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Fundamentals of

Bus Bar
Protection
GE Multilin
Outline

• Bus arrangements
• Bus components
• Bus protection techniques
• CT Saturation
• Application Considerations:
 High impedance bus differential
relaying
 Low impedance bus differential
relaying
 Special topics
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Single bus - single breaker

• Distribution and lower transmission


voltage levels
• No operating flexibility
• Fault on the bus trips all circuit breakers
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Multiple bus sections - single
breaker with bus tie

• Distribution and lower transmission


voltage levels
• Limited operating flexibility
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Double bus - single breaker with
bus tie

• Transmission and distribution voltage levels


• Breaker maintenance without circuit removal
• Fault on a bus disconnects only the circuits
being connected to that bus
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Main and transfer buses

• Increased operating flexibility


• A bus fault requires tripping all
breakers
• Transfer bus for breaker maintenance 6
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
ble bus – single breaker w/ transfer

• Very high operating flexibility


• Transfer bus for breaker
maintenance
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Double bus - double breaker

• High operating flexibility


• Line protection covers bus section between
two CTs
• Fault on a bus does not disturb the power to 8

circuits GE Consumer & Industrial


Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Breaker-and-a-half bus

• Used on higher voltage levels


• More operating flexibility
• Requires more breakers
• Middle bus sections covered by line or
other equipment protection 9
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Ring bus L1 L2

TB1

B1 B2

TB1

L3 L4

• Higher voltage levels


• High operating flexibility with minimum
breakers
10

• Separate bus protection not required at


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Bus components breakers
BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1 ISO 2

Low Voltage circuit


breakers

CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

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GE Consumer & Industrial
SF6, EHV & HV - Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Synchropuff
Disconnect switches & auxiliary
contacts BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1 ISO 2 BUS 1


CB 1
ISO 3
BYPASS

1
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Current Transformers
BUS 1

BUS 2

ISO 1 ISO 2

Gas (SF6) insulated


current transformer

Oil insulated current


transformer (35kV up to
CB 1
800kV)
ISO 3
BYPASS

Bushing type 13
(medium voltage GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
switchgear) Oct 31, 2009
Protection Requirements
High bus fault currents due to large number of circuits
connected:
• CT saturation often becomes a problem as CTs may not be
sufficiently rated for worst fault condition case
• large dynamic forces associated with bus faults require fast
clearing times in order to reduce equipment damage
False trip by bus protection may create serious problems:
• service interruption to a large number of circuits (distribution and
sub-transmission voltage levels)
• system-wide stability problems (transmission voltage levels)
With both dependability and security important,
preference is always given to security

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Bus Protection Techniques

• Interlocking schemes
• Overcurrent (“unrestrained” or “unbiased”)
differential
• Overcurrent percent (“restrained” or
“biased”) differential
• Linear couplers
• High-impedance bus differential schemes
• Low-impedance bus differential schemes

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Interlocking Schemes
• Blocking scheme typically
used
• Short coordination time
required
50 • Care must be taken with
possible saturation of
feeder CTs

BLOCK
• Blocking signal could be
50 50 50 50 50
sent over communications
ports (peer-to-peer)
• This technique is limited to
simple one-incomer
distribution buses

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Overcurrent (unrestrained)
Differential • Differential signal formed by
summation of all currents
feeding the bus
• CT ratio matching may be
required
• On external faults,
51
saturated CTs yield spurious
differential current
• Time delay used to cope
with CT saturation
• Instantaneous differential
OC function useful on
integrated microprocessor-
based relays

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Linear Couplers

ZC = 2 Ω – 20 Ω - typical coil impedance

(5V per 1000Amps => 0.005Ω @ 60Hz )

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0V
40 V 10 V 10 V 0V 20 V
External
Fault
If =
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8000 A GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
2000 2000 A 0 4000 Oct 31, 2009
Linear
Couplers
Esec = Iprim *Xm - secondary voltage on relay terminals

IR= Σ Iprim *Xm /(ZR+Σ ZC) – minimum operating current

where,
Iprim – primary current in each circuit
Xm – liner coupler mutual reactance (5V per 1000Amps => 0.005Ω @
60Hz )
ZR – relay tap impedance
Σ ZC – sum of all linear coupler
If = self impedances
Internal Bus
8000 A Fault

40 V 59
0V 10 V 10 V 0V 20 V

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
0 2000 2000 0 4000
Linear
Couplers
• Fast, secure and proven
• Require dedicated air gap CTs, which may
not be used for any other protection
• Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable
buses
• The scheme uses a simple voltage detector –
it does not provide benefits of a
microprocessor-based relay (e.g.
oscillography, breaker failure protection,
other functions)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Differential
• Operating signal created by
connecting all CT secondaries in
parallel
o CTs must all have the same ratio
o Must have dedicated CTs

• Overvoltage element operates on


voltage developed across resistor
connected in secondary circuit
o Requires varistors or AC shorting
59
relays to limit energy during faults
• Accuracy dependent on secondary
circuit resistance
o Usually requires larger CT cables to
reduce errors ⇒ higher cost

Cannot easily be applied to reconfigurable


buses and offers no advanced functionality 21
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Percent Differential

• Percent characteristic
used to cope with CT
saturation and other
errors
• Restraining signal can
be formed in a number
of ways
• No dedicated CTs 87
51
needed
• Used for protection of
re-configurable buses
I DIF = I1 + I 2 + ... + I n possible

I RES = I1 + I 2 + ... + I n I RES = max ( I1 , I 2 , ..., I n )


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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Low Impedance Percent
Differential
• Individual currents sampled by protection and summated digitally
o CT ratio matching done internally (no auxiliary CTs)
o Dedicated CTs not necessary
• Additional algorithms improve security of percent differential
characteristic during CT saturation
• Dynamic bus replica allows application to reconfigurable buses
o Done digitally with logic to add/remove current inputs from
differential computation
o Switching of CT secondary circuits not required
• Low secondary burdens
• Additional functionality available
o Digital oscillography and monitoring of each circuit connected to bus
zone
o Time-stamped event recording
o Breaker failure protection

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Digital Differential Algorithm
Goals
• Improve the main differential algorithm operation
o Better filtering
o Faster response
o Better restraint techniques
o Switching transient blocking
• Provide dynamic bus replica for reconfigurable bus bars
• Dependably detect CT saturation in a fast and reliable
manner, especially for external faults
• Implement additional security to the main differential
algorithm to prevent incorrect operation
o External faults with CT saturation
o CT secondary circuit trouble (e.g. short circuits)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Low Impedance Differential
(Distributed) • Data Acquisition Units (DAUs)
installed in bays
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
52 52 52 processes all data from DAUs
DAU DAU DAU • Communications between
DAUs and CPU over fiber
using proprietary protocol
• Sampling synchronisation
between DAUs is required
• Perceived less reliable (more
CU
hardware needed)
• Difficult to apply in retrofit
copper applications
f ib e r

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Low Impedance Differential
(Centralized)
• All currents applied to a
52 52 52 single central processor
• No communications,
external sampling
synchronisation necessary
• Perceived more reliable
(less hardware needed)
• Well suited to both new and
CU retrofit applications.

copper

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation Concepts
• CT saturation depends on a number of factors
o Physical CT characteristics (size, rating, winding
resistance, saturation voltage)
o Connected CT secondary burden (wires + relays)
o Primary current magnitude, DC offset (system X/R)
o Residual flux in CT core
• Actual CT secondary currents may not behave in the same
manner as the ratio (scaled primary) current during faults
• End result is spurious differential current appearing in the
summation of the secondary currents which may cause
differential elements to operate if additional security is not
applied

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation

No DC Offset
• Waveform remains
fairly symmetrical
Ratio Current CT Current

With DC Offset
• Waveform starts off
being asymmetrical,
Ratio Current CT Current then symmetrical in
steady state
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
External Fault & Ideal CTs
differential

t1

t0 r e s t r a in in g
• Fault starts at t0
• Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1

Ideal CTs have no saturation or mismatch


errors thus produce no differential current 30
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
External Fault & Actual CTs
differential

t1

t0 r e s t r a in in g
• Fault starts at t0
• Steady-state fault conditions occur at t1

Actual CTs do introduce errors, producing some


differential current (without CT saturation) 31
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
External Fault with CT
Saturation
t2
differential

t1

t0 r e s t r a in in g
• Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
• CT fully saturated at t2
CT saturation causes increasing differential
current that may enter the differential 32

element operate region. GE Consumer & Industrial


Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Some Methods of Securing Bus
Differential
• Block the bus differential for a period of time (intentional delay)
o Increases security as bus zone will not trip when CT saturation is present
o Prevents high-speed clearance for internal faults with CT saturation or
evolving faults
• Change settings of the percent differential characteristic (usually Slope
2)
o Improves security of differential element by increasing the amount of
spurious differential current needed to incorrectly trip
o Difficult to explicitly develop settings (Is 60% slope enough? Should it be
75%?)
• Apply directional (phase comparison) supervision
o Improves security by requiring all currents flow into the bus zone before
asserting the differential element
o Easy to implement and test
o Stable even under severe CT saturation during external faults

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High-
Impedance
Bus
Differential 34
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Voltage-
operated Relay
• 59 element
External Faultset above max possible voltage
developed across relay during external fault causing
worst case CT saturation
• For internal faults, extremely high voltages (well
above 59 element pickup) will develop across relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Voltage
Operated Relay Ratio matching with
• ApplicationCTs
Multi-ratio of high impedance differential relays
with CTs of different ratios but ratio matching taps is
possible, but could lead to voltage magnification.
• Voltage developed across full winding of tapped CT
does not exceed CT rating, terminal blocks, etc.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Voltage
Operated Relay Ratio matching with
• Use of auxiliary
Multi-ratio CTs CTs to obtain correct ratio matching
is also possible, but these CTs must be able to deliver
enough voltage necessary to produce relay operation
for internal faults.

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Electromechanical High
Impedance Bus Differential
Relays
• Single phase relays
• High-speed

 
• High impedance voltage sensing
• High seismic IOC unit
          

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
µ P -based High-Impedance Bus
Differential Protection Relays

Operating time: 20 – 30ms @ I > 1.5xPKP

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Module for
Digital Relays

RST = 2000Ω - stabilizing resistor to limit


the current through the relay, and force it
to the lower impedance CT windings.
MOV – Metal Oxide Varistor to limit the
voltage to
1900 Volts
86 – latching contact preventing the
40
resistors from overheating after the fault is GE Consumer & Industrial
detected Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High-Impedance Module
+
Overcurrent Relay

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
High Impedance Bus Protection -
Summary
• Fast, secure and proven
• Requires dedicated CTs, preferably with the same CT
ratio and using full tap
• Can be applied to small buses
• Depending on bus internal and external fault
currents, high impedance bus diff may not provide
adequate settings for both sensitivity and security
• Cannot be easily applied to reconfigurable buses
• Require voltage limiting varistor capable of
absorbing significant energy
• May require auxiliary CTs
• Do not provide full benefits of microprocessor-based
relay system (e.g. metering, monitoring,
oscillography, etc.)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Low-
Impedance
Bus
Differential 43
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
µ P-based Low-Impedance
Relays
• No need for dedicated CTs
• Internal CT ratio mismatch compensation
• Advanced algorithms supplement percent differential
protection function making the relay very secure
• Dynamic bus replica (bus image) principle is used in
protection of reconfigurable bus bars, eliminating the
need for switching physically secondary current circuits
• Integrated Breaker Failure (BF) function can provide
optimal tripping strategy depending on the actual
configuration of a bus bar

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Small Bus Applications
2-8 Circuit
Applications
• Up to 24 Current Inputs • Different CT Ratio
• 4 Zones Capability for Each
• Zone 1 = Phase A Circuit
• Zone 2 = Phase B • Largest CT Primary is
• Zone 3 = Phase C Base in Relay
• Zone 4 = Not used

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Medium to Large Bus
Applications
9-12 Circuit
Applications
• Relay 1 - 24 Current Inputs • Relay 2 - 24 Current Inputs
• 4 Zones • 4 Zones
• Zone 1 = Phase A (12 currents) • Zone 1 = Not used
• Zone 2 = Phase B (12 currents) • Zone 2 = Not used
• Zone 3 = Not used • Zone 3 = Phase C (12 currents)
• Zone 4 = Not used • Zone 4 = Not used
• Different CT Ratio Capability for Each Circuit
• Largest CT Primary is Base in Relay

CB CB
11 12

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Large Bus Applications

87B phase A

87B phase B

87B phase C

Logic relay
(switch status,
optional BF)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Large Bus Applications
For buses with up to 24 circuits

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Summing External Currents
Not Recommended for Low-Z 87B relays
C T -1
• Relay becomes
combination of
C T -2
restrained and
unrestrained elements
C T -3 •In order to parallel CTs:
I 1 = Error

• CT performance must be
closely matched
C T -4
o Any errors will appear as
I 2 =0

differential currents
• Associated feeders must be
I 3 =0

ID = E rro r M a lo p e r a tio n if
radial
IF F

IR = E rro r E rro r > P IC K U P


ES T

o No backfeeds possible
• Pickup setting must be raised
to accommodate any errors
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Definitions of Restraint Signals
iR = i1 + i2 + i3 + ... + in “sum of”

iR = ( i1 + i2 + i3 + ... + in )
1
“scaled sum of”
n

iR = n i1 ⋅ i2 ⋅ i3 ⋅ ... ⋅ in “geometrical average”

iR = Max ( i1 , i2 , i3 ,..., in ) “maximum of”

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
“Sum Of” vs. “Max Of” Restraint
Methods
“Sum Of” Approach “Max Of” Approach
• More restraint on external • Less restraint on external faults;
faults; less sensitive for internal more sensitive for internal
faults faults
• “Scaled-Sum Of” approach • Breakpoint settings for the
takes into account number of percent differential
connected circuits and may characteristic easier to set
increase sensitivity • Better handles situation where
• Breakpoint settings for the one CT may saturate
percent differential completely (99% slope settings
characteristic more difficult to possible)
set

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Bus Differential Adaptive
Approach
R e g io n 2
( h ig h d if f e r e n t ia l
c u rre n ts )
differential

R e g io n 1
( lo w d if f e r e n t ia l
c u rre n ts )

r e s t r a in in g
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Bus Differential Adaptive Logic
Diagram

DIFL

AND
DIR

OR
87B BIASED OP
OR

SAT
AND

DIFH

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Phase Comparison Principle
• Internal Faults: All fault (“large”) currents are
approximately in phase.

• External Faults: One fault (“large”) current will be out


of phase

Secondary Current of
Faulted Circuit
• No Voltages are required or (Severe CT Saturation)
needed

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Phase Comparison Principle
Continued…
E x te r n a l F a u lt C o n d itio n s In te r n a l F a u lt C o n d itio n s

 Ip   Ip 
imag   imag  
 ID − I p  O PERATE  ID − I p  O PERATE
   
BLO CK BLOCK
 Ip   Ip 
ID - Ip real   ID - Ip real  
Ip  ID − I p   ID − I p 
   
Ip
BLO CK
BLOCK
O PERATE O PERATE

55
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation

t2
differential

t1

t0 r e s t r a in in g
• Fault starts at t0, CT begins to saturate at t1
• CT fully saturated at t2

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation Detector State
Machine NORMAL

SAT := 0

The differential
current below the saturation
first slope for condition
certain period of
time EXTERNAL
FAULT

SAT := 1
The differential-
The differential restraining trajectory
characteristic out of the differential
entered characteristic for
certain period of time
EXTERNAL
FAULT & CT
SATURATION

SAT := 1

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation Detector
Operating Principles
• The 87B SAT flag WILL NOT be set during
internal faults, regardless of whether or not
any of the CTs saturate.
• The 87B SAT flag WILL be set during
external faults, regardless of whether or not
any of the CTs saturate.
• By design, the 87B SAT flag WILL force the
relay to use the additional 87B DIR phase
The Saturation
comparison Detector
for Region WILL
2 NOT Block the
Operation of the Differential Element – it will
only Force 2-out-of-2 Operation
58
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation Detector -
Examples
• The oscillography records on the next two slides were
captured from a B30 relay under test on a real-time digital
power system simulator
• First slide shows an external fault with deep CT saturation
(~1.5 msec of good CT performance)
o SAT saturation detector flag asserts prior to BIASED PKP
bus differential pickup
o DIR directional flag does not assert (one current flows out
of zone), so even though bus differential picks up, no trip
results
• Second slide shows an internal fault with mild CT saturation
o BIASED PKP and BIASED OP both assert before DIR asserts
o CT saturation does not block bus differential
• More examples available (COMTRADE files) upon request

59
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation Example –
External Fault 200

150

100 ~1 ms
50

current, A
0

-50

-100

-150

-200
0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
time, sec

T h e b u s d iffe re n tia l T h e C T s a t u r a tio n fla g


p r o te c tio n e le m e n t is s e t s a fe ly b e fo re th e
p ic k s u p d u e to h e a v y p ic k u p fla g
C T s a tu ra tio n

Despite heavy CT
saturation the
external fault current
T h e e le m e n t is seen in the
The
does not opposite direction
d ir e c tio n a l fla g
m a lo p e r a te 60
is n o t s e t
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
CT Saturation – Internal Fault
Example

T h e b u s d iffe r e n tia l
p r o te c t io n e le m e n t
p ic k s u p
T h e s a tu ra tio n
fla g is n o t s e t - n o
d ire c tio n a l
d e c is io n r e q u ire d

A ll t h e f a u lt c u r r e n ts
a re s e e n in o n e
d ir e c tio n

The
T h e e le m e n t d ire c tio n a l
o p e r a te s in fla g is s e t
10m s 61
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Applying Low-Impedance
Differential Relays for Busbar
Protection
Basic Topics
• Configure physical CT Inputs
• Configure Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus
Replica
• Calculating Bus Differential Element settings
Advanced Topics
• Isolator switch monitoring for
reconfigurable buses
• Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Integrated Breaker Failure protection
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Configuring CT Inputs
• For each connected CT circuit enter Primary
rating and select Secondary rating.
• Each 3-phase bank of CT inputs must be
assigned to a Signal Source that is used to
define the Bus Zone and Dynamic Bus Replica

Some relays define 1 p.u. as the


maximum primary current of all of the
CTs connected in the given Bus Zone
63
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Per-Unit Current Definition -
Example
Current Primary Secondary Zone
Channel
CT-1 F1 3200 A 1A 1

CT-2 F2 2400 A 5A 1

CT-3 F3 1200 A 1A 1

CT-4 F4 3200 A 1A 2

• For Zone 1, 1 p.u. = 3200 AP


CT-5
• For F5 1200 A 5A
Zone 2, 1 p.u. = 5000 AP
2

64
CT-6 F6 5000 A 5A 2GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Configuration of Bus Zone
• Dynamic Bus Replica associates a status signal
with each current in the Bus Differential Zone
• Status signal can be any logic operand
o Status signals can be developed in
programmable logic to provide additional
checks or security as required
o Status signal can be set to ‘ON’ if current is
always in the bus zone or ‘OFF’ if current is
never in the bus zone
• CT connections/polarities for a particular bus
zone must be properly configured in the relay,
via either hardwire or software
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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Configuring the Bus Differential
Zone
Bus Zone settings defines the boundaries of
the Differential Protection and CT Trouble
Monitoring.

1. Configure the physical CT Inputs


o CT Primary and Secondary values
o Both 5 A and 1 A inputs are supported by the UR hardware
o Ratio compensation done automatically for CT ratio
differences up to 32:1
1. Configure AC Signal Sources
2. Configure Bus Zone with Dynamic Bus Replica

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Dual Percent Differential
Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope

Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup Low


Breakpoint 67
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings
• The following Bus Zone Differential element
parameters need to be set:
o Differential Pickup
o Restraint Low Slope
o Restraint Low Break Point
o Restraint High Breakpoint
o Restraint High Slope
o Differential High Set (if needed)
• All settings entered in per unit (maximum CT primary in
the zone)
• Slope settings entered in percent
• Low Slope, High Slope and High Breakpoint settings
are used by the CT Saturation Detector and define the
Region 1 Area (2-out-of-2 operation with Directional)

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings – Minimum Pickup

• Defines the minimum differential current required for


operation of the Bus Zone Differential element
• Must be set above maximum leakage current not zoned
off in the bus differential zone
• May also be set above maximum load conditions for
added security in case of CT trouble, but better
alternatives exist

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings – Low Slope

• Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents from


IREST =0 to IREST =Low Breakpoint
• Setting determines the sensitivity of the differential
element for low-current internal faults
• Must be set above maximum error introduced by the CTs
in their normal linear operating mode
• Range: 15% to 100% in 1%. increments

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GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings – Low Breakpoint
• Defines the upper limit to restraint currents that will be
biased according to the Low Slope setting
• Should be set to be above the maximum load but not
more than the maximum current where the CTs still
operate linearly (including residual flux)
• Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no
significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up
to the Low Breakpoint setting

71
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings – High Breakpoint

• Defines the minimum restraint currents that will be biased


according to the High Slope setting
• Should be set to be below the minimum current where the
weakest CT will saturate with no residual flux
• Assumption is that the CTs will be operating linearly (no
significant saturation effects up to 80% residual flux) up to
the Low Breakpoint setting

72
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Bus Differential
Settings – High Slope
• Defines the percent bias for the restraint currents
IREST ≥ High Breakpoint
• Setting determines the stability of the differential
element for high current external faults
• Traditionally, should be set high enough to accommodate
the spurious differential current resulting from saturation
of the CTs during heavy external faults
• Setting can be relaxed in favour of sensitivity and speed
as the relay detects CT saturation and applies the
directional principle to prevent maloperation
• Range: 50% to 100% in 1%. increments

73
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Calculating Unrestrained Bus
Differential Settings

• Defines the minimum differential current for unrestrained operation


• Should be set to be above the maximum differential current under worst case
CT saturation
• Range: 2.00 to 99.99 p.u. in 0.01 p.u. increments
• Can be effectively disabled by setting to 99.99 p.u.

74
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Dual Percent Differential
Characteristic

High Set
(Unrestrained)

High Slope

Low Slope
High
Breakpoint

Min Pickup Low


Breakpoint 75
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Reconfigurable Buses
C -3 C -5
NO RTH BU S

B -1 S -1 S -3 S -5
B -5

C T -1 C T -7
C T -2 B -2 C T -3 B -3 C T -4 B -4 C T -5

B -7

C T -6
C T -8
B -6
S -2 S -4 S -6

SO UTH BUS

C -1 C -2 C -4

Protecting re-configurable buses 76


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Reconfigurable Buses
C -3 C -5
N O R TH BUS

B -1 S -1 S -3 S -5
B -5

C T -1 C T -2 B -2 C T -4 B -4 C T -7
C T -3 B -3
C T -5

B -7

C T -6
C T -8
B -6
S -2 S -4 S -6

SO U TH BUS

C -1 C -2 C -4

Protecting re-configurable buses


77
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Reconfigurable Buses
C -3 C -5
N O R TH BUS

B -1 S -1 S -3 S -5
B -5

C T -1 C T -2 B -2 C T -4 B -4 C T -7
C T -3 B -3
C T -5

B -7

C T -6
C T -8
B -6
S -2 S -4 S -6

SO U TH BUS

C -1 C -2 C -4

Protecting re-configurable buses 78


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Reconfigurable Buses
C -3 C -5
NO RTH BU S

B -1 S -1 S -3 S -5
B -5

C T -1 C T -7
C T -2 B -2 C T -3 B -3 C T -4 B -4 C T -5

B -7

C T -6
C T -8
B -6
S -2 S -4 S -6

SO UTH BUS

C -1 C -2 C -4

Protecting re-configurable buses 79


GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Isolators
• Reliable “Isolator Closed” signals are needed for the
Dynamic Bus Replica
• In simple applications, a single normally closed
contact may be sufficient
• For maximum safety:
o Both N.O. and N.C. contacts should be used
o Isolator Alarm should be established and non-valid
combinations (open-open, closed-closed) should be sorted out
o Switching operations should be inhibited until bus image is
recognized with 100% accuracy
o Optionally block 87B operation from Isolator Alarm
• Each isolator position signal decides:
o Whether or not the associated current is to be included in the
differential calculations
o Whether or not the associated breaker is to be tripped

80
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Isolator – Typical Open/Closed
Connections

81
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Switch Status Logic and
Dyanamic Bus Replica
Isolator Isolator Isolator Alarm Block
Open Closed Position Switching
Auxiliary Auxiliary
Contact Contact
Off On CLOSED No No

Off Off LAST VALID After time Until Isolator


delay
On On CLOSED until Position is
acknowledge valid
d
On Off OPEN No No

NOTE: Isolator monitoring function may be a built-in feature


or user-programmable in low impedance bus differential
digital relays

82
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Each Bus Differential Zone may a dedicated CT
Trouble Monitor
• Definite time delay overcurrent element operating
on the zone differential current, based on the
configured Dynamic Bus Replica
• Three strategies to deal with CT problems:
1. Trip the bus zone as the problem with a CT will
likely evolve into a bus fault anyway
2. Do not trip the bus, raise an alarm and try to
correct the problem manually
3. Switch to setting group with 87B minimum
pickup setting above the maximum load current.

83
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Differential Zone CT Trouble
• Strategies 2 and 3 can be
accomplished by:
 Using undervoltage supervision to ride through
the period from the beginning of the problem
with a CT until declaring a CT trouble condition
 Using an external check zone to supervise the
87B function
 Using CT Trouble to prevent the Bus Differential
tripping (2)
 Using setting groups to increase the pickup
value for the 87B function (3)

84
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Differential Zone CT Trouble –
Strategy #2 Example
87B operates
Undervoltage condition
CT OK

• CT Trouble operand is used to rise an


alarm
• The 87B trip is inhibited after CT
Trouble element operates
• The relay may misoperate if an
external fault occurs after CT trouble
but before the CT trouble condition is 85
GE Consumer & Industrial

declared (double-contingency) Multilin


Oct 31, 2009
Example Architecture for Large
Busbars Dual (redundant) fiber
with 3msec delivery
time between
neighbouring IEDs. Up
to 8 relays in the ring
Phase A AC signals and
trip contacts

Phase B AC signals and Phase C AC signals and


trip contacts trip contacts

Digital Inputs for


isolator monitoring and
BF
86
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Example Architecture – Dynamic
Bus Replica and Isolator
Position
iti on
Iso
lat
or
P
os os
r P itio
ato n
l Phase A AC signals
Iso
wired here, bus replica
configured here

Phase B AC signals Phase C AC signals


wired here, bus replica wired here, bus replica
configured here configured here
Iso n
la it io
to
rP Pos
r
os to
it ion ola
Is
Auxuliary switches wired here;
Isolator Monitoring function
configured here
87
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Example Architecture – BF
Initiation up&
v.
Current Supervision
BF
I S nit
r ent iat
e
r &C
Cu urr
ate& en
i t
Init Phase A AC signals Su
pv
BF wired here, current .
status monitored here

Phase B AC signals Phase C AC signals pv.


BF wired here, current wired here, current Su
status monitored here status monitored here ent
In rr
iti u
at C
e &
& e
Cu at
rre n iti
nt I
Su BF
p Breaker Failure
v.
elements
configured here
88
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
Example Architecture – Breaker
Failure Tripping
Trip
Bre
a ke
O p r
ail Fa
F il O
k er p
a Phase A AC signals
Bre
wired here, current Trip
Trip status monitored here

Phase B AC signals Phase C AC signals


wired here, current wired here, current
status monitored here status monitored here
Br p
ea Trip l O
ke ai
rF
e rF
ai k
lO ea
p Br
Breaker Fail Op command
generated here and send to
trip appropriate breakers
89
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
IEEE 37.234

• “Guide for Protective Relay Applications


to Power System Buses” is currently
being revised by the K14 Working Group
of the IEEE Power System Relaying
Committee.

90
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009
91
GE Consumer & Industrial
Multilin
Oct 31, 2009