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Blessed Messengers of God
Bishop Alexender (Mileant)
• • • • • •
Two worlds — physical and spiritual. The nature of angels. Their ranks and ministrations. Fallen angels. The angels' sphere of action in relation to man. The Guardian Angel. Counterfeit angels.
Two Worlds — Physical and Spiritual
Our world would be utterly poor in content and dull if it consisted of only that which man can
touch and feel. In such a world without a meaningful past and without a superior purpose where death unceremoniously cuts short all creati!e enterprise all enthusiastic endea!ors toward good and happiness e"istence itself would be a tragic contradiction. #owe!er using his reasoning power and insight man can percei!e much more depth and mystery in the world than relying $ust on bodily senses. #e can reali%e that besides the physical he is surrounded by a huge spiritual world. At the end of the last century and the beginning of this one a materialistic attitude ridiculed the !ery possibility of different forms of life besides those e"isting on earth. #owe!er thanks to the speedy progress of science during the last fifty years modern man has considerably enlarged his scope of understanding. &ow it is well known that the uni!erse which we inhabit although it be !ast is not unending. The !ery representation of the world has been greatly spirituali%ed. 'cientists ha!e come to understand that matter is not a hard indi!isible and unchanging substance but it is rather one of the manifestations of energy. (nergy can take other forms totally unlike the familiar atoms and molecules. Therefore outside the boundaries of the !isible world there may e"ist other worlds totally different from ours. These disco!eries as well as space flights ha!e gi!en birth to a whole new mo!ement in contemporary literature as well as in the mo!ie industry which touches upon encounters with beings from other gala"ies and worlds. This interest in the alien and unusual unfortunately often intertwines with
unhealthy fantasy and carries with it a semi)demonic character. &e!ertheless the gra!itation toward the enlargement of the conception of the world by contemporary society is e!ident. Instead of these e"tra!agances the fantasies of theosophists and spiritists the Christian faith gi!es contemporary man a clear and sound doctrine regarding the spiritual world. The Christian faith teaches that besides our physical there is a great angelic world. The angels like human beings possess intellect free will and feelings similar to ours but they are bodiless spirits. As a matter of fact our !isible world is but a drop in the ocean of God's creation.
The Nature of Angels — Their Hierarchy and Ministrations
According to the #oly 'criptures
the angels human beings and all nature were created by God. *ith the words “In the beginning God created Heaven and earth” +Gen. ,-,. we ha!e the first indication that God created the spiritual world. #ere in contrast to earth a substantial world this world of spirits is called #ea!en. The angels were already present during the creation of the starry skies which is e!idenced by the words of God spoken to /ob “When the stars were created, all My angels sang praises to Me” +/ob 01-2.. 3n the creation of the angels 'aint Gregory the Theologian e"presses the following thoughts- 4'ince for the goodness of God it was not sufficient to be occupied only with the contemplation of #imself but it was needful that good should e"tend further and further so that the number of those who ha!e recei!ed grace might be as many as possible +because this is characteristic of the highest Goodness. — therefore God de!ised first of all the angelic hea!enly powers5 and the thought became deed which was fulfilled by the *ord and perfected by the 'pirit 6 And inasmuch as the first creatures were pleasing to #im #e de!ised another world material and !isible the orderly composition of hea!en and earth and that which is between them.7 Angel in Greek means messenger. This word denotes mainly their relationship to man. They as our elder brothers re!eal to us the will of God and assist us in reaching sal!ation. 8an from the beginning of his state in paradise knew of the e"istence of the angels. This fact is reflected in many ancient religions. It is difficult for us to comprehend the life of the angels and the world in which they li!e because they are so different from us. It is known that the angels ser!e God carry out #is will and glorify #im. 9elonging to the spiritual world they are usually in!isible to us. 4*hen angels through the will of God appear to those who are worthy then they appear not as they are themsel!es but in a transformed state in one that is !isible7 — e"plains the blessed /ohn :amascene. In the well)known book of Tobit +3ld Testament. the angel who was accompanying Tobit and his son says of himself:“All these days I was visible to you, but I did not eat or drin , and only by your eyes was this imagined7 +Tobit ,;-,<.. 4Actually 7 according to /ohn :amascene 4angels are called spiritual and incorporeal only in comparison with us. For in comparison with God all pro!es to be gross and material. For only the :i!inity is truly immaterial and incorporeal.7 Angels surpass man in all spiritual strength. #owe!er e!en they as created beings bear in themsel!es the seal of limitation. 9eing fleshless they are less dependent than men on space and time. #owe!er only God is omnipotent and omniscient. The #oly 'criptures represent angels either descending from hea!en to earth or ascending back to hea!en. Angels are created immortal
as is witnessed by the 'criptures teaching that they cannot die +=uke ;>-0?.. &e!ertheless their immortality is not a property of their nature nor is it unconditional but $ust as the immortality of our soul it depends wholly upon God's will and mercy. Angels as fleshless spirits are capable of inward sel!"development to the highest degree. Their intellect is higher than that of man. 9y their might and power as the Apostle @eter e"plains they surpass all earthly authorities and go!ernments +; @eter ;-,,.. &e!ertheless e!en their e"alted attributes ha!e their limits. 'criptures indicate that they do not know the depth of the (ssence of God which is known only to the 'pirit of God. +, Corinthians ;-,, They do not know the future which is also known only to God +8ark ,0-0;.. =ikewise they do not wholly comprehend the mysteries of redemption into which they wish to penetrate +, @eter ,-,;.. They e!en do not know all of man's thoughts +0 Aings 1-0< B&ote- 0 Aings in the 'la!onic 9ible C , Aings A/DE.. Finally they cannot on their own perform miracles without the will of God. The world of the angels is represented in the 'acred 'criptures as being e"traordinarily !ast. *hen the prophet :aniel saw God the Father in the form of the 4Ancient of :ays 7 he also saw that “A thousand thousands ministered to Him# and ten thousand times ten thousand stood be!ore Him7 +:aniel 2-,>.. :uring the birth of /esus in 9ethlehem 7 a multitude o! the heavenly host7 e"tolled #is coming to earth +=uke ;-,0.. 'aint Cyril of /erusalem says the following- 4Imagine how numerous is the Foman population5 imagine how numerous are other barbarian tribes e"isting today and how many of them ha!e died during one hundred years5 imagine how many ha!e been buried during a thousand years5 imagine all the people beginning with Adam to the present day5 there is a great multitude of them. 9ut it is yet small in comparison with the angels of which there are many moreG They are the ninety and nine sheep of the parable but mankind is only one sheep. For according to the e"tent of uni!ersal space we must reckon the number of its inhabitants. The whole earth inhabited by us is like a point in the midst of hea!en and yet contains so great a multitude5 what a multitude must the hea!en which encircles it containG And must not the hea!en of hea!ens contain unimaginable numbersH If it is written that Ia thousand thousands ministered to #im5 and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before #im ' it is only because the prophet could not e"press a greater number.7 In !iew of such a multitude of angels it is natural to suppose that in the world of angels $ust as in the material world there are !arious degrees of perfection and therefore !arious stages or hierarchical degrees of the hea!enly powers. Thus the word of God calls some Angels and some Archangels +, Thess. J-,?5 /ude !erse <.. The 3rthodo" Church guided by the !iews of the ancient writers of the Church and Church Fathers di!ides the world of the angels into nine choirs or ranks and these nine into three hierarchies each hierarchy ha!ing three ranks. The first hierarchy consists of those spirits who are closest to God namely the Thrones Cherubim and 'eraphim. *ithin the second the middle hierarchy are the Authorities :ominions and @owers. In the third which is closer to us are the Angels Archangels and @rincipalities. Thus the e"istence of the Angels and Archangels is witnessed by almost e!ery page in the #oly 'criptures. The books of the prophets mention the Cherubim and 'eraphim. $herubim means to be near5 hence it means the near ones5 %eraphim means !iery or !illed with !ire. The names of the other angelic ranks are mentioned by the Apostle @aul in his epistle to the (phesians saying that Christ is in the hea!ens “!ar above any &rincipality, and Authority, and &ower, and 'ominion” +(phesians ,-;,.. 9esides these angelic ranks 'aint @aul teaches in his epistles to the Colossians that the 'on of God created e!erything !isible and in!isible 4(hrones, 'ominions, or &rincipalities, or &owers7 +Colossians ,-,?.. ConseKuently when we $oin the Thrones to those four about which the Apostle speaks to the (phesians that is the @rincipalities Authorities @owers and
:ominions there are fi!e ranks5 and when to these we add Angels Archangels Cherubim and 'eraphim then there are nine angelic ranks. In addition some Church Fathers e"pressed the opinion that di!iding the angels into nine choirs touched only upon those names that are re!ealed by the word of God but in no way encompasses other names and choirs of angels that ha!e not been as yet re!ealed to us. For e"ample the Apostle /ohn the Theologian mentions in the book of Fe!elation mysterious creatures and the se!en spirits by the throne of God- 4Grace be to you and peace !rom Him who is and who was and who is coming, and !rom the seven spirits who are be!ore His throne 7 +Apocalypse ,-J.. The Apostle @aul in his epistle to the (phesians writes that Christ resides in hea!en far abo!e the enumerated angels and 4every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come 7 +,-;,.. Thus he hints that in #ea!en there are other spiritual creatures whose names are yet not re!ealed to mankind. In the #oly 'criptures some angels are called by their own names. For e"ample the prophet :aniel the Apostle /ude and the book of Fe!elation mention the archangel 8ichael +/oshua L-,05 :aniel ,>-,0 and ,;-,5 /ude !erse <5 Fe!elation ,;-2)1.. The name Michael in #ebrew means Who is li e GodH In the 'criptures he is mentioned as the army o! God and is depicted as the main fighter against the de!il and his ser!ants. Msually he is painted with a flaming sword in hand. The name Gabriel means strength o! God. 9oth the prophet :aniel and the e!angelist =uke mention Gabriel +:aniel 1-,? <-;,5 =uke ,-,<);?.. In the 'criptures he is represented as the messenger of God's mysteries. In icons he is painted with a lily in his hand. The 'criptures mention by name three more angels- )aphael * Assistance o! God, +riel * ,lame o! God, and %alathiel * &rayer boo to God +Tobit 0-,? and ,;-,;),L5 0 (sdras J-, and L-;>5 0 (sdras L-,? B&ote- 0 (sdras in the 'la!onic 9ible C ; (sdras A/D or J (sdras in Dulgate Appendi"E.. *hat are the tasks of the beings of the spiritual worldH (!idently they are designated by God to be the most perfect reflections of #is greatness and glory with inseparable participation in #is blessedness. If of the !isible hea!ens it is said “the heavens proclaim the glory o! God,” then all the more is this the aim of the spiritual hea!ens. The prophet Isaiah was honored to see “the -ord sitting on the high e.tolled throne, the hems o! His vestments !illing the whole temple/ %urrounding Him were the %eraphim, each having si. wings# with two they covered His !ace, with two they covered His !eet, and they !lew with the other two/ And they called to each other and said: Holy, Holy, Holy, the -ord %abaoth0 (he whole world is !illed with His Glory1” +Isaiah ?-,)J5 (%ekiel ch. ,>..
The Fallen Angels
Originally God created all angels as bene!olent celestial beings. &e!ertheless they
like humans were endowed with a free will and could chose either to obey or oppose God to opt between good and e!il. 'ome of the angels headed by =ucifer one of the closest to God misused that freedom and rebelled against God. They were e"pelled from hea!en and established their own kingdom — hell. =ucifer which means bearer o! light was later renamed 'atan which means antagonist. #e is also called the de!il +which means slanderer. the serpent and the dragon. The words of the 'a!ior “I saw %atan, !allen !rom heaven as a bolt o! lightning,” refer to this prehistoric e!ent the rebellion by =ucifer and other angels against God. This is described in the book of Fe!elation with the following details- “(here occurred a war in the heavens/ Michael and his angels !ought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels !ought against them/ However they did not prevail, and there was no room !or them in heaven/ (he great dragon was
cast down, that ancient sna e, nown as devil and satan 2 and his angels were also cast down with him” +Fe!elation ,;-2)<.. From the initial words of chapter ,; of the book of Fe!elation where it is said that the dragon drew after him one third of the stars in hea!en +Fe!elation ,;-J. some conclude that at that time =ucifer seduced one third of the angels. These fallen angels are called demons. #a!ing become male!olent the fallen angels try to push men to the path of sin and thus to their damnation. 3ddly the fallen angels themsel!es fear the kingdom they ha!e created — hell or the abyss. Indeed when the 'a!ior healing a person possessed by demons wanted to send them back to their abyss they begged #im to allow them instead to enter swine +=uke 1-0,.. The 'a!ior calls the de!il “murderer !rom the beginning and the !ather o! lies,” ha!ing in mind that moment in which taking the form of a snake he decei!ed our forbears Adam and (!e to break the commandment of God and by doing so depri!ed them of e!erlasting life +Genesis 0-,)?5 /ohn 1-JJ..From that moment on ha!ing the opportunity to influence the thoughts feelings and acts of man the de!il and his demons endea!or to pitch him deeper and deeper into the mire of sin into which they themsel!es ha!e sunk- “He who sins is !rom the devil, because the devil himsel! sinned !irst 2 Anyone who commits sin is a slave o! sin” +, /ohn 0-15 /ohn 1-0J.. The presence of e!il spirits among us presents a constant danger. That is why the Apostle @eter e"tols us- “3e sober and watch!ul, !or your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, goes about see ing someone to devour” +, @eter L-1.. The Apostle @aul e"presses the same thoughts on discretion saying “&ut on the armor o! God, so that you may be able to stand against the wiles o! the devil/ ,or our wrestling is not against !lesh and blood, but against the principalities and the powers, against the world rulers o! this dar ness, against the spiritual !orces o! wic edness on high” +(phesians ?-,,),;.. From these warnings of the #oly 'criptures we should remind oursel!es that our life is per!aded by a persistent battle for the sal!ation of our souls. *hether one wants it or not e!ery human being from early childhood is drawn into the battle of choosing between good and e!il between the will of God and the will of demons. The battle between good and e!il began e!en before the creation of the world and will continue until the day of the final /udgment. Actually the battle in hea!en is finished with the complete defeat of e!il. &ow the site of the battle has been transferred into the world more precisely into our minds and hearts. As we shall see the good angels and in particular our Guardian Angels acti!ely help us in our battle against e!il.
The Angels' Sphere of Action in Relation to Man
In contrast to the male!olent spirits
the good angels feel compassion for us and often protect and help us. Fegarding this the Apostle @aul writes 4Are they not all ministering spirits sent !or service, !or the sa e o! those who shall inherit salvation7 +#ebrews ,-,J.H The #oly 'criptures are full of narrati!es regarding help by the angels. *e will gi!e $ust a few e"amples. Abraham sent his ser!ant to &ahor con!incing him that the =ord would send with him #is angel and would arrange for him an ad!antageous $ourney. Two angels sa!ed =ot and his family from the city of 'odom which was destined for destruction. The @atriarch /acob returning to his brother (sau was encouraged by the !ision of a multitude of God's angels. &ot long before his demise while blessing his grandchildren /acob said to /oseph:“(he Angel who has redeemed me !rom all evil, shell bless the lads.7 The angel contributed to the rescue of the /ews from
(gyptian bondage. An angel helped /oshua during the conKuest of the @romised =and. Then the angel helped the Israelite $udges in repelling the enemy. An angel sa!ed the residents of /erusalem from certain peril when he slew ,1L >>> of the Assyrian army surrounding the city. An angel sa!ed the three children from fire when they were thrown into a fiery furnace and later sa!ed the @rophet :aniel who was thrown to the lions +Genesis 0;-,N; and J1-,?5 ("odus ,J-,< through ;0-;>5 /oshua L-,0),J5 /udges ;-, ?-,; and ,0-05 Isaiah 02-0?5 :aniel 0-J< ?-;;.. Appearances of the angels to men are often re!ealed in the &ew Testament. An angel announced to Oacharias the conception of 't. /ohn the 9aptist. An angel announced to the 8ost #oly Dirgin 8ary the conception of the 'a!ior and came to /oseph in his sleep. A host of angels sang praises and glorified Christ's birth and an angel ga!e glad tidings to the shepherds of the 'a!ior's birth and pre!ented the return of the seers to #erod. *ith the coming of the 'on of God appearances of angels ha!e especially increased a fact that the =ord predicted to the Apostles saying that from here on hea!en shall be open and they shall see “the angels o! God, ascending and descending upon the son o! Man.7 Truly angels ser!ed /esus Christ during his temptations in the desert and an angel came to support #im in the garden of Gethsemane. Angels told the myrrh)bearers of #is resurrection and told the Apostles at #is Ascension into hea!en of #is second coming. An angel freed the Apostles from prison as well as the Apostle @eter who was condemned to death. An angel appeared to Cornelius and instructed him to summon the Apostle @eter so that Cornelius might be instructed in the word of God +/ohn ,-L,5 Acts L-,< ,;-2),L and ,>-0)2 .. The =ord /esus Christ spoke of the angels on se!eral occasions. According to #is words the angels bore the soul of the dead begger =a%arus to the bosom of Abraham. The angels re$oice e!en o!er one repenting sinner. They will come with #im before the end of the world and will separate the e!il ones from the righteous. From the instructions of the 'a!ior and from many biblical and daily e"amples one sees that the angels constantly interact as kindly beings concerned about our sal!ation and welfare +=uke ,?-;; and ,L-,>5 8atthew ,0-0<)J, ,?-;2.. At the same time the angels are totally de!oted to God. *hen man o!ersteps the laws of God an angel holds him back and e!en punishes him. For e"ample during the banishment from (den of the people who fell into sin the Cherubim was placed with a flaming sword to protect the gates of @aradise. An angel with a sword stood before the prophet 9alaam to impede his e!il intention. An angel struck down #erod in Cesarea for his pride. The book of Fe!elation concurs that the angels punish sinners. &e!ertheless it is important to understand that the purpose of their punishments is always bene!olent- to awaken repentance in sinners and to help them to turn to God +Genesis ch. 05 &umbers ;;-;05 Acts ,;-;05 Fe!elation chs. 1N,< and ,?-,,.. Actually angels through God's will take part in the li!es of whole nations more acti!ely than most of us suspect. Through the !ision of the prophet :aniel it is known that there are angels to whom God has entrusted the o!erseeing of the fate of kingdoms and those inhabiting the earth +:aniel chs. ,>N,;.. 3n this sub$ect the #oly Fathers ha!e e"pressed the following thoughts- 4'ome of them +angels. stand before the Great God others by their cooperation uphold the whole world7 +'t. Gregory the Theologian 48ystical #ymns 7 #omily ? .. From ancient times it has been a custom of the Church to address the angels by means of prayer. (!en during the time of the 3ld Testament the #ebrews had on top of the Ark of the Co!enant and later in the #oly of #olies gold portrayals of Cherubim. The /ews used to pray before them. 9etween these two images of Cherubim God spoke to 8oses. The angels manifest themsel!es as bearers of God's holiness5 that is why it was commanded to /oshua when he saw an angel “)emove your sandals !rom your !eet, !or the place on which you are standing is holy 7 +("odus ;L-,1);;5 0 Aings ?-;05 /oshua L-,L..
“ n Angel o! peace, a !aith!ul guide and guardian o! our souls and bodies let us as o! the -ord 7 we pray during ser!ices. The 3rthodo" Church belie!es e!ery child recei!es from God a Guardian Angel. The =ord /esus Christ said- 4%ee that you do not despise one o! these little ones# !or I tell you, their angels in heaven always behold the !ace o! My ,ather in heaven” +8atthew ,1-,>.. The 9lessed Augustine writes 4The angels with great concern and with untiring eagerness reside with us at e!ery hour and in e!ery place. They help us they foresee our needs ser!e as mediators between God and oursel!es lifting up to #im our groans and sighs 6 Accompanying us in all our tra!els they go in and out with us attenti!ely watching if we deport oursel!es with piety and honor among the e!il species and with what effort do we seek the Aingdom of God.7 A similar thought is e"pressed by 9asil the Great 4*ith e!ery belie!er there is an angel which as a child's leader and pastor directs his life.7 And in confirmation of this he Kuotes the @salm that says about God that “He commands His angels regarding you to guard you in all your paths 2 (he angel o! the -ord encamps all around those who !ear Him, and delivers them” +@salm <,-,, 0J-2.. 9ishop Theophan the Fecluse instructs in one of his letters 4*e must remember that we ha!e a Guardian Angel and turn to him in our thoughts and heart. This is good during peaceful times and especially so during turmoil. *hen such contact with the angel is missing he has no means of influencing us. For e"ample if one approaches Kuicksand or an abyss and has plugged his ears and closed his eyes how can anyone help himH7 Thus should a Christian remember his good angel who for the span of all his life concerns himself with him re$oicing in his spiritual achie!ements and grie!es o!er his downfalls. *hen a person dies the angel takes his soul to God. #a!ing found itself in the spirit world according to many accounts the soul recogni%es its Guardian Angel. The following is a short morning prayer to the Guardian Angel +from the Fussian prayer book.Angel of God, my holy protector, given to me from heaven by God for my protection, I fervently beseech you enlighten me and preserve me from all evil, instruct me in good deeds and direct me on the path of salvation! Amen!
Addendum by "r! #teven Bushnell
$he first half of the ,<<>'s saw an e"plosion of the number of books on angels. 8any of these
books contain touching accounts of the roles angels played in the sal!ation of people in their daily li!es. Almost all these books ad!ocate an openness to angels and a grateful acceptance of angels and their communications with mankind. 8any of the authors encourage an angel)centered life and the hope for their regular influence and at the same time an awareness that angels sometimes appear in ways that are outwardly not !ery angelic.
&early all these books fail to consider that the de!il and his legions of demons are fallen angels who can disguise themsel!es as angels of light to cause the destruction of our souls. From the letters of 't. @aul +; Cor. ,,-,J. to modern times the writings of the Church describe how these fallen angels masKuerade not only as angels of light but also as saints the Dirgin 8ary and Christ #imself. For e"ample in his discussion of the importance of discrimination 't. /ohn Cassian recounts how one monk caused his own death and how in another instance another monk was prepared to murder his own son. In both cases demons disguised as angels were the cause +The @hilokalia !ol. I.. In a different time and place the Aie! Ca!es @aterikon records that a young monk named &ikita did re!erence to an angel of light who told him not to spend time in prayer that the angel would do it for him because it was more important for &ikita to spend time reading. *hile the demon)as)angel prayed in his place &ikita became clair!oyant. 'oon he didn't e!en want to hear about the Gospels preferring to become well !ersed in the 3ld Testament instead. #is fellow monks ha!ing finally percei!ed the demon dro!e it away by prayer. &ikita repented and through the grace of God went on to become bishop of &o!gorod a shepherd to his flock and a miracle)worker. *e know him as 't. &ikita the Fecluse. “3eware o! !alse prophets, who come to you in sheep1s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves/ 4e shall now them by their !ruits/ 'o men gather grapes !rom thorns, or !igs !rom thistles5P +8att. 2-,L),?.. P3ut the !ruits o! the %pirit are love, 6oy, peace, long"su!!ering, gentleness, goodness, !aith, mee ness, temperance: against such there is no law/ And those who are $hrist1s have cruci!ied the !lesh with its a!!ections and lusts” +Gal. L-;;);J.. To put into practice these words of Christ and 't. @aul in discriminating between real angels and demons masKuerading as angels is difficult in the face of human frailty our sinfulness our self)willed delusion and the thousands of years of e"perience of the enemy of man and God. Femember that the deluded monks described abo!e had dedicated their !ery li!es to Christ. The #oly Fathers of the Church in their great lo!e for us tell us to pray to seek humility and to seek the guidance of a spiritual Father. They clearly tell us not to seek !isions of angels and to be !ery Kuestioning and skeptical when we do recei!e such !isions. They tell us that if we ha!e the slightest doubt about a !ision to say in fact PI do not know P and to put it aside or simply to re$ect it. They tell us that God will o!ercome our actions if God is the source and that the angels will re$oice at our humility and sobriety. +'ee the indices of The @hilokalia !ols. I III and ID of the (nglish edition for some pertinent references.. *hat the #oly Fathers of the Church tell us is !ery different from what has been written by the authors of today's popular books. The de!il is a liar and a sower of confusion and to accomplish his ends he and his demons will lie to us not only by their words but also by masKuerading as something they are not. Any otherwordly phenomena that are sources of confusion and distraction +so)called alien abductions being a modern e"ample. might be such a masKuerade. Go to the top
Missionary "eaflet #$% !opyright & '((# Holy Trinity )rthodo* Mission $++ Foothill ,l-d. ,o* /01. "a !anada. !a 0#(## %ditor2 ,ishop Ale*ander 3Mileant4
(angels.doc, 05-22-2001 . (dited by :onald 'hufran
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