4.6K views

Uploaded by MohammedSaadaniHassani

- Power transformers
- Transformer Manual
- Transformers.ppt
- 23739803-Power-Transformers.pdf
- Transformers ABB
- Power Transformer 2
- ABB Transformer Handbook ( Business Unit Transformers Power Technologies Division )
- Finite Element Method Hotspot Power Transformer Stray Losses Thermal Model
- ABB Transformers
- Testing Power Transformers
- Power Transformers
- Cigre, 13 Years Test Experience With Short Circuit Withstand Capability of Large Power Transformers
- ID091005-00-140-01 - SWGR-361 Single Line Diagram Rev 06
- Testing of Power Transformers
- Power Transformers Test
- Transformer Installation Guide
- 32940_1200_403_R7_NEW_AL_QUMRIYAH
- ALL AMF Panel DrawingsRev B05082008
- RIP vs OIP
- Soak Pit Design Calculation

You are on page 1of 90

1 Definition:

Transformers :transfer electrical energy at system voltage to electrical

energy at the required voltage or higher voltage.

•Distribution transformers:- •Instrument transformer

- Oil – immersed transformers - Current transformers

- Voltage transformers

- Askarel immersed transformers

- Dry type transformers

Oil immersed transformers have their cores & windings

immersed in mineral oil.

1.2.2 Askarel immersed transformers

Askarel Oil immersed transformers have their cores and winding

immersed in the synthetic cooling & insulating fluid Askeral

normally .

These transformers refferred to under the trade name of the fluid ,

e.g “ colophon – immersed transformers “ or “ Pyroclor/Aroclor

immersed transformers”

Askeral is a colourless , flame – resistant & explsion proof fluid , it

is made of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons . this density is

approx. 1.569 cm at 15.5 C° ambient temperature .

The electrical properties are a good as these of mineral oil

(transformer oil ) but Askarel – immersed transformers can be

installed without special measures of fire protection .

For chemichal reasons , mineral transformer oil & Askaral must

not be mixed .

An oil immersed transformer cannot therefore be refilled with

Askaral or an Askaral immersed transformer be refilled with oil .

1.2.3 Dry type transformers:

Dry type transformers have no insulating & cooling fluid they are designed

according to the type of insulation of the windings into varnish – insulated &

silicon insulated dry type transformers.

Self Cooling :

Distribution transformers are mainly manufactured with self cooling , with

this kind of cooling the heat generated is dissipated by the natural air flow

and by radiation .

With forced air cooling the cooling air is circulated by fans . subsequent

addition of fans to the transformer is only possible after consulting the

manufacturer .

The limits of temperature rise permitted for various insulating materials are

specified in ( VDE-0532 ) and these are based on the following limits of

cooling air temperature : -

Maximum temperature of air 40h C .

Daily mean temperature of the air 30h C .

Yearly mean temperature of the air 20h C .

The temperature of the ambient air is measured at a distance of 1-2 m

from the transformer .

1.2.4 Instrument transformers :

- Current transformers

- Voltage transformers

•Current transformers:

Current transformer is transformer with small rate power (burden) ,

whose primary windings are in series with the line circuit , and

secondary windings are connected to measuring instruments ,

electricity meters relays or control devices , current transformers

isolate the measuring of protection circuits from the primary voltage

and also protect the apparatus corresponding to the over current

response of the current .

1.2.5 Voltage transformers :

Voltage transformers are also of small power rate and operate at

almost no – load . they isolate the primary high voltage from the

connected measuring or protected circuits.

TRANSFORMERS

Definition :

Transformers can be defined as a static electric machine which converts

electric energy from one potential to another at the same frequency .

It can also be defined as consists of two electric circuits linked by a

common variable flux.

Theory of operation :

wave voltage . an alternating sine wave current will flow in the

primary . thus the primary m.m.f ( N.I ) will produce a common

flux ( g ) which is also alternating and in phase with the current

according to Faraday′ s law the common flux interesting two coils

will induce in them an alternating e.m.f ( e1 , e2 ) .

N1d φ

e1 = - (1)

dt

e1 is an e.m.f of self induction

e2 is an e.m.f of Mutual induction

dφ

e1 = - N 2 ( 2)

dt

from 1,2 ∴ the transformation ratio

e1 N1

K= =

e2 N 2

Applying Kirchoff′ s law on the primary circuit.

V = - e1

V+ e1 = 0

∑e.m.f = ∑V.D

From the secondary circuit e2 = v2

e1 N1 V1

K = = =

e 2 circuitN: 2

Equivalent V2

Io = 10 : 15 % of rated current .

1 = − E 1 + I1r1 + JI1X1

V 1

Tansformer testing :

Determination of parameters :

Connect the primary to a source of alternating current at nomial voltage the

secondary is open circuit – read the magnitude of ( Io , V1 , Po ) at no load .

The impeadence of the circuit at no load .

V1

= Z 1 +Z 0

Io

Z1 < < Zo

V1

Z0 ≅

Io

Z1 < < Zo

Z1 can be neglected

po

ro =

( Io ) 2

Zo = r 2 o + X o

2

2

= Zo − ro

2

Xo

-Another method:

Po = V1 Io is go

V1

Zo ≅

I0

Po Po

cos φo ≅ φo = cos-1

V1 Io V1 Io

Ro = Zo cos φo

For parallel circuit rm & JXm :

Neglect Zm relation to Z1

x o = Zo sin φo

I o a = I o cos φo

Io r = Io sin φo

Po

φo =cos -1

V

1

V V1

rm 2 = 1

Xm =

Ioa Ior

-Short circuit test:

Connect the primary to a reduced voltage ( from 15 – 20 % of V1 ) until the

primary current becomes near to the value of the full load current of the

primary .

Short circuit the secondary winding .

Measure ; ( V1 ) sh.c ( I1 ) sh.c ( P1 ) sh.c

Zo is of the order of ( 10 )-2 relative to Z′ 2

So the effect of Zo can be simplified to the show

figure ( c ) .

V1sh.c

= Z eq

I1sh.c

Where ;

Zeq = Req + Jxeq

x eq 1

+ x+′ 2r2′

Req= =x r1

P1 (sh.c ) = ( V1 )sh.c ( I1 )sh.c ( cos φ ) sh.c

-1 P1

φsh.c =cos

P1

sh .c

V1I1

xeq = Zeq sin φ

Req = Zeq cos φ

r1 ≅ r′2

Xeq

X1 ≅ X′2

2

r2′ x′2

r2 = 2

x2 = 2

K k

•D.C Test :

Connect the primary coil with a direct current supply . measure

the applied voltage and the current .

E

= r1 ohms

I

The effect of X1 , X0 will not appear when using direct current

Ldi

X → dt

I is the const. relative to time[ also the effect of ro will not appear

because it represent the eddy and hysteresis losses which are not existing

in the case of direct current they appear only when there is varialable flux

in the core .

Similarly we can determine the resistance of the secondary ( r2 ) by

connecting the battery to the terminals of the secondary coil .

Voltage regulation :

voltage of a loaded transformer when the load is removed . while the

primary voltage is constant at it′ s nominal value .

E = ( V2 ) n.l – V2 load

working voltages , the voltage regulation in usually expected as percent

or a per unit value related to the secondary voltage at load .

usually the voltage regulations is determined for full load conditions . so

to simplify equivalent circuit

(V2 )n.L - V2 L

(V2 )L

ε V.R = × 100 = %

(V2 )n.L - V2 L

=

(V2 )L = per unit

ε

V.R

equivalent circuit and the corresponding to it vector diagram ( Kapp vector

diagram )

•Io neglected :

I1= I ′ 2

Zq = Req + JXeq = ( r1+ r′ 2 ) + J( X1 + X′ 2 )

To calculate the voltage regulation the following value must be

determined .

V1,I1 cos g1 and Zeq .

′2 + I1Req + JI1 Xeq

1=V

V

′2 = V

V 1 + I1Req + JI1 Xeq

( ) (

V2 = V1cosφ 1 − I1Req + V1 sinφ 1 - I1 Xeq

2

)

Note:

( V′ 2 )n.l = V1

ε = ( V )n.l − (V )l

2 2

(V2 )l

ε = (K V )n.l − (KV )l

2 2

(KV2 )l

′ ′ ′

ε = ( V )n.l − (V )l = V − V

2 2 1 2

(V2′ )l V2′

where V′ 2 is calculated by eq ( 1 )

in this case To find the voltage regulation V1 we can calculated from the

geometry as

Note :

Parameters r′ 2 , X′ 2 , I′ 2 , E′ 2 as follows :

V 1 = ( V′ cosφ

2 2 ) (

− I′2Req + V′2 sinφ 2 - I′2 Xeq

2

)

Where ;

I2

I′2 =

K

r′ 2 = k2 r2 , x′ 2 = k2 x2

E′ 2 = kE2

N1 E1 V1 I 2

k= = ≅ ≅

N 2 E1 V2 I1

Transformer efficiency (η ) :

Poutput Pin - losses

η= =

Pinput Pin

∴ Pcu ∝ I2 pcu = I ( r1 + r2 ) = I1 req = I 2 req

2

1

′ ′ 2

This means that if the cu losses are known at a certain load ( current ) ,

then the copper losses can be determined at another load .

( Pcu )a = ( I )a

2

( Pcu )b ( I )b

2

I1 : nominal value ( full load value ) usually the copper losses are

determined from a short circuit test at a current equal to the full load or

nominal value , accordingly the equation can be written as :

Pcu = ( I ) 2

( Pcu) f .l ( I) f .l 2

2

( pcu ) required = ( pcu ) f .l I

If.l

I

let =X

If.l

Pcu required = X 2 ( Pcu ) f.l

η=

Pout

=

( K.V.A) out cosφ

Pout + const.loss + cu loss ( K.V.A) out cosφ + Po + P

cu

: ىىىى ىىىىىى

=

( K.V.A ) out cos φ

( K.V.A ) out cos φ + Po + Pcu

X ( K.V.A ) f.l cosφ

η=

X ( K.V.A ) f.l cosφ + po + X 2 ( pcu )f.l

pin - losses X ( K.V.A ) f.l cosφ − po − X 2 ( pcu )f.l

η= ηΧ =

pin X ( K.V.A ) f.l cosφ

average efficiency for the transformer during 1 day ;

η=

Total input energy through 24 hours

the input energy of the transformer through the day is equal to the Total

out put + Total losses per/day .

losses are const. or magnetic ( Po ) and are constant through the day .

the ( electrical or cu ) losses are variable according to the load ( QI2 ) .

E.X :

100 K.V.A lighting transformer has a full load loss of 3 K.V.A , the

losses being equally devided between iron and copper . During a day the

transformer operates , on full load for 3 hours , one half for 4 hours , the

output being negligible for the reminder of the day calculate the all day

efficiency .

Solution :

It should be noted that lighting transformers are taken to have a load p.f

of unity iron losses for 24 hours = 1.5 x 24 = 36 K.W.h ( const. losses )

FL.cu losses = 1.5 K.W

Cu loss for 3 hours on F.L = 1.5 x 3 = 4.5 k.w.h

Cu loss for half F.L = 1.5 /4 k.w.h

Cu loss for 4 hours at half the load = ( 1.5 / 4 ) x 4 = 1.5 k.w.h

Total losses = 36 + 4.5 + 1.5 = 42 k.w.h

Total output = ( 100 x3 ) + ( 50 x 4 ) = 500 k.w.h

η all day = 500 x 100 / 542 = 92.26 %

Group numbers :

The group number indicates the phase differience between primary and

secondary ( H.T and L.T ) line voltages in electrical degrees . It is

sometimes determined as a clock reading each hour is equivalent to

30° phase difference .

Y-Y connectios :

(∆ Y)

Parallel operation :

working in parallel in order to enable the

connections or disconnection of any number

of them according to their required load :-

The following conditions must be fulfilled

for correct parallel operation :

same

2.the group number must be the same

3.the phase connection must be in same

sequence

4.short circuit impendence ( Zeq ) must be

the same

Transformers are produced locally as , three phase immersed in oil ,

natural cooling , in door & outdoor ,with power rate from 50 up to

10.000 K.V.A & voltages up to 22 K.V.A under licence of Siemens

A.B.B & France Transfo

2.1 General characteristics :

the transformers described have the following general characteristics :

Three – phase .

Connection D/Y11

Frequency 50 Hz .

Natural cooling in oil or silicon .

Continuous service .

Indoor or out door installation .

Rated power :

Normal rated power in KVA as follows . ( 25- 50- 100 – 160 – 250 – 400 –

500- 630 – 800 – 1000 – 1250 – 1600 – 2000 – 2500 – K.V.A -………. )

2.2 Formation of distribution مكونات محولت التوزيع

transformers :

•2.2.1 Iron core: : * القلب الحديدى

Made of cold rolled silicon steel sheets 0.3mm يصنع القلب الحديدى من رقائق الصلب السيليكونى المسحوب

to minimize losses مم لتقليل الفقد فى الفيض المغناطيسى0.3 على البارد بسمك

High tension turns are made of copper تصنع ملفات الجهد العالى من أسلك نحاسية ذات مقطع

wires of either circular cross sections

varnish isolated or rectangular cross مستدير معزول بالورنيش أو مقطع مستطيل معزول بالورق

sections isolated by sililose paper. Low السميليوزى وتصمنع ملفات الضغمط المنخفمض ممن شرائح

tension turns are made of either النحاس المعزول بالورق أمو أسملك نحاس معزولمة بشرائح

noninsulated copper foils with insulating

. الورق السطوانية

paper in between or of rectangular wires

insulated by cylindrical paper sheets

2.2.3-Tank : : التنك الخارجى

The transformer tank is made of

corrugated steel . يصنع التنك من ألواح الصاج المعرج ليكون جسم التنك

The corrugated tank surface is itself the هو المسسطح المبرد للمحول ويزود التنك بخزان لتمدد

cooling surface. The tank is provided with an

additional steel reservoir for oil expansion, الزيت مصنع من الصاج ويركب عليه مواسير توصيل

on which a piping device is installed to

transmit oil cock ,a hole for silicagel الزيست للتنسك وبسه فتحسة لتعويسض نقسص الزيست وفتحة

apparatus,and an oil level indicator. لتركيب جهاز السيلكاجل وكذلك مبين الزيت

H.V.and L.V. terminals are brought out توصل أطراف الضغط العالى والمنخفض الى عوزال

through porcelain bushings according to the من الصينى مناسبة لجهد التشغيل وتثبت هذه العوازل

rated voltage. The insulators are fixed to the فى غطاء التنسك بطريقسة تسسمح بتغييرهسا بدون فتح

tank cover in such a way to ensure replacement الغطاء وعنسد الطلسب يمكسن تزويدهسا بصسناديق نهاية

without dismantling the transformer cover. للكابلت فسى حالسة الطلسب مسن جهتسى الضغسط العالى

Cable end boxes on either H.T. or L.T. side or .والمنخفض أو احداهما فقط

both can be made if required.

2.2.5 –Tapchangers : : منظمات الجهد

or distribution transformers , tap يركب على محولت التوزيع منظمات للجهد ذات خمس

changers are externally for allowing كل منها%5 + مراحل تسمح بتغيير الجهد فى حدود

voltage regulation with ±5 % of the rated ويعمل يدويا من خارج المحول بعد فصل% 2.5 +

value in 5 equal steps of ± 2.5 % each , المحول عن الكهرباء تماما أى أن المنظم يعمل على

the tap changer is manually operated . اللحمل

while current is off

transformers are filled with special oil تملم المحولت بزيمت محولت ذو درجة عزل عالية

( Diala ( 5 ) or equal ) of high insulating IEC )ديالة ب أو ما يماثلها ( طبقا لمواصفات

grade according to IEC specifications

2.2.7 – Main accessories of distribution : الملحقات الساسية لمحولت التوزيع

transformers :

Oil expansion reservoir . خزان تمدد الزيت

Thermometer pocket جراب الترمومتر

Oil drain cock صمام تصريف الزيت أو أخذ عينات منه

Oil level indicator مبين مستوى الزيت

Lifting chackles حلقات لرفع المحول

Four two – directional adjustable wheels أربع عجلت

Earth screw مسمار توصيل الرضى

Name plate لوحة البيان

Dehydrating breather جهاز السيلكاجل لمتصاص الرطوبة

Buchholz relay جهاز البوخهلز لحماية المحول

Ordinary mercury thermometer ترمومتر عادى

وفيمككا يلككى شكككل رقم ) ( 1

يوضح نموذج لمكونات

المحولت المصنعة محليًا

3.1 The general data of transformers are: المواصفات العامة

للمحولت

Power of transformer in K.V.A أ.ف. ك. قدرة المحول

Input voltage , output voltage in volts and . والذبذبة بالهرتز, وجهد الخروج, جهد الدخول

cycle in Hertz .

Connection group ( e.g DY II ) . رقم مجموعة التوصيل

The place in which the transformer will be مكان تركيب المحول وهل يركب داخل المبنى أم

installed and wheather indoor or outdoor . . خارجة

Percentage regulation of tap changer . . نسبة التغيير منظم الجهد

Determine wheather the ransformer will يجب تحديد ما إذا كانت المحولت المطلوبه تعمل

work in parallel or individual In case of منفرده أوعلسى التوازى مع بعضها أو مع محولت

parallel work with old transformers, the أخرى موجودة وفى هذه الحاله يجب بيان المعاوقه

voltages and impeadance of them must be . الكليه للمحولت الموجودة

mentioned .

3.2 Selection: كيفية تحديد مواصفات المحولت

3.2.1 Rated values :

transformation ratio and impendence ratio are selected according to

the requirements of the system .

تتحدد القيم السمية كالقدرة والجهد ونسبة التحويل والمقاومة الكلية طبقًا لمتطلبات نظام التغذية

الكهربائية

3.2.2 Rated power :

The rated power is found first by determining the peak effective power

demand designed or measured , usually a margin is added to provide

for the regular increase in power demand .

( ) تتحد القدرة السمية عن طريق التصميم أو القياس لقصى قدرة فعاله مطلوبة مع إضافة نسبة

. من القدرة لحتمالت الزيادة المستقبلية العادية فى الطاقة الكهربائية المطلوبة

When calculate the rated power (PN) we must take in consideration the

anticipated power factor (COS )

. ويجب عند حساب هذة القدرة السمية مراعاة قيمة معامل القدرة المتوقع

3.2.3 The impendence voltage(UK) :

rated frequency to cause the rated current to flow in the primary when the

terminals on the secondary are short circuited

the rated impeadance voltage (UKN) is the value of the impedance voltage

on the principal tap when related to the rated voltage (UN) it is called UKN

and given in percent

UkN = UkN

X 100%

UN

Where ;

UKN = rated impeadence voltage % .

UKN = rated impeadence voltage in V.

U.N = reated voltage in V.

3.2.5 Selection of rated impeadence voltage :

In distribution system a rated impeadence voltage UKN= 4 % is preferred in order to keep

the voltage drop small .

For larger industrial systems with greater power demand transformers with a rated

impeadence voltage of 6 % are used in order to limit the short – circuit stresses on the

switch gear of the plant .

3.2.6 Transformers loss PK:

For transformers losses include no-load losses Po and load losses ( Pk ) the no load losses

resulting from the continious magnetic flux reversal in the iron are practically constant

voltage impeadence of load .

The load losses ( copper losses ) constant of resistive losses in the windings and losses due

to stray fields , the load losses vary with the square of the load . the total losses of a

transformer are :-

PV = PO + a 2 Pk

Pv = total losses in watt ..

Po = no-load in watt.

part load pa in K.V.A

a = load factor ( )

rated power P in K.V.A

PK = load losses in W

3.2.7 η - Efficiency :

the efficiency η of a distribution transformer can be calculated

with reasonable accuracy from the following ; N

where ;

η = efficiency in % .

PN = rated power in K.V.A .

Po = no-load losses in K.W ,

Pk = load losses in K.W .

Cos φ = power factor .

a = load factor .

Po + a 2 Pk

η = 100 % - × 100 %

a PN Watt cos φ + Po

* Example :-

calculate efficiency (η ) of a transformer at full load given the

following information :

PN = 500 K.V.A., Po = 1.1 K.W , Pk = 5.5 K.W ,

Cos = 0.8 , a = 1.0

Po + a 2 PK

η = 100 % - × 100 %

a PN cos φ + Po

1.1 K.W + (1)2 × 5.5 K.w

η = 100 % - × 100 %

1 × 500 K.V × 0.8 + 1.1 K.W

η = 98.36 %

3.2.8 Maximum efficiency:

the load factor ( a ) for the maximum efficiency of a transformer is defined as

follows ;

Po

a=

Pk

For the transformer in the above example this becomes ;

1.1 (k.w)

a= = 0.447

5.5(k.w)

Therefore maximum efficiency occurs with a load of ;

Pa = PN.a

Pa = 500 K.V.A × 0.447 = 224 K.V.A

And for this load the efficiency is ;

1.1 K.W + ( 0.447 ) × 5.5 K.w

2

η = 100 % - × 100 %

0.447 × 500 KVA × 0.8 + 1.1 K.W

η = 98.36 %

η = 98.78 % .

3.2.9 Insulation class :

the insulation rating of a transformer is designed by numerals indicating the

insulation voltage class in K.V & a letter N indicating that the transformer is

designed for use no a system where a neutral is not solidly earthed .

the insulation class corresponds to the values given in table no (1)*

Table no (1)*

3.2.10 Maximum continuous operating voltage ( U.b) :

transformers must be selected with an insulation class such that the voltage on which

they are continuously used does not exceed the allocated operating voltage ( Ub ) .

Rated voltages (UN):

at the input windings and for which the transformer is

designed .

The rated voltage ( UN ) on the output side is the voltage which

appears at no load ( no load voltage Uo ) with rated voltage

and rated frequency on the input side .

3.2.11 Adjustment of transformer ratio steps :

to compensate for voltage fluctuations due to load variations in systems , the high voltage

windings of distribution transformers have tapping brought out to terminals ( as

normally used on dry-type transformers ) or to a tap changer ( as normally used on oil – or

Askeral – immersed transformers ) the tapping corresponding to the nominal voltage is

normally situated in the middle of the tapping range and is referred to as the principal tap .

Rated tapping range :

the rated tap voltage range of a winding is the range between the highest tap voltage and

nominal or similary the lowest tap voltage and nominal under no load condition with an

excitation corresponding to the rated voltage on the principal tap

Tap voltage range :

tap voltage ranges are laid down in DIN standard and expressed as a percentage rated

voltage ( e.g ± 4% ) V.D.E 0532 specifies that rated voltages and the adjustable voltages

are shown in Volts in the rating plate . for a transformer with rated voltage on the input

side of 20.000 volt and a rated tap voltage range of ± 5% , the rating plate would show the

values 21.000 V, 20.000 V and 19.000 Volt .

3.2.12 vector group number :

The vector group symbol indicates the respective connections of the high voltage and low

voltage transformer windings their relative phase displacement expressed as a clock – hour

figure.

the identification letters of the method of connection are given for the high voltage

winding ( OS ) in capital letters and for low voltage side ( us ) in small letters see table no

(2)*

Clock – hour number : Table no (2)

the clock hour number indicate the multiple of 30° with which the vector of the low

voltage side is lagging when moving anti-clock wise in comparison to the high

voltage side of the corresponding terminal this angle between the voltage vectors can

have values between 0° & 360° .

the terminals 2U,2V& 2W on the low voltage side are related to the terminals

1U,1V,1W on the high voltage side , the mark up U , V, W corresponding to DIN

standard .

Obtaining the clock hour number:

the clock hour number can be obtained by first drawing the vector diagrams of the

connections of the windings up one on top of the other and both on top of a clock face

in such a way that the marking 1V of the high voltage side coincides with number 12

corresponding to 0 .

the position 2V of the connection diagram of the low voltage side on the clock face

gives the clock hour number of the vector group .

Example: (fig 2).

* C – Y/S:

High voltage side : C connection .

Low voltage side : y connection

phase displacement between vector 1V of the high voltage

winding & the vector 2V of the low voltage winding .

preferred vector group :

the high voltage windings and star or zizag connections

Fig no (2)

for the low voltage winding are preferred table (3)* shows

Vector group (DY5)

some group numbers

Table no (3)

4.1 Indoor installation :

Indoor pattern fluid cooled transformers must be installed in covered rooms

which provide protection against rain , snow , dust & sand etc…. , and good

ventilation .

Dry type transformers : must be installed in closed rooms which dry &

practically dust free the rooms should be easily accessible , to allow for

transport , operation maintenance & fire fighting .

4.2 Outdoor installation :

Fluid cooled transformers are suitable for outdoor installation when

provided with suitable bushings & paint finish suitable for outdoor

conditions.

Measuring the temperature of insulating and cooling fluid the temperature

of the cooling and insulating fluid are measure near the top for this purpose,

the caver of the transformer contains for thermometer pockets into which

thermometers can be inserted these pockets are filled with same type of

cooling and insulating fluids used within the transformer

4.3 Building dimensions of transformer station :

The dimensions of the transformers are an important factor to house the

transformer allowance should always be made for increase the power

demand in the future .

The following table give an example of dimensions of transformers for a

given power [table (4) & fig no (3)*] .

Fig no (3)

Table no (4)

Shows some ratings of Transformers And their dimensions and weights

The height of the building to house a transformer & also provide the

required access is dependant upon the height of the transformer , the type of

ventilation , the location cables & connections & the clearance necessary

between live parts & earthed metal . for this type of transformer station the

minimum height transformer should be the over all height of the

transformer plus 500mm ..

the length & width of a transformer station with service access should be

dimensioned such that for transformers with rated power of up to 630 KVA

the inspection passage wais are at least 70 cm wide , for transformers of

800-1600K.V.A. the passage- ways should be at least 75 cm wide

the floor of the transformer station can be made from either a reinforced

concrete slab with an opening in the centre or from girders of reinforced

concrete slab construction is used . the cement grouting should have an

inclination of 1-2° in the direction of the collecting pit as shown in fig.(4) *

fig no ( 4 )

example for the indoor

installation of a transformer

4.6 Rails for transportation rollers :

the international specifications states the recommendations for steel

I section girders for supporting transformers the transportation

rollers rest on these girders which also incorporate a guide strip 2

cm high fig. (5) *

Fig no (5)

Typical arrangement of girder

And guide strip for

transportation rollers

4.7 For oil immersed transformers:

Collecting tank and pits cooling and insulating fluid :

For transformers with a rated power of 630 – K.V.A a collecting tank below the

transformer can be used providing it has capacity sufficient to hold the total fluid of

the transformer floor can also be used as collecting tank when the door step &

ventilation openings are correspondingly high

Collecting pit :

For transformers with rated power of 800 – 1600 K.VA, the collecting pit provided

must have a capacity of approxi 2 m³ ( oil content of transformers ) .

With a number of transformers each with rated capacity of between 800 – 1600

K.VA. a common collecting pit can be used providing this has a capacity at least 2

m³ . this pit can be situated out side the transformers , it is permitted to construct a

number of small inter connected pits providing the total capacity of these pits exceed

2 m³ . a sum pit should be provided in the bottom of each pit to facilitate the pumping

out of small amounts of water or oil .

Gravel, granite chipping layer :

Collecting pits & the oil carrying ducts for a common collecting pit must be screened

above by a layer of gravel or granite chipping at least 20 cm , thick laid on a

galvanized iron grating to minimize the spread of fire fig no (5) *

Outdoor collecting pit :

A collecting pit must also be provided if transformers are installed

outdoor in order to prevent seepage of cooling &insulating fluid into

the ground . the out door collecting pit must have a capacity of at

least 1.2 times the fluid content of the transformer to allow for part

filling of rain water or melted or melted snow , the pit must be

pumped out regularly , other wise it would became filled with

rainwater .

4.8 Ventilation of transformer rooms :

must be borne in mind that the transformer heat losses must be

dissipated inlet- & outlet air openings have to provided the air inlet

should be either from underneath the transformer or as close as

possible to the floor level but never higher than the midpoint of the

transformer . the outlet opening should be as high as passible.inlet

and outlet openings should be arranged on opposite walls . The

efficiency of the ventilation increases with the difference in height

between the middle of the transformer tank & the outlet openings,

fig (6)*.

Fig no (6)

Arrangement of inlet

and outlet air openings

4.9 Dimensioning of outlet air opening :

from curves given fig.(10) the dimensions of the required out let air

opening can be approximated the value obtained is for a free air

opening without screen & also allowing for an air temperature rise of

15 °C within the room the values have been increased by for simple

screens approx. 10% , for screens & shutters approx. 50 % .

Dimensions of inlet- air opening :

The dimensions of the inlet – air opening can be 10 % smaller than

the dimensions of the outlet- air opening , ( plus the increase

required for screen & shutters ) . to find the dimensions of inlet &

outlet air openings .

Given :

Height from station floor to center of outlet air opening 3100 mm ,

transformer rated power 400 K.V.A height from station floor to mid

point of transformer tank 600 mm resulting difference in height h =

3100 – 600 = 2500 mm .

Outlet air opening obtained from curves 0.9 m²

Increase for simple screen + 10 % + 0.09 m²

Dimension of outlet air opening 0.99 m²

Dimension of inlet air opening (10 %) 0.9 m²

5.1 Important instructions for الخطوات التى يجب مراعاتها قبل بدء

commissioning : الختبارات والتشغيل :

1. cleaning the porcelain bushings – bus bars for -1تنظيمف العوازل الصمينى وبارات التوصميل جهتى

الضغط العالى والضغط المنخفض وكذلك سطح التنك

both H.T & L.T sides & tank surface ومواسير التبريد.

-2التأكمد ممن ربمط العوازل الصمينى علمى جسمم التنك 2. well fastening of porcelain bushing to

وسلمة الجوانات المرنة التى تمنع تسرب الزيت من transformer cover and to be sure that

oil seals are in good condition المحولت

3. oil level for safe operation –3التأكد من أن مستوى الزيت فى المحول بالقدر الكافى

للتشغيمل بحيمث ل يقمل عمن أدنمى مسمتوى ممبين على

خزان التمدد واذا احتاج المر فيمكن تزويد الزيت عن

طريمق الفتحة العليما بخزان التمدد وبنفمس نوع الزيت

الصلى أو المعادل له

- 4فى حالمة عدم اسمتعمال المحول لمدة طويلمة وكذلك 4. in case that the transformer is not used

بعد مرور عام على التشغيل يجب اعادة اختبار قوة for long time the dielectric strength of

oil is to be checked & after a year of عزل الزيت ويجب أل تقل عن 20ك.ف2.5/مم.

operation it must be not less than 20

K.V/2.5 mm

5. to ensure safety of operation apparatus like ، التأكمد ممن سملمة أجهزة الوقايمة مثمل البوخهلز- 5

bucholz relay , thermometer , silica gel and الترمومتر والسيلكاجل ومسمار الرضى

earthing screw

6. to be sure that the silica – gel is blue التأكمد ممن لون الملمح السميلكاجل الزرق حتمى يمكنه-6

( i,e) able to remove humidity , if it became امتصمماص الرطوبمة فإذا تحول الممى اللون الحمر

red it must be dried 140° till it is blue again الوردى فإنمه يجمب إعادة تجفيمف الملمح بتعريضه

or must be changed . حتى يستعيد لونهºم140 لدرجة حرارة ل تزيد عن

الزرق أو بتغيير الملح

7. terminals of warning and switching off in the يجب توصيل نقطتى النذار ونقطتى الفصل فى- 7

Buchholz relay must be connected to the روزتة جهاز البوخهلز بأجهزة النذار والفصل بمفاتيح

warning circuit and to the protection circuits العميل حيث تعمل صفارة النذار اذا تراكمت الغازات

of the customer Here is a guide connection حول العوامة العليا بجهاز البوخهلز وحيث يفصل جهاز

diagram (fig.No.13) In case of small faults الوقاية مفتاح تغذية المحول بالكهرباء فى حالة حدوث

the gasses gathered around the upper fault قصر فى الدائرة واندفاع الغازات من المحول الى العوامة

which closed , the warning circuit and the . السفلية فى جهاز البوخهلز

warning voice is heared , in case of big وتعمل دائرتا النذار والفصل على تيار تشغيل

faults a big amount of gasses move the 220 الى24 أجهزة الوقاية عند العميل على جهد من

lower float which shuts the tripping circuit .فولت تيار مستمر أو متردد

and the current is switched off the trafo – ( يوضح توصيل جهاز البوخهلز13) شكل رقم

warning and switching circuits work on the بأجهزة النذار والفصل

customer protection current on voltages

between 24 & 220 Volts A.C or D.C .

8. To be sure that the tape changer is in the التأكد من تثبيت منظم الجهد فى الوضع المراد تشغيل- 8

required position . . المحول عليه

9. In case of indoor installation of Trafo, the فى حالمة تركيمب المحول داخمل المبانمى فيراعمى أن- 9

dimensions of the Trafo room must be تكون أبعاد الغرفمة مناسمبة لحجمم المحول كمما يحسن

suitable to the Trafo , size and aeration , air عمل فتحات تهوية فى اتجاهين متضادين ويحسن أن

ducts must be made in opposite تغطى فتحات التهوية بشبكة معدنية

directions .Covering the air ducts with a

metallic net is recommended

شكل رقم ) (7يوضح توصيل جهاز البوخهلز بأجهزة النذار والفصل

5.2Transformer tests: الختبارات

routine tests are carried out according تجرى علقى المحولت الختبارات الروتينيقة طبققا لمواصفات

to IEC standards : IECوتشمل :

Insulation test between windings and اختبار العزل بين الملفات وبعضها وبينها وبين

between winding and earth. الرض .

Induced high voltage test. اختبار العزل بالجهد التأثيرى لكل حلقة من الملفات.

no – load losses test اختبار قياس الفقد فىالقلب الحديدى فى حالة عدم وجود حمل

short circuit test اختبار قصر الدائرة

windings resistance measurements قياس مقاومة الملفات

5.2.1 upon request following حسب طلب العميل يمكن إجراء الختبارات التالية

tests can be made :

loading and heat test اختبار التحميل ودرجة الحرارة

resistance of insulation to impulse اختبار تحمل العزل للصدمات الكهربائية

test قياس مستوى الضوضاء

noise lvel

6.1 Arrangement of distribution transformers

The distribution transformers can be arranged centrally in one station or

in a number of sub – stations distributed over the whole load area .

As a rule they should be placed at the centers of load thus the length of

cables cross section of conductors and losses are kept within economic

limits .

The centrally arranged system used for distribution systems where only

small extension of the area is likely and load intensity is high .

the load equalization occurs mainly on the low tension side on the bus

bars see fig (8)* in calculating the rated power of distribution

transformer .

Fig no (8)

Centrally Arranged distribution

Transformers in a sub-station

6.2 Some requirements for operation :-

The peak load of the whole distribution system taking into account a

reserve in the event of one transformer being out of order the

transformers should if possible be equal in size to facilitate operation

in parallel and interchangeability.

The decent tralized arrangement of distribution transformers is of ten

favored for wide supply area and for widely distributed centers of

load neighborly substation can then be connected by ri ng main on

the low voltage side in this way load equalization between the sub

station Can be achieved and the supply can be maintained when

one of the transformers on the high voltage side of substation is out

of order.

if necessary several transformers may be required as reserve , as

shown in fig ( 9 ) and fig ( 10 ) and fig (11 ) .

Fig no (9)

Decentralized arrangement of distribution

Transformers in several sub-stations

Fig no (10)

Ring-main system with ring

Circuit looped between sub-

stations

Fig no (11)

diagram of ring-main

system.

a) Ring –main system

with two ring circuits

b) Ring-main system with

terminal station

6.3 Peculiarities of high voltage ring system:

this simple way to loop ring circuits into substations is via load break isolators

the ring circuit can be opened at convenient points to confine a fault to a part

of the circuit only ( e.g in substation b3 ) fig (12)*

By means of short circuit indicators in each sub-station affected can be

determined thus the faulty section of the circuit can be readily found and

isolated.

After isolating the faulty cable run at (d) ( worst fault condition ) & closing the

isolating point in substation b3 , normal service can be resumed under the

worst fault condition , with the fault in cable run ( d ) between the ring supply

and the first substation the remaining cable has to supply current to the whole

ring circuit and must therefore be rated for single supply if there is a load

center with high load demand opposite the transfer station ( e.g a university ,

hospital in a rural area ) , it will found advantageous to provides a ring main

system with a terminal substation at the load center . this would ensure good

load equalization and high security of supply to, all sub station yet the number

of ring circuits will be less fig. (11)

6.4 Parallel operation:

transformers will operate in parallel when they are connected to the same network

system, both on the high voltage as well as on the low voltage side .

slight different conditions apply between operation in parallel bus bars and operation

in parallel on systems networks .

6.5 general requirements for parallel operation :

for satisfactory operation in parallel , especially on bus bars the following general

requirements apply ;

For transformers having the same vector group and clock hour number, terminals

having identical designations are paralleled .

The ratio of transformation must be identical .

All taping must have identical values on each transformer .

The rated impeadence voltage must be practically the same within 10 % , the

transformer with the smaller rated power should have the higher rated

impeadence voltage , if possible the ratio of the rated power of transformers

working in parallel should not be more than3:1 .

for checking the phase relationship the 2N-terminal of the transformer to be

connected to the transformer to be connected is connected to the 1N bus bar of the

system the phase relation is then check by using a voltmeter if the connection is

correct the voltmeter will indicate zero , if the connection is correct the voltmeter

will indicate values values of up to twice the phase voltage fig (13) * .

Fig no ( 13 )

6.6 Protection by fuses ( short circuit protection ) :

Distribution transformers are normally protected against short circuits by high

voltage H.R.C- fuses ( table No 5 ) can be used for the selection of fuses for

distribution transformers ; the maximum current inrush when switching on the

transformer has been taken into consideration .

Table no (5)

Guiding values for the rating Of high-voltage HRC-fuses

6.7 Over load protection:

the over load protection of transformers is provided on the low voltage side

. the low voltage H.R.C- fuses or the thermally delayed over current trips

of the circuit breakers are selected according to the rated current IN of the

transformer . this selection normally provides adequate selectivity between

high – voltage and low voltage side .

6.8 Short circuit strength:

Distribution transformers need to be designed to with stand the effects of

external short circuits with out damage .

Steady state R.M.S short circuit current I.K :

The short circuit current Ik of a transformer is the steady state R.M.S.

value of current at the terminals following on all phases short circuit on the

terminals of the outgoing side and when the D.C component has decayed

with constant rated voltage applied to the input terminals .

Calculation of steady state R.M.S short circuit current :

For transformer operating at rated voltage & rated frequency and tappings

adjusted to the principal tap , the continuous short circuit current Ik can be

calculated from the rated current IN & the rated impeadence voltage UKN .

IN = rated current in A .

For the calculation of short circuit currents of installation systems , the

resistance of the system must be taken into consideration . for calculation of

short – circuit current in three phase systems .

6.11 Maximum permissible duration of short circuit :

For values of Ik and time duration see table ( 6 ) the peak short circuit

current is important in considering the dynamic stresses in the transformer &

other operating equipment affected by the fault .

The peak short circuit current “ IS “ of a transformer is the first peak

maximum transient value of current at the terminals of the outgoing side .

The first peak value of current Ik is the X 2 multiple of the R.M.S short

circuit current IK

table no (6)

Values of Ik and time of duration

6.12 Calculation of the peak short circuit current Is :

The permissible peak short circuit current Is of a transformer is :

IS = I K × 2

Where :

IS = peak short circuit current in A ( peak value ) .

I K = maximum permissible R.M.S short circuit current in A .

X 2 = impulse factor .

Impulse factor : the impulse factor X 2 of the reactance X to the Ohmeic resistance R , (

i.e ) dependent on the ratio of the reactance voltage Ux to the resistive voltage drop UR

of the transformer .

Maintenance work is permitted only when the transformer is switched off and the

terminals earthed .

7.1 Dry type transformers:

Dry type transformers must be kept dust free & protected against pollution . at

regular intervals these should be cleaned with bellows or a vacuum cleaner .

terminals and bolted joints should also be checked regularly .

Drying out :

The insulation resistance between windings & also windings to earth provides good

indication of the condition of the insulation especially when a transformer has been

out of service over a long period and many have absorbed moisture . subsequent

drying out may therefore be necessary .

The insulation resistance at room temperature should not less than

For operating voltage:

Up to 1000 v 15 m. ohm.

Above 1000 v 25 m. ohm

Above 5000 v 40 m. ohm .

The insulation resistance is normally measure with 1000 V or 2000 V instrument

If the insulation resistance is below the above recommended values it can be assumed

that moisture has been observed by the insulation .

7.3 The winding can be dried out as follows :

such as incandescent lamps , resister elements or radiators . the surface of the

windings must not exceed 100°C when using direct radiation .

heating under short – circuit conditions with a maximum rated current the output

side of the transformer is short – circuited and the input side connected to a

voltage approximately equal to the impedance voltage .

this voltage is adjusted such that the current flowing does not exceed the rated

current stated on the nameplate is exceeded during drying the room must be

well ventilated during dying process . the value of insulation resistance should

be measured repeatedly .

During renovation work in the transformer room the transformer should be

switched off and earthed .

It is important , particularly with dry type transformer to cover carefully to protect

from dust , paint , humidity and other pollution , when building and painting work

is in process , the room must be well ventilated and if necessary heated .

Cast resin transformers are largely maintenance free and do not require drying .

7.3 Oil – immersed transformers :

the type of fluid used is stated on the rating plate .the maintenance of this

type of transformer includes :

Checking the level of fluid at the sight glass .

Checking effectiveness of gaskets and quality of paint finish .

Testing the insulating fluid of moisture content and checking or

reactivating the silica – gel in the breather .

To check the moisture content of the insulating fluid a sample must be taken

to ensure that the measurement corresponds to the actual conditions of the

fluid within the transformer , special care the highest degree of clean lines

is required when taking samples .

1. A specimen bottle with large opening and glass stopper ( not cork ) is

required

2. The bottle must be cleaned with clean alcohol and well dried .

3. The drain cook must be carefully cleaned and dried before taking a test

sample .

4. The specimen bottle should be approximately half filled with the fluid

and rinsed with this fluid before a test sample is taken ..

7.4 break down voltage :

Eleven samples should be taken and a break down voltage test made with

electrodes having a 2 – 5 mm gap for each sample the break down

voltage test is repeated six times with a 2 minute interval between each .

the break down voltage is the mean value of the results of tests 2 to 6 .

the transformers of insulation rating up to 30 k.v. the mean value

acceptable is for new oil or a skarel 60 k.v. minimum and for used oil 30

k. v. minimum .

if the measured values fall below the above mentioned minimum values

the insulating fluid must be changed or re conditional by use of special

filter presses or for small trans formers the complete transformer can be

dried under vacuum the manufacturers of transformers and the electricity

boards have the necessary plant and devices for the conditioning and

drying of the insulating fluid .

for refilling is necessary the fluid used must be identical to the original it

is recommended to test the new fluid for break down voltage before

refilling

- Power transformersUploaded byshasailu
- Transformer ManualUploaded bydeepak2628
- Transformers.pptUploaded bySachith Praminda Rupasinghe
- 23739803-Power-Transformers.pdfUploaded byBoussaid Souheil
- Transformers ABBUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- Power Transformer 2Uploaded bysherif ahmed moussa
- ABB Transformer Handbook ( Business Unit Transformers Power Technologies Division )Uploaded byThiago Andrade Prado
- Finite Element Method Hotspot Power Transformer Stray Losses Thermal ModelUploaded byramchereddy6594
- ABB TransformersUploaded byjasonlaiym
- Testing Power TransformersUploaded byAbdul Kadhir
- Power TransformersUploaded byphotonels333
- Cigre, 13 Years Test Experience With Short Circuit Withstand Capability of Large Power TransformersUploaded byMartin Butcher
- ID091005-00-140-01 - SWGR-361 Single Line Diagram Rev 06Uploaded byMatthew Kuttikad
- Testing of Power TransformersUploaded byYurika RS
- Power Transformers TestUploaded bySamuel Ndopu
- Transformer Installation GuideUploaded byfreddysh4330
- 32940_1200_403_R7_NEW_AL_QUMRIYAHUploaded byNadeem Qureshi
- ALL AMF Panel DrawingsRev B05082008Uploaded byamitdhamija
- RIP vs OIPUploaded byrandhir1112
- Soak Pit Design CalculationUploaded byHarsha Gavini
- 30mw Generator Relay PanelUploaded byasexyguy
- Alstom - 11kv Indoor Vcb Switchboard - DrawingUploaded byArun Kumar
- 3_2 Guidelines for Selction of Generator for SHPUploaded bybacuoc.nguyen356
- EPLANUploaded byEder Madruga
- Power TransformersUploaded bybookbum
- Power TransformerUploaded bychuppa
- Transformer EnglishUploaded byletuan253
- SwitchgearUploaded bykailasamvv
- GUIDE FOR PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR POWER TRANSFORMERSUploaded byme_vahabi
- TransformersUploaded byKarthik Venkatasubramaniyam

- 鸭形拳Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 鹰爪派翻子门十路行拳Uploaded byNg Chee Peng
- Chuo JiaoUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 鹰爪门擒拿术Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- Baguazhang AnecdotesUploaded byRonaldo Briant
- اسامة سعيد .. الكونغ فو الصينية المصورةUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- Xingyi Quan Basic SkillsUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- A Brief Introduction to Geng Style Xingyi Splitting SpearUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 《腿拳》·庞林太Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 青少年武术入门丛书—散打—踢打摔拿的实战组合—黄鑫 石天敬编着Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [龙形九势健身法].武世俊.扫描版Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 《写真秘宗拳》姜容樵Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- Cha Dja ChuanUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 鹰爪翻子拳精华Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 龙形八卦游身掌_雷啸天Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [鹰手拳法].郭宪和.扫描版 иньчжаоUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- Arrivals - Dragon Fist (Zhu Shaoji)Uploaded byChristopher Giataganas
- 搏击2012年09期Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 鹰爪门擒拿术Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 少林五形八法拳（108势）秦庆丰Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- A Brief Introduction to Geng Style Xingyi Splitting SpearUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- “北腿”拳中王 燕青翻子-蔡景和编著Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- اسامة سعيد .. الكونغ فو الصينية المصورة.pdfUploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 搏击2008年01期Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- 《腿拳》·庞林太Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [鹰爪拳].翟金生.扫描版Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [三十二势绝命拳].游民生.扫描版Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [健身益气法].沙国政.扫描版Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani
- [戳脚81腿实战法].苏耘.扫描版Uploaded bykickara
- [中华武术辞典].蔡龙云.扫描版Uploaded byMohammedSaadaniHassani

- Work Order ApplicationUploaded byTimi
- Pdf EGILUploaded byeng_mohammad78
- D.8081gb Ansicht Doppelseiten LowUploaded byedcinc
- 854ATG_IG_4416225_Rev06Uploaded byBrian McKirdy
- Revalco Price ListUploaded byjoabaar
- Trivector MeterUploaded byTarun Ahuja
- 2-15-1466427029-1. Electrical - Ijeee - Coordinated Effect of Power System Stabilizer - Rampreet ManjhiUploaded byrobertovm2002
- CT Spec Revision 2015Uploaded byGurmeet Singh
- 04-3-Ts Vol-II ,Sec-IV, Pre Comm r1Uploaded byStevenRodriguez
- Indian RailwayUploaded byAnonymous 3BGW2XaXZe
- Ryan Toohey C1Uploaded byFely Binan
- Top Energy IndustriesUploaded byBabu Rao
- 10.01.11.BUploaded bymalaarunachalam
- 765 KV Substn Design ChallangesUploaded byDipak Bandyopadhyay
- AVC63-4 Brochure.pdfUploaded byCláudio Lima
- Electrical SymbolsUploaded bymksamy2021
- 1-8_AmeriComp-SPECTRA-325EUploaded byJairo Manzaneda
- Rectifiers, Inverters & Motors Drives PptUploaded byUtkarsh Agrawal
- EMEA-WC-Sec-1Uploaded byThanh Phong
- bookchapter_fke01Uploaded byFernando Botterón
- Power Plants Product Catalogue 2010Uploaded byJesudhason Prince
- 802C Dimensions 2Uploaded byNguyễn Đức Lợi
- 2126770 FP S Recommended AC Fuses 1v0Uploaded byGadi Huaman Flores
- LF_IntroductiontoCircuitProtectionUploaded byAnun Sumook
- 06817578Uploaded byvsasaank
- Improved Power Quality AC-DC Converters With High Frequency Transformer IsolationUploaded byZlatian Radu
- Det62d Ds en v11Uploaded bylord_master
- NHTSA closes Tesla investigationUploaded byotterom
- FACTS DevicesUploaded byraghuevm
- BA261 002 02 en Three Winding TransformerUploaded bySheik Hussain