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Photoautotroph or heterotroph (or both) unlike bacteria; some like earliest eukaryotic cells. Has a nucleus, larger ribosomes, mitochondria, ER, Golgi bodies, chromosomes with numerous proteins, and cytoskeletal microtubules. Range in size from microscopic algae to giant kelps. Single-celled, flagellated protistan; photosynthetic but with heterotrophic feeding apparatus (it has phagocytic ancestors). A predatory or parasitic protistan that moves by pseudopod formation and cytoplasmic streaming (e.g., an amoeba or a foraminiferan, heliozoan, or radiolarian). A dynamically extending lobe of cytoplasm used for motility or engulfment. Aquatic community of primarily microscopic autotrophs and heterotrophs. Organelle in some protistans; expels excess water. Asexual reproductive mode; the body of protozoans and some other animals divides in two parts. See prokaryotic fission. Prokaryotic gene transfer mode; also protistan sexual reproductive mode. Type of single-celled, flagellated, cellulose-plated protistan. Most are producers of marine phytoplankton; some cause red tides. Huge increases in aquatic algal population sizes as a result of nutrient enrichments.

euglenoid amoeboid protozoan pseudopod plankton contractile vacuole binary fission conjugation dinoflagellate algal bloom

lichen extracellular digestion and absorption fungus Symbiotic interaction between a fungus and photoautotroph. Mode of nutrition by which certain organisms grow in or on organic matter, digest it with secreted enzymes, then absorb breakdown products. Eukaryotic heterotroph; it secretes enzymes that digest food to bits that its cells absorb (extracellular digestion, absorption). Saprobic types use nonliving organic matter; parasitic types feed on living organisms. Heterotroph that obtains energy and carbon from nonliving organic matter and so causes its decay (e.g., many fungal species). Parasitic or saprobic fungus that forms a thick-walled sexual spore (a diploid zygote) in a thin cover (the zygosporangium). Sexual spore of zygomycetes. Mesh of tiny, branching filaments (hyphae); the food-absorbing portion of most fungi. Fungal filament with chitin-reinforced walls; component of a mycelium.

saprobe zygomycetes zygospore mycelium hypha