Deming’s Philosophy

Student Name Student ID Intake Code Name of Lecturer Name of Module Assignment Title Word Count

Pradyumna Sharma TP015288 UC2F0812IBM
Zainalabidin Hambali

Managing Business Deming’s 14 point theory 2163

Contents

W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S 14 POINTS APPLIED TO AN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS...................................2 Create constancy of purpose............................................................................................................2 Adopt new philosophy.....................................................................................................................3 Cease dependence on inspection:....................................................................................................3 End the practice of awarding business solely on the basis of price tag...........................................4 Improve constantly and forever.......................................................................................................4 Institute Training.............................................................................................................................5 Institute Leadership.........................................................................................................................5 Drive out fear...................................................................................................................................6 Break down barriers between staff..................................................................................................7 Eliminate use of slogans, posters and exhortations.........................................................................7 Eliminate management by objectives..............................................................................................8 Remove barriers to pride.................................................................................................................8 Encourage education and self improvement....................................................................................9 Transformation is everyone’s job....................................................................................................9 DEMING”S PHILOSOPHY.........................................................................................................10 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................122 Picture References..................................................................................................................13
Picture References

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W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S 14 POINTS APPLIED TO AN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

Create constancy of purpose
The most important step for any institution is to have a clear vision of what they hope to achieve in the future, just concentrating on short term goals is not enough, a vision for the future must be decided. In the academic environment colleges should prepare clearly defined objectives and then implement a new strategy to attain them. Formulating these objectives is no trivial matter therefore it is best that the management, staff and students work through consensus building to determine the goals for the college, taking into consideration the vision and values of the institution. Deming stressed that the when formulating these objectives the emphasis should be on maintaining high quality and consumer satisfaction. Example: Sometimes classes in schools have poorly defined objectives this has a negative effect on the college and specifically its students as they are not sure what is expected of them, this must be avoided at all costs.

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W. Edwards Deming

Adopt new philosophy
After new objectives have been formed, colleges must adopt the new philosophy to attain the new objectives. In today’s age of Information Technology management must make use of technology to minimize failure costs and mistakes that can lead to delays and losses Management should reduce barriers in the paths of their students and staff, an atmosphere of cooperation should be created so that the staff and students can work together to produce the best possible results. Example: Teachers should provide the students with proper tools, training and sufficient time to enable them to work to the best of their ability.

Cease dependence on inspection:
The focus should be on the process rather than on the product in the form of inspection, audits, benchmarks etc. Dependence on inspection to achieve and maintain quality should be eliminated, as it is costly and comes at a stage when it is too late to make a difference. Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own work, they should be encouraged to become independent and self assess themselves, they should not be over dependent on teachers to bring about an improvement in their performance. Example: Instead of inspecting the students in the form of tests, teachers should encourage peer assessing and self learning.

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W. Edwards Deming

End the practice of awarding business solely on the basis of price tag.
The practice of awarding business on the basis of a price alone should be ended. The focus should not just be on minimizing cost, quality should be the main factor. Colleges should move towards a single supplier of materials, these materials could be the curriculum, the food at the canteen or books etc, the college should choose the supplier who delivers the best quality goods at a reasonable price and then buy goods only from this supplier this reduces variation, helps maintain a similar standard of quality and helps develop a relationship of trust and quality with the supplier. Example: Handpicking new teachers from one particular training institute, which has a good record of producing quality teachers.

Improve constantly and forever
There should be continual reduction of waste and failures along with continual improvement of quality in every activity so as to yield a continual rise in productivity and a decrease in costs. Colleges should ask themselves the following questions Are there customers (students) happy? Are the faculty members happy? Are others associated with the college happy? If the answer to any of the above is no then the college must immediately do what is necessary to rectify the problem.

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W. Edwards Deming

To help decide where to look for things to improve, colleges can use surveys, suggestion boxes etc. Classroom techniques should be improved, teaching techniques should be updated and all vital departments of the college should be under close observation to constantly improve them. Example: Study other successful colleges to see if you can make any improvements.

Institute Training
Modern methods of training and education should be instituted for all students and staff for their development and growth. To ensure that all the teachers know their job thoroughly, they must be trained well, with training the teachers will become more productive which in turn will improve the results of the students which will make the college more productive. So it is clear that money spent on faculty and staff training has long-term payback; therefore it is very important that colleges have a training department to help train and develop staff.

Example: Faculty may be well educated in their disciplines but not in the art of teaching, so it will help if they are trained in lecture delivery and effective communication.

Institute Leadership
According to Deming the job of leaders is not just to supervise; they must help subordinates do a better job by leading effectively and acting as role models for them. It is also a part of the leader’s job to coach the people being supervised to improve the quality of their work. Improvement of quality will automatically improve productivity

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W. Edwards Deming

The main aim of teachers is to help students improve their performance. According to Deming, “85% of the problems within any organization are the result of poor management and workers can control only 15%.” (Singh and Sareen 2008).This fact emphasizes that teachers have a new role as classroom managers. Teachers should become leaders rather than managers/supervisors and serve as role models. They can achieve this by empowering the students by creating an atmosphere where the students feel free to express themselves without fear of punishment. Example: One way a teacher can empower students is by giving them responsibilty; this can be done by appointing a class representative or by appointing group leaders for group assignments.

Drive out fear
Fear is a barrier to improvement so it should be driven out by encouraging effective two-way communication and other mechanisms that will eliminate all traces of fear among teachers and students in college. Fear can be of many types, it could be fear of change, fear of failure etc, fear of top management etc. Fear should be driven out by creating an environment that encourages people to speak freely so that everyone can work for the college system. Unfortunately, many schools operate on fear of punishment, low grades. Fear may lead students to obey, but does not motivate them to be excited about school or learning. Students should not be afraid of voicing their complaints or grievances. On the faculty and staff side, fear can also play an important role. If a high price must be paid for failure, few people will be willing to risk experimenting with a promising new innovation, thus keeping a process improvement out of the system. Example: Teachers should be given the freedom to try something new without fear of failure, or embarrassment if the experiment fails.

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W. Edwards Deming

Break down barriers between staff
Barriers result in sub optimization as each area tries to do what is best for itself rather than cooperating in order to achieve what is good for the college as a whole. Institute is formed of different departments, all of which have their own interests and objectives. Even different subject teachers act or think differently, it is management’s responsibility to ensure that they work as a team and provide a wholesome education for the students, there should be free flow of information and cooperation among the different departments. Example: Barriers between teachers and students can be broken down by having student representatives who speak to the teachers on behalf of the student community, barriers between the different teaching departments can be broken down by having regular staff meetings where the teachers can discuss critical issues.

Eliminate use of slogans, posters and exhortations
Targets for teachers and students asking for perfection should be avoided as this creates an unfavourable atmosphere of pressure and can be counterproductive. Most causes of low productivity have to do with the system not the personnel, and consequently are not within the hands of the teachers or students therefore management must improve the processes so that the goals can be achieved. Stating that 80% is the minimum acceptable score on an exam will not by itself achieve that goal. Stating that goal and then providing excellent instruction, arranging for study teams, giving extra help where needed, etc., will give the students a much better chance for success. Example: If a teacher has unreasonable expectations of students, the students will dislike their teacher and this can create a negative learning environment.

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W. Edwards Deming

Eliminate management by objectives
The traditional and standardized grading system should be eliminated from the classroom. Deming points out: “Our educational system would be improved immeasurably by abolishment of grading. No one can enjoy his work if he will be ranked with others.” Classroom goals should not focus on numbers, as it is a proven fact that standardized test scores usually ignore more important measures of student knowledge. They cannot test critical thinking or problem solving skills. Therefore, it is critical that education today be “outcomes based.” (Deming, W.E, 2000) students should be marked on the improvement in their performance and the effort that they make rather than just the marks they get. Example: If management instructs teachers to finish a lot of coursework in a short span of time, the teachers will be forced to compromise on the quality of instruction just so that they can finish the course on time; therefore numerical objectives should be avoided.

Remove barriers to pride
Pride is a strong motivator. Students and teachers both should be given the freedom to express themselves they should not always be told what to do, and should not be reprimanded for experimenting or trying something new. When students do well in individual and group assignments they should be praised and encouraged to produce more good work, this will motivate them to work harder. Students should not be rated and compared to one another this hurts their sentiments and pride and has a negative impact on their productivity. Example: If student representatives are consulted when making important decisions they will feel like an important part the college, this will increase their sense of self worth and enhance their level of pride.

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W. Edwards Deming

Encourage education and self improvement
What an organization needs is not just good people; it needs people that are improving with education. People will only improve if they keep constantly expanding their knowledge base. Education and self education should be encouraged for every student and teacher, this will enhance their performance. Example: Courses should constantly be updated in keeping with the changing times, students should study things that are relevant in the outside world, so the curriculum should be updated regularly and students should and teachers should be encouraged to study courses that are related to the coursework, clubs and societies like the business club or language clubs in the college should be encouraged.

Transformation is everyone’s job
Management should make everybody in the school in charge of accomplishing the transformation. The change begins at the top and should follow through right till the bottom. Teachers should lead the whole class in the drive for ever improving quality of every single activity by providing the proper encouragement, training, facilities, and time. Management, at every level but particularly at the very top, must take and show pride in adopting the TQM philosophy. The meaning of each of the 14 points as related to the mission must be clear to all involved. This is not a trivial process; a good deal of time must be spent in analyzing the various processes and discussing how the 14 points relate to those processes.

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W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S PHILOSOPHY

Pride and Joy: Pride and joy is a very important factor when trying to increase student productivity, if a student feels valued and cherished, he makes a very strong effort to do well in class. Teachers should ensure that they share a healthy relationship with students so that the students feel comfortable asking them questions and going to them with individual queries, such an atmosphere is very good for learning and improves classroom performance.

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W. Edwards Deming

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Deming has not clearly defined quality, he explains that there is no specific explanation of quality it is a constant process of improvement and increased efficiency. Higher quality leads to higher productivity; this means that if the teachers improve the process of teaching, the process will be able to produce higher quality students and higher quality students will be more productive. For example the learning process can be improved by conducting fun activities to arouse an interest among the students or by taking them on trips where they can practically apply the principles they learn in class.

Lower costs: Higher quality of students will result in lower costs as failed students must be retaught everything and this uses up college resources, with high quality students this can be avoided because they will make fewer mistakes, as a result there will be fewer failure costs and reworks.

Top level management must assume overriding responsibility when it comes to applying Deming’s 14 points, the top level management should ensure that everyone is involved in the implementation of Deming’s philosophy, they should generate enthusiasm for it and then motivate everyone to help with the transformation. In the academic process the principal and the teachers must play the role of the leaders who must lead and guide the students to higher levels of productivity using Deming’s philosophy.

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W. Edwards Deming

REFERENCES
1. Winn, R.C, Green, R.S,1998,Applying Total Quality Management to the Educational

Process, Available from http://www.ijee.dit.ie/articles/Vol14-1/ijee959.pdf [Accessed on: 15 February, 2009]
2. Singh, C. and Sareen, K., 2008 Application of Deming’s Philosophy to improve the

Quality of Technical education, Available from http://homepages.ucalgary.ca/~csgrewal/full_paper/journal/application%20of%20deming %20IJTE.pdf [Accessed on: 24 February, 2009]
3. Deming, W.E, 2000,The New Economics: For Industry, Government, Education, 2nd

edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT press
4. Deming, W.E, 1986, Out of Crisis, Reprinted edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT

press

5. Bender, A.D, and Krasnick, C.,1993 Quality Practice Management, Illustrated edition,

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, , Diane Publishing
6. Wilson, D., 1995, Deming’s 14 point plan for TQM, Available from

http://www.educesoft.com/quality/demming.htm [Accessed on: 25 February, 2009]
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W. Edwards Deming

7. 12manage, 2009, Total quality management, Explanation of Fourteen Points of

Management by Edward Deming, Available from http://www.12manage.com/methods_deming_14_points_management.html [Accessed on: 22 February, 2009]
8. Chartered Management Institute,2003, W Edwards Deming: Total Quality Management

, Available from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/W+Edwards+Deming:+Total+Quality+Managementa0151189058 Accessed on: [17 February, 2009]
9. Cohen, P., Deming’s 14 points, Available from

http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite2/articles/deming.htm [Accessed on: 19 February, 2009]

Picture References

1. http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Portals/0/images/Deming.jpg 2. http://www.roi-ally.com/images/pdca.png

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