vlxkacgif;aqmif

(1)

a':atmifqef;pkMunf
ordik ;f 0ifred cYf eG ;f

vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunf touf(61)ESpfajrmuf
arG;aeUtxdr;f trSwf tjzpf xkwaf 0ygw,f/

(2)

cH&Jwm
owådqdkwm
rSefygw,f/
'gayr,fh
vkyf&JwJh
owådvnf;
usrwdkU
&Sd&ygr,f

(3)

(1996 ckESpfcef@u trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf jynfe,f
wdkif;pnf; awG jyefvnfzJG@pnf;pOfumv yxrqkH; pwif
zJG@pnf;EdkifwJh {&m0wDwdkif;u wdkif;pnf; awGudk ajym=um;
cJw
h hJ a':atmifqef;pk=unf&@J ordik ;f 0if rde@f ceG ;f udk 2006 ckEpS f
ZGev
f 19 &ufrmS usa&mufwhJ a':atmifqef;pk=unf arG;ae@
txdrf;trSwftjzpf az:jytyfygw,f/
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyftzJG@0ifawGudk &nf
&G,af jymqdw
k hJ rde@f ceG ;f jzpfayr,fh tzJ@G csKyftzJ@G 0ifawGom ru
jrefrmEdkifiHom;wdkif; avhvmrSwfom;p&mawG yg0ifovdk
'Duae@acwftajctaetxdudk udkufnDaewJh rdef@ cGef;vnf;
jzpfjyD; pmzwfol&J@ Zmwdrmefudk vdyfjymE_d;ay;rSm vnf;
taotcsmyJ jzpfygw,f/ )

usrwd@k 'Dru
kd a&pD ta&;awmfykH puwnf;u
{&m0wDwdkif; rSm csKyfcs,fr_ zdESdyfr_[m trsm;qHk; jzpf
w,fqdkwm trsm;odjyD;jzpfygw,f/usrudk,fwdkifvnf;
{&m0wDwikd ;f pnf;&H;k a&;c&D; xGucf zhJ ;l ygw,f/ b,fh avmuf
{&m0wDwikd ;f rSm zdEydS rf a_ wG&w
dS ,f/ csKyfcs,rf a_ wG &Sw
d ,f
qdw
k m awG@c&hJ w,f/
'DavmufzEd ydS rf a_ wG csKyfcs,rf a_ wG &Sw
d =hJ um;u
wnf;u 'Dru
kd a&pDta&;twGuf qufjyD;awmh aqmif
&Guo
f mG ;Edik w
f ,f qdw
k m wdik ;f twGuf *k%,
f pl &m udpw
P ck
jzpfygw,f/ usrwd@k tvkyw
f ck vkyw
f t
hJ cgus&if usrwd@k
ud,
k &hf @J tiftm;awG[m bmvJ/ ud,
k &hf @J tm;enfcsuaf wG
[m bmvJqw
kd m'gukd rSerf eS u
f efuef oH;k oyfEikd &f r,f/ {
&m0wDwikd ;f [m 'Davmufxd &yfwnfEikd w
f ,fqw
kd m tif
tm;wcktjzpf usrwd@k vufcw
H ,f/bmjzpfv@kd vnf; qdk
awmh vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f [m ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd f *k%,
f El ikd w
f hJ udpP
awG&w
dS ,fqw
kd mvnf; odEikd &f r,f/ ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd f *k%rf ,l
Edik w
f o
hJ l ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd f ,H=k unfr_ r&SEd ikd b
f ;l qd&k ifawmh usr
wd@k atmifjrifr&_ rSmr[kwb
f ;l / 'Dawmh twdik ;f twmwck
txd {&m0wDwikd ;f [m rdru
d ,
kd rf rd d *k%,
f El ikd w
f hJ wdik ;f wck
jzpfw,f/ud,
k &hf @J vky&f yf vkycf w
hJ hJ udpaP wG aqmif&u
G cf suf
awGtwGuf ud,
k u
f aejy;D awmh odumQ &S&d edS @J *k%,
f El ikd w
f ,f

qd&k if 'g wzufu todtrSwjf yK&r,f/ wzufuvnf;
usrwd@k xda&mufoifo
h avmuf rxda&mufb;l qdw
k m 'g
{&m0wDwifkd ;f wifr[kwyf gb;l / usrwd@k jrefrmEdik if w
H Edik if H
vk;H &J@ 'Dru
kd a&pD v_y&f mS ;r_yJ jzpfygw,f/ tJ'v
D kd xda&muf
oifo
h avmuf rxda&mufovJqv
kd &kd &dS ifawmh cyfww
kd edk @J
ajym&&ifawmh usrwd@k owWt
d &mrSm enf;aevd@k yv
J @kd ajym
&rSmjzpfygw,f/ wjcm;b,fvykd aJ jymajym aemufq;kH tae
eJ@ =unfv
h @kd &&dS ifawmh owWyd /J usrwd@k c%c ar;ygw,f/
'DjrKd@e,fawGrmS bmjzpfv@kd pnf;&H;k a&;u atmifjrifoiho
f
avmuf ratmifjrifovJq&kd if trsm;tm;jzifh wufvm
wJt
h ajzu a=umufv@kd qdw
k t
hJ ajzyJ/ jynfov
l x
l u
k pdwf
"gw&f ydS gw,f/'gayr,fh a=umufw,f/ bmudk a=umufovJ/
usrwd@k xyfwvnf;vnf;ar;&ygw,f/ aemuf qH;k us
awmh usrwd@k a=umufz@kd &m 2 cky&J w
dS ,f/ axmifus&rSm
a=umuf&r,f/ pD;yGm;a&; ysujf ym;&rSm a=umuf&r,f/
'DEpS cf yk J &Sw
d mud;k / tm%mydik af wGu 'Dvufeuf 2 cke@J yJ
usrwd@k ukd xde;f csKyfxm;wmjzpfw,f/
axmifcsr,f/ 'grrS [kwf pD;yGm;a&;ysuaf tmif
vkyrf ,f/ tJ'D 2 ckukd usrwd@k r&ifqikd Ef ikd b
f ;l vm;qdw
k m
awmh 'g usrwd@k ar;&r,f/ bmjzpfv@kd r&ifqikd Ef ikd &f rSmvJ/
tcktajctaet& usrwd@k Edik if w
H Edik if v
H ;kH [m axmif
csn;f yJ/ 'Daxmif=u;D xJuae axmifao;av;udk 0ifomG ;&
rSm bmjzpfv@kd a=umufaerSmvJv@kd usrwd@k jyefar;&ygr,f/
aemufjyD;awmh pD;yGm;a&;t& qd&k ifvnf; usrwd@k wEdik if H
vHk; pD;yGm;a&;t& ysufpD;aewmjzpfw,f/ wEdkifiHvHk;
pD;yGm;a&;t& ysupf ;D aerS ud,
k w
f OD;wnf; pD;yGm;a&; ysupf ;D
rSmudk a=umufw,fqw
kd m 'g t"dyg` vf vH;k vH;k r&Sb
d ;l / 'gukd
usrwd@k jynfov
l x
l k em;vnfatmifv@kd pnf;&H;k &r,f/
usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf&@J tck qufvufjyD; oGm;r,fh
vrf;[m =urf;w,fqw
kd m usrwd@k xl;xl;axGaxG &Si;f jyae
p&mrvdb
k ;l / pxGuu
f wnf;u vrf;u =urf;w,f/ 'D =urf;
wJh vrf;eJ@ usrwd@k tckvkd av#mufcw
hJ m[m 8 ESpw
f ikd w
f ikd f
jzpfomG ;jyD/ 'D 8 ESp=f um;rSm vrf;ab;rSm uscw
hJ hJ &Jabmf &J

tcktajctaet& usrwd@k Edik if w
H Edik if v
H ;kH [m axmif
csn;f yJ/ 'Daxmif=u;D xJuae axmifao;av;udk 0ifomG ;&
rSm bmjzpfv@kd a=umufaerSmvJv@kd usrwd@k jyefar;&ygr,f/

(4)

'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf
0ifvmw,f qdkvdk@&Sd&if
bmudkyJ&ifqdkif/&ifqdkif&
qufjyD;awmh vkyf&rSmyJ/ tJ'Dawmh
tJ'Dvdkvkyfzdk@udk oH"dXmef
csvdkuf=uyg/ pdwfydkif;csvdkuf=uygbufawGvnf; renf;bl;/ odumQ &S&d dS usco
hJ al wGvnf; &Sd
w,f/odumQ rhpJ mG eJ@ usco
hJ al wGvnf;&Sw
d ,f/ odumQ &S&d edS @J us
cJw
h ,fqw
kd m rdrw
d @kd &@J ,H=k unfcsut
f & toufukd paw;
oGm;wJo
h rl sm;[m odumQ &S&d edS @J uscw
hJ o
hJ al wGy/J odumQ rJph mG
usw,fqw
kd m ud,
k &hf @J ,H=k unfcsuu
f kd ud,
k f r&yfwnfEikd f
wma=umifh usrwdk@udk pGef@cGmoGm;wJholawGy/J wcsKd@us
awmh rpGe@f cmG oa,mifa,mife@J usrwd@k tay:rSm opPm
azgujf yD;awmh qufjyD; awmh aeae wJo
h al wG&w
dS ,f/ tJ'D
olawGu ajymifajymifwif;wif;eJ@ z,fcmG oGm;wJh olawG
xuf ydjk yD;awmh atmufwef;usw,fv@kd usrawmh 'Dvykd J
owfrw
S w
f ,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
ud,
k &hf @J ,H=k unfcsut
f & ud,
k f owd&W &dS edS @J quf
jyD;awmh vkyfcsifw,fqdk&if/ tzJG@csKyf&J@ rlawGudk vuf
rcHEikd b
f ;l qd&k if tzJ@G csKyf&@J vky&f yfawGt& rvkyEf ikd b
f ;l
qd&k if tzJ@G csKyf&@J *k%&f w
dS hJ emrnfuakd wmh qufjyD;awmh
roH;k yge@J v@kd usr ajymcsiw
f ,f/(vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
usrwd@k tcktcsed rf mS qdv
k @kd &&dS if usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf
udk tm%mydkifrsm;u enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ xdk;ESufaew,f/
tqd;k qH;k enf;uawmh Oya'udk tvJo
G ;kH pm;wJh enf;yJ/ ae
&mwumrSm Oya' Oya' ta=umif;jycsuef @J usrwd@k tzJ@G
csKyf tzJG@0ifawGudk zrf;qD;w,f/ usrwdk@ tzJG@csKyfudk
axmufcw
H o
hJ al wGukd zrf;qD;w,f/ trsK;d rsK;d Oya' t
a=umif;jy ta&;,lw,f/ 'Dvt
kd a&;,lwt
hJ cgrmS vnf;
ajymifajymifwif;wif;eJ@ t&Surf &Sd ta&;,lwu
hJ pd aP wGy/J
usrwd@k NLD qdv
k @kd &&dS if =urf;cif;aps;u 7 ESpaf vmuf
jzpfaew,f/ bmyJvyk v
f yk f 7 ESpaf vmufjzpfaew,f/
tck usrwd@k &@J tdraf &S@rmS a[majymyJeG @J ywfoufv@kd t&if
ESpf 11 vydik ;f u zrf;oGm;wJh uav;(3)a,mufqv
kd @kd &&dS if
bmrSvnf; vkyw
f mr[kwb
f ;l / 'D tdraf &S@rmS &Sw
d hJ &Jom;udk
vnf; vufe@J awmif xdwmr[kwb
f ;l / 'gawmifrmS 3 ESpf

qdjk yD;awmh axmif'%fcsvu
kd w
f ,f/ tck 9 &ufae@u jzpf
wJh udpq
P v
kd @kd &&dS if tm%mydik f tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;u csxm;wJh
vH+k cHKa&;rsm;&S&d @J om;eJ@ b,fou
l rkd S vufe@J awmifrS rxdchJ
bl;/ vkyw
f o
hJ al wGukd vufe@J awmifrS rxdcw
hJ m usrwd@k
jrifc&hJ w,f/ tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k Eikd if rH mS Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;qdk
wm vH;k vH;k r&Sb
d ;l qdw
k m xif&mS ;ygw,f/
usrwd@k ux
kd v
d @kd usrwd@k uv
kd yk v
f @kd emvd@k usr
ajymwmr[kwyf gb;l / 'DEikd if rH mS Oya' pd;k rd;k a&; vH;k vH;k r&Sd
bl;qdw
k m tifrwefrmS xif&mS ;wJh oufaoom"u jzpfv@kd
ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'aD wmh Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;r&dw
dS hJ Edik if H
[m b,fawmhrS wnfjidrw
f EhJ ikd if rH [kwyf gb;l / &yf&mG at;
csr;f om,ma&;wd@k bmwd@k qw
kd m tajymyJ&rdS ,f/ Oya'udk
rSerf eS u
f efuefroH;k wJt
h pd;k &[m &yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&;
udk b,fawmhrS aqmifEikd rf mS r[kwb
f ;l / b,fawmhrS tJ'g
awGukd jzpfajrmufatmif aqmifEikd rf mS r[kwb
f ;l / 'D[m
awG[m pum;yJ/
wu,fyJ 'DEikd if u
H kd wnf+ird af pcsiw
f ,f wd;k wuf
apcsiw
f ,fq&kd if yxrOD;qH;k Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;&Sad tmif vkyf
&r,f/ tJ'aD wmh avmavmq,f tck 9 &ufae@u jzpfwhJ
udpeP @J ywfoufv@kd b,favmuf tm%mydik rf sm;[m w
&m;r#r#ww rSerf eS u
f efuef vkyw
f ,frvkyb
f ;l qdw
k m =unfh
jcif;tm;jzifh 'DEikd if u
H kd wnf+idraf tmif vkyaf y;Edik w
f hJ pGr;f
&nf e0wrSm &So
d vm; r&Sb
d ;l vm;qdw
k m usrwd@k qH;k jzwf
&rSmjzpfygw,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
'Dvu
kd pd w
P ckrmS wurBmvH;k odaewJu
h pd w
P ckrmS
rSerf eS u
f efuefrvkyaf y;Edik w
f hJ tpd;k &[m b,fawmhrS usr
wd@k Edik if u
H kd wnf+ird af tmif vkyaf y;Edik w
f hJ tpd;k & r[kwb
f ;l
qdw
k m qH;k jzwfEikd w
f ,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
usrwd@k &@J paewe*FaEGa[majymyJaG wGukd ydwf
qd@k cw
hJ ,f/ ydwq
f @kd whJ enf;awGuvnf; tifrwefrS odumQ

(5)

rJw
h hJ enf;awGe@J ydwq
f @kd cw
hJ ,f/ rydwq
f @kd cifrmS tpd;k &&J@ o
wif;pmawGxrJ mS trsKd ;rsK;d usrwd@k &@J a[majymyJaG wGukd
wdu
k cf u
dk w
f phJ mawGukd a&;cdik ;f =uw,f/vrf;ydwq
f @kd w,f/
,mOftoGm;tvm aES;oGm;w,f/ a[m-olw@kd vrd;ydwf
qd@k vu
kd af wmh ,mOfawGu aES;oGm;&Hw
k ifrubl;/ vH;k vH;k udk
roGm;&awmhb;l / tJ'aD wmh tm%mydik af wGu olw@kd vkyf
csi&f ifawmhwrsK;d ? trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf vkycf si&f if
awmh wrsK;d qdjk y;D awmh 'Dvjkd rifwmudu
k 'g Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;r
&Sb
d ;l / Oya'atmufrmS vlwikd ;f [m wef;wlnw
D jl zpf& r,f/
usr c%c%ajymygw,f/ Oya'atmufrmS vlwikd ;f [m
wef;wlnw
D &l rdS S usrwd@k b0awG[m vHjk cHKr_&rdS mS jzpfyg
w,f/udk,frSm;&if udk,fcH&r,f/ olrSm;&if ol cH&r,f/
'Dvt
kd od&rdS o
S m usrwd@k jynfov
l x
l [
k m jird ;f jird ;f csr;f csr;f
eJ@ aeEdik rf mS jppfygw,f/
usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf vkyif ef;awGukf trsK;d rsK;d aESmifh
,Sufaew,f/ aESmifh,SufwhJ=um;xJu vkyf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ rvkyv
f @kd rjzpfb;l / b,fvekd nf;eJ@ rqdk usrwd@k vkyf
&rSmyJ/ tpuwnf;u trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyfxu
J kd
0ifvmwke;f u usrwd@k 'Dru
kd a&pD &&Sad &;twGuf 0ifvm
w,fqjkd yD;awmh 0ifvm=uwJo
h al wGy/J 'Dru
kd a&pD &&Sad &;
twGuf 0ifvmw,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if bmudyk &J ifqikd f &ifqikd &f
qufjyD;awmh vky&f rSmyJ/ tJ'aD wmh tJ'v
D v
kd yk zf @kd ukd oH"d
Xmef csvu
kd =f uyg/ pdwyf ikd ;f csvu
kd =f uyg (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
axmifxJudkawmh usr b,foludkrS r0ifaph
csib
f ;l / axmifxaJ &mufomG ;w,fq&kd if tifrwefrS tvkyf
ysuyf gw,f/ 'gayr,fh 0ifoif&h ifawmh 0if&rSmyJ/'g rvJr$
a&SmifomwJhudpPyJ/usrwdk@ acgif;aqmifawGxJuvnf;
axmifxu
J aejyD;awmh xGucf o
hJ al wGvnf; &Sw
d ,f/ tck
avmavmq,fvnf; axmifxrJ mS qufjy;D awmh &Sad ewJh
olawGvnf; &S=d uwmyJ/ 'guawmh rvJo
$ m ra&SmifomwJh
udp/P
aemufjy;D awmh usrwd@k &@J tvky[
f m jynfol vl
xk =um;xJukd a&mufwt
hJ vkyjf zpf&ygr,f/ jynfov
l x
l ek @J
tjrw
J rf;EG,af ewJt
h vkyjf zpf&ygr,f/ jynfov
l x
l ek @J trsK;d
om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyfw@kd tqufjywfatmif tm%mykid f
awGu trsK;d rsK;d vkyx
f m;w,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd pnf;&H;k a&; r
qif;&bl;/ 'ga=umifrh @kd tpnf;ta0;rvky&f bl; pojzifh t
rsK;d rsK;d uef@owfxm;w,f/ 'Dvkd uef@owfcsuaf wG[m w
u,fawmh w&m;r0ifygb;l / usrwd@k vkd w&m;0if Edik if aH &;
ygww
D cktaeeJ@ vkyo
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f u
hJ pd aP wG vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf dS

wJu
h pd aP wGukd uef@owfxm;w,fqw
kd m w&m;r0ifb;l /
tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k pdeaf c:&rSmyJ/ pdeaf c:zd@k tqifoifv
h yk f
&rSmyJ/ pdeaf c:vdu
k v
f @kd &ifqikd &f r,fh tEW&m,f awGuv
kd nf;
&ifqikd f zd@k usrwd@k tqifoif&h &dS ygr,f/
tzJ@G csKyfwck 'Dvkd Edik if aH &;ygww
D ckqw
kd m[m
wckv;kH u v_y&f mS ;ae&ygr,f/ ta&S@uaecsn;f v_y&f mS ;ae
vd@k rjzpfygb;l / vlwikd ;f u ajymvmygw,f/usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf
[m bmeJ@ wlaeovJqadk wmh acgi;f yJvy_ jf y;D avjzwfaewJh
vle@J wlaejyv
D @kd a0zefvmygw,f/ tJ'v
D akd 0zefw,fqw
kd m
trsm;=uD; &Supf &maumif;ygw,f/ usrwd@k acgi;f u b,f
avmufyJ v_yaf ev_yaf e ud,
k u
f vnf; v_yrf S vlpOfrrDS mS ayg/h
tJ'aD wmh acgi;f uaecsn;f tvkyv
f yk af evd@k rjzpfygb;l /
tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k tzG@J csKyf0ifawGtm;vH;k [m
tvkyv
f yk zf @kd vdyk gw,f/ ud,
k t
hf wGuo
f yd jf yD;awmh rpd;k &drf
aeyge@J / wOD;csi;f wOD;csi;f twGuf ud,
k t
hf wGuyf J pd;k &drjf yD;
awmh rvkyyf eJ @J ae&ifawmh aemufq;kH ud,
k yf g ygomG ;rSm
ayg/h usrwd@k vyk af ewJv
h yk if ef; ratmifjrif&ifawmh usrwd@k
wkid ;f jynfwjynfv;kH ysurf mS aemf/ 'DEikd if rH mS Oya'pd;k rk;d a&;
r&Sb
d ;l qd&k if 'DEikd if u
H Edik if o
H l Edik if o
H m;tm;vH;k [m wae@
r[kww
f ae@ ysuq
f ;D rSmyJ/ Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;r&Sw
d EhJ ikd if [
H mw
&m;r#wr_ r&Sw
d hJ Edik if yH /J w&m;r#wr_ r&Sw
d EhJ ikd if [
H m vlpOf
rSrD DS raeEdik w
f hJ Edik if yH /J usrwd@k vle@J wal tmif aeEdik rf mS r
[kwb
f ;l / vle@J wal tmif raeEdik w
f hJ Edik if rH mS ae&rSmawmh
ae&usK;d vnf; reyfygb;l / tJ'aD =umifrh @kd owW&d &dS edS @J usrwd@k
&J@ vrf;pOf atmifjrifa&;twGuf vky=f uyg/
n$e=f um;csuf apmifjh yD;awmh vkyw
f t
hJ vkyrf sK;d
udv
k nf; rvky=f uyge@J / usrwd@k n$e=f um;csuu
f kd ay;oifh
oavmufay;r,f/ ay;Edik o
f avmufay;r,f/ 'gayr,fh 'D

vle@J wal tmif raeEdik w
f hJ
Edik if rH mS ae&rSawmh
ae&usK;d vnf; reyfygb;l /
tJ'ga=umifrh @kd owW&d &dS edS @J
usrwd@k &@J vrf;pOf
atmifjrifa&;twGuv
f yk =f uyg/

(6)

rdu
k a&pD qdu
k wnf;udu
k 'g jynfov
l x
l &k @J tkycf sKyfry_ /J
atmufajcuaejyD;awmh ud,
k v
f yk o
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f mawG
udk wm0efoo
d ed @J vky&f &J r,f/ vky&f r,f/ atmufajcuae
jy;D awmh ud,
k v
f yk o
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f mawG udk wm0efoo
d ed @J
rvkyf&JyJeJ@ tay:ucdkif;rSvkyfr,fqdk&if A[dkOD;pD;pepfeJ@
bmrSruGmbl;/tJawmh bmjzpfv@kd rqvudk jzKwfcscv
hJ v
J @kd
usru jyefar;&r,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
tJ'v
D kd tay:u cdik ;f rS vkycf siw
f ,fq&kd ifawmh
rqveJ@yJ qufjyD;awmhomG ;aerS ydjk yD;awmht"dyg` vf &SOd ;D
r,f/ usrwd@k u 'Dru
kd a&pD tzJ@G tpnf;/ tm;vH;k atmuf
ajcuaejyD;awmh ud,
k w
hf m0efukd ud,
k o
f o
d ed @J vkyEf ikd o
f r#
ud,
k f vkyo
f mG ;&r,f/ usrwd@k tay:uvnf; ta&S@u
acgi;f aqmifwo
hJ al wGuvnf; usrwk@d wm0efukd usrwd@k
odoed @J vkyEf ikd o
f r# vkyo
f mG ;r,f/ 'D=um;xJrmS awmh t
quf tpyfuawmh &S&d r,f/'D=um;xJrmS awmh tquf t
pyf&zdS @kd bmta&;=u;D vJqakd wmh jynfe,fwikd ;f pnf;awGu
tifrwefta&;=uD;w,f/ jynfe,fwdkif;pnf;rsm;qdkwm
A[dek @J jrKd@e,frsm;=um;xJrmS qufo,
G f ay;xm;wJh tzJ@G
tpnf;awGjzpfw,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd tck usrwd@k jynfe,f
wdik ;f pnf;rsm;udk jyefvnfjy;D zJ@G pnf;ay;vdu
k w
f mjzpfw,f/
'Dvjkd yefjy;D awmh zJ@G pnf;wJah e&mrSm t&ifwek ;f u vla[mif;
awGvnf; ygw,f/ vlopfawGvnf;ygw,f/
vkyw
f u
hJ ikd w
f ahJ e&mrSmwOD;eJ@wOD; oabmxm;
rwlnw
D hJ olawGvnf;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh oabmxm;rwlnD
w,fqw
kd m 'g 'Dru
kd a&pD&@J tESpo
f m&yJ/ oabmxm; wck
wnf;eJ@ vkyw
f t
hJ zJ@G tpnf;qdw
k m 'g 'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G tpnf;
r[kwb
f ;l /oabmxm;rwlnaD omfvnf; nSEd id_ ;f Edik &f r,f/

nSEd id_ ;f jyD;awmh tajzwckay:atmif &SmEdik &f r,f/ tJ'v
D kd
nSEd id_ ;f jy;D awmh tajzwckay:atmif &SmEdik rf S 'Dru
kd a&pD rnf
w,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd usrwd@k ukd e0wtaeeJ@ b,fvykd J ygwD
pHk 'Dru
kd a&pDukd OD;wnfaew,fajymajym nSEd id_ ;f aqG;aEG;r_
udk vufrcHao;&if olw@kd &@J pum;[m rwnfb;l vd@k yJ usr
wd@k ajym&rSmyJ/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
nSEd id_ ;f aqG;aEG;r_ukd vufrcHEikd w
f t
hJ zJ@G tpnf; qdk
wm 'Dru
kd a&pDukd vufrcHEikd w
f t
hJ zJ@G tpnf;yJ/ 'Dawmh nSd
E_id ;f aqG;aEG;r_ukd b,fvq
kd ifajceJ@yjJ zpfjzpf y,fwhJ tzJ@G
tpnf;qdw
k m 'Dru
kd a&pDukd y,fwt
hJ zJ@G tpnf;yJ/ nSEd id_ ;f
aqG;aEG;r_ukd vufrcHoa&G@ e0w[m ygwpD kH 'Dru
kd a&pD
vrf;pOfukd oGm;aewm r[kwb
f ;l vd@k qH;k jzwf&rSmjzpfw,f/
(vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
'Dtwdik ;f yJ usrwd@k tzJ@G 0ifrsm;[m 'Dru
kd a&pD
oabmw&m;udk ,Hk=unfw,fqdkvdk@&Sd&if nSdE_dif;aqG;
aEG;r_e@J tcsi;f csi;f =um;rSm oabmrwlnw
D mawG&v
dS @kd &dS
&if 'gukd tajz&Sm&r,f/ tajz&SmEdik &f r,f/ tJ'[
D mudk
tajzr&SmEdik v
f @kd &&dS if 'g usrwd@k 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;usus rvkyf
Edik b
f ;l qdw
k mudk jywmyJ/
tck jynfe,fwikd ;f pnf;awGukd usrwd@k ,m,D
6 v qdjk yD;awmh jyefjyD;awmh zJ@G pnf;vdu
k w
f ,f/ tck jyef
jyD;awmh zJ@G pnf;vdu
k w
f hJ jynfe,fe@J wdik ;f pnf;rsm;aygah v/
jynfe,fe@J wikd ;f tm;vH;k uawmhjyefjy;D awmh zJ@G pnf;vd@k rjy;D
ao;ygbl;/ 'D ajcmufvtwGif;rSm b,favmuf xdxd
a&mufa&muf 'D pnf;opfawGu vkyEf ikd v
f nf;qdw
k m us
rwd@k jyefjyD;awmh oH;k oyfrmS jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D xda&mufr_
ay:rSm rlwnfjyD;awmh 6 v=umwJt
h cgus&if usrwd@k jyef

a&S@aqmifw,fqw
kd m wdik ;f yJjzpfjzpf jrKd @e,fyJ
jzpfjzpf/ vklyk*~KdvfwOD;wa,mufyJjzpfjzpf a&S@
aqmifjyDqrkd jS zifh ud,
k [
f m wjcm;olawGxufyjkd yD;
awmh =uKd;pm;&r,f/ wjcm;olawGxufyjkd yD;awmh
pGef@v$wf&r,f/ wjcm;olawGxufydkjyD;awmh pGef@
pm;&r,f/ ud,
k &hf @J a&S@aqmifaeygw,fqw
kd hJ tae
txm;udk udk,fuaejyD;awmh oduQm&Sd&Sde@J xdef;
odrf;oGm;&r,f/

(7)

jyD;awmh oH;k oyfjyD;awmh ydjk yD;awmh uspv
f pfcikd rf mwJh jynf
e,fwikd ;f pnf;rsm;udk usrwd@k jyefjyD;awmh zJ@G rmS jzpfygw,f/
tJ'aD wmh 'D=um;xJrmS tvkyv
f yk =f uyg/ tvkyf
vkyw
f ,fqw
kd m 'Dru
kd a&pDt& tvkyv
f yk w
f ,fqw
kd m p
um;ajymwmvnf; yg&ygw,f/ wcsK@d u pum;yJ ajymae
w,f tvkyrf vkyb
f ;l vm;vd@k ajymvd@k 'Dru
kd a&pD enf;usus
qdw
k m pum;vnf; ajym&w,f/ tvkyv
f nf; vky&f w,f/
usr&Si;f jyzl;ygw,f/ ygvrD ef/ ygvrD efqw
kd hJ pum;
vH;k [m pum;ajymw,fqw
kd hJ pum;vH;k u vmwmyg/ pk
aygi;f jy;D awmh pum;ajymqdw
k hJ tzJ@G tpnf;wcku ygvrD ef
u jzpfvmwmyg/ tJ'aD wmh bmjzpfv@kd pum;ajym&vJ qdk
awmh usrwd@k pum;ajymjcif;tm;jzifh tajz&Smcsiv
f @kd y/J
jyoemawGukd ajz&Si;f csiv
f @kd y/J usrwd@k u jyoemudk cJe@J
aygujf y;D wkwef @J &u
kd jf y;D aoewfe@J ypfjy;D ajz&Si;f csiw
f hJ vlpm;
rsK;d r[kwb
f ;l / tJ'v
D kd ajz&Si;f wJeh nf;awGuv
kd nf; usrwd@k
vH;k vH;k tm;ray;Edik b
f ;l / 'ga=umifrh @kd pum;ajymjyD;awmh
jyoemawGukd ajz&Si;f &r,f/ 'gayr,fh pum;ajymjyD;awmh
jyoemawG ajz&Si;f jy;D awmh tajzwckay:&ifawmh 'Dtajz
t&awmh usrwd@k tvkyv
f yk &f r,f/ pum;ajym&Hek @J awmh
rjyD;ao;bl;/ pum;ajymw,fqw
kd m bmvky&f rvJqw
kd m
udk tajz&Smzd@k yJ ajymwm/ tajz&jyDq&kd ifawmh usrwd@k
tvkyv
f yk &f r,f/ usrwd@k trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzJ@G csKyf
[m wwdik ;f jynfv;kH rS tvkyv
f yk af ewmyJ usrwd@k jrifcsif
w,f/ tck {&m0wDwikd ;f qdv
k @kd &&dS if jynfe,fwikd ;f pnf;awG
jyefjyD; zJ@G jyD;wJt
h cg yxrqH;k pjyD;awmh pkpnf;wJw
h ikd ;f jzpf
w,f/ yxrOD;qH;k pjyD;awmh v_y&f mS ;Edik w
f w
hJ ikd ;f jzpf&r,f/
tJ'v
D y_ &f mS ;r_u=kd unfjh yD;awmh usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf[m b,f
avmufxd xda&mufEikd w
f ,fqw
kd m cef@reS ;f Edik rf mS jzpfyg

w,f/ {&m0wDvkd cufcw
J ahJ e&mrSm v_y&f mS ;Edik rf ,fq&kd if
wwdkif; jynfvHk;rSm v_yf&Sm;EdkifrSmjzpfygw,f/ 'ga=umifh
{&m0wD wdik ;f [m a&S@aqmifwikd ;f tjzpf rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd rdrd
owfrw
S f xm;&r,f/
a&S@aqmifw,fqw
kd m wdik ;f yJjzpfjzpf jrKd @e,fyjJ zpf
jzpf/ vkyl *k K~ v
d f wOD;wa,mufyjJ zpfjzpf a&S@aqmifjyDqrkd jS zifh
ud,
k [
f m wjcm;olawGxuf ydjk yD;awmh =uKd;pm;&r,f/ w
jcm;olawGxuf ydjk yD;awmhpeG @f vw
$ &f r,f/ wjcm;olawG
xufyjkd yD;awmh pGe@f pm;&r,f/ ud,
k &hf @J a&S@aqmifaeygw,f
qdw
k t
hJ aetxm;udk ud,
k u
f aejy;D awmh odumQ &S&d edS @J xde;f
odr;f oGm;&r,f/
'Dvkd a&S@aqmif&wJw
h ikd ;f rd@k v@kd igw@kd awmh emawmh
rSmyJv@kd pdw"f gwu
f sp&m r&Syd gb;l / em&ifvnf; emayg/h cH
vku
d &f akH yg/h cHEikd w
f ,fq=kd uyg/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
cH&ekH @J awmhrjyD;bl;aemf/ cH&w
J ,fqw
kd m owWq
d kd
wm rSeyf gw,f/ 'gayr,fh vky&f w
J o
hJ wWv
d nf; usrwd@k &&dS
ygr,f/ cHae&Hek @J awmh r&bl;/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;) vkyv
f nf;
vky&f r,f/ cHvnf; cH&r,f/ ud,
k v
f yk v
f @kd ud,
k cf w
H ,fayg/h
rvkyfyJeJ@ cHwmawmh cH&usKd;reyfbl;/ tJ'Dawmh yxr
vkyv
f u
dk /f vkyjf yD;rScrH ,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
bmrSrvkyyf eJ @J cH&w,fqw
kd mawmh t"dyg` vu
f kd
vH;k vH;k r&Sb
d ;l / cH&w
J m owWq
d w
kd m ud,
k v
f yk &f if ud,
k cf &H J
w,fqw
kd mudk jywm/ bmrS rvkyyf eJ @J cHaewmudk ajymwm
r[kwyf gb;l / usrwd@k vnf; wu,fawmh vkyaf ewmyJ/ vkyf
aew,fqw
kd m trsK;d rsK;d ayg/h a[majymyJG vkyw
f ,fqw
kd m
vnf; vkyw
f myJ/ 'Dvkd aqG;aEG;yJ vkyw
f ,fqw
kd mvnf; vkyf
wmyJ/ 'Dawmh 'DrmS wifrubl;/ 'D+cHxrJ mS wifrubl;/ 'D
&efuek rf mS wifrubl;/ 'Dyo
k rd rf mS wifrubl;/ 'D wkid ;f wwdik ;f
rSm wEdik if v
H ;kH rSm wcsed v
f ;kH vkyaf e&r,f/ vkyv
f @kd c&H r,f
qdk &ifvnf; cHayg/h wu,fh pnf;&H;k a&; tiftm;qdw
k m[m
uk,
d ahf &S@u b,fEpS af ,mufyyJ gomG ;oGm; aemufuwuf
Edik rf ,fh &JabmfawGvnf; &S&d r,f/ 'g usr 1988 uwnf;
u ajymcJw
h myg/ usrwd@k pnf;&H;k a&; xGuw
f t
hJ cgus&if +rKd@
e,fawGu tzJ@G 0ifta&twGuf b,favmuf&jyD/ b,f
ESpaf ,muf&ygjyD/ b,fEpS af xmif&ygjyD/ b,fEpS af omif; &
ygjy/D 'Dvykd J ajymw,f/ usrajymygw,f/ 'D axmife@J aomif;
eJ@ ajymaevd@k tvum;yJ/ axmif*%ef;yJ&&dS /dS aomif;
*%ef;yJ&&dS ?dS aomif;*%ef;yJ&&dS dS 'gawG[m t"du uswm
r[kwfygbl;/ 'DtzJG@0ifawGxJrSm wu,f xdxda&muf
a&muf vkyEf ikd w
f o
hJ l b,fEpS af ,muf&v
dS /J ta&S@wef;u

(8)

ae ygomG ;vd@k &&dS if aemufwcg 'kw,
d vdik ;f uae vdu
k Ef ikd f
wJo
h l b,fEpS af ,muf&v
dS /J 'g[m t"duyJ/ usrwd@k pnf;
&H;k a&; vkyw
f t
hJ cg ud,
k u
f vkyw
f o
hJ wW&d v
dS eG ;f vd@k cHomG ;&vd@k
&S&d if ud,
k ahf emufuaevnf; vkyrf ,fo
h al wG&adS tmifawmh
pn;f&;kH xm;&r,f/ aemufq;kH awmh usrwd@k &@J pnf;&H;k a&;[m
jynfov
l x
l k pnf;&H;k a&;yJ/ jynfov
l x
l k trsm;pkuaejyD;
awmh rm;rm;rwfrwfe@J tzJ@G csKyftaemufuaejyD;awmh
&yfwnfaer,fq&kd if usrwd@k vyk if ef;[m rkcs atmifjrif&
r,f/
tck tus,fcsKyftm;jzifhawmh 46 oef;vkH;
aygah v/ 46 oef;vH;k tus,cf sKyf csKyfcaH e&w,fv@kd 'Dvykd J
ajym&rSmyJ/ 'gayr,fh axmifawGxu
J akd wmh 46 oef;rajym
eJ@ 1 oef;awmifrS xnfEh ikd rf mS r[kwyf gb;l / axmifxu
J kd
0if&w
J ,fqw
kd hJ vl 1 oef;/ axmifcs&ifcs vkyrf ,fqw
kd Jh
vl 1 oef;&Srd ,fqv
kd @kd &&dS ifawmif usrwd@k &@J v_y&f mS ;r_[m
r=umcif atmifjrifrmS yg/ tJ'aD wmh vl 1 oef; pnf;&H;k zd@k
[m 'Davmufcufovm;/ wu,fawmhusrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf
0if pm&if;xJrmS 1 oef;xufru &Scd yhJ gw,f/ 'D 1 oef;xuf
ru &Sw
d v
hJ pl m&if;xJrmS b,fEpS af ,mufu xdxad &muf
a&muf wu,fyJ tepfemcHjyD;awmh vkyEf ikd w
f mvnf;qdk
wm 'gukd usrwd@k ar;cGe;f xkw&f rSmjzpfygw,f/ 1 oef;
awmif rvdb
k ;l / 1 aomif;qd&k ifawmifrS renf;ygb;l / usr
wd@k tck tusO;f axmifawGxrJ mS Edik if aH &;tusO;f orm;
rsm;[m 2000 avmuf &Srd ,fv@kd cef@reS ;f &w,f/ wcsK@d u
vnf; 1 axmifausmf&Sdr,f/wcsKd@uvnf; 3 axmif
avmuf&rdS ,fqakd wmh ysr;f r#jcif;tm;jzifh 2 axmifavmuf
&Srd ,fqykd gawmh/ 'DEikd if aH &;tusO;f orm;rsm;[m 2 axmif
avmuf&w
dS ,fqw
kd mawmifrS usrwd@k &@J v_y&f mS ;r_ukd w
urBmvH;k u todtrSwjf yKvdu
k Ef ikd w
f t
hJ ajctaexd usr
wd@k vkyEf ikd cf w
hJ ,f/ Edik if aH &;tusO;f orm;rsm; 1 aomif;
axmuf &SEd ikd w
f t
hJ ajctaetxd ('guawmh axmifxrJ mS
ae&m&Sw
d mr&Sw
d m ajymwmr[kwb
f ;l aemf) axmifcs&if
csqw
kd hJ vl 1 aomif;avmuf&w
dS ,fq&kd ifawmh bmrSajym
p&mrvdb
k ;l / usrwd@k atmifjrif&rSm rkcsy/J jrefjrefjzpf&r,f/

taES;eJ@ tjrefawmh atmifjrifr,fv@kd usrwd@k ,H=k unf
w,f/ 'gayr,fh jrefwmawmh ydak umif;r,fxifw,f/ bm
jzpfv@kd vnf;qdak wmh &SpEf pS q
f w
kd mvnf; 'g enf;wJu
h mv
wckr[kwyf gb;l / Edik if &H @J ordik ;f eJ@pm&if 8 ESpq
f w
kd m odyf
r=umbl;qdak yr,fh vlwOD;wa,muf&@J oufwrf;eJ@ pm
vdu
k rf ,fq&kd ifawmh 8 ESpq
f w
kd m[m enf;wJu
h mvr[kwf
ygb;l / 'D 8 ESpv
f ;kH vH;k usrwd@k &ke;f uefc&hJ wmawG tepfem
cHc&hJ wmawG[m tepfemcH&usK;d eyfatmifv@kd usrwd@k xyf
jyD;awmh ydjk yD;awmh 0d&,
d xkwjf yD;awmh =uKd;pm; oGm;&rSm
jzpfygw,f/
usrwdk@ tzJG@csKyftaeeJ@ wwfEdkifor# Oya'
abmifxu
J vkycf yhJ gw,f/ 'gayr,fh w&m;wJh Oya'eJ@ rw
&m;wJh Oya'qdw
k mawmh&w
dS ,f/ usr wd@k a[majymyJrG sm;
udk wm;qD;wmrsK;d udak wmh w&m;w,fv@kd usrwd@k vufrcH
bl;/ bmjzpfv@kd vnf;qdak wmh w&m;a[myJv
G yk w
f ,fqw
kd m
EdkifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf;tm;vHk; vkyfydkifcGifh&SdwJhudpPwckjzpf
w,f/ }u@H cikd zf @HG +zK;d a&;tzJ@G vkd bmudk bmrSe;f vJrod Edik if aH &;
tzJ@G vv
kd kd bmvdv
k kd tzJ@G awmifrS olw@kd nDvmcHawG a[m
ajymyJaG wG vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf w
dS ,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if usrwd@k vkd jynfol
vlxu
k axmufcrH &_ w
dS hJ Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;wck[m bm
jzpfv@kd rvkyEf ikd &f rSmvJ/ 'g usrwd@k vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf w
dS ,f/ wwf
Edik o
f r# usrwd@k vkyo
f mG ;rSmyJ/ 'Dv[
kd mrsK;d uef@owf csKyf
cs,w
f mudak wmh usrwd@k vufrcHygb;l / rw&m;ojzifh uef@
owfcsKyfcs,rf u
_ kd usrwd@k cHaer,fq&kd ifawmh 'DtzJ@G [m
wjznf;jznf; tiftm;awG avsmo
h mG ;rSmyJ/ tiftm;awG
vnf; avsmch yhJ gw,f/ t&if 8 ESpt
f wGi;f tiftm;awG
avsmch w
hJ mawG trsm;=uD;&Sw
d ,f/ 'Dtiftm;awGjyefjyD;
awmh yHyh ;kd zd@k qjkd yD;awmh jyefvnfz@GJ pnf;a&;vkyw
f myg/ jyef
vnfz@GJ pnf;a&; vkyjf yD;wJt
h csed u
f ae pjyD;awmh usrwd@k
tzJ@G csKyf&@J tvkyaf wG[m t&Sed t
f [kew
f ;kd vmwmudk us
rwd@k jrifcsiw
f ,f/ t&Sed t
f [keu
f svmwmudk usrwd@k vH;k
vH;k r=unfch sib
f ;l /
t&Sed t
f [kew
f ;kd vmvd@k tm%mydik rf sm;zufu
aejyD;awmh ydjk yD;awmh wd;k jyD;awmh zdEydS cf sKyfcs,v
f mr,f

vkyfvnf; vkyf&r,f/ cHvnf; cH&r,f/udk,fvkyfvdk@
udk,fcHw,faygh/ rvkyfyJeJ@ cHwmawmh cH&usKd; reyf
bl;/ tJ'Dawmh yxr vkyfvkduf/ vkyfjyD;rScHr,f/

(9)

qd&k ifawmh 'gawGukd usrwd@k cHEikd af tmifv@kd awmh vHv
k
xkw&f r,f/ 0d&,
d xkw&f r,f/ ajrmif;jru OD;aZ,s ajym
oGm;ovdyk J taumif;qH;k udk ar#mv
f ifjh yD;awmh tqd;k qH;k
twGuf t+rJ jyifqifxm;&r,fqw
kd m / 'g usr c%c%
ajymcJzh ;l wmyJ/ Ekid if aH &;orm;tm;vH;k [m 'Daqmify'k af v;
udk ud,
k hf &J@ ukwifacgi;f &if;rSm csw
d x
f m;oifw
h ,f/ t+rw
J rf;
t aumif;qH;k twGuf ar#mv
f ifjh yD; tqd;k qH;k twGuf jyif
qif xm;&r,f/ 'Dvkd pdw"f gwef @J usrwd@k vyk rf S atmifjrifr_
&Srd mS yg/
aemufjy;D awmhvnf; 'DvEkd ikd if aH &;twGuf ud,
k hf
&J@ b0udk tepfemcH pGe@f vw
$ &f w,fqw
kd m 'g tifrwefrS
odumQ &Syd gw,f/ tifrwefrv
S nf; auseyfr&_ pdS &myg/ tm;
vH;k jyefjy;D awmh pOf;pm;=uyg/ 'Db0rSm bmvdck si=f uvJ/ arG;
vmw,f/ =uD;vmw,f/aeoGm;w,f tdo
k mG ;w,f- 'gyJ
vm;vd@k usrwd@k trsm;=uD;pOf;pm;p&mjzpfw,f/ 'Db0rSm
vljzpfvmjyDqdkrSjzifh bmtwGuf vljzpfvmw,fqdkwm
usrwd@k pOf;pm;zd@k vdyk gw,f/ vljzpfvmw,fqw
kd m vmbf
pm;jyD;awmh tdraf wGtrsm;}uD;aqmufjyD;awmh um;awG
trsm;}u;D 0,fjy;D awmh vlrsm;tay:rS a=umzd@k jzpfvmwm
vm;qdw
k m pOf;pm;&r,f/ wcsK@d u 'Dv[
kd mrsK;d udk ae&usK;d
eyfw,fv@kd xif=uw,f/ 'Dv[
kd mrsK;d udk ae&usK;d eyfw,f
vd@k xifwo
hJ rl sm;uawmh usrwd@k e@J tifrwefrS uGmjcm;yg
w,f/
tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyf0ifrsm; pOf;pm;=uyg/
vljzpfvmw,fqw
kd m bmtwGuf jzpfvmwmvJ/ vljzpf
vmw,fqw
kd m vl@t&nftcsi;f udk jrSiw
hf ifcsiv
f @kd vljzpf
vmwmjzpf&r,f/ vljzpfvmrS ud,
k v
hf o
l m;awG&@J t&nft
csi;f udk ud,
k f wenf;r[kww
f enf;enf;eJ@ jrSiw
hf ifEikd &f rSm
ayg/h pmayorm; qd&k ifvnf; pmayzufuaejyD;awmh jrSihf
wifEikd &f r,f/ odyo
H` rm;qd&k ifvnf; odyzH` ufuaejy;D awmh
jrSiw
hf ifEikd &f r,f/ bmoma&;eJ@ qdik w
f o
hJ q
l &kd ifvn;f bm
oma&;zufuae jrSiw
hf ifEikd &f r,f/ usrwd@k u Edik if aH &; o
rm;awGy/J Edik if aH &;t& vl@tqift
h wef;udk usrwd@k u jriS hf
wifEikd &f r,f/ Edik if aH &;t& vl@tqift
h wef;udk jrSiw
hf ifEikd f
rS usrwd@k [m vljzpf&usK;d eyfw,fv@kd owfrw
S Ef ikd rf ,f/ 'D
vdkpdwfxm;rxm;Edkif&ifawmh udk,fhudk,fudk,f EdkifiHa&;
orm;vd@k vnf; rac:oifb
h ;l / Edik if aH &;e,fxrJ mS vnf; 0if
jyD;awmh rvkyo
f ifb
h ;l /
'gayr,fh Edik if aH &;e,fy,fxrJ mS 0ifvyk o
f nfjzpf
ap 0ifrvkyo
f nfjzpfap usrwd@k b,fwa,mufrS Edik if aH &;

usrwd@k u Edik if aH &;orm;awGy/J
Edik if aH &;t& vl@tqift
h wef;udk usrwd@k
u jrSifhwifEdkif&r,f/ EdkifiHa&;t& vl@ t
qifhtwef;udk jrSifhwifEdkifrS usrwdk@ [m
vljzpf&usK;d eyfw,fv@kd owfrw
S Ef ikd f r,f/
'D vdkpdwfxm;rxm;Edkif&ifawmh
ud,
k u
hf ,
kd u
f ,
kd f Edik if aH &; orm;vd@k vnf;
rac:oifb
h ;l / Edik if aH &;e,fxrJ mS vnf; 0if
jyD;awmh rvkyfoifhbl;/
udk a&SmifvE$J ikd rf mS r[kwb
f ;l / usrwd@k b,favmufa&Smif
a&Smif Edik if aH &;u usrwd@k u vmjyD;awmh wdu
k rf mS yJ/ vm
jyD;awmh ywfrmS yJ/ bmjzpfv@kd vnf; qdak wmh vl@b0eJ@ Edik f
iHa&;qdw
k m b,fvrkd S ruif;uGmEdik b
f ;l / ,Ofaus;wJh vl@
todik ;f t0dik ;f xJ a&mufvmjyDqrkd jS zifh Edik if aH &;[m ygrmS yJ/
olw@kd t*Fvyd pf um;vH;k -[kwv
f m;/ Edik if aH &;[m Politice.
Politice/ qdw
k m Police qdw
k m[m jrdK@e,fayg/h jrKd@qw
kd hJ
pum;uaevmwm/ bmjzpfv@kd vnf;qdak wmh t&ifwek ;f
u Edik if aH &;tzJ@G tpnf;av;awGqw
kd m jrKd@uo
kd m tajccH
wmud;k / Edik if w
H Edik if v
H ;kH udk tajccHwmrSr[kwyf /J tJ'aD wmh
vl@todkif;t0dkif;udk tajccHwhJudpPqdkwm 'g EdkifiHa&;yJ/
aemufq;kH awmh 'gygy/J &yfaus; tqifrh mS qd&k if &yfaus;
udk tajcHwm[m 'g Edik if aH &;yJ/ jrKd@e,ftqifrh mS qd&k if jrKd@
e,fukd tajccHwm Edik if aH &;yJ/ wdik ;f jynfwjynftqifrh mS
qd&k ifawmh wkid ;f jynfwjynfv;kH udk tajcHwm Edik if aH &;ayg/h
tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k [m b,fawmhrS Edik if aH &;eJ@ uif;rSm r
[kwb
f ;l aemf/ uif;w,fv@kd rsm;rxifyge@J /
trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzJ@G csKyfuae E_wx
f u
G f
vdu
k v
f @kd Edik if aH &;eJ@ uif;oGm;jyv
D @kd b,fawmhrS rxifvu
kd f
yge@J / b,fawmhrS ruif;bl;/ Ekid if aH &;[m ud,
k ahf emufuae
uyfjyD;awmh vdu
k af erSmyJ/ 'Dvt
kd rsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pD tzJ@G

(10)

csKyfuae xGuv
f u
kd jf yDqw
kd [
hJ m zdtm;ay;vd@k yjJ zpfap bm
vd@k yjJ zpfap xGuv
f u
kd jf yDqu
kd wnf;u 'g Edik if aH &;a=umifh
xGuv
f u
kd w
f ,f/ Edik if aH &;a=umifh vkyv
f u
kd w
f u
hJ pd yP /J tJ'D
awmh Edik if aH &;a=umifh vkyv
f u
kd w
f u
hJ pd rP @kd Edik if aH &;t& t
usK;d qufawG[m woufv;kH qufjy;D awmh ygvmr,fqw
kd m
tJ'grw
S x
f m;/ rygvmbl;vd@k rxifyge@J /
tJ'aD wmh usrwd@k Edik if aH &;udk a&Smifv@kd r&bl;
aemf/ a&Smifv@kd r&wJah b;awmh ajy;jyD;awG@wmyJaumif;
w,f/ 'Dawmh usrwd@k [m Ekid if aH &;udk a&Smifv@kd r&awmh
Edik if aH &;udk yDyjD yifjyif vkyo
f mG ;r,fqw
kd hJ qH;k jzwfcsuef @J
qufjyD;awmh vkyo
f mG ;zd@k vw
kd ,f/ 'grS ud,
k u
f Edik if aH &;rSm
atmifjrifr_ ,lEikd rf mS / ud,
k u
f Edik if aH &;udk a&Smifz@kd =uKd;
pm;&if Edik if aH &;u ud,
k u
hf kd atmifjrifr,
_ jl yD; ud,
k rf vdck sif
wJh[mjzpfoGm;ygvdrhfr,f/ qdkawmh usrwdk@tzJG@csKyf[m
tck jyefjy;D awmh zJ@G pnf;wJt
h csed u
f pjy;D awmh jynfe,fwikd ;f
awGukd jyefjyD;awmh zG@J pnf;wJt
h csed u
f pjyD; ydjk yD;awmh yDyD
jyifjyifvyk w
f ,fqw
kd mudk usrwd@k jrifcsiyf gw,f/ tJ'v
D kd
vkyw
f ahJ e&mrSm {&m0wDwikd ;f uaejy;D awmh yxrOD;qH;k jyef
vnfjyD;awmh zJ@G pnf;jyD;wJt
h cgrmS pkpnf;rdww
hJ ikd ;f jzpfwt
hJ
wGuaf =umifrh @kd v@kd a&S@aqmifwikd ;f tjzpfe@J vkyo
f mG ;apcsif
w,f/ tcuftcJrsm;wJh wdik ;f rd@k v@kd ukd ydjk yD;awmh vkyaf pcsif
w,f/

usrwd@k trsK;d om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzJ@G csKyf tzJ@G 0if
rsm;[m cH&w
J o
hJ wWv
d nf;&Sw
d ,f/ vky&f w
J o
hJ wWv
d nf; &Sw
d ,f
qdw
k mudk {&m0wDwikd ;f uae pjy;D awmh jyoGm;apcsiw
f ,f/
{&m0wDwidk ;f udk wjcm;jynfe,f wjcm;wdik ;f awGu erlem
,lavmufwJhwkdif;jzpfw,fvdk@ usrwdk@ 'Dvdkajymwmudk
=um;csiw
f ,f/ tJ'aD wmh tcka&mufvmwJh jrKd@e,fawGu
jyefomG ;vd@k &&dS if ud,
k jhf rKd@e,frmS ud,
k f yDyjD yifjyif pnf;&H;k a&;
udk qif;=uyg/ jrKd@e,fqw
kd m &yfaus;awGe@J trsm;=uD;qdik f
w,f/
usrwd@k Eikd if rH mS vl 80 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f avmuf[m &yf
aus;rSm awm&Gma'orSm aewJo
h al wGjzpfygw,f/ tJ'D
awmh 'D&yfaus;u jynfov
l x
l ek @J xdawG@rq
_ w
kd m wcsed v
f ;kH
&Sad e&r,f/ jrK@d ay:rSmyJ xkid af evd@k rjzpfygb;l / +rK@d ay:rSmyJ xkid f
aewJh Edik if aH &;qdw
k m[m jrefrmEdik if v
H kd Edik if eH @J oifah wmfwhJ
Edik if aH &;rsK;d r[kwb
f ;l / aus;vufawm&GmawGuq
kd if;wJh Edik f
iHa&;rsK;d jzpf&r,f/
tJ'v
D kd Edik if aH &;vkyjf y;D awmh jynfov
l x
l t
k m;vH;k
[m 'DEikd if rH mS bmjzpfaevJqw
kd m odatmifvyk &f r,f/ 'g
0g'jzef@csad &;eJ@qikd w
f mayg/h apmapmu vyGwmW u ajym
oGm;ovdak yg/h Edik if aH &;qdw
k m pnf;&H;k a&;eJ@ 0g'jzef@csad &;yJ/
pnf;&H;k a&; vkyw
f t
hJ cg 0g'jzef@csad &; yg&wmayg/h ud,
k t
hf zJ@G
tpnf;u bmvkyaf eovJ/ bmjzpfaeovJ 'DurBm=u;D rSm
bmjzpfaeovJ/ urBm=uD;u b,fvjkd rifovJ/ usrwd@k ukd
bmjzpfv@kd urBmu axmufcv
H /J
'DudpPeJ@ ywfoufvdk@&Sd&if axmufvSrf;a&;eJ@
ywfoufwhJ t&m&Sw
d a,mufu usrwd@k xu
J vl=uD; w
a,mufukd ajymygw,f/ urBmu bmjzpfv@kd NLD ajymwm
yJ em;axmifaejyD;awmh olw@kd ajymwmudk em;raxmif
vJv@kd ar;wJah r;cGe;f rsK;d yg/ urBmu usrwd@k NLD udk bmjzpf
vd@k em;axmifwmvJqakd wmh olw@kd usrwd@k ajymwmawG
wif em;axmifwmr[kwyf gb;l / e0w ajymwmawGukd
vnf; em;axmifwmayg/h ESpzf ufpvH;k em;axmifjyD;awmh
olw@kd [molw@kd olw@kd ud,
k yf ikd ^f m%fe@J qk;H jzwfwmyJ/ b,f
tzJ@G tpnf;ajymwJh pum;awG[m ydjk y;D awmh ,H=k unfp&m
&Sw
d ,fqw
kd m olw@kd qH;k jzwfomG ;rSmyJ/
b,ftzJG@tpnf;ajymwJhpum;awG[m ydkjyD;
awmh tqift
h wef;&Sw
d ,f/ ydjk y;D awmh av;eufw,fqw
kd m
olw@kd qH;k jzwfomG ;rSmyg/
usrwd@k u usrwd@k ukd b,favmufyJ axmufcH
yg axmufcyH gajymajym usrwd@k &@J vky&f yfawG[m axmuf

(11)

cHp&mraumif;&if bmrSaxmufcrH mS r[kwb
f ;l / usr b,f
Edik if u
H rkd S bmay;r,fqjkd y;D awmh pnf;&H;k cJw
h m r&Sb
d ;l / usr
wd@k reS u
f efwm vkyv
f @kd axmufcyH gv@kd / 'gyJ usrwd@k ajym
w,f/ b,fEikd if u
H rkd S 'Dru
dk a&pD&&if b,fvt
kd cGit
hf a&;
&&ygaphr,fv@kd usrwd@k rajymcJb
h ;l / ajymzd@k vnf;rpOf;pm;
bl;/ bmpD;yGm;a&; tcGit
hf a&;rSvnf; ray;bl;/ bmEdik if H
a&; tcGifhta&;rSvnf; ray;bl;/ usrwdk@&J@vkyf&yfudk
axmufcH w,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if rSeu
f efw,fxifv@kd axmufcyH g/
rSeu
f efw,f w&m;w,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if axmufczH @kd wm0efukd
&Sw
d ,f 'ga=umifh axmufcyH gv@kd usrwd@k u t+raJ jymw,f/
Edik if w
H ikd ;f Edik if w
H ikd ;f [m rdrw
d @kd &w
dS hJ wm0eft&
rSeu
f efwzhJ ufu &yfwnfygv@kd usrwd@k 'Dvykd J pnf;&H;k wmyg/
'gayr,fh usrwd@k zufu rSeu
f efw,fqw
kd mudv
k nf; jyzd@k
vdw
k ,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd usrwd@k axmufjyw,f/ bmjzpfv@kd
usrwd@k zufu rSev
f /J bmjzpfv@kd usrwd@k u usrwd@k ukd
axmufczH @kd vw
kd ,fajymovJ/ Oya' pd;k rd;k r_ r&Sb
d ;l qdw
k m
bmjzpfv@kd 'Dvakd jymvJ/ 'DEikd if rH mS ppfreS w
f hJ wd;k wufr_ r&Sd
bl;qdw
k m bmjzpfv@kd usrwd@k ajym&vJqw
kd m 'gawG usr
wd@k trsm;=uD;&Si;f jyw,f/ &Si;f jywJt
h cg e0wu 'g tpd;k &
udk wdu
k cf u
kd w
f ,fv@kd jrifw,f/ 'g usrwd@k wku
d cf u
kd w
f mr
[kwb
f ;l / 'g Edik if aH &;t& vkyo
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f t
hJ vkyu
f kd vkyf

aewmyJ/ usrwdk@udk axmufcHygqdkjyD;awmh bmjzpfvdk@
axmufc&H r,fqw
kd hJ ta=umif;jycsuf rjyEdik &f if b,fol
u axmufcrH mS vJ/
'Dru
kd a&pD vdck siw
f ,f/ tajymif;tvJ vkw
d ,f/
'Dru
kd a&pD tpd;k &wck tjrefq;kH ay:ayguv
f mzd@k vw
dk ,fv@kd
usrwd@k ajymw,f/ bmjzpfv@kd ay:ayguv
f mzd@k vv
kd nf; qdk
wm usrwd@k rjyEdik v
f @kd &&dS if b,fou
l usrwd@k ukd ,H=k unf
rSmvJ/ 'Dawmh usrwd@k axmufjy&w,f/ 'DEikd if rH mS bm csK@d
,Gi;f csuaf wG &So
d vJ/ 'DcsK@d ,iG ;f csuaf wG aysmufomG ;zd@k t
wGuf 'Dru
kd a&pDvw
kd ,f/ 'ga=umifrh @kd usrwd@k axmufjy
w,f/
'DEikd if rH mS qd&k if vmbfpm;r_awG trsm;=u;D &Sw
d ,f/
bmjzpfv@kd vmbfpm;r_&v
dS /J vmbfpm;r_&w
dS ,fqw
kd m jynf
olvx
l u
k csKyfuikd x
f m;Edik w
f t
hJ pd;k &r&Sv
d @kd ayg/h jynfov
l l
xku tpd;k &wckukd csKyfuikd x
f m;Edik w
f ,fqv
kd @kd &&dS if awmf&kH
wef&kH vmbfpm;csiw
f hJ 0ef=uD;awmifrS vmbfrpm;&Jb;l /
vmbfpm;vdu
k &f if tvkyjf yKwfrmS ud;k / a&G;aumufyGJ usv@kd
&S&d if aemufxyfjy;D awmh ta&G;cH&rSmr[kwb
f ;l / tJ'aD wmh
'gawGa=umifhrdk@vdk@ oluaejyD;awmh csifhcsifhcsdefcsdef ae&
w,f/
'Dtwdik ;f yJ 'DEikd if rH mS pD;yGm;a&;vkyzf @kd ac:w,f/

(12)

r,f/ vkyt
f m;ay;udpaP wG[m wu,fjzpfaewJu
h pd aP wGy/J
vkyt
f m;ay;udk usrwd@k uef@uu
G w
f ,f/ vkyt
f m;ay;qdw
k hJ
tavhtusi[
hf m tifrwefrS qd;k &Gm;w,fqw
kd m usrwd@k
ajymwm[mvnf; 'g e0wudk tm;tm;,m;,m; wdu
k f
cdu
k cf siv
f @kd ajymwmrS r[kwyf /J vkyt
f m;ay;qdw
k m aumif;
rSraumif;wm/ jynfov
l x
l u
k kd trsm;=u;D 'kuaQ y; wJph epfy/J
'Dvpkd epfwckukd usrwd@k uef@uu
G &f rSmyJ/ 'g usrwd@k &@J wm
0efjzpfw,f/ wm0eft& usrwd@k uef@uu
G o
f mG ;rSmyJ/
ukeaf ps;E_e;f awG wufaew,f/ ukeaf ps;E_e;f awG
wufaewm 'Dae@u b,favmufvJ qdw
k mudk ar;ae&
w,f/ wae@xufwae@ukd wufaewmyJ/ ukeaf ps;E_e;f awG
wufaewm b,fo@l a=umifv
h /J trsK;d om; 'Dru
kd a&pD t
zJG@csKyfa=umifhvdk@ wcsKd@u ajymcsifwJholawG&Sdw,f/ 'D
avmufawmifrS usrwd@k tzJ@G csKyfuae =oZmtm%m &Sd
vd@k &&dS ifvnf; =oZmtm%m tm;vH;k om v$v
J u
kd af wmh
vd@k usr tJ'v
D ykd J ajymcsiw
f ,f/ (vufcyk o
f rH sm;)
bmjzpfv@kd vnf;qdak wmh bmrqdk usrwd@k a=umifh
yJ/ bmrqdk usrwd@k a=umifyh eJ @J / 'DavmufawmifrS usrwd@k
=oZm[m 'DEdkifiHtay:rSm anmif;aew,fqdk&ifvnf;
tkycf sKyfa&;tm%myg ,loifw
h hJ tzJ@G tpnf;yJv@kd 'Dvkd us
rwd@k owfrw
S &f rSmyJ/
tJ'Dawmh tm%mydkif tzJG@tpnf; wck[m
wkid ;f jynf&@J tm%mudk csKyfuikd x
f m;jyD;awmh wdik ;f jynf rSm
jzpfaewJh jyoemawG&@J wm0efukd r,lEikd b
f ;l qdw
k m 'g
t"dyg` vf r&Sb
d ;l / 'Dru
kd a&pD tpd;k &qdv
k @kd &&dS if tpd;k &wm0ef
,lw,fq&kd if jzpfor# jyoem&J@ wm0efuv
kd nf; ,l&wm
yJ/ b,fvrkfd S acgi;f a&Smifv@kd r&bl;/ acgi;f a&Smifv@kd &&dS if t
wdu
k t
f cH tzJ@G tpnf;awGu cifAsm;wd@k 'Davmufawmif
toH;k rus&if qif; qdjk yD; 'Dvykd J ajymrSmyJ/ tJ'aD wmh usr
wd@k tzJ@G csKyf[m paewe*FaEG a[majymcsurf sm; t&yJ
jzpfjzpf 'Dvkd tpnf;ta0;awGrmS yJjzpfjzpf usrwd@k tm%m
ydik f tzJ@G tpnf;rsm;udk a0zefw,fqw
kd m[m a0zefw,f
/ rSew
f ,f/ a0zefp&m&Sv
d @kd usrwd@k a0zefwmyJ/
atmif q ef ; pk = unf

usrwd@k u pD;yGm;a&; 'Dtcsed rf mS 'DEikd if rH mS pD;yGm;a&; &if;ES;D
jrSKyfE&HS r,ft
h csed f r[kwaf o;bl;qdjk yD;awmh usrwd@k ajym
w,f/ bmjzpfv@kd ajymvJ/ &Si;f jy&wmayg/h usrwd@k bmjzpf
vd@k 'Dvkd &Si;f jy&wmvJqakd wmh 'DEikd if rH mS t"du jyoem
[m &if;ES;D jrSKyfErHS _ aiGvakd ewJh jyoem r[kwb
f ;l / rSerf eS f
uefuef &if;ES;D jrKS yfErHS a_ wGukd roH;k wwfwhJ jyoem/ aemuf
qH;k usawmh tkycf sKyfa&;zufqikd &f mrSm rSeu
f efr_ r&Sw
d hJ jy
oemyJ/ tkyfcsKyfa&;zufrSm rSefuefr_ r&Sdvdk@&Sd&if b,f
avmufyJ aiGawG &if;ES;D &if;ES;D 'DaiGawG[m tv[o jzpf
oGm;rSmyJ/ wdik ;f jynfukd tusK;d jyKrmS r[kwb
f ;l / 'gawGa=umifh
rd@k v@kd 'Dtcsed rf mS 'gawGukd r&if;ES;D yge@J O;D qdjk yD;awmh usrwd@k
ajymwmyJ/
tJ'aD wmh 'Dvkd pD;yGm;a&;t& atmifjrifr_ r&Sb
d ;l /
'Dvkd pD;yGm;a&;t& &if;ES;D jrSKyfErHS _ rvkyo
f ifb
h ;l / Oya' pd;k rk;d
a&; r&Sb
d ;l / Oya' pd;k rd;k a&;udjk zpfajrmufatmifv@kd rvkyf
Edik w
f t
hJ pd;k &qdw
k m Edik if u
H w
kd nfjird af tmif vkyEf ikd w
f hJ tpd;k &
(toHeJ@ ajym=um;csufawGudka':pkarG;ae@ txdrf;
r[kwb
f ;l pojzifh usrwd@k ajymwJu
h pd aP wG[m e0wudk
trS
w
f
t
jzpf
pum;vHk;rsm;toGif ajymif;vJjzef@csdygw,f/ vuf
usrwd@k oufouf wdu
k cf u
kd cf siv
f @kd ajymwmr[kwb
f ;l / us
qifhurf; jzef@csday; =ur,fvdk@vnf; ,Hk=unfygw,f)
rwd@k bmjzpfv@kd 'Dru
kd a&pDukd tjrefq;kH vdw
k ,fqw
kd mudk
xif&mS ;apcsiv
f @kd ajymwmyJ/
(cifarmifxdkuf-bm;rm;ae&Sife,f *sme,f)rS pDpOfjyD;
aemufjyD;awmh 'D vkyt
f m;ay;udpaP wGukd ajym
wdk@u xkwfa0 jzef@csdyg w,f/

(13)

(14)

usrwd@k
&ke;f uefc&hJ wmawG
tepfem
cHc&hJ wmawG[m
tepfemcH&usKd;
eyfatmifv@kd
usrwd@k xyf jyD;awmh
ydjk yD;awmh
0d&d,xkwfjyD;awmh =uKd;pm;
oGm;&rSm jzpfygw,f/

n$e=f um;csuf apmifjh yD;awmh vkyw
f t
hJ vkyrf sK;d udv
k nf;
rvky=f uyge@J / usrwd@k n$e=f um;csuu
f kd ay;oifh oavmuf
ay;r,f/ ay;Edik o
f avmuf ay;r,f/ 'gayr,fh 'Dru
kd a&pD qdk
uwnf;udu
k 'g jynfov
l x
l &k @J tkycf sKyfry_ /J atmufajcu
aejyD;awmh ud,
k v
f yk o
f ifv
h yk x
f u
kd w
f mawG udk wm0efoo
d ed @J
vkyf&J&r,f/ vkyf&r,f/

EdkifiHa&;twGuf udk,fh&J@b0udk
tepfemcH pGe@f vw
$ &f w,f qdw
k m
'g tifrwefrS oduQm&Sdygw,f/
tifrwefrSvnf; auseyfr_&Sdp&myg/ tm;vHk; jyefjyD;awmh
pOf;pm;=uyg/

K M Htike

aemufqHk;awmh usrwdk@&J@pnf;&Hk;a&;[m jynfolvlxk
pnf;&H;k a&;yJ/ jynfov
l x
l k trsm;pkuaejyD; awmh rm;rm;
rwfrwfe@J tzJ@G csKyftaemufuaejyD;awmh &yfwnfaer,f
qdk&if usrwdk@ vkyfief;[m rkcs atmifjrif&r,f/

vlxkacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunf touf(61)ESpfajrmuf arG;aeUtxdrf;trSwf tjzpf xkwfa0ygw,f/