zurichten. Bibliothek des Leders. Vol. 10. Frankfurt am Main, 1982-19... Gnamm, H., Taschenbuch für die Lederindustrie. Stuttgart, 1940. Gnirrep, W.K., Gumbert, J.P. and Szirmai, J.A., Kneep en binding. Den Haag, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 1992. Graaf, G. de, Leerwerk. Amsterdam (1938). Groot, A.H. de, 'Perkament', in: Boek en Band, (1991). Haas, H. de, De Boekbinder. Utrecht, 1984. (Reprint). Herwijnen, W.B. van, Ledertechnologie. 's-Hertogenbosch, 1956. International Glossary of Leather Terms. London, International Council of Tanners, 1975. Jettmar, J., Kombinationsgerbungen der Lohe-, Weiss- und Sämischgerberei. Berlin, 1914. Jettmar, J., Pflanzliche Gerbmittel und deren Extrakte. Vienna and Leipzig, 1922. Karmarsch, K. and Heeren, Fr., Technologisch Woordenboek. Amsterdam, . Kasteleijn, P.J., De leerlooijer, leertouwer, wit- en zeemlooijer. Dordrecht, 1789.
Kramers, J., Geografisch Woordenboek der Geheele Aarde. Gouda, 1855. Küntzel, A., Gerbereichemisches Taschenbuch. Dresden, 1955. Oltrogge, D., 'Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen an historischem Pergament', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main, 1989, pp. 104115. Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung. Sigmaringen, 1991. Reed, R., Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers. London, 1972. Reinders, E., Plantenanatomie, Handleiding. Groningen, 1941. Schmidt, J., Gerberei-Technisches Auskunftsbuch für die gesamte Lederindustrie. Durlach, 1918. Stather, F, Gerbereichemie und Gerbereitechnologie. 1967. Stiasny, J., 'Syntans, New Artificial Tanning Materials', in: Journal of the Society of Chemical Industries, 1913. Suermondt, J.R., Technologie der Lederbereiding. 's-Hertogenbosch, 1948. Thorstensen, T.C., Practical Leather Technology. Huntingdon, 1976. Vorschriften für Bibliothekeinbänden. Harassowitz, Leipzig, 1911.
2. Concise survey of conservation treatments
Treatment of bookbindings Formulas for cleaning, deacidifying, strengthening, lubricating and removing stains from leather bookbindings have appeared in various publications, especially since the beginning of last century. Although we would not now be inclined to call many of these treatments conservation, they were often intended as such at the time. They involved all manner of materials, some of which have unintentionally adversely affected the condition of the leather. Most formulas were intended to be used on leather bookbindings, but there is evidence that certain formulas, for instance for cleaning and lubricating, were also applied to parchment bookbindings. The following is a concise survey of the various treatments applied to bookbindings in the past. Cleaning Leather was initially cleaned with whatever domestic products were to hand: turpentine, petrol, eau-de-Cologne, even skimmed milk, but most of all soap. Gradually special leather-cleaning soaps made their appearance. Saddle soap (Propert's Leather and Saddle Soap), developed in the nineteenth century specifically for cleaning leather, was recommended for scrubbing leather bookbindings. It was also marketed as a dressing for utilitarian leather such as harnesses. Its main ingredient is a mixture of lubricating and cleaning products. Leather treated with this soap is very alkaline (pH 9-10). Regular treatment with soap produces a hard, darkened and broken grain; it also allows the dirt to penetrate deeper into the leather so that the grain becomes clogged with dirt, soap and an excess of fat. Edel's book (1946) contains a formula for making stearin soap, but the disadvantage of this soap is that in leather with a high pH value it may lead to the formation of sodium sulphate. This salt sometimes rises to the surface, leaving a white deposit on the leather. The same author recommends a formula of hard soap, water, ammonia, glycerine and ethylene dichloride. A woman writing in the English periodical The Housekeeper's Week in 1908 recommends cleaning leather bindings with pulverised pumice applied with a cotton cloth. Leather bookbindings treated in this way may well have been clean but they would also certainly have been worn off! In addition to general cleaning agents there were also formulas for removing stains. Impurities were bleached with oxalic acid. Chloramine-T, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were also used. Greasy spots could be treated with magnesium oxide. To remove mildew a thick dressing of sodium bicarbonate and water was put on the leather, which was then hung out to dry in the sun. Apart from the detrimental effect of certain chemicals, these formulas have the additional disadvantage of containing water. In some cases, for instance when acids are present, this may cause the leather to turn black. There is also a risk that the leather may swell. Once conservators became aware of the problems they switched to safer cleaning agents, such as non-ionic soap dissolved in alcohol, trichlorofluorethane and other hydrocarbons. Dressing and oiling All manner of oils and dressings have been used to make up for a possible deficiency of fat in the leather, and to give it a polished exterior: beeswax, butter, cedar oil, coconut oil, glycerol, Japanese wax, candle grease, neatsfoot oil, olive oil, paraffin, castor oil, shoe polish, tallow, vaseline, spermaceti (a fatty substance from the sperm whale), wool fat (purified sheepskin fat, anhydrous lanolin) and the previously mentioned saddle soap. Many of these oils and dressings are too viscous to penetrate deeply into the leather and so remain on the surface. They seal off the leather and prevent it from 'breathing'. This is also true of (pure) beeswax, a product unfortunately
still recommended today. Another disadvantage of lubricants (e.g. coconut and olive oil) is that they are prone to oxidise. This leads to discoloration and hardening of the leather and may cause organic acids to be released in the leather. Moreover, overfatting, in ousting the moisture from the leather, disturbs the natural water balance. A 1909 formula recommends the use of vaseline and olive oil for lubricating dried-out leather, while shoe polish is one of the substances recommended to restore the gloss. Shoe polish was also thought to act as an insect repellant. Other products besides oils and dressings have also been used to restore the gloss to dried-out leather. Well-known agents are egg white, egg yolk, and starch mixed with either water or milk. The bindings were rubbed till they shone, probably in ignorance of the fact that here, too, water was potentially damaging. The above-mentioned formulas were used for a very long time, even after products based on research into the structure of the leather and its maintenance had reached the market. Just one example of the incredible rashness with which people set to work is this 1956 formula: 'First use a solution of starch in water, then saddle soap and neatsfoot oil, then more starch and water, then leather or starch polish' (Rhodes, 1991). No doubt the book subsequently shone like a mirror but whether the leather survived such drastic treatment is another question. At the British Museum HJ Plenderleith's study of leather dressings led him to develop the British Museum Leather Dressing which has since been used in many variations by conservators. The basic formula contains the following ingredients: 200 gram lanolin, 30 ml cedar oil, 15 gram beeswax, and 350 ml hexane. Sometimes 60% of the lanolin was replaced by neatsfoot oil. One disadvantage of the solvent hexane is its tendency to evaporate rapidly. Before the fat/hexane mixture has been able to penetrate deep into the leather the hexane evaporates to the surface of the leather, taking most fat with it. While beeswax prevents air pollutants from penetrating the leather it does this by closing off the leather, thus disturbing the water balance and causing the leather to dry out. Almost all formulas published below, including those in the present publication, are based on the Plenderleith's formula. The British Museum Leather Dressing was part of an elaborate leather conservation programme. Other steps entailed cleaning the leather, if necessary with soap and water, and applying an aqueous solution of 7% potassium lactate as buffer. A warning was given about the dangers of using too much lactate which made books sticky and could cause fungal growth. The books had to be absolutely dry when the leather dressing was applied (Plenderleith, 1946). Disinfecting Besides such well-known substances as thymol and methyl bromide, a wide range of fungicides and insecticides have been used to disinfect leather during the twentieth century. An extensive list can be found in a publication of The Leather Conservation Centre (Calnan, 1985). Strengthening The most popular agent for strengthening and glueing leather bookbindings was starch. 'Take a small amount of starch and rub this carefully into the parts that need it. When it has dried, treat the whole binding carefully with a thin layer of glue,' was the advice given in an 1856 manual (Rhodes, 1991). Later on adhesives based on synthetic resin, such as polyvinyl acetate, were also used. A 1956 manual recommends filling little tears in the leather with undiluted plastic cement (Rhodes, 1991). On occasion, leather bindings have been treated with varnishes and later with acrylic and epoxy resins, etc., applied by brushing, spraying, injecting or a bath. Since 1987 the Central Laboratory has recommended using a polyurethane resin (a polymer dissolved in a mixture of hydrocarbons) as a fixative for loose
leather flakes. However, this should only be used as a last resort, since it is irreversible. Conservators in the United Kingdom nowadays use a synthetic polymer (Plaintex) based on ethyl acrylate, also dissolved in hydrocarbon, to fix loose and decaying parts of leather. This treatment is reversible. Another, relatively recent, method of strengthening and consolidating leather bookbindings involves retanning with aluminium salts. (The Conservation of Bookbinding Leather, London, British Library, 1984) Deacidification The tanning process usually leaves leather with a low pH value (i.e. high acidity). This is all right as long as the value does not fall below pH 3; anything lower will certainly have a negative effect on the leather. When this happened the leather was 'deacidified', that is to say, the pH value was raised. To achieve this the book was placed in a closed area, over a small tray containing ammonia (15%), and left for 15 minutes. A potassium lactate solution of 7% has also been used to neutralise the sulphuric acid in the leather. At present the use of potassium lactate is discouraged, while the use of ammonia and/or buffering is restricted to certain damage categories. Details of the approach recommended today are described in the present report. Literature Calnan, C.N., Fungicides Used on Leather. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1985. Calnan, C.N. 'Retannage with Aluminium Alkoxides - a Stabilising Treatment for Acid Deteriorated Leather', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offen-bach am Main 1989, pp. 9-25 The Conservation of Bookbinding Leather. London, British Library, 1984. Cunha, G.M. and Cunha, D.G., Conservation of Library Materials I. Metuchen, N.J., 1971. Edel, L.P., Mengen en roeren, vol. 1. Deventer, 1946. An Expert. The Book of Trade Secrets - Receipts and Instructions for Renovating, Repairing, Improving and Preserving Old Books and Prints. London, 1909. Goddijn, P.A., e.a., Richtlijnen voor het conserveren van leer en perkament van boekbanden. 's-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek/Centraal Laboratorium, 1987. Henket, J.G.M., 'Conservering van leren banden', in: de Restaurateur, 4 (1974), 1, pp.5-6 Jackman, J., Leather Conservation. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1982. McCrady, E., 'Research on the Dressing and Preservation of Leather', in: Abbey Newsletter, 5 (1951), 2, pp. 23-25. McCrady, E., 'How Leather Dressing may have originated', in: Abbey Newsletter, 14 (1990), pp. 19-20. Plenderleith, H.J., The Preservation of Leather Bookbindings. London, British Museum, 1946. Raphael, T. and McCrady, E., 'Leather Dressing: To Dress or Not to Dress', in: Leather Conservation News, 1 (1983), 2, pp. 2-3. Rhodes, B., 'Hell's own Brew: Home Book Renovation from Nineteenth Century Receipts to Today's Kitchen Chemistry' in: The Paper Conservator, 15 (1991), pp. 59-70. De Steen der wijzen. Algemeen receptenboek inhoudende 850 recepten voor allen en over alles. Gouda, 1885. Waterer, J.W., John Waterer's Guide to Leather Conservation and Restoration. Northampton, The Museum of Leathercraft, 1986.
3. Causes and phenomena of leather and parchment decay
Damage to leather and parchment Deterioration in leather and parchment bookbindings can be categorised according to the cause and the associated external manifestations. A distinction is made between chemical, physico-mechanical, and biological damage and physical damage. The survey below covers the most important factors involved in the various forms of damage encountered. Several photographs illustrating typical examples of such damage are included.
Chemical damage Leather A serious form of chemical damage affecting leather bookbindings is the one in which the fibres break and, in the final stage, completely turn to powder; this may give rise to a brick-red colour (red rot). Photograph 1 shows a leather binding of 1891 where part of the grain has already been affected by this form of degradation. An advanced stage can be seen in another nineteenth-century bookbinding (photograph 2).
Photograph 1.Chemical damage to leather bookbinding - grain partly intact.
The discovery of high levels of acid and sulphur in leather exhibiting these symptoms had already led people over a century ago to point the finger at air pollution (combustion products from gas lamps and hearth fires). Their suspicions were confirmed by the fact that the spines of books that had stood untouched in a bookcase for a long time exhibited a higher acidity and a higher
sulphur content than the boards that had been protected. Gaslight is no longer a source of air pollution but the degradation of bookbindings has nonetheless continued apace due to other sources of pollution (industry and car traffic). Nowadays, the absorption of nitrogen oxides and their conversion into nitric acid probably plays a greater role in the process of decomposition. Sulphur dioxide absorbed by the leather from the atmosphere is converted into sulphuric acid in the presence of an oxidant, for instance oxygen, ozone, and nitrogen oxide(s). The sulphuric acid thus formed catalyses the hydrolytic degradation of the leather collagen, thereby considerably reducing the strength of the leather. A high acidity and an increased percentage of sulphate are characteristic of this form of degradation.
Photograph 2. Chemical damage to leather bookbinding - red rot.
Besides mediating the conversion of sulphur dioxide into sulphuric acid, oxidants also affect leather directly. The main sources of this oxidative form of leather degradation is oxygen in the air, ozone emitted by photocopiers or formed from oxygen in the atmosphere under the influence of sunlight, and free radicals - highly reactive fragments of molecules - that are also formed by sunlight in the atmosphere. Oxidative degradation manifests itself in the degeneration of the places in the leather fibres sensitive to this process. The resulting degradation products can only be detected by advanced analytical equipment. A characteristic effect of oxidative degradation of leather is an increase in the percentage of soluble ammonium compounds. Although they involve different reaction mechanisms, hydrolysis and oxidation of leather are closely related: both processes often act simultaneously and may reinforce one another. A third mechanism also connected with the other forms of chemical damage, is the photochemical degradation of leather, where light plays an essential role. Light in general, and more specifically the UV part of sunlight, is an important factor in the ageing of organic material, hence also in the decay of leather. 30
Organic material is composed predominantly of polymers, long, chainlike molecules that with ageing break down into ever smaller pieces in a process known as depolymerisation. In the early stages, this form of decay is extremely difficult to detect. It becomes evident only after the material has already suffered a noticeable loss of strength. The process of depolymerisation can be triggered off by photolysis, caused by light with wavelengths smaller than 400 nanometres (Lodewijks, 1963). In photochemistry light acts as a catalyst in activating oxygen. Oxygen subsequently acts as an oxidant for the conversion of sulphur dioxide into sulphuric acid. The result is a breakdown of the links between tannin and leather fibre, followed by rapid depolymerisation of the leather and the chemical decay of the tannins. At the same time the activated oxygen can react with water, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide which promotes oxidative decay. These reactions, set in train by all wavelengths of the light, cause fading of the colours on dyed leather (photographs 3 and 4). Not only is the degree of chemical decay strongly determined by direct contact with the environment (air pollution, light), but there are also specific local forms of chemical decay in leather. Deterioration of leather can, for instance, be caused by the action of corrosive substances associated with surface-etching techniques. The marbled decorations applied to many leather (especially calfskin leather) bookbindings in the seventeenth and eighteenth century were achieved with aggressive substances. Acid dyes as well as very alkaline products or a combination of both, were used for marbling, speckling and sprinkling. The damage caused in the course of time by acid dyes that were usually based on iron sulphate, can be recognised by black, corroded, 'burnt' patches on the binding (photograph 5).
Photograph 3. Photochemical degradation of leather bookbinding caused by light.
Photograph 4. Chemical damage to the spine of a leather bookbinding with a pigmented finish.
Photograph 5. Chemical damage to leather bookbinding due to acid marbling.
Photograph 6. Chemical damage to leather bookbinding due to alkaline Marbling.
In alkaline marbling, often executed with potassium carbonate (potash), the etching process damages only the grain, and the black discoloration so characteristic of acid marbling is absent (photograph 6). Several factors can accelerate chemical decay of leather. The principle external factors, those connected with environmental conditions, are temperature and relative humidity. An increase in temperature serves to speed up all the degradation processes men-tioned. High humidity also has a catalytic effect, particularly on hydrolytic decay. In this context we might also mention the detrimental effect of moisture that, with or without undesirable chemicals, was introduced into leather bookbindings in the course of earlier attempts at conservation (chapter 2). Another environmental factor which may accelerate leather decay is the presence of minuscule dust particles. Industrialised urban environments have particularly high concentrations of dust particles which can penetrate almost anywhere and can be very reactive. Because they are also hygroscopic, dust particles may cause a damp film to form on a dusty surface. The consequences, once the particles have settled on a surface, are several. Physically they act as an abrasive, chemically they may, when combined with moisture, behave like a chemical reagent. This may be alkaline (cement-clay particles) or acid (certain metal salts). The acceleration of chemical decay in leather is also affected by a number of internal factors. These are closely connected with certain constituents of the leather that are a direct consequence of the leather manufacturing process: Sulphur compounds (sulphate, sulphide, sulphite) present in the leather and whose influence is not yet quite clear. They appear to be present partly in the
form of soluble compounds and partly bound to the fibres. The sulphur compounds derive from the leather manufacturing process where sulphurous chemicals are used at different stages to accelerate or facilitate certain processes (chapter 1). These compounds are largely washed out during the following steps of the process, but still remnants remain, bound to the fibres. There is evidence to suggest that these compounds are released during the ageing process of the leather and converted into sulphuric acid. This accelerates the degradation of the leather. The use of less suitable vegetable tannins. It appears that leathers tanned with pyrocatechol or condensed tannins (e.g. mimosa) are generally in a worse state than leathers tanned with pyrogallol or hydrolysable tannins (e.g. sumac). This is probably connected with the fact that leather tanned with tannins of the latter group appears to absorb less oxygen and sulphur dioxide from the air over a given period of time. Traces of specific metals such as copper, iron and manganese that might have been present in the rinsing water used and that sometimes remain behind in considerable concentrations. These metals act as catalysts in the conversion of the sulphur dioxide absorbed by the leather into sulphuric acid.
Parchment Although parchment is on the whole more durable than leather, especially with regard to hydrolytic deterioration, it too is susceptible to some chemical decay processes. In general, degradation of parchment is often directly or indirectly the result of the manufacturing process (chapter 1). From the early nineteenth century chemicals such as calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulphide have been used in parchment manufacture. They were added to the lime bath to accelerate the unhairing of the skins. The disadvantage of these fast working baths was that they often removed too much tissue material from the skins, resulting in an inferior or even poor quality skin. Parchment thus manufactured is therefore often less durable than parchment that was made with lime only (i.e. before the nineteenth century). The effect of other chemicals, used to counteract the damage caused by the fast working baths, was even worse. The parchment acquires a stiff structure and loses its elasticity. One chemical used a lot in this context was formaldehyde which has a slight tanning effect. The problem with sulphurous chemicals is that they are difficult to rinse off and remain behind in bound form. In parchment, too, the sulphur compounds are converted into sulphuric acid by the catalytic action of iron and copper ions present in the skin. Sulphuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate present in the parchment to produce calcium sulphate (gypsum). A dullish grey colour in parchment is an indication of this type of deterioration. In conditions of fluctuating humidity, the calcium sulphate thus formed will repeatedly dissolve and recrystallise. In the course of this process dirt and dust particles from the atmosphere may become trapped in the parchment so giving the surface an increasingly grey appearance. The UV radiation in daylight and artificial light plays an important role in parchment degradation. Parchment, like leather, is affected by photochemical reactions in which hydrogen peroxide is formed (photochemical degradation). The parchment is broken down in this process and gelatinised. This seriously damages the cohesion of the fibres and the parchment becomes brittle, fragile and liable to split. Gelatinised parchment brought into contact with water, for instance during conservation treatment, will disintegrate into loose flakes. The water balance of parchment that has been partially converted to gelatin is disturbed. Unable to absorb sufficient moisture, the parchment turns hard and shrinks. The hard gelatinised mass prevents the fibres in the parchment from moving freely. As with leather, environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity and dust particles) can accelerate chemical decay in parchment. Discolorations, which usually appear earlier on the spine than on the boards, are caused mainly by light. Photographs 7, 8, and 9 (arranged in order of increasing severity) show the results of chemical deterioration in parchment.
Photograph 7. Chemical damage to parchment bookbinding.
Photograph 8. Chemical damage to pachment.
Photograph 9. Gelatinised parchment after contact with water.
Physico-mechanical damage Leather One of the causes of physico-mechanical damage in leather bookbindings is the frequent stretching and shrinking of the leather due to fluctuations in relative humidity. Cracks may appear and the grain may separate from the fibre network layer. This applies particularly to books bound in sheepskin; the weak chain is the layer of fatty cells between the grain and the fibre network layer. As the leather continues to degrade, its capacity to absorb or relinquish moisture decreases. In an environment with great fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity this may lead to desiccation of the leather, a process that becomes irreversible in heavily aged leather. Photograph 10 shows a leather bookbinding covered with cracks caused by fluctuations in atmospheric humidity.
Dyes and other finishing layers applied to leather can have different effects on the physico-mechanical damage. Photograph 11 shows an alum-tawed sheepskin bookbinding of which the red layer of paint, often used for such bindings, is severely cracked. The leather itself, however, does not exhibit any signs of damage.
This is different in the example of the sixteenth-century bookbinding in photograph 12, where the alum-tawed leather is coated with an albumen layer, usually identifiable by the smooth, shiny surface. This layer has hardened the grain, causing cracks.
Physico-mechanical damage to leather may also be due to earlier conservation treatments which have disturbed the leather's natural water balance. Examples are the thick wax and resin layers applied to leather or an excess of fat introduced into the leather. But too little fat can also cause physicomechanical damage. Certain hygroscopic substances formerly added to bookbindings to increase the water absorptive capacity of the leather may end up having the reverse effect, because these substances may start to absorb the moisture in the leather fibres themselves.
Photograph 10. Physico-mechanical damage to leather bookbinding.
Photograph 11. Physico-mechanical damage to red layer of paint on alumtawed sheepskin.
Photograph 12. Physico-mechanical damage to alum-tawed leather covered by an albumen layer.
Parchment Parchment is far more sensitive to heat and less resistant to fluctuations in temperature than leather. Irreversible changes may already occur at temperatures over 30 °C. Relative humidity also plays an important role in the development of physicomechanical deterioration in parchment. In an overly dry environment, parchment will relinquish moisture, causing it to dry out, split and warp. An environment that is too humid may lead to rippling and often irreversible distortion of the parchment (photograph 13). Biological damage Fungi play a much smaller part in the degradation of leather and parchment than in paper. Under proper hygienic and climatological conditions leather and parchment bindings will not be much troubled by this form of biodegradation. The basic form of leather, the animal skin, is preserved by the tanning process, and thus made practically invulnerable to micro-organisms, but parchment, prepared from an untanned skin, is in principle a culture medium. A conditio sine qua non for deterioration by fungi is a combination of a high level of humidity (RV 70%-100%) with a high enough temperature (>22°C). If leather or parchment bookbindings do get mouldy, it will often be the later finishing layers that serve as a substrate. But conservation methods applied at an earlier stage can also promote fungal growth if they make the leather (or parchment) too fat and consequently liable to retain dust and dirt. If bookbindings have become moulded, this will be manifested mainly in a clammy feeling (if the infection is recent), various forms of discoloration, a powdery deposit or woolly growths (photographs 14 and 15), and a characteristic smell.
Photograph 13. Physico-mechanical damage to parchment bookbinding (serious distortions).
Photograph 14. Biological damage to leather bookbinding.
Photograph 15. Biological damage to parchment bookbinding.
The insects found in book and archival collections, such as woodborers and silver-fish, first attack the paper (or the cardboard and the wood) of the text block, and the boards (they are cellulose eaters). But in many cases this also entails damage to the covering material. The borers eat tunnels through the entire book. Silverfish graze on the surface and are particularly interested in the starchy adhesives. Insects that feed on animal matter, such as carpet beetles, hide beetles and larder beetles (= bacon beetles), are generally less frequently found in libraries and archives. Omnivores, such as cockroaches, can do considerable damage to parchment, leather and paper. They like to sample the exterior of the objects. Physical damage Books can be damaged by (thoughtless) use. Headcaps may be damaged, even torn off, when books are inexpertly removed from the shelves. Boards and spine covers are often pressed open too far and thus strained. This puts so much pressure on the hinge points that they break. Clasps and bosses may leave deep impressions in the covering material of books placed next to them. The grain may eventually wear out if a book is frequently slid across bookshelves and tables. Parchment, because of its smooth, solid upper layer - often finished with soap, shellac and egg white - is less sensitive to sliding and chafing than leather.
Literature Frey, R.W. and Clarke, I.D., in: Journal of American Leather Chemists Association, 26 (1931), pp. 461. Goddijn, P.A. and Leeuwen, I.M. van, 'Schade door leermarmerverven', in: de Restaurator, 23 (1993), 2. pp. 58-64.
Haines, B.M., 'Deterioration in Leather Bookbindings - Our Present State of Knowledge', in: British Library Journal, 3 (1977), pp.59-70. Lodewijks, J., 'The Influence of Light on Museum Objects', in: Recent Advances in Conservation: Contributions to the IIC Rome Conference, London 1963, pp. 7-8. O'Flaherty, F., et al. The Chemistry and Technology of Leather, 4. New York, 1965. Protein Chemistry for Conservators, Rose, C.L. and Endt, D.W. van, (eds.) A.I.C., 1984. Sierpapier & marmering. Een terminologie voor het beschrijven van sierpapier en marmering als boekbandversiering. The Hague/Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 1994. Soest, H.A.B. van, Hallebeek, P.B. and Stambolov, T., 'Conservation of Leather', in: Studies in Conservation, 29 (1984), pp. 21-31. Vlimmeren, P.J. van, Chemie van de lederbereiding. Waalwijk, 1955. Waterer, J.W., 'Leather', in: A History of Technology, 2. Oxford, 1957. Young, G.S., 'Microscopical Hydrothermal Stability Measurement of Skin and Semitanned Leather', in: 9th Triennial Meeting Dresden, German Democratic Republic 26-31 August 1990, pp. 626-631. (ICOM Committe for Conservation 1990).
4. Damage categories and treatment
Classification Contrary to the line taken in the previous guidelines, this publication does not assume that treatment is useful for all (leather) bookbindings. We now suggest treating only those bindings which qualify on the basis of both visible damage and the measured pH value. The pH limits have been so determined as to restrict deacidification and buffering to the urgent cases. It will, however, always be considered useful to remove dirt and dust from bindings. This chapter describes how to assign leather and parchment bookbindings to various damage categories on the basis of visible damage and pH value and provides a step-by-step guide to the most suitable conservation treatment for the type of damage concerned. For practical reasons each damage category is designated by a different colour. When a binding has been assigned to a particular damage category, a strip of acid-free paper with the appropriate coloured sticker is placed inside the book. These strips can also be used for treatment notes specific to the bookbinding in question, such as indication of a local treatment (spine, joint) and/or the fat percentage (5 %, 10 %) of the emulsion or dressing to be used. In principle treatment consists of one or more steps that must always be carried out in the following sequence: cleaning, deacidification, buffering, conditioning, treating with emulsions or dressings, and impregnating. Chapters 5 and 6 will deal in more detail with the recommended procedures and the necessary formulas required for the treatments discussed. The procedure for measuring the pH value of leather and parchment will be described in chapter 7 together with a number of other analytical tests. The damage categories dealt with in this chapter (apart from mere dust and dirt on the bookbindings) involve physico-mechanical and chemical forms of damage that are likely to be found in most of the common kinds of leather and parchment bookbindings. A number of special damage categories - damage to specific kinds of leather (alum-tawed and leather with pigmented finishes), leather and parchment overtreated with fat, and biological damage - will be discussed in chapter 5 together with a description of the relevant treatment procedure and formula preparation.
Leather There are 4 damage categories for leather: white, yellow, blue, and red. Damage category: white Description Leather with a contaminated surface but no other forms of physico-mechanical and/or chemical damage. Characteristics Loose and/or fixed dirt and dust. Treatment Cleaning
Damage category: yellow Description Leather bookbindings with physico-mechanical damage where the leather has a pH value greater than 3.0.
Characteristics Cracks, loosened grain, damaged joints. Treatment Cleaning Buffering, if pH <4.0 Conditioning Treatment with emulsion
Explanation 1. Emulsion is permissible for leather without chemical damage. Leather with physico-mechanical damage, but a pH value below 3.0 belongs in the next category (blue). 2. Depending on the seriousness of the physico-mechanical damage, an emulsion of 5% or 10% fat is used. The emulsion can be applied locally, if so desired.
Damage category: blue Description Leather bookbindings with chemical damage. Characteristics Cracks, loosened grain, pulverised grain; local, varying degrees of discoloration (in instances of leather marbling or other leather decoration techniques). Treatment Cleaning, removal of loose dust and dirt only Deacidification, if pH value <3.0 Buffering, if pH value <4.0 Conditioning Treatment with leather dressing
Explanation 1. This damage category includes leather bindings which, though exhibiting physico-mechanical damage characteristics, should be regarded as having chemical damage because of their low pH value (<3.0). 2. Due to the vulnerability of chemically damaged leather, only loose dirt and dust can be removed. 3. Only leather with a pH value below 3.0 needs both deacidification and buffering; when the pH value is between 3.0 and 4.0 only buffering is necessary. 4. Leather with chemical damage is treated with leather dressing, because an emulsion (water!) may cause additional damage. 5. Depending on the seriousness of the chemical damage a leather dressing with 5% or 10% fat is applied; the leather dressing may be applied locally, if so desired; if necessary the joints and spine may be treated with an additional lanolin dressing.
Damage category: red Description Leather bookbindings with serious chemical damage. Characteristics Leather completely pulverised and disintegrated. Treatment
Cleaning, removal of loose dust and dirt only Deacidification, if pH value <3.0 Buffering if pH value <4.0 Conditioning Treatment with special leather dressing to prepare for impregnation Impregnation Parchment For parchment we can distinguish 2 damage categories: white and green. Damage category: white Description Parchment bookbindings with a soiled surface, but no other forms of chemical and/or physico-mechanical damage. Characteristics Loose and/or fixed dust and dirt. Treatment Cleaning, removal of loose dust and dirt only.
Explanation Fixed dirt and dust should only be removed if there are particular reasons for doing so.
Damage category: green Description Parchment bookbindings with physico-mechanical or chemical damage. Characteristics Distortions, greyish discolorations (especially on the spine), tearing, splitting and/or crumbling of the parchment, damaged joints. Treatment Cleaning, removal of loose dust and dirt only Deacidification, if pH value <5.0 Buffering if pH value <6.0 Conditioning Treatment with parchment dressing
Explanation 1. As the difference between physico-mechanical and chemical damage of parchment is not always clear and the treatment of both damage categories is basically the same, these forms of deterioration have been placed in a single damage category. 2. Cleaning of deteriorated parchment should be limited to the removal of loose dust and dirt. 3. The combination of deacidification and buffering is only necessary for parchment with a pH value lower than 5.0; if the pH value is between 5.0 and 6.0 buffering will be sufficient.
5. Procedures and formulas for the conservation of leather bookbindings and the treatment of specific kinds of damage
Conservation of leather This chapter provides a detailed survey of the recommended procedures and method of formula preparation for leather conservation. In addition to the dust and dirt that affects all bookbindings, the damage categories discussed here concern physico-mechanical and chemical damage that is to be found in most of the common kinds of leather bookbindings. Also dealt with here are a few special damage categories pertaining to certain kinds of leather (alum-tawed, and leather with pigmented finishes), to overfatted leather and parchment, and to biological damage, together with the appropriate treatment procedure and the method of formula preparation.
Cleaning When an emulsion or dressing is used, the solvent in these preparations may allow dust and dirt to penetrate even further into the leather or parchment. It is therefore advised to remove any loose dust and dirt from the bindings prior to treatment with an emulsion or dressing. Removal of loose dust and dirt This is best done with a soft brush and in a fixed sequence, for example: head, fore edge, tail, covers, spine. A vacuum cleaner may be used to remove loose dust by suction, but a soft brush attachment should be used to avoid (further) damaging the binding. It is also advisable to give the book a final wipe over with tissue paper. This soft quality paper will mop up any remaining loose dust and dirt, thereby revealing any ingrained impurities. Removal of fixed dirt with a surface cleaning agent A surface cleaning agent can be used to remove fixed dirt. The agent should be whipped to a foam before using. During treatment the dirt is absorbed by the foam and afterwards foam and dirt can be removed together. Furthermore, because only the foam is used, the leather suffers minimal humidification. Depending on the surface structure of the bookbinding and the extent of the damage, the leather surface is cleaned with cotton buds or a clean flannel cloth. The main ingredient of the cleaning agent is a neutral (non-ionic) soap made up of molecules with a strong apolar and a strong polar part.This serves to bind the oily dirt particles, which can then be absorbed by the agent. The dirt binds with the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which prevents the dirt settling back onto the book. Due to the presence of water in the agent this treatment is not suitable for leather with chemical degradation. The surface cleaning agent works only on the surface and leaves no residue whatsoever after it has been applied. Formula surface cleaning agent 996 gram distilled water 2 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 2 gram carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), medium viscosity Mix soap and CMC. Add mixture to water. Shake well. Transfer a small quantity to a low tray. Whip the mixture till a layer of foam is formed on the surface. Use only this foam. Deacidification Deacidifying leather with ammonia is a very effective method for neutralising free sulphuric acid (pH value below 3.0). During the process ammonium sulphate 45
is formed. The excess of ammonia, which can raise the pH of the leather considerably, evaporates, leaving the pH once again within the safe pH range: 3 - 5. This method cannot be used on those types of dye and pigment that are permanently discoloured by ammonia. As it is usually difficult to determine sensitivity to ammonia, one is advised against deacidification of books with prints and maps coloured by hand. In such cases treatment of the bindings can be restricted to buffering. Brass components, such as clasps and bosses, are corroded by ammonia and may discolour, with the 'yellow' colour becoming darker. Although it is possible to remove this discoloration by polishing, it will also remove the patina of centuries. The discoloration of these kinds of metal components must therefore be weighed against the conservation of the leather. Deacidification procedure Deacidification with ammonia is a simple procedure. The bindings should be placed in as small a space as possible. In practice a case that can be tightly sealed is used. A tray or saucer containing a layer of ammonia (15%) is placed on the bottom of the case. The books are then set on a rack halfway up the case. The case should be so constructed that there is no danger of the books coming into contact with ammonia, for instance as a result of the case being knocked over (drawing 8). Because ammonia irritates skin and bronchial tubes, gloves and protective measures for eyes, nose and mouth are necessary. After a quarter of an hour the books can be taken out of the case and put in a fume cupboard, to allow the remaining ammonia to evaporate. After two weeks the books are ready to undergo further treatment. - Klik voor een uitvergroting Drawing 8 Example of a deacidification case
Additional remarks 1. In principle, deacidification of the leather can also be accomplished by means of the buffer solution described in the next section. For the blue and red damage categories this would mean two subsequent applications of the buffer solution: with the first application the effective compound (imidazole) will function as a deacidification agent neutralising the free acid present in the leather, while the actual buffering effect of imidazole will be reached only with the second application. A single application of the buffer solution with a double imidazole concentration must be advised against, because such a solution would be too alkaline and might therefore lead to damage of the leather. 2. Regarding the recommended pH criteria, the treatment procedures for the different damage categories of leather bookbindings described in chapter 3 are based on the most frequent situation, in which only pH values of the leather smaller than 3.0 necessitate deacidification, because under these circumstances free acid will be present in the leather. However, at higher pH values - and especially in the range between 3.0 to 4.0 - a (small) risk of free acid still being present should be taken into account. The fact that the pH value of leather containing free acid can still be higher than 3.0, may be caused by the presence of ammonium sulphate, formed during the leather degradation process; as this salt will cause a pH of c. 5.5 when combined with water, the overall pH value of the leather may rise and thus, as it were, camouflage the presence of free acid. Ammonium sulphate concentrations in leather of 0.5 % and higher may already lead to this effect. The presence of free acid above pH 3.0 and the subsequent need for deacidification treatment can be conclusively indicated by the determination of the differential number (cf. chapter 7); at a differential number > 0.6 free acid is present in the leather, at values smaller than 0.6 it is not.
Buffering A stable pH value is of the greatest importance for the conservation of leather. This stability can be achieved with a buffer (solution). If the pH value of buffered leather is disturbed, whether from inside or outside, the buffer will ensure that the pH value remains within acceptable limits. Since leather (especially chemically damaged leather) should not come into direct contact with water, the buffer must be introduced by means of an organic solvent. We have opted for imidazole, a nitrogen containing ring compound soluble in isopropyl alcohol. Imidazole is a colourless substance that is applied to the leather in soluble form; deposition takes place after the solvent has evaporated. In addition to its buffering properties, imidazole is also hygroscopic and thus acts as a moisture retentive. Moreover, with metals such as iron and copper, imidazole forms insoluble salts, which prevent these metals - if they are present in leather - from acting as catalysts to decay. How often buffering should be carried out is a matter for further research. Caution! In general, a buffer may only be applied if the pH value is no higher than 4.0. If used on leather with a pH value higher than 4, the pH value may increase to 6 - 7. Such leather becomes unstable and discolorations may occur. Formula buffer solution 860 gram odourless kerosene 120 gram isopropyl alcohol 20 gram imidazole As imidazole is not directly soluble in odourless kerosene, it must first be dissolved in isopropyl alcohol that has been heated to about 30 °C. The imidazole is not fully dissolved until the solution is transparent; after that the odourless kerosene is added. For product information on odourless kerosene see: Treatment with emulsions or dressings Caution! Because of the risk of fire an electric hotplate should be used rather than a gas flame. It is recommended that the buffer solution be stored in brown glass bottles. The solution should be applied to the leather bookbinding with a soft brush. Brushing the leather surface twice will generally be sufficient. The editors are aware of the drawbacks associated with the isopropyl alcohol solvent. It is a polar solvent and may dissolve coloured or non-coloured components of the leather and transport them to the surface. It evaporates too rapidly to achieve optimum distribution of the imidazole in the leather and is a moisture expellent. We are constantly trying to adapt and improve formulas with a view to finding a suitable substitute for isopropyl alcohol. Conditioning Conditioning is applied to obtain an optimum moisture content in the leather with a view to making the leather more supple and elastic. Moreover, humidification renders the internal structure of the leather more accessible to the penetration of fat, which is not possible if the leather is too dry. For the same reason, one is strongly advised against treating leather in a dry environment (low RH). In theory, leather contains three balanced forms of moisture (natural water balance): free water present in the capillaries between the fibre bundles, bound water, combined to the proteins of the leather fibres as hydrates, and 'associated' water attached to the fibres through weak physical forces and hydrogen bonds. Bound water is especially important for a good condition of the leather and the optimal binding of fat (through the apolar hydrophilic part of the fat molecule) to the leather fibres. And it is actually this form of moisture that is brought to a maximum level by means of conditioning.
To allow the moisture to penetrate evenly into the internal fibres of the skin, the bookbindings should be placed for at least four days in a room with a relative humidity (RH) of 70 - 75 %, at room temperature. A simple humidifier may be sufficient to raise the humidity in a (smallish) room. If such a room is not available, a sturdy tent can be erected over the humidifier. It is not advisable to blow steam or spray water into the room if only tap water is available, because the contaminants in this water, such as salts, will be deposited on the books with all the detrimental consequences that entails. Regular circulation of the air is necessary to prevent the growth of fungi. If these are already visible on the books earmarked for conditioning, they should, of course, be removed first. After the fourth day of the humidifying process the leather will be in optimum condition to ensure adequate fat deposition. The bindings are treated in the same conditioned room with an emulsion or dressing. Four hours after treatment with a dressing or emulsion the relative humidity and temperature may be slowly reduced to normal values of about 50% RH and 18 °C.
Treatment with emulsions or dressings The previous guidelines (Goddijn, 1987) contained a formula for calculating the quantity of leather dressing to be applied so as to ensure a correct quantity of fat. Practical experience in recent years has shown that this calculated quantity is nearly always equivalent to twice brushing the emulsion or dressing over the leather surface with a flat, pig's bristle brush. The percentage of fat in the emulsion or dressing to be used is determined by the degree of physicomechanical or chemical damage: 5% for slight damage; 10% for severe damage. The basic ingredients of the emulsions and dressings are neatsfoot oil, lanolin and odourless kerosene. Neatsfoot oil is a lubricator which stands in a long tradition of use by leather manufacturers. Lanolin (wool fat) has both lubricating and water-retention characteristics. Odourless kerosene, a refined petrol product with a boiling range of 150 - 210 °C, 'free' of aromates, has proved to be an excellent means of transporting the fats in the emulsions and dressings into the leather: the kerosene evaporates completely after the fat has been introduced, but evaporation is so slow that the fats are able to penetrate deeply and to attach themselves securely to the fibres instead of being transported to the surface again. Caution! Emulsions and dressings contain odourless kerosene, which is a health hazard. A gas mask must therefore be worn when working with emulsions and dressings. After treatment the books should be allowed to 'evaporate' for about a week in a fume cupboard or in a conditioning room equipped with exhaust facilities. Emulsions Emulsions are only suitable for the conservation of leather bookbindings with physico-mechanical damage and a pH value above 3. The emulsion consists of neatsfoot oil (lubricator), lanolin (lubricator and moisture retentive), neutral soap (emulsifier), distilled water and odourless kerosene (carriers). The advantage of using emulsions is that the water (in the emulsion) makes the leather swell, so that the space between the fibres and in the fibres themselves are accessible to the lubricants. For good results the emulsion should be applied at a relative humidity of at least 70%. It is therefore important to begin by conditioning the book for four days. After treatment the books should be allowed to 'evaporate' for about a week in a fume cupboard or in a conditioning room with exhaust facilities. Formula for 10% fat emulsion 550 gram odourless kerosene
300 gram distilled water 60 gram neatsfoot oil 50 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 40 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Formula for 5% fat emulsion 625 gram odourless kerosene 300 gram distilled water 30 gram neatsfoot oil 25 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Start by mixing the neatsfoot oil, lanolin, neutral soap, and distilled water. The best results are achieved by mixing the ingredients over warm water (au bain marie). Then add the kerosene. Caution! Because of the risk of fire, an electric hotplate or heating over warm water (au bain marie) should be used rather than a gas flame. Store in a glass jar or bottle that can be tightly closed. Always work with limited quantities in a separate tray and never pour used emulsion back into the bottle. This will keep the fluids pure. If stored in a refrigerator, fat emulsions can be kept for one year. Leather dressings The leather dressing is based on an organic solvent and is intended for chemically damaged leather. Application of the leather dressing brings the fat content of the leather up to standard. The lanolin in the dressing also helps to restore the moisture-absorbent quality of degraded leather. The leather dressing must be applied in a conditio-ned room (after the leather has been conditioned for four days at 70% RH). After treatment the books should be allowed to 'evaporate' for about a week in a fume cupboard or a conditioning room with exhaust facilities. Formula for 10% fat leather dressing 900 gram odourless kerosene 60 gram neatsfoot oil 40 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Formula for 5% fat leather dressing 950 gram odourless kerosene 30 gram neatsfoot oil 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Caution! The lanolin is dissolved by heating it in a portion of the odourless kerose-ne. Because of risk of fire, an electric hotplate or heating over warm water (au bain marie) should be used rather than a gas flame. The neatsfoot oil can then be added to the warm solution with the rest of the kerosene without any problem. The leather dressing will keep 'indefinitely'. Lanolin dressing The only movable parts of the bookbinding are the hinging points (joints) and, to a lesser extent, the spine. This means that the leather in these places requires extra care. Deposition of fat into the fibres is certainly necessary. This holds equally for the spine which is especially susceptible to degradation. The joints and spine of the bookbinding can therefore be treated with a special dressing containing a high amount of lanolin. This lanolin dressing can also be used in places affected by physical damage: abraded grain, scratches, etc. After treatment the books should be allowed to 'evaporate' for about 1 week in a fume cupboard or in a conditioning room with exhaust facilities.
Formula for lanolin dressing 900 gram odourless kerosene 100 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Dissolve the lanolin in a portion of the kerosene which has been heated to a maximum of 40 °C. Then add the rest of the kerosene. Because of the risk of fire an electric hotplate should be used, or heating over warm water (au bain marie). Apply the dressing to the damaged parts only, using a soft brush. The lanolin dressing will keep 'indefinitely'.
Impregnation Impregnation should be seen as a last effort to preserve bookbinding leather. It is irreversible and therefore only used for bookbinding leather that would otherwise have to be considered as 'lost'. It is used mainly for leather with chemical damage such as red rot and loosened parts of the grain due to aggressive marbling. Impreg-nation does not improve or maintain the overall quality of the leather; its sole purpose is to anchor loose fragments (flakes). As impregnating agent one may use a partially cured polyurethane (a polymer dissolved in an organic solvent with reactive isocyanide groups). The efficacy of the polyurethane is determined by the reaction of the polymer with the functional groups of leather fibres. The fine network of lateral links so produced indirectly reconnects the leather fibres and in so doing improves the cohesive quality of the leather. Because the impregnating agent extracts fat from the leather, the fibres must be lubricated before impregnation is started. Failure to lubricate results in a sharp reduction of tensile strength. For effective impregnation the reactive isocyanide groups must react with the hydroxyl groups in the leather fibres. However, if the moisture level in the leather is too low, the free isocyanide groups react with the moisture in the air instead of with the hydroxyl groups in the leather, resulting in too few bindings with the fibres. Impregnation should therefore take place after lubrication and in a room where the bookbinding is first conditioned for about 48 hours at a RH of 70-75 %. It is difficult to say how much impregnating agent is necessary to build a sufficiently strong network. Practical experience has shown that a good result is obtained by brushing the leather (locally) twice with the undiluted polyurethane product SU41/H51. If the undiluted fluid detaches fragments of grain from the fibre network layer, the impregnating agent can be diluted with odourless kerosene. Apply the agent with a pig's bristle brush and wear a gas mask and protective gloves. Keep the storage jar closed as much as possible to prevent hardening. Any leftovers should be deposited in the chemical waste bin. Shiny patches can be wiped off with a dry cloth one day after impregnation. Caution! Colourless, undyed leather becomes slightly darker as a result of treatment with the impregnating agent. Formula for pre-impregnation dressing 880 gram odourless kerosene 80 gram lanolin (anhydrous) 40 gram neatsfoot oil The dressing should be applied before impregnation. Treatment of specific kinds of leather Alum-tawed leather After tanning, this kind of leather has more fat between the fibres than other tanned leathers. It is therefore unnecessary, and in most cases even detri1mental, to add to the fat content. Apart from removal of dirt, bookbindings of alum-tawed leather should not be submitted to any further treatment.
The (dry) treatment of dyed alum-tawed leather consists of the removal of any dust and dirt with a soft brush and dirt-absorbing paper (tissue paper). The (dry) treatment of undyed alum-tawed leather consists of the removal of dust and dirt with a soft brush and dirt-absorbing paper (tissue paper) and the removal of fixed dirt with a cleaning agent developed specifically for alumtawed leather. Formula for alum-tawed leather cleaning agent 950 gram alcohol 50 gram ammonia (15%). Caution! Health risk: this agent is a powerful irritant of eyes, bronchial tubes and skin. Treatment should therefore be carried out in a fume cupboard and (neoprene) gloves should be worn. The agent should be applied with a dry cloth that is changed regularly. Leather with water-based finishes Finishes based on binding media such as casein, albumen and gelatin are not very resistant to contact with ammonia, alkaline solutions, or water with neutral (non-ionic) soap. They have a small wet-rub resistance. To distinguish leather with a water-based finish, from leather with a solvent- or dispersion-based finish, a drop of leather dressing is carefully applied to the leather with a pipette. If the dressing (quickly) penetrates into the leather, it is a waterbased finish. This leather can be cleaned without resorting to fluids and treated with the leather dressing. Leather dressing has to be chosen because acid may be present in the leather and acids can cause discoloration if an emulsion is used. Deacidification and buffering is not recommended for this type of leather because it is not very resistant to alkaline substances. Leather with solvent- and dispersion-based finishes Because solvent- and dispersion-based finishing coatings are highly dirtrepellant, organic dirt is easily removed. Leather finished in this way has a high wet-rub resistance. It is difficult for fluids to permeate the leather because of the closed surface of the finishing coating. Treatment consists of several stages: Removal of loose dust and dirt. If necessary, further cleaning with a surface cleaning agent. As the plasticiser may have migrated from the layer of paint into the leather, it is useful to treat the layer of paint with sulphonated castor oil. This renders the layer of paint elastic, even after the disappearance of the plasticiser (one often finds cracks in old finishing coating, due to the aforementioned migration of the plasticiser). To keep the layer of paint in good condition, a little castor oil on a damp, white flannel cloth will suffice to treat the whole binding. If there is also physico-mechanical damage on the spine and/or joint, local treatment with leather dressing is necessary. This is best done with a soft paint brush. To ensure an effective fat deposition in the leather, the book should be conditioned beforehand.
Treatment of leather and parchment overtreated with fat If the leather has become too dark in colour and the leather or parchment feels (somewhat) sticky, it has been overtreated with fat. The surplus fat can be removed by a surface defatting agent made up of refined petrol, a neutral, nonionic soap, and distilled water. Refined petrol is highly volatile and very good at dissolving fat. As with the cleaning agent, soap is added for easy removal of surface dirt. Water is added to dissolve the soap. Because of the gelatinous nature of the solution and the volatility of the solvent (refined petrol) the defatting agent works only on the surface. The water does not penetrate into the
material and only surface fat is dissolved. The amount of water and soap is very small, so that the agent does not leave a residue and does not cause discoloration. It can be used to remove wax, shoe polish, smoke stains, organic dirt, and surplus fat (from earlier treatments) from the leather surface. The fairly gelatinous fluid is applied to the leather with a flannel cloth with a circular motion. The agent can be applied to bookbindings with a surface layer consisting of paint, varnish or some other surface coating. However, some care should be exercised in applying the agent. Theoretically the organic solvent could dissolve such substances as binding agents and dyes. It is therefore advisable to test the agent using a cotton bud on a small, inconspicuous area for instance on the turn-in of the binding - in order to find out whether there are any undesirable side effects. If a layer of dirt and/or fat is difficult to remove, a larger quantity of the agent may be applied with a soft brush and then left for an hour to allow it to be absorbed. The effect the agent is having on the leather or the surface coating should be checked regularly during this hour. Before it is completely dry, it should be carefully wiped with a soft, smooth flannel cloth. If necessary this treatment should be repeated several times. After defatting the book still needs to be conditioned to ensure a better distribution of the remaining fat in the leather. Formula for surface defatting agent 890 gram refined petrol 100 gram distilled water 10 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap Mix the substances together in a glass jar that can be tightly closed and shake until the mixture is fairly gelatinous. The surface defatting agent will keep 'indefinitely'. The refined petrol product used in this formula has a boiling range of 100 - 140 °C. Caution! The ingredients used in the formula have been chosen to combine optimum effect of the agent with minimum detrimental consequences for the user's health. Nevertheless a number of preventive measures should be taken, especially for long or regular use of organic solvents. Refined petrol is a dangerous substance, not only because it is inflammable, but also because it represents a health risk when inhaled. It is therefore necessary to work in a fume cupboard with this solution and to wear protective gloves during work to avoid defatting the skin. The books that have been treated must be left in the fume cupboard until the refined petrol has evaporated. Treatment of biological damage Fungi Sound climatological conditions and hygiene are a primary prerequisite for preventing fungal growth. Regular inspection is also crucial for timely detection of possible problems. The first step in treating a case of fungal attack is to inspect the location of the affected book. Are other books in the vicinity (or in the same series) infected? Isolate the objects that are affected, treat them and inspect the room. If humidity is too high, the cause needs to be traced. If the storage conditions are good and one is faced with individual cases of fungal attack, it is most likely to be an old infection that is no longer active. Isolate the infected books by sealing them in plastic bags. If possible remove them to a separate area where they can be disinfected and cleaned before returning them to the collection. If practically possible, the least drastic treatment is mechanical removal of the fungi using a fine paint brush, a brush, and an exhaust system. Care should be taken that the fungal remains being removed are not blown back into the room. If necessary racks and bookcases can be cleaned with a disinfectant such as a quaternary ammonium compound. Books that have been cleaned can be put back once they are dry and the room meets standards for storage conditions. In the case of large-scale infection and 'fungal explosions' it may be necessary to resort to mass disinfection methods, such as irradiation with gamma rays. But this should
only be done after a careful consideration of the advantages and disadvantages and after seeking advice from experts in this particular field. Insects Good insect control starts with preventive measures: preventing the pests from entering the building (closing openings, joints, and cracks, placing insect screens in front of windows, checking all incoming objects), sound hygiene and regular inspection. The first step in insect control is to check which species is involved. The next step is the same as for fungi: localise the source of the attack and check whether it is an individual case or whether more books are affected. Isolate the objects that are affected, treat them and inspect the room. For the treatment of material affected by insects there are a number of nontoxic methods, of which freezing is the simplest one for books and archives. But this cannot be done if objects are painted, or consist of several attached layers, each with a different stretching and shrinking behaviour. Standard treatment takes 48 hours at a temperature of -20 °C and can be repeated after some time, if necessary. Other non-toxic methods are fumigating with carbon dioxide or nitrogen (carried out commercially in some countries). In principle high temperature treatment is also an option, but little is known as yet about the effects of heat treatment on different materials. Toxic insect control methods have a number of drawbacks: fumigating with methylbromide is not suitable for protein-containing material such as leather and parchment; in principle fumigating with phosphine is possible, but inadvisable if metal parts (bosses, clasps) are present because it is a corrosive gas.
6. Procedures and formulas for the conservation of parchment bookbindings
Conservation of parchment In the past parchment bookbindings were usually omitted from bookbinding conservation. Research into the correct treatment of parchment bookbindings was still at an early stage and so - quite rightly - no treatment for parchment was recommended. (P.A. Goddijn (et al.) Richtlijnen voor het conserveren van leer en perkament van boekbanden. 's Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek/Centraal Laboratorium 1987, p. 10.) Besides, for a long time it was thought that parchment did not need conservation treatment because its built-in buffer of calcium carbonate protected it from pollution (Plenderleith, 1946). We now know this to be untrue. Moreover, parchment can also be affected by chemicals added during manufacture or by dust and dirt from the environment. Cleaning Although aesthetic considerations have sometimes led people to decide cleaning parchment bookbindings, this is not recommended because of the detrimental consequences involved in cleaning parchment. There are disadvantages attached to both dry and wet cleaning of parchment. Dry cleaning, for instance, with (powdered) eraser, removes the porous finishing layer (soap, oil, egg white) that may have been applied by the bookbinder. It also loosens the fibres of the grain, resulting in a rough, dirt-prone surface. Wet cleaning of parchment presents the same disadvantages in intensified form, particularly with respect to damage to the fibre structure. There is also a real possibility that the fibre structure will open up at the surface with the result that part of the dirt becomes permanently entrapped after drying. Furthermore, it takes a lot of time and effort to clean a parchment bookbinding uniformly and without leaving stains. Texts written in ink on the spine (title, author, etc.) present an additional cleaning problem. Since it is not unlikely that such texts will be damaged by cleaning, they must be left untreated, resulting in a dirty 'lettering piece'. Summarising, we can say that the cleaning of parchment is best restricted to removing loose dust and dirt as described for leather. If it is decided for certain reasons to remove fixed dirt, the surface cleaning agent used for leather may be applied. Deacidifcation, buffering, conditioning Although the sulphuric acid formed in parchment reacts with the calcium carbonate resulting from the manufacturing process to form calcium sulphate (gypsum), part of the sulphuric acid may remain behind in free form. Deacidification of parchment with ammonia is a very effective method of neutralising this free sulphuric acid. Ammonium sulphate is formed during this process. The pH value of 'sound' parchment fluctuates between 6 and 7. If a pH value of 5 or lower is measured in parchment, deacidification and buffering is necessary; if the pH value is between 5 and 6 buffering will, in general, suffice. In some cases of parchment with chemical damage due to acid, the pH will not be unduly low (below 5,0) and deacidification will therefore, in general, not be necess-ary. This is because the (originally low) pH can rise over the course of time in response to a gradual increase in the ammonium sulphate level in the parchment. The procedure for deacidification, buffering and conditioning parchment is the same as for leather (see chapter 5).
Treatment with parchment dressing Parchment is a dried, stretched skin. If the water balance is disturbed, degradation of the material occurs, resulting in a decreased capacity to absorb moisture from the air. The fat component of the parchment dressing, developed with this problem in mind, consists entirely of lanolin. Lanolin is hygroscopic and acts as lubricator between the fibres. Odourless kerosene is used as the carrier in parchment dressing. Adding 2% fat to the kerosene produces a dressing which, while it is not heavy enough to overfat the parchment, nevertheless contains sufficient fat to improve lubrication and water balance. The parchment dressing is only effective if it is applied to pre-conditioned parchment in a room with 70% RH. Depending on the absorbency - which in turn depends on how the parchment has been finished by the bookbinder - once or twice brushing with the parchment dressing, using a flat brush, should be sufficient. Formula for parchment dressing 980 gram odourless kerosene 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) The lanolin should be dissolved in a portion of the kerosene, heated to a maximum of 40 °C. Then the rest of the kerosene is added. Use an electric hotplate or heating over warm water (au bain marie) rather than a gas flame because of fire risk. The parchment dressing will keep 'indefinitely'.
7. Analytical tests
Test methods pH indicator paper (non bleeding) can give a reliable indication of the pH value, and this is important for assigning the bookbinding to a damage category and treatment. Several data are needed to provide insight into the background of the damage to leather and parchment: the pH value, the ammonium content and the sulphate content. These parameters can be determined by the book conservator himself, but for a correct interpretation of the individual test results and of their correlation, it will often be necessary to consult a specialist in this field. Other characteristics can be studied in a laboratory: soluble fat content, tannin composition, shrinking temperature, total moisture content and total fat. These tests require relatively much material (currently about 0.5 gram) and are therefore seldom used for 'everyday' bookbinding conservation. pH VALUE Always wear gloves when determining the pH value so as not to influence the acidity of the material to be measured. 1/pH indicator paper Using tweezers, take a small sample (c. 10 mg) from a damaged spot on the leather or parchment binding and place it on a slide. Add a drop of demineralised water with a Pasteur pipette, wait for one minute, immerse the indicator strip, and compare it instantly with the reference colours on the box. When choosing an indicator strip, bear in mind that its measuring range must lie within the expected pH area. 2/pH meter and micro-electrode (extraction) An aqueous suspension of 0.5 ml is sufficient for a pH measurement. If the required quantity of material is put at 1/20 part of the total suspension, 0.025 gram leather or parchment is sufficient. This quantity can be taken mechanically (in the form of loose fibres) from anywhere on the surface (grain) of the leather or parchment. The actual measuring of the pH takes place approximately 1 hours after preparing the suspension, to allow the ions to migrate into the solution. Depending on the desired accuracy, the measurement can be done once, twice, or three times, each time with new material from another place, preferably as near as possible to the damaged area(s). 3/pH meter and standard electrode (extraction) This method can only be applied if a larger quantity of sample material is available, for instance from the turn-ins. Scrape 50 mg leather from the inner side (flesh side) of the bookbinding leather and put it in a 25 ml beaker. Add 1 ml demineralised water, and oscillate the beaker carefully until the fibres are completely moistened. Cover the beaker and leave for an hour. Transfer the suspension in a test tube and centrifuge it for about 5 minutes at 8000 RPM. Pipette the upper, clear fluid into a clean test tube and measure the acidity with a pH meter to within 0.1 unit precisely. Wait another 15 minutes and measure the solution again. Repeat the measuring until two well-matching values are obtained. This method works only with leather or parchment which can be separated from the boards, for instance at the turn-ins. 4/differential number The differential number of leather can be easily determined by subtracting the normal pH value of the measuring solution from the pH of the measuring solution that has been ten times diluted with demineralised water. Concentration of ammonium and sulphate ions Commercial test sets are available for determining both ammonium and sulphate content. They require a 50 mg sample of leather or parchment. The level of
ammonium and sulphate ions in leather and parchment should be interpreted in relation to the measured pH value. The same extraction fluid used in determining the pH can be used for the ammonium and sulphate test. If both tests are to be conducted, the ammonium test should be com-pleted before the sulphate test is started.The test sets Aquaquant 14423 and Microquant 14789 (Merck) can be used to demonstrate the presence of ammonium and sulphate ions. They come with step-by-step instructions as to how the test should be carried out. Caution! Health risk: because of the toxicity of the chemicals used, these tests must be carried out in a fume cupboard. Always wear gloves!
Every treatment of a historic object must be documented! Even long after the restoration and/or conservation treatment has been carried out, additional information, such as follow-up treatment in the form of repeated buffering, may be added to the documention / report. There are several way to deal with this documentation. In the KB such documentation / reports are stored separately from the books they refer to. Restoration reports are numbered consecutively and a concordance record is kept of the report's number and the shelf-mark of the relevant book. The advantage of this system is that the latest restoration reports, for instance from the past year, are readily available. The report number is noted in pencil, always in the same place, at the back of each book treated. The best place for this is the bottom righthand corner of the back board or the last blank page. A report may deal with findings and treatments in as much detail as is deemed desirable. If we restrict ourselves to the conservation of bindings, the following points can be considered for inclusion: 1. The (collection) shelf-mark/file number 2. The kind of covering material used in the bookbinding 3. Any earlier treatments the binding has undergone (if they can be traced) 4. The result(s) of any analytical research 5. The methods applied 6. The materials (agents) used 7. Special details, if any 8. Name of the conservator 9. Date of treatment
These (minimum) data may be useful for later research. For various reasons reports may get lost or not be immediately available, or not be made at all. It is therefore important to keep some record of a restoration or conservation treatment in the book itself. This is perhaps particularly relevant to the conservation of bindings, because the treatment of the covering material will usually not be visible. One option is to write (in pencil) the bare mimimum of data in the book itself. This, too, is best done in the bottom righthand corner of the back board or the last blank page. (It goes without saying that the notation should not be written in so large or conspicuous a hand as to leave an impression of carelessness. Data can also be recorded in the form of an agreed code. Minimum data might be: 1. Whether ammonia and/or a buffer has been used 2. Which emulsion or dressing formula has been used 3. Date of treatment
As a rule private owners of books and antiquarian booksellers are not always aware of the importance of this kind of documentation. It is therefore the task of the people carrying out the conservation treatment of bookbindings on behalf of this group of book owners, to point out the importance of (minimum) documentation.
9. Storage and handling
Damage prevention Sound housekeeping plays an essential role in preventing damage to books and the covering material used in their bindings and is therefore an important part of conservation. Material care relates not only to the way books are stored - lying or standing, in steel or wooden bookcases, in boxes or not - but also to the control of environmental factors. Many publications dealing with material care have appeared in recent years. This chapter only deals very briefly with a limited number of aspects: book handling, bookcases, storage material, shelfmarks, climate control, lighting and exhibitions. Many useful publications on this subject can be found e.g. in the Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts (AATA), the Conservation Information Network (CIN) database and by the Website of Conservation OnLine (CoOL). Handling It is a widely known fact, but cannot be emphasised enough: the greatest threat to the book is its user. Careless handling of (old) books in particular can cause a lot of damage. Removing books from the bookshelf Incorrect removal of books from the bookshelf can cause much damage to the spine. Never remove a book from the bookshelf by the headcap: headband, headcap, and spine are all liable to tear. Also avoid pulling the book from the shelf by its spine using your fingernails as this may cause scratches to the covering material. If there is enough room above the book, stretch your hand over the book and slide it forwards a little so that you can grasp it securely while removing it from the shelf. If there is not enough room above the book, you should push adjacent books back a little, thus creating enough room to allow you to grasp the middle book securely. Try to avoid tilting the book as this may result in damage to the bottom headcap and headband. Opening and consulting Books can also be damaged when they are opened. Books are often pressed wide open, even when the binding (obviously) does not allow this. This can cause fragments of the leather or parchment spine to break off and may even result in the whole spine becoming detached from the text block. The best way to open old books is to place them spine down on a flat table and then to open the text block in the middle and allow the two equal parts to subside slowly onto the table. Opening the book this way makes it easy to search for the required page and exerts a minimum of pressure on the spine and hinges. If the binding construction does not allow the book to lie easily in a horizontal position, it should be consulted on a 'book support', a kind of table-top lectern that allows the book to lie open in a slight V-form. Such a support can be made from feltclad wood or synthetic plate material (perspex). It is important for the support to have more than one position, so that if a page at the beginning of the book is being consulted for instance, the support is higher for the front than for the back. It goes without saying that the support should have no sharp edges that could damage the binding. A book support can also consist of wedge-shaped and rectangular pieces of foam rubber (polyether), which can support the book in a variety of positions. With the help of additional accessories it is even possible to support the spine of the book. A 'book pillow', made of soft material filled with tiny polystyrene balls, can also come in handy here. It provides good support for a range of positions. The advantage of these last two supports is that they are soft and do not damage the covering material of the bookbinding. To save readers from having to keep their hand continuously on the page being studied (and thereby thumbing the page) a weighted cord can be used. This consists of a chain of small lead pellets covered with cloth and sufficiently
heavy to hold down the page. As well as preventing damage to books, such a reading aid also makes the users aware of the book's vulnerability and usually results in their being more careful with the book. Since grasping certain kinds of leather such as suede and natural sheep or calfskin with bare hands can cause stains or other forms of damage, the use of cotton gloves is recommended. Some forms of damage (e.g. red rot or the effects of leather marbling) are better not touched with bare hands. Vinyl or latex gloves are the best option in this case (loose particles tend to adhere to cotton gloves). In the case of highly vulnerable bookbinding material a dustjacket made of a special kind of polyester foil (such as melinex) can be very useful. Photocopying Most photocopying machines require books to be opened completely and placed face down on the glass plate, a procedure that can cause great damage to the binding construction. Another danger posed by photocopiers is the large dose of UV radiation, especially in the case of (often old) xenon copiers. Despite the risk to (old) books, copies often have to be made in institutions. The risk of damage can be lessened by using special photocopiers where the book can be copied while lying in V-form. There are also photocopiers where one half of the opened book (up to the middle fold) can hang down at an angle of 90º beside the machine. The disadvantage of these copiers is that the book has to be lifted and turned every time a new page is selected for copying, while the side of the book hanging beside the machine is unsupported. Damage can be minimised if the copier is operated only by expert personnel. Nowadays there are also book-friendly scanners on the market, which allow scanning per page. They are supplied with a 'book cradle' which holds the book without putting any pressure on the binding. The detrimental UV radiation from photocopiers can be restricted by opting for a halogen or mercury fluorescence copier. These machines release far less UV radiation than xenon copiers. Bookcases Avoid placing bookcases immediately against an outer wall where there is a greater risk of condensation and consequent fungal growth. If lack of space requires the use of compact bookcases, make sure that ventilation is possible, even when the bookcases are completely pushed together. Unfortunately many compact case systems tend to vibrate when moved, which may result in a book being shaken off its rack and getting wedged between the cases. This can lead to serious damage. There are advantages and disadvantages attached to both wooden and metal cases. In general, wooden cases have a stabilising effect on humidity in the room. Then again, there are a number of clear disadvantages: various kinds of wood, for instance oak, secrete acids and other detrimental substances and cannot therefore be recommended. If wooden cases are chosen, the wood should always be finished with lacquer or a coating. Polyurethane lacquer on a water basis is recommended; after the lacquer has been applied the solvent should be left to evaporate for at least three weeks. Steel cases may rust if the finishing layer is damaged, which may cause stains and damage on bookbindings. Steel cases are therefore best treated with a chemically stable 'powder coating'. ('Storage furniture: a brief review of current options', in: Preservation of Library & archival materials: a Manual, Northeast Document Conservation Center - Technical Leaflet, Storage and Handling, 1994) Contrary to what is generally thought, steel cases are an even greater hazard in the case of a fire than wooden ones. They may not burn, but they do distort in intense heat which may result in (part of) the cases falling over and the books ending up in the aisles and in the water used for fire extinction. Both wooden and metal cases should, of course, be neatly finished and have no projecting screws, nuts or sharp edges that might damage the books. Bear the following recommendations in mind when placing books in a bookcase:
Normal sized books are best placed so that they stand on the tail edge; never place them fore edge down: in this position the weight of the text block may pull on the spine, distorting it and even causing it to come away from the binding. Do not arrange the books so tightly that they are difficult to remove. Tight placement can result in damage to the binding (e.g. torn headcaps or spine covers) as the books are being taken off the shelf. Nor is loose placement a good idea: books lean at all angles, thereby increasing the risk of damage to bindings or endpaper constructions. If there is room left over on a shelf, use a bookend to keep the books standing upright. Keep books of the same size as much as possible together as this makes them less susceptible to dust. It has also been found that books arranged according to size suffer less water damage in the event of leakage. Small books - especially in moving compact bookcases - are liable to slide off shelves. Damage can be prevented by storing several such books a small cardboard tray. Large and heavy books should be stored on the lower shelves so that they do not need to be lifted above head height, with all the risks that entails. Very large books should be stored horizontally, but never more than three on top of one another. Leather with a pulverised grain can cause stains; take care not to put such bindings next to paper or cloth bindings. Acids and fats can also migrate from the leather to paper or linen. This can be prevented by using a polyester dust jacket. Desiccation sometimes causes concave warping in parchment-covered boards with the result that the book starts 'to work its way out of the row'. Not only may such a protruding book eventually drop off the shelf, but it is also more susceptible to dust. The best way of storing these bindings is in 'book shoes'.
Storage materials Boxes and slipcases can contribute greatly to the preservation of bookbinding materials. This is especially important in collections which contain a lot of bindings with bosses or chains. Although these metal parts were originally attached to bookbindings to protect the book - against damage as well as theft they can cause a lot of damage to neighbouring books. The same applies to metal clasps. Closed boxes not only limit physical damage, but also serve as a buffer against the effects of detrimental air pollutants. A closed box also provides good protection during the transport of a book being loaned out for exhibition. Boxes and slipcases may be equipped with a support for the text block so that especially for large, heavy books - distortion of the spine can be prevented. An hermetically closed box may give rise to a microclimate so that condensation forms in response to changing climatic conditions. For this reason it is necessary to make an opening, a round hole for instance, in such boxes. Avoid using brightly coloured linen or marbled paper to cover boxes and slipcases. Most of these are not colourfast and may cause extra damage, for example, in the event of leakage. Double tray boxes The double tray box is a completely closed box which can be used to store the book - standing or lying - and which protects against bumping and external influences such as light and dust. The box consists of three separate parts box, lid and back - which are joined by hinges. Provision may also be made for a book chain. A double tray box is also an excellent form of protection for the book during transport, provided the book is not able to move inside the box. Slipcase A slipcase protects all sides of the book except the spine. It is suitable for protecting book-bindings placed in a museum display. One major disadvantage is that the spine discolours more than the covers, but then this also applies to
books stored unprotected in a bookcase (see also: Lighting). Another disadvantage is that it is not always easy to get the book out of the slipcase. Semi-circular notches on the sides for thumb and index finger can solve this problem. Book shoe A book shoe is a kind of slipcase which leaves both the spine and the head edge uncovered (drawing 9). At the bottom of the shoe is a support for the text block. This is especially useful for large, thick books with overhanging sides where there is a tendency for the text block to sag forward, pulling the spine with it and causing tension on the shoulder, which may even end up tearing. This problem can be prevented by the book shoe, which also closes the book neatly so that no dust can penetrate the text block. An additional advantage of the book shoe is that it prevents the bindings from being damaged by any clasps and/or bosses of adjacent books. The fact that the book is not completely closed off from the environment entails several advantages. To begin with there is no risk of a dangerous microclimate developing. Secondly, the spine and any title can be recognised at once, which makes the book shoe suitable for museum display. Thirdly, the book is easily removed from the book shoe, unlike the slipcase where a book may jam. And, last but not least, a book shoe is fairly simple and cheap to make compared with a double tray box or slipcase. - Klik voor een uitvergroting Drawing 9 The book shoe
Phase box A phase box consists of two strips of strong, medium thick, acid-free cardboard (e.g. 425g/m²). One strip is machine-direction cardboard and measuring exactly the width of the book. The other is cross-direction cardboard and measuring exactly the height of the book. These two strips are glued together at right angles in the middle (drawing 10a). Then the projecting sides are folded parallel to the glued rectangle. The projecting parts can be folded around the book. The phase box is kept closed by a thin piece of string wound around the box and fastened at the front around a button (drawing 10b). A phase box can be made for (vulnerable) books but also for loose-leaf material. Although not as sturdy as a double tray box, it is a good and inexpen-sive alternative, certainly as a temporary measure. - Klik voor een uitvergroting Drawing 10 Phase box
Shelf-marks Library books are placed in bookcases according to a particular (shelf-mark) system, which is usually made visible by numbers and/or letters on the spines. If self-adhesive synthetic tapes and stickers are used, the attachment between adhesive and carrier (sticker) is likely to give way. Tapes or stickers fall off the spine leaving the adhesive behind, as an irremovable, sometimes sticky, brown contamination on the material of the spine. One should therefore, certainly for older collections, never use self-adhesive tapes or stickers, but acid-free, non-gummed paper strips, ovals or rounds. The best way to affix them on leather or parchment is by using thick paste. It is not advisable to paste shelf-marks on important and/or valuable bindings. In these cases it is better to opt for a system of numbers on acid-free cards/strips which can be inserted between the leaves of the text block so that the shelf-mark sticks out above the head edge. Climate control In libraries, archives and museums, the word climate refers to indoor climate. Leather, parchment and paper respond to humidity, temperature and light. Too much humidity causes the material to expand, too little causes shrinkage.
Humidity, combined with heat, can also lead to fungal growth. Excessively high temperatures will dry out the material. Light degrades the binding material and causes discoloration. Advisory guidelines for relative humidity and temperature in storage rooms containing archival materials have now been formulated. This advice was drawn up with the aim of arriving at 'a responsible conservation of cultural heritage at a reasonable cost in terms of investment, exploitation and maintenance'. (Adviesrichtlijn luchtkwaliteit archieven. 's-Gravenhage, Rijksgebouwendienst (RGD), 1995. The report was drawn up within the framework of the Delta Plan for the Preservation of the Cultural Heritage in the Netherlands.) The same guidelines can be used for library material. The recommended temperature for storage rooms is 18 °C (± 2 °C). The recommended relative humidity (RH) for storage rooms is 50% (± 5%). (RH should always be considered in relation to temperature: relative humidity is the proportion of actual moisture to the maximum possible amount of moisture in the air at a specified temperature.) Parchment material, if stored separately: 18 °C ±2 °C, RH 50% ± 5%; winter setting: 16 °C, 45%; summer setting: 20 °C, 55%. The Advisory Guidelines also provide data on air quality levels one should strive for during airconditioning, especially with respect to ventilation. Lighting Light - the part of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human eye accelerates the degradation of all natural polymers of which books are composed. Light may cause colours to fade and paper to become brittle and yellow. From a preservation point of view, therefore, one should avoid exposing books to light as much as possible. In practice this will always come down to a compromise between making objects visible and the possibility of light-induced damage. But daylight, in addition to visible light, also comprises invisible ultraviolet and infra-red radiation, both of which may cause damage to books. (Invisible) ultraviolet radiation (UV) has a wavelength between 100-400 nm Visible light has a wavelength between 400-760 nm (Invisible) infra-red radiation (IR) has a wavelength longer than 760 nm Of the three, UV radiation has the highest energy level and is therefore the most damaging. This is the radiation that causes decomposition in the type of organic material found in bookbindings such as protein chains (leather, parchment), dyes and pigments, binding agents and adhesives. Measurements have shown that damage can be reduced by about 60% if UV light is filtered out of the daylight. It is therefore recommended that the UV component of light be eliminated. This can be done by placing UV-absorbent glass, foil, acrylic plate, etc., between the light source and the object, but it is even better to eliminate daylight altogether with curtains or some other form of shuttering and to work with artificial, low-UV light. The light from incandescent and halogen light bulbs is naturally low in UV radiation but on the other hand they produce rather a lot of infra-red light in the form of heat, which is also detrimental. This damage, caused by heat-induced changes in the humidity levels of the objects, is mostly physico-mechanical such as - in the case of leather - a gradual increase in cracks in the leather fibres and a loosening of the grain. Fluorescent lighting has a relatively high UV rating but fortunately there are also low-UV strip lights on the market. Other factors affecting the severity of damage are the luminous intensity (flux) of the light source (quantity of light radiated as expressed in lumen) and the duration of lighting. The higher a lamp's wattage, the more lumen it radiates. The exposure time determines the amount of damage: double the length of exposure and you double the damage. A simple way of limiting damage in storage rooms is to install time switches that turn the light off after a fixed interval. Exhibition Exhibiting books requires special care and expertise. Damage may occur when glass plates are used to exhibit open books. Not only can this destroy the
binding construction but it can also strain the leather or parchment so that it tears - usually at the hinge point. It is therefore important that books that do not fall open easily, should be opened only to the point at which they begin to resist. They should then be tied up in this position using strips of polyester foil, and placed - supported - on a perspex stand. Thus exhibited, the covering material is not exposed to tension and no damage will occur. During exhibitions, books displayed both inside and outside showcases are liable to damage from light and other environmental factors. Damage from UV radiation can be prevented by using light sources with a low UV rating (see also: 'Lighting'). Incoming sunlight must be screened by curtains, UV-excluding foil or some other type of sun excluder. The illumination level is easily measured with a lux meter. International guidelines recommend a maximum of 50 lux (lumen per square metre) for books and other vulnerable material that are permanently lit. Short exhibition periods are, of course, to be preferred. As an extra preventive measure one could install time-lapse light switches that must be activated by visitors. Climatological conditions are more difficult to control in an exhibition space than in a storage room. One should at any rate try to establish a constant temperature and humidity that is acceptable for both visitors and books. The following values are recommended: maximum temperature 22 °C, maximum RH 60%. Thermohygrographs or other climate recorders can be placed in the showcases for purposes of control.To keep the temperature in the showcase low, light sources should be placed not in the case itself but in a separate hood with its own ventilation, above the showcase. Note that damage can also be caused by fumes from noxious substances (such as acids) given off by wooden showcases, especially oak. Parchment bindings in particular require a constant RH. If this is not provided, the bindings are liable to warp irrevocably and/or tear at the joints. It is even possible that the slips of the 'laced-in thong' may pull through the binding if the RH is too low. If there is no climate control system in the exhibition room, it is better not to exhibit books, or to work with portable humidifiers and dehumidifiers. Long-term exhibition of leather and parchment bookbindings is not recommended. Dismantling a book exhibition requires special care. Leather and parchment bindings that have been exhibited for a long period of time in an open position may be difficult to close and forcing them may result in the covering material tearing at the hinge point. The best approach is to try moving the opened cover carefully to and fro a number of times; each time it will close a little further. Cotton gloves should be worn when tying up easily soiled books (suede or natural calfskin) and placing them in or taking them out of a showcase. This avoids stains that can be caused by acid or fat in the skin. When books with leather or parchment bindings are transported they should be given additional protection, for instance by wrapping them in plastic bubble wrap. Books with clasps, bosses and chains require extra care. It is inadvisable to transport bindings affected by 'red rot' or leather marbling.
Clarkson, C., 'The Book Shoe', in: The Abbey Newsletter, 12 (1988), 3, pp. 4748. Ekkart, R.E.O., 'Het tentoonstellen en hanteren van boeken', in: CL-themadag, no. 10, Amsterdam, 1986. Lanting, R.W., Preventieve maatregelen tot behoud van archivalia en boeken. Luchtverontreiniging. Delft, 1990. (TNO publication no. P89/075a). Lodewijks, J., 'The Influence of Light on Museum Objects', in: Recent Advances in Conservation, IIC, Rome, 1961. Roelofs, W.G.T. and Hofenk de Graaff, J.H., 'Onderzoek naar de veroudering van papier in stapels', in: Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheid archiefmateriaal, boeken en andere voorwerpen van culturele waarde te beschermen tegen
luchtverontreiniging door het gebruik van gebufferde dozen en omslagen, Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1994. (CL. Project no. 92/192).
10. List of formulas
Surface cleaning agent 996 gram distilled water 2 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 2 gram carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), medium viscosity Cleaning agent for alum-tawed leather 950 gram alcohol (96%) 50 gram ammonium (15%) Surface defatting agent 890 gram refined petrol 100 gram distilled water 10 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap Buffer solution 860 gram odourless kerosene 120 gram isopropyl alcohol 20 gram imidazole Leather dressing 10% fat 900 gram odourless kerosene 60 gram neatsfoot oil 40 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Leather dressing 5% fat 950 gram odourless kerosene 30 gram neatsfoot oil 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Emulsion 10% fat 550 gram odourless kerosene 300 gram distilled water 60 gram neatsfoot oil 50 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 40 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Emulsion 5% fat 625 gram odourless kerosene 300 gram distilled water 30 gram neatsfoot oil 25 gram neutral (non-ionic) soap 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Lanolin dressing 900 gram odourless kerosene 100 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Parchment dressing 980 gram odourless kerosene 20 gram lanolin (anhydrous) Pre-impregnation dressing 880 gram odourless kerosene 80 gram lanolin (anhydrous) 40 gram neatsfoot oil
11. Concise bibliography
Overview of leather and parchment manufacture Albrecht, R., and Nerger, H., Lederkunde. Leipzig, 1942 Bibliothek des Leders. Frankfurt am Main, 1982-19... Bravo, G.H., and Trupke, J., 100.000 Jahre Leder. Basel, 1970. Calnan, C.N., [ed.] Leather - Its Composition and Changes with Time. Northampton, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1991. Conservation of Bookbinding Leather: a Report. London, British Library, 1984. (Prepared by the British Leather Manufac. Research Ass. for the British Library). Di Majo, A., 'La pergamena dei codici altomedievali Italiani', in: International Review of Manuscript Studies, XXXIX (1985), 1, pp. 3-12. Diderot et d'Alembert., L'Encyclopédie. Eitel, K., 'Leder', in: Ullmanns Encyklope-die der Technischen Chemie. Weinheim, 1979. Ellement, P.G., 'The Structure, Manufacture and Mechanism of Deterioration of Bookbinding Leathers, part 2: The Manufacture of Bookbinding Leathers', in: Conference on the Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Cambridge, 1980, pp. 253-260. (Institute of Paper Conservation). Fast. J.D., Materie en leven. Heerlen, 1972. The Fibre Structure of Leather. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1981. Gnamm, H., Taschenbuch für die Lederindustrie. Stuttgart, 1940. Gnirrep, W.K., Gumbert J.P., Szirmai, J.A., Kneep en binding. Den Haag, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 1992. Graaff, G. de, Leerwerk. Amsterdam, . Groot, Z.H. de, 'Perkament', in: Boek en Band, (1991). Gullick, M., 'From Parchment to Scribe: Some Observations on the Manufacture and Preparation of Medieval Parchment Based upon a Review of the Literary Evidence', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 145-158. Haas, H. de, De Boekbinder. Utrecht, 1984. (Reprint-). Haines, B.M., 'Bookbinding Leather', in: The New Bookbinder, 7 (1987), pp. 6382. Hallebeek, P.B., 'New Features in Leather Conservation', in: 7. Internationaler Graphischer Restauratorentag, Uppsala 1991. Haran, M., 'Technological Heritage in the Preparati-on of Skin for Biblical Texts in Medieval Oriental Jewry', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 34-43. Herwijnen, W.B. van, Ledertechnologie.'s-Hertogenbosch, 1956. International Glossary of Leather Terms. London, International Council of Tanners, 1975. Jettmar, J., Pflanzliche Gerbmittel und deren Extrakte. Wien und Leipzig, 1922. Jettmar, J., Kombinationsgerbungen der Lohe-, Weiss- und Sämischgerberei. Berlin, 1914. Karmarsch, K., and Heeren, Fr., Technologisch Woordenboek. Amsterdam, . Kasteleijn, P.J., De leerlooijer, leertouwer, wit- en zeemlooijer. Dordrecht, 1789. Kramers, J., Geografisch Woordenboek der Geheele Aarde. Gouda, 1855. Küntzel, A., Gerbereichemisches Taschenbuch. Dresden, 1955. Oltrogge, D., 'Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen an historischem Pergament', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 104115. 'Over bereiding en gebruik van boekbindersleder', in: De Boekbinder, 10 (1911) April, pp. 78-80. Pauligk, K., Lederherstellung. Leipzig, 1973. Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung. Sigmaringen, 1991. Reed, R., Ancient Skins, Parchments and Leathers. London, 1972.
Reed, R., 'Some Thoughts on Parchment for Bookbinding', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 221229. Reed, R., The Nature and Making of Parchment. The Elmere Press, 1975. Reinders, E., Plantenanatomie, Handleiding. Groningen, 1941. Richardin, P., Analyse de quelques tannis végétaux utilisés pour la fabrication des cuirs. Paris, Archives Nationales, 1988, pp. 151-182. (Travaux du Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Documents Graphiques; 1986-1987). Ryder, M.L., 'The Biology and History of Parchment', in: Pergament: Geschichte Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung. Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 25-34. Sharphouse, J.H., Leather Technician's Handbook. Northampton, Leather Producers' Association, 1989. (Reprint). Schmidt, J., Gerberei-Technisches Auskunftsbuch für die gesamte Lederindustrie. Durlach, 1918.-Stambolov, T., Manufacture, Deterioration and Preservation of Leather. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1969. Stather, F., Gerbereichemie und Gerbereitechnologie. 1967. Stiasny, J., 'Syntans, New Artificial Tanning Materials', in: Journal of the Society of Chemical Industries, 1913. Suermondt, J.R., Technologie der Lederbereiding. 's-Hertogenbosch, 1948. Taconis, G., [Leather technology]. Amsterdam, State Training School for Conservators, . (material used for lecturing) Thorstensen, T.C., Practical Leather Technology. Huntington, 1976. Trupke, J., 'Frühe Gerbtechniken', in: Das Alte Buch als Aufgabe für Naturwissen-schaft und Forschung, vol. 1. Bremen 1977, pp. 99-115. Visscher, J., 'Looking Back on a Lifetime in Parchmentmaking at William Cowley', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 341-359. Vlimmeren, P.J. van, Chemie van de lederbereiding. Waalwijk, 1955. Von der Haut zum Leder. Offenbach am Main, Deutsches Ledermuseum, . Vorschriften für Bibliothekeinbänden. Harassowitz, Leipzig, 1911. Wildbrett, M., 'Hauptpergament - ein Naturprodukt von erlesener Schönheit', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 359-364. Wouters, J., 'High-Performance Liquid Chroma-tography of Vegetable Tannins Extracted from New and Old Leather', in: 10th Triennial Meeting Washington, DC, USA 22-27 August 1993, pp. 669-676. (ICOM Committee for Conservation).
Concise survey of conservation treatments Alschner, Chr., 'Buchpflege an der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek, Dresden', in: Zentralbladt, 2 (1978), 7, pp. 315-319. Belay-a, I.K., 'Die Konservierung von Ledereinbanden', in: Mitteilungen der IADA, 31 (1972), pp. 295-321. Belaya, I.K., 'Methods of Strengthening the Damaged Leather of Old Bindings', in: Restaurator, 1 (1969), 2, pp. 93-104. Belaya, I.K., 'Softening Leather Bindings', in: Restoration and Preservation of Library Resources, Documents and Books, Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1964, pp. 149-164. Bogale, M., 'Bescherming van slecht geworden (vervallen) leer', in: de Restaurateur, 2 (1972), 2/3, pp. 9-11. Calnan, C.N., Fungicides Used on Leather. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1985. Calnan, C.N., 'Retannage with Aluminium Alkoxides - a Stabilising Treatment for Acid Deteriorated Leather', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 9-25. The Conservation of Bookbinding Leather. London, British Library, 1984. Cunha, G.M. and Cunha, D.G., Conservation of Library Materials I. Metuchen, N.J., 1971.
Edel, L.P., Mengen en roeren, vol. 1. Deventer, 1946. An Expert. The Book of Trade Secrets - Receipts and Instructions for Renovating, Repairing, Improving and Preserving Old Books and Prints. London, 1909. Goddijn, P.A., e.a., Richtlijnen voor het conserveren van leer en perkament van boekbanden. 's-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek/Centraal Laboratorium 1987. Haines, B.M., 'The Conservation of Leather Bookbindings', in: Adhesives and Consolidants: Preprints of the Contributions to the Paris IIC-congres 1984, pp. 50-54. Hejcl, F., 'Neue Technologie zur Konservierung mit Gerbstoff gegerbter Ledereinbände', in: Maltechnik, 87 (1981), pp. 44-48. Henket, J.G.M., 'Conservering van leren banden', in: de Restaurateur, 4 (1974), 1, pp. 5-6. 'Het Restaureeren van leder', in: Magnus, 22 (1931), p. 169. Jackman, J., Leather Conservation. London, The Leather Conservation Centre, 1982. Lehmann, D., 'Hinweise zur Leder-konservierung', in: Maltechnik, 89 (1983), 3, pp. 204-207. McCrady, E., 'Research on the Dressing and Preservation of Leather', in: Abbey Newsletter, 5 (1981), 2, pp. 23-25. McCrady, E., 'How Leather Dressing may have Originated', in: Abbey Newsletter, 14 (1990), 1, pp. 19-20. Noehles, M., Lederpflege, Lederkonservierung. Frankfurt, Freies Deutsches Hochstift - Frankfurter Goethe Museum, 1986. Plenderleith, H.J., The Preservation of Leather Bookbindings. London, British Museum, 1946. Puissant, M.J., 'Erfahrungen bei der Konservierung und Restaurierung von wasserempfindlichem Einbandleder', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 193-208. Raphael, T. And McCrady, E., 'Leather Dressing: To Dress or Not to Dress', in: Leather Conservation News, 1 (1983), 2, pp. 2-3. Rehák, P., 'Zur Rettung von Ledereinbänden historischer Bibliotheksbestände', in: Das Leder, 39 (1988), 6, pp. 107-115. Rhodes, B., 'Hell's own Brew: Home book Renovation from Nineteenth Century Receipts to Today's Kitchen Chemistry', in: The Paper Conservator, 15 (1991), pp. 59-70. Rogers, J.S., 'Lederbucheinbände - Wie sie Konser-viert werden können', in: Mitteilungen der IADA, 26 (1967), pp. 321-327. Rouy, D., et al., Élimination des taches sur le parche-min. Paris, Archives Nationales, 1993. (Les documents graphiques et photographiques. Analyse et conservation. pp. 145-162). Sievers, J., 'Versuch zur Festigung vervallener Lederoberflächen durch Firnis', in: Mitteilungen der IADA, 19 (1965), pp. 168-169. Soest, H.A.B. van, Stambolov, T. and Hallebeek, P.B., 'Die Konservierung von Leder', in: Maltechnik, 91 (1985), 2, pp. 49-54 and 91 (1985), 3, pp. 57-65. 'De Steen der wijzen. Algemeen receptenboek inhoudende 850 recepten voor allen en over alles'. Gouda, 1885. Steenhouwer, H., 'Impregneren van leren banden', in: de Restaurateur, 1 (1971), 2, p. 2. Waterer, J.W., John Waterer's Guide to Leather Conservation and Restoration. Northampton, The Museum of Leathercraft, 1986. Yusupova, M.V., 'Conservation and Softening of Leather in Bookbindings', in: Restaurator, 3 (1979), 3, pp. 91-100. Yusupova, M.V., 'Conservation and Restoration of Manuscripts and Binding on Parchment', in: Restaurator, 4 (1980), 1, pp. 57-69. Ziegler, W., Reinigung von Leder- und Pergament-einbänden. München, Bayern. Staatsbibliothek, 1968.
Causes and manifestations of leather and parchment decay Calnan, C.N., 'Accelerated Aging Studies', in: Interim Symposium at the Victoria & Albert Museum 24 & 25 June 1992, London 1992, pp. 21-24. (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Chahine, C., et al., 'Effect de la pollution atmospherique sur le cuir et la parchemin', in: 6th Triennial Meeting Ottawa, 1981. Working Group: Documents Graphiques et Photographiques, vol III, 81/114/6-12. (The ICOM Committee for Conservation). Chahine, C., 'Travaux réalisés en France dans le domaine du parchemin', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung - Herstellung, Sigmaringen, 1991, pp. 195-202. Frey, R.W., and Clarke, I.D., in: Journal of American Leather Chemists Association, 26 (1931), p. 461. Goddijn, P.A. and Leeuwen, I. van, 'Schade door leermarmerverven', in: de Restaurator, 23 (1993), 2, pp. 58-64. Haines, B.M., 'Deterioration in Leather Bookbindings - Our Present State of Knowledge', in: British Library Journal, 3 (1977), pp. 59-70. Haines, B.M., 'The Structure, Manufacture and Mechanism of Deterioration of Bookbinding Leathers, Part 3: Minimising Deterioration in Polluted Atmosphere', in: Conference on the Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Cambridge 1980, pp. 261-269. (Institute of Paper Conservation). Hallebeek, P.B., 'The Sulphur Content of New Commercial Leather for Bookbindings', in: 10th Triennial Meeting Washington, DC, USA 22-27 August 1993, pp. 639-644. (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Hallebeek, P.B., 'Notes Concerning the Conditions of Parchment', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 85-93. Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989. Offenbach am Main, Deutsches Ledermu-seum/Schumuseum, 1989. (ICOM working group, Leathercraft and Related Objects). Larsen, R., 'The Hypotheses for a Project on the Deterioration, Accelerated Aging and Conservation of Leather and Collagen Based Material', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 6-8. Makes, F., 'Damage to Old Bookbindings in the Skokloster Library - A New Method on Inhibiting Injurious Enzymes in Leather', in: Nordisk tidskrift för bok- och biblioteksväsen, 71 (1984), pp. 34-57. O'Flaherty, F., et al., The Chemistry and Technology of Leather. 4. New York, 1965. Protein Chemistry for Conservators. Rose C.L. and Endt, D.W. van, (eds). A.I.C., 1984. Richardin, P., 'GC/MS Analysis of Degradation Products of Old Leather: First Results', in: Interim Symposium at the Victoria & Albert Museum, London 24 & 25 June 1992, London, 1992, pp. 15-19. (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Sierpapier & marmering. Een terminologie voor het beschrijven van sierpapier en marmering als boekband-versiering. Den Haag/Brussel, Koninklijke Biblio-theek, 1994. Soest, H.A.B. van, Hallebeek, P.B. and Stambolov, T., 'Conservation of Leather', in: Studies in Conservation, 29 (1984), pp. 21-31. Soest, H.A.B. van, 'Sulphurous Substances in the Tanning of Leather with Vegetable Tannins', in: 9th Triennial Meeting Dresden, German Democratic Republic 26-31 August 1990, pp. 622-625. (ICOM Committee for Conservation 1990). Stachelberger, H., 'Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Pergament: Methoden und Probleme', in: Pergament: Geschichte - Struktur - Restaurierung Herstellung, Sigmaringen 1991, pp. 183-194. Stambolov, T., 'Environmental Influences on the Weathering of Leather', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 1-5. Strzelezyk, A.B., 'Über die Zerstörung historischer Ledereinbände durch Microorganismen', in: Internationale Leder- und Pergamenttagung, Offenbach am Main 1989, pp. 287-300. 'Vergaan van leder, (het)', in: Magnus, 23 (1932), pp. 151-169. Vlimmeren. P.J. van, Chemie van de lederbereiding. Waalwijk, 1955.
Walton, R.P., Causes and Preservation of Deterioration in Book Material. New York, New York Public Library, 1929. Waterer, J.W., 'Leather', in: A History of Technology, 2, Oxford, 1957. Young, G.S., 'Microscopical Hydrothermal Stability Measu-rements of Skin and Semitanned Leather', in: 9th Triennial Meeting Dresden, German Democratic Republic 26-31 August 1990, pp. 625-631. (ICOM Committee for Conservation 1990).
Storage and handling Andersen, J., 'Cloth Covered Book Cradles', in: Abbey Newsletter, 17 (1993), 7/8, pp. 105-106. Banik, G., e.a., Aufbewahren von Archiv-, Bibliotheks- und Museumsgut. Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, 1990. Banks, P.N., 'Environmental Standards for Storage of Books and Manuscripts', in: Library Journal, 99 (1974), pp. 339-343. Bansa, H., 'Bemerkungen und Beobachtungen zur Lederpflege', in: Maltechnik, 87 (1981), 2, pp.111-114. Bloodworth, J.G., 'The Display of Parchment and Vellum', in: Journal of the Society of Archivists, 9 (1988), 2, pp. 65-67. Christoffersen, L.D., 'Resource-Saving Storage of Historical Material ', in: 10th Triennial Meeting Washington, DC, USA, 22-27 August 1993, pp. 601-604. (ICOM Committee for Conservation). Clarkson, C., 'Preservation and Display of Single Parchment Leaves and Fragments', in: Conference on the Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Cambridge 1980, pp. 201-209. (Institute of Paper Conservation). Clarkson, C., 'The Book Shoe', in: The Abbey Newsletter, 12 (1988), 3, pp. 4748. Darling, P.W., 'Housekeeping', in: Proceedings of a Seminar 20-21 July, 1979, pp. 6-16. (New York, N.Y., Special Libraries Association). Dekesel-De Ruyck, Y.M.M., 'Boeken, behandel ze met zachtheid', in: De Boekbinder, 6 (1987), 4, pp. 4-7. Delauny, E., 'The Impact of Storage and Housing on Preservation of Serial Publications', in: Managing the Preservation of Serial Literature: an International Symposium held at the Library of Congress, May 22-24, 1989, pp. 38-46. Duchein, M. von, Archive Buildings and Equipment. München, 1988. Ekkart, R.E.O., 'Het tentoonstellen en hanteren van boeken', in: Bewaren van boeken, prenten en archiefmateriaal in kleine musea en oudheidskamers, Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1986. (CL-themadag, no. 10). Forde, H., 'Loans to Exhibitions - are they Compatible with Conservation?', in: Conference on Book and Paper Conservation Budapest 4-7 Sept. 1990, pp. 382-387. (Techni-cal Associati-on of Paper and Printing Industry and the National Széchényi Library, 1992). Frieder, R., 'Designing a Book Wrapper', in: Abbey Newsletter, 9 (1985), 3, pp. 50-52. Goddijn, P.A., Aanbevelingen voor de conservering van bibliotheekcollecties. Den Haag, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 1991. (KB Extra, nr. 6) Greenberg, G.S., 'Books as Disease Carriers, 1880-1920', in: Libraries and Culture - A Journal of Library History, 23 (1988), 3, pp. 282-292. Hatchfield, P.B., 'The Problems of Formaldehyde in Museum Collections', in: The International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, (1986) 5, pp.183188. Hilbert, G.S., 'Zur Beleuchtung musealer Exponate' in: Restauro, 97 (1991), 5, pp. 313-321. Jütte, B.A.H.G., Passieve conservering. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1988, p. 37. (CL-in-formatie nr. 3).
Jütte, W., 'Buchpflege und Klimatische Bedingun-gen in Bibliotheken', in: Deutscher Bibliotheksver-band, Arbeitsstelle für das Bibliothekswesen, 1978, pp. 21-26. Karreman, M.F.S. and Hofenk de Graaff, J.H., UV-werend en lichtreducerend materiaal voor museum-doeleinden. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1994. Krochmann, J., 'Beleuchtung von lichtempfindlichen Ausstellungsstücken unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Objektschädigung durch optische Strahlung', in: 6. Internationaler Graphischer Restauratorentag, Berlin 1987. Kroller, F., 'Auswirkungen der Klimatisierung auf die Lebensdauer von Büchern' in: Liber Bulletin, 25 (1986), pp. 32-35. Lanting, R.W., Preventieve maatregelen tot behoud van archivalia en boeken. Luchtverontreiniging. Delft, 1990. (TNO-publication no. P89/075a). Licht en klimaatbeheersing in musea. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap/Vereniging van Musea in Brabant, . Liénardy, A.E.A., Inter Folia: handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier. Brussels, Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, 1989. Lodewijks, J., 'The Influence of Light on Museum Objects', in: Recent Advances in Conservation: Contributions to the IIC Rome Conference, London 1963, pp. 7-8. Macleod, K.J., Museum Lighting. Ottawa, Canadian Conservation Institute/National Museums of Canada, 1978. (Technical Bulletin 2). Macleod, K.J., Relative humidity: its Importance, Measurements and Control in Museums. Ottawa, Canadian Conservation Institute/National Museums of Canada, 1975. (Technical Bulletin 1; reprint 1978) Martin, S.B., 'Polyester Film Book Supports' in: Abbey Newsletter, 14 (1990), 3, p. 55. Mathey, R.G., Air Quality Criteria for Storage of Paper-based Archival Records. Washington D.C., National Bureau of Standards, 1983. (Prepared for The National Archives and Record Service, NBSIR 83-2795). Michalski, S. A., 'Control Module for Relative Humidity in Display Cases', In: Preprints of the Contribution to the Institute's 9th Intern. Congress, Washington 1982, pp. 28-32. (International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works). Miles, C.E., 'Wood Coatings for Display and Storage Cases', in: Studies in Conservation, 31 (1986), pp. 114-124. Nes, C.J. van, Verwijdering van stof van objecten. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1992. Oprea, F., 'Measures of Control and Hygiene of Records in Repositories', in: Archief- en Bibliotheekwezen in België, LVIII (1987), 1/2, pp. 299-312. Passaglia, E., The Characterization of Microenvironments and the Degradation of Archival Records: a Research Program. Gaithersburg (USA), National Bureau of Standards, Institute for Material Science and Engineering. Polymers Division, 1987. Petersen, D.E., 'Notes on the Binding and Storage of Vellum-leaved Books', in: Conference on the Conservation of Library and Archive Materials and the Graphic Arts, Cambridge 1980, pp. 211-217. (Institute of Paper Conservation) Pickwoad, N., 'Alternative Methods of Mounting Parchment for Framing and Exhibition', in: The Paper Conservator, 16 (1992), pp. 78-85. Pickwoad, N., A Report on The Parker Library at Corpus Christi College. Cambridge, 1983. Raupach, C., 'Lichtführung in Museumsneubauten', in: Restauro, 94 (1988), 1, pp. 18-21. Regter, F.L., Schoonmaken in musea, archieven en historische gebouwen. Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1993. (CL-informatie-14). Roelofs W.G.T., and Hofenk de Graaff J.H., 'Onderzoek naar de veroudering van papier in stapels', in: Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheid archiefmateriaal, boeken en andere voorwerpen van culturele waarde te beschermen tegen luchtverontreiniging door het gebruik van gebufferde dozen en omslagen,
Amsterdam, Centraal Laboratorium voor Onderzoek van Voorwerpen van Kunst en Wetenschap, 1994, Project no. 92/192. Sandwith, H., The National Trust Manual of Housekeeping. London, Penguin Books in association with the National Trust, 1988. (Reprint). Stehkämper, H., '"Natural" Air Conditioning of Stacks', in: Restaurator 9 (1988), 4, pp. 163-177. Thomson, G., The Museum Environment. London, Butterworths: in association with The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), 1986. Vademecum ter bescherming en onderhoud van het kunstbezit. Brussel, Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, 1986/87. Vosteen, R., Adviesrichtlijn luchtkwaliteit archieven. 's-Gravenhage, Rijksgebouwendienst (RGD), 1995. Weiner, M., 'If Not Now, When? A Management Approach to Environmental and Pest Control', in: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Preservation of Library and Archival Materials, Held at the South African Library, 1986, pp. 62-70. Wittmann, H., Klimatisierung von Bergungsräumen. Wien, 1982. Yezer, F., 'Housing, When and Why', in: Conservation and Preservation of Humanities Research Collections, pp. 149-156, Austin, The University of Texas, Ransom Humanities Research Center, 1989.
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