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Lag and Lead compensators

Lag and Lead compensators

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D1

Compensation Techniques
• Performance specifications for the closed-loop system

Æ T , M (settling time, overshoot) or phase and gain margins • Steady-state response Æ e (steady state error)
s s ss

• Stability • Transient response

• Trial and error approach to design Performance specifications
Root-locus or Frequency response techniques

Synthesis

Analysis of closed-loop system

No

Are specifications met?
Yes

D2

Basic Controls
1. Proportional Control
+ E(s) M(s)

K

G(s)

M (s) = K E (s)

m (t ) = K ⋅ e (t )

2.

Integral Control
+ E(s) K s M(s)

G(s)

M ( s) K = s E (s)

m ( t ) = K ∫ e ( t ) dt

Integral control adds a pole at the origin for the open-loop: • Type of system increased, better steady-state performance.

Root-locus is “pulled” to the left tending to lower the system’s relative stability.

D3

3.

Proportional + Integral Control
+ E(s)

K Kp + i s

M(s)

G(s)

M ( s) K K p s + Ki = Kp + i = E ( s) s s

m (t ) = K p e (t ) + ∫ K i e (t )dt
− Ki K p

A pole at the origin and a zero at

are added.

4.

Proportional + Derivative Control
+ E(s)

K p + K d s M(s)

G(s)

M ( s) = K p + Kd s E ( s)

m ( t ) = K p e (t ) + K d

de (t ) dt

• Root-locus is “pulled” to the left, system becomes more stable and response is sped up. • Differentiation makes the system sensitive to noise.

D4

5.

Proportional + Derivative + Integral (PID) Control
M(s)

+ -

E(s)

K p + Kd s +

Ki s

G(s)

M ( s) K = K p + Kd d + i E ( s) s
m ( t ) = K p e (t ) + K
d

de (t ) + K dt

i

∫ e (t )dt

• More than 50% of industrial controls are PID. • More than 80% in process control industry. • When G(s) of the system is not known, then initial values for Kp, Kd, Ki can be obtained experimentally and than fine-tuned to give the desired response (Ziegler-Nichols). 6. Feed-forward compensator

D5

+ -

E(s)

Gc (s )

M(s)

G(s)

Design Gc(s) using Root-Locus or Frequency Response

techniques.

D6

Frequency response approach to compensator design
Information about the performance of the closed-loop system, obtained from the open-loop frequency response: • Low frequency region indicates the steady-state behavior. • Medium frequency (around -1 in polar plot, around gain and phase crossover frequencies in Bode plots) indicates relative stability. • High frequency region indicates complexity. Requirements on open-loop frequency response • The gain at low frequency should be large enough to give a high value for error constants. • At medium frequencies the phase and gain margins should be large enough. • At high frequencies, the gain should be attenuated as rapidly as possible to minimize noise effects. Compensators • lead:improves the transient response. • lag: improves the steady-state performance at the expense of slower settling time. • lead-lag: combines both

D7

Lead compensators
1 Ts + 1 T = Kc Gc (s ) = K c a 1 aTs + 1 s+ aT s+

T > 0 and 0 < α < 1

• Poles and zeros of the lead compensator:

1 aT

1 T

• Frequency response of Gc(jω):

The maximum phase-lead angle φm occurs at ωm , where: 1−α sin φm = and 1+α
1 1 logωm = logT + log  2 aT

Æ

ωm =

1 a T

D8

Since
1 + jω T 1 + jω aT =
ω =ω m

1 a

the magnitude of Gc(jω) at ωm is given by:

Gc ( jωm) = Kc a

Polar plot of a lead network
a ( jω T + 1) ( jωaT + 1)

where 0 < a < 1

is given by

D9

Lead compensation based on the frequency response
Procedure: 1. Determine the compensator gain Kcα satisfying the given error constant. 2. Determined the additional phase lead φm required (+ 10%~15%) for the gain adjusted (KcαG(s)) open-loop system. 3. Obtain α from
sin φ m = 1− a 1+ a

4. Find the new gain cross over frequency c from

Kc a G( jωc ) = 10 log a
5. Find T from c and transfer function of Gc(s)
T = 1 a ωc

and
Ts + 1 aTs + 1

Gc (s ) = K c a

General effect of lead compensator:
• Addition of phase lead near gain crossover frequency. • Increase of gain at higher frequencies. • Increase of system bandwidth.

D10

Example: Consider
+ 4 s (s + 2 )

Gc(s)

G(s)

where

G (s) =

Performance requirements for the system: Steady-state: Transient response: Kv = 20 phase margin >50° gain margin >10 dB

Analysis of the system with Gc(s) = K For Kv = 20 This leads to:

Æ

K = 10 phase margin § 17° gain margin § ’ G%

Design of a lead compensator:
G c (s ) = K c a Ts + 1 aTs + 1
4K a

c 1. K v = lim sGc (s )G(s ) = 2 = 2K c a = 20 s →0

Æ K α=10
c

D11

2. From the Bode plot of KcαG(jω), we obtain that the additional phase-lead required is: 50° - 17° = 33°. We choose 38° (~33° + 15%) 3. 4.
sin φ m = sin 38 , = 1− a 1+ a

Æ α = 0.24

Since for m, the frequency with the maximum phase-lead angle, we have:
1 + jωmT 1 = 1 + jωmaT a

We choose c , the new gain crossover frequency so that ωm = ωc This gives that:
K c aG( jωc ) = 40 jωc ( jωc + 2)

and

G c (s )G (s ) s = jω = 1
c

has to be equal:
 1   = −6.2dB  a 
−1

From the Bode plot of KcαG(jω) we obtain that
40 = − 6 .2 dB at jω c ( jω c + 2 ) 

c = 9 rad/sec

D12

5.

This implies for T 1 1 ωc = = = 9rad/ sec aT T 0.24 and
Kc = 20 = 41 .7 2a

Æ

1 = 4.41 T

G c (s ) = 41 . 7

s + 4 . 41 s + 18 . 4

The compensated system is given by:
+ 41.7(s + 4.41) s + 18.4

4 s(s + 2)

The effect of the lead compensator is: • • • • Phase margin: from 17° to 50° better transient response with less overshoot. c : from 6.3rad/sec to 9 rad/sec the system response is faster. Gain margin remains \ . acceptable steady-state response. Kv is 20, as required

Æ Æ

Æ

D13

Bode diagram for

K c ⋅ a ⋅ G ( jω ) =

40 jω (jω + 2)

Bode diagram for the compensated system
G c ( j ω )G ( j ω ) = 41 . 7 j ω + 4 . 41 4 ⋅ j ω + 18 . 4 j ω (j ω + 2)

D14

Lag compensators
1 Ts + 1 T G c (s ) = K c β = Kc 1 β Ts + 1 s+ βT s+

T>0, >1

Poles and zeros:

1 T

1 βT

Frequency response:

Polar plot of a lag compensator K.(jT+1)/(jT+1)

D15

Bode diagram of a lag compensator with Kc   

1 βT

1 T -20log

Magnitude of (jT+1)/(jT+1)

D16

Lag compensation based on the frequency response
Procedure: 1. Determine the compensator gain Kcβ to satisfy the requirement for the given error constant. 2. Find the frequency point where the phase of the gain adjusted open-loop system (KcβG(s)) is equal to -180° + the required phase margin + 5°~ 12°. This will be the new gain crossover frequency c. 3. Choose the zero of the .425038,947 octave to 1 decade below c . 

  % ,9 ,-4:9 

4. Determine the attenuation necessary to bring the magnitude curve down to 0dB at the new gain crossover frequency
− K c β G ( j ω c ) = − 20 log β

Æ

5. Find the transfer function Gc(s). General effect of lag compensation: • Decrease gain at high frequencies. • Move the gain crossover frequency lower to obtain the desired phase margin.

D17

Example: Consider
+ Gc(s) G(s)

where
G (s ) = 1 s (s + 1 )(0 . 5 s + 1 )

Performance requirements for the system: Steady state: Transient response: Kv =5 Phase margin > 40° Gain margin > 10 dB

Analysis of the system with Gc(s) = K
K v = lim KG (s ) = K = 5
s →0

for K = 5, the closed-loop system is unstable Design of a lag compensator:
1 T = K β Ts + 1 G c (s) = K c c 1 β Ts + 1 s+ βT s+

D18

1. K v = lim Gc (s )G(s ) = K c β = 5
s→0

2. Phase margin of the system 5G(s) is -13° the closed-loop system is unstable. From the Bode diagram of 5G(jω) we obtain that the additional required phase margin of 40° + 12° = 52° is REWDLQHG DW    rad/sec. The new gain crossover frequency will be: c = 0.5 rad/sec 3. 3ODFH WKH ]HUR RI WKH ODJ FRPSHQVDWRU DW    %   rad/sec( at about 1/5 of c). 4. The magnitude of 5G(jω) at the new gain crossover frequency c =0.5 rad/sec is 20 dB. In order to have c as the new gain crossover frequency, the lag compensator must give an attenuation of -20db at ωc. Therefore - 20log  = - 20 dB
5 = 0 .5 , β
pole :

Æ

Æ 

= 10

5. and

Kc =

1 = 0 . 01 βT

G c (s ) = 0 . 5

s + 0 .1 s + 0 . 01

D19

Bode diagrams for: • G1(jω) = 5G(jω) (gain-adjusted KcβG(jω) open-loop transfer function), • Gc(jω)/K = Gc(jω)/5 (compensator divided by gain Kcβ = 5), • Gc(jω)G(jω) (compensated open-loop transfer function) The effect of the lag compensator is: • • • • • The original unstable closed-loop system is now stable. The phase margin § ƒ acceptable transient response. The gain margin § G% acceptable transient response. acceptable steady-state response. Kv is 5 as required The gain at high frequencies has been decreased.

Æ

Æ Æ

D20

Lead-lag compensators
1 1 s+ T1 T2 β sT1 + 1 sT2 + 1 Gc (s) = Kc ⋅ = Kc ⋅ 1 γ γ s T1 + 1 sβT2 + 1 s+ s+ aT βT2 γ 1 s+

T1, T2 > 0 ,  > 1 and γ > 1 Frequency response:

Bode diagram of a lag-lead compensator given by
1  s+ T1 Gc (s ) = K c   γ s+  T1 1   s + T2   1  s + βT2       

with Kc = 1, =  = 10 and T2 = 10 T1

D21

Polar plot of a lag-lead compensator given by
1  s+ T1 Gc (s ) = K c   γ s+  T1 1   s + T2   1  s + βT2       

with Kc = 1 and = 

Comparison between lead and lag compensators
Lead compensator o High pass o Approximates derivative plus proportional control o Contributes phase lead o Increases the gain crossover frequency o Increases bandwidth Lag compensator o Low pass o Approximates integral plus proportional control o Attenuation at high frequencies o Moves the gain-crossover frequency lower o Reduces bandwidth

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