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Renaissance

.Who invented the Camera Obscura , where and when? The name camera obscura is derived from Latin words meaning darkened room. The first record of the camera obscura principle goes back to Ancient Greece, when Aristotle noticed how light passing through a small hole into a darkened room produces an image on the wall opposite, during a partial eclipse of the sun.Later on, in the 10th Century, the Arabian scholar Al Hassan used the camera obscura to demonstrate how light travels in straight lines. In the 13th Century, the camera obscura was used by astronomers to view the sun.In the 16th Century, camera obscuras became an invaluable aid to artists who used them to create drawings with perfect perspective and accurate detail. Portable camera obscuras were made for this purpose. . When, where and by whom was it first used in Europe? The first successful photograph was created by Joseph Nicphore Nipce in 1826. Which was a view from his second-story window in Gras, France.(industrial age)

. How did it revolutionize painting? When it first came about artist though that it would be a replacement to painting however when used it revolutionized painting in the fact that artist could trace the projected image to get more accurate results in terms of special perspective. vermeer

Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was a painter, architect, inventor, and student of all things scientific. Da Vinci received no formal education beyond basic reading, writing and math, but his father appreciated his artistic talent and apprenticed him at around age 15 to the noted sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio, of Florence. For about a decade, da Vinci refined his painting and sculpting techniques and trained in mechanical arts. When he was 20, in 1472, the painters guild of Florence offered da Vinci membership, but he remained with Verrocchio until he became an independent master in 1478. Around 1482, he began to paint his first commissioned work, The Adoration of the Magi, for Florences San Donato, a Scopeto monastery. His natural genius crossed so many disciplines that he epitomized the term Renaissance man. Today he remains best known for his art, including two paintings that remain among the worlds most famous and admired, Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Art, da Vinci believed, was indisputably connected with science and nature. Largely self-educated, he filled dozens of secret notebooks with inventions, observations and theories about pursuits from aeronautics to anatomy. But the rest of the world was just beginning to share knowledge in books made with moveable type, and the concepts expressed in his notebooks were often difficult to interpret. As a result, though he was lauded in his time as a great artist, his contemporaries often did not fully appreciate his geniusthe combination of intellect and imagination that allowed him to create, at least on paper, such inventions as the bicycle, the helicopter and an airplane based on the physiology and flying capability of a bat. Da Vinci received no formal education beyond basic reading, writing and math, but his father appreciated his artistic talent and apprenticed him at around age 15 to the noted sculptor and painter Andrea del Verrocchio, of Florence. For about a decade, da Vinci refined his painting and sculpting techniques and trained in mechanical arts. When he was 20, in 1472, the painters guild of Florence offered da Vinci membership, but he remained with Verrocchio until he became an independent master in 1478. Around 1482, he began to paint his first commissioned work, The Adoration of the Magi, for Florences San Donato, a Scopeto monastery.

Albrecht Drer
Albrecht Drer was the most famous artist of Reformation Germanywidely known for his paintings, drawings, prints, and theoretical writings on art, all of which had a profound influence on 16th-century artists in his own country and in the Lowlands. Drer was born May 21, 1471, in Nuremberg. His father, Albrecht Drer the Elder, was a goldsmith and his son's first art teacher. From his early training, young Drer inherited a legacy of 15th-century German art strongly dominated by Flemish late Gothic painting. During the 16th century, stronger ties with Italy through trade, and the spread of Italian humanist ideas northward, infused the more conservative tradition of German art with new artistic ideas.

After studying with his father, Drer was apprenticed in 1486 to the painter and printmaker Michael Wolgemut at the age of 15. Between 1488 and 1493, Wolgemut's shop was engaged in the sizable task of providing numerous woodcut illustrations for the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493), by Hartmann Schedel, and Drer must have received extensive instruction in making drawings for woodcut designs. Throughout the Renaissance, southern Germany was a center for publishing, and it was commonplace for painters of the period to be equally skilled at making woodcuts and engravings.

b. Name three of his best known engravings In 1495 Durer returned to Nuremberg and opened his own workshop, alongside apart from his traditional Northern training he now possessed all of the technical skills gained from his visit to Italy. Therefore being his first great success came with a series of fifteen woodcuts better known as the Revelation of St. John Series. These woodcuts gave him his first taste of fame, his reputation grew and he soon became the first none-Italian artist to gain international celebrity. Three of the famous paintings are:

Woodcut, 1497, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. British Museum, London.

Woodcut, 1498, St Michael's fight against the Dragon. Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe

Adam and Eve, Engraving, 1504, Allen Art Museum. Ohio

When, where and by whom were the following invented? Woodblock printing This was invented by the in Chinese around 600. Printing with movable type

The world's first known movable-type system for printing was created in China around 1040 A.D. by Bi Sheng (9901051) during the Song Dynasty. Typecasting. This was invented in Baltimore, America, 1884 by Ottmar Mergenthaler. Who was the first European to be accredited with the invention of printing? Johannes Gutenberg was the first European to be accredited with the invention of printing. What was the name of the first book to be printed in China? The first book to be printed in China, when translated from Chinese, is the Diamond Sutra. What was the name of the first book to be printed in Europe? The first book printed in Europe from movable types was the Bible, printed by Gutenberg.

What is an incunabula? An incunabula is a book printed before 1501 or an artifact of an early period.

What is an uncial? A uncial is a majuscule script (written entirely in capital letters) which was commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. These Uncial letters were used to write Greek, Latin, and Gothic.