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Deming’s Philosophy

Student Name Pradyumna Sharma

Student ID TP015288
Intake Code UC2F0812IBM
Name of Lecturer Zainalabidin Hambali

Name of Module Managing Business


Assignment Title Deming’s 14 point theory
Word Count 2163

Contents
W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S 14 POINTS APPLIED TO AN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS...................................2

Create constancy of purpose............................................................................................................2

Adopt new philosophy.....................................................................................................................3

Cease dependence on inspection:....................................................................................................3

End the practice of awarding business solely on the basis of price tag...........................................4

Improve constantly and forever.......................................................................................................4

Institute Training.............................................................................................................................5

Institute Leadership.........................................................................................................................5

Drive out fear...................................................................................................................................6

Break down barriers between staff..................................................................................................7

Eliminate use of slogans, posters and exhortations.........................................................................7

Eliminate management by objectives..............................................................................................8

Remove barriers to pride.................................................................................................................8

Encourage education and self improvement....................................................................................9

Transformation is everyone’s job....................................................................................................9

DEMING”S PHILOSOPHY.........................................................................................................10

REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................122

Picture References..................................................................................................................13

Picture References

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W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S 14 POINTS APPLIED TO AN


EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

Create constancy of purpose

The most important step for any institution is to have a clear vision of what they hope to achieve
in the future, just concentrating on short term goals is not enough, a vision for the future must be
decided.
In the academic environment colleges should prepare clearly defined objectives and then
implement a new strategy to attain them. Formulating these objectives is no trivial matter
therefore it is best that the management, staff and students work through consensus building to
determine the goals for the college, taking into consideration the vision and values of the
institution. Deming stressed that the when formulating these objectives the emphasis should be
on maintaining high quality and consumer satisfaction.

Example: Sometimes classes in schools have poorly defined objectives this has a negative effect
on the college and specifically its students as they are not sure what is expected of them, this
must be avoided at all costs.

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W. Edwards Deming

Adopt new philosophy

After new objectives have been formed, colleges must adopt the new philosophy to attain the
new objectives. In today’s age of Information Technology management must make use of
technology to minimize failure costs and mistakes that can lead to delays and losses

Management should reduce barriers in the paths of their students and staff, an atmosphere of
cooperation should be created so that the staff and students can work together to produce the best
possible results.

Example: Teachers should provide the students with proper tools, training and sufficient time to
enable them to work to the best of their ability.

Cease dependence on inspection:

The focus should be on the process rather than on the product in the form of inspection, audits,
benchmarks etc. Dependence on inspection to achieve and maintain quality should be eliminated,
as it is costly and comes at a stage when it is too late to make a difference.

Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own work, they should be
encouraged to become independent and self assess themselves, they should not be over
dependent on teachers to bring about an improvement in their performance.

Example: Instead of inspecting the students in the form of tests, teachers should encourage peer
assessing and self learning.

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W. Edwards Deming

End the practice of awarding business solely on the basis of


price tag.

The practice of awarding business on the basis of a price alone should be ended. The focus
should not just be on minimizing cost, quality should be the main factor.

Colleges should move towards a single supplier of materials, these materials could be the
curriculum, the food at the canteen or books etc, the college should choose the supplier who
delivers the best quality goods at a reasonable price and then buy goods only from this supplier
this reduces variation, helps maintain a similar standard of quality and helps develop a
relationship of trust and quality with the supplier.

Example: Handpicking new teachers from one particular training institute, which has a good
record of producing quality teachers.

Improve constantly and forever

There should be continual reduction of waste and failures along with continual improvement of
quality in every activity so as to yield a continual rise in productivity and a decrease in costs.

Colleges should ask themselves the following questions


Are there customers (students) happy?
Are the faculty members happy?
Are others associated with the college happy?

If the answer to any of the above is no then the college must immediately do what is necessary to
rectify the problem.

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W. Edwards Deming

To help decide where to look for things to improve, colleges can use surveys, suggestion boxes
etc. Classroom techniques should be improved, teaching techniques should be updated and all
vital departments of the college should be under close observation to constantly improve them.

Example: Study other successful colleges to see if you can make any improvements.

Institute Training

Modern methods of training and education should be instituted for all students and staff for their
development and growth.

To ensure that all the teachers know their job thoroughly, they must be trained well, with training
the teachers will become more productive which in turn will improve the results of the students
which will make the college more productive. So it is clear that money spent on faculty and staff
training has long-term payback; therefore it is very important that colleges have a training
department to help train and develop staff.

Example: Faculty may be well educated in their disciplines but not in the art of teaching, so it
will help if they are trained in lecture delivery and effective communication.

Institute Leadership

According to Deming the job of leaders is not just to supervise; they must help subordinates do a
better job by leading effectively and acting as role models for them. It is also a part of the
leader’s job to coach the people being supervised to improve the quality of their work.
Improvement of quality will automatically improve productivity

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W. Edwards Deming

The main aim of teachers is to help students improve their performance. According to Deming,
“85% of the problems within any organization are the result of poor management and workers
can control only 15%.” (Singh and Sareen 2008).This fact emphasizes that teachers have a new
role as classroom managers. Teachers should become leaders rather than managers/supervisors
and serve as role models. They can achieve this by empowering the students by creating an
atmosphere where the students feel free to express themselves without fear of punishment.

Example: One way a teacher can empower students is by giving them responsibilty; this can be
done by appointing a class representative or by appointing group leaders for group assignments.

Drive out fear

Fear is a barrier to improvement so it should be driven out by encouraging effective two-way


communication and other mechanisms that will eliminate all traces of fear among teachers and
students in college. Fear can be of many types, it could be fear of change, fear of failure etc, fear
of top management etc.

Fear should be driven out by creating an environment that encourages people to speak freely so
that everyone can work for the college system. Unfortunately, many schools operate on fear of
punishment, low grades. Fear may lead students to obey, but does not motivate them to be
excited about school or learning. Students should not be afraid of voicing their complaints or
grievances.
On the faculty and staff side, fear can also play an important role. If a high price must be paid for
failure, few people will be willing to risk experimenting with a promising new innovation, thus
keeping a process improvement out of the system.

Example: Teachers should be given the freedom to try something new without fear of failure, or
embarrassment if the experiment fails.

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W. Edwards Deming

Break down barriers between staff

Barriers result in sub optimization as each area tries to do what is best for itself rather than co-
operating in order to achieve what is good for the college as a whole. Institute is formed of
different departments, all of which have their own interests and objectives. Even different subject
teachers act or think differently, it is management’s responsibility to ensure that they work as a
team and provide a wholesome education for the students, there should be free flow of
information and cooperation among the different departments.

Example: Barriers between teachers and students can be broken down by having student
representatives who speak to the teachers on behalf of the student community, barriers between
the different teaching departments can be broken down by having regular staff meetings where
the teachers can discuss critical issues.

Eliminate use of slogans, posters and exhortations

Targets for teachers and students asking for perfection should be avoided as this creates an
unfavourable atmosphere of pressure and can be counterproductive. Most causes of low
productivity have to do with the system not the personnel, and consequently are not within the
hands of the teachers or students therefore management must improve the processes so that the
goals can be achieved. Stating that 80% is the minimum acceptable score on an exam will not by
itself achieve that goal. Stating that goal and then providing excellent instruction, arranging for
study teams, giving extra help where needed, etc., will give the students a much better chance for
success.

Example: If a teacher has unreasonable expectations of students, the students will dislike their
teacher and this can create a negative learning environment.

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W. Edwards Deming

Eliminate management by objectives

The traditional and standardized grading system should be eliminated from the classroom.
Deming points out: “Our educational system would be improved immeasurably by abolishment
of grading. No one can enjoy his work if he will be ranked with others.” Classroom goals should
not focus on numbers, as it is a proven fact that standardized test scores usually ignore more
important measures of student knowledge. They cannot test critical thinking or problem solving
skills. Therefore, it is critical that education today be “outcomes based.” (Deming, W.E, 2000)
students should be marked on the improvement in their performance and the effort that they
make rather than just the marks they get.

Example: If management instructs teachers to finish a lot of coursework in a short span of time,
the teachers will be forced to compromise on the quality of instruction just so that they can finish
the course on time; therefore numerical objectives should be avoided.

Remove barriers to pride

Pride is a strong motivator. Students and teachers both should be given the freedom to express
themselves they should not always be told what to do, and should not be reprimanded for
experimenting or trying something new. When students do well in individual and group
assignments they should be praised and encouraged to produce more good work, this will
motivate them to work harder.
Students should not be rated and compared to one another this hurts their sentiments and pride
and has a negative impact on their productivity.

Example: If student representatives are consulted when making important decisions they will feel
like an important part the college, this will increase their sense of self worth and enhance their
level of pride.

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W. Edwards Deming

Encourage education and self improvement

What an organization needs is not just good people; it needs people that are improving with
education. People will only improve if they keep constantly expanding their knowledge base.

Education and self education should be encouraged for every student and teacher, this will
enhance their performance.

Example: Courses should constantly be updated in keeping with the changing times, students
should study things that are relevant in the outside world, so the curriculum should be updated
regularly and students should and teachers should be encouraged to study courses that are related
to the coursework, clubs and societies like the business club or language clubs in the college
should be encouraged.

Transformation is everyone’s job

Management should make everybody in the school in charge of accomplishing the


transformation. The change begins at the top and should follow through right till the bottom.
Teachers should lead the whole class in the drive for ever improving quality of every single
activity by providing the proper encouragement, training, facilities, and time.
Management, at every level but particularly at the very top, must take and show pride in adopting
the TQM philosophy. The meaning of each of the 14 points as related to the mission must be
clear to all involved. This is not a trivial process; a good deal of time must be spent in analyzing
the various processes and discussing how the 14 points relate to those processes.

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W. Edwards Deming

DEMING”S PHILOSOPHY

• Pride and Joy: Pride and joy is a very important factor when trying to increase student
productivity, if a student feels valued and cherished, he makes a very strong effort to do
well in class. Teachers should ensure that they share a healthy relationship with students
so that the students feel comfortable asking them questions and going to them with
individual queries, such an atmosphere is very good for learning and improves classroom
performance.

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W. Edwards Deming

• Deming has not clearly defined quality, he explains that there is no specific explanation
of quality it is a constant process of improvement and increased efficiency.
• Higher quality leads to higher productivity; this means that if the teachers improve the
process of teaching, the process will be able to produce higher quality students and higher
quality students will be more productive. For example the learning process can be
improved by conducting fun activities to arouse an interest among the students or by
taking them on trips where they can practically apply the principles they learn in class.
• Lower costs: Higher quality of students will result in lower costs as failed students must
be retaught everything and this uses up college resources, with high quality students this
can be avoided because they will make fewer mistakes, as a result there will be fewer
failure costs and reworks.
• Top level management must assume overriding responsibility when it comes to
applying Deming’s 14 points, the top level management should ensure that everyone is
involved in the implementation of Deming’s philosophy, they should generate
enthusiasm for it and then motivate everyone to help with the transformation.
In the academic process the principal and the teachers must play the role of the leaders
who must lead and guide the students to higher levels of productivity using Deming’s
philosophy.

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W. Edwards Deming

REFERENCES

1. Winn, R.C, Green, R.S,1998,Applying Total Quality Management to the Educational


Process, Available from
http://www.ijee.dit.ie/articles/Vol14-1/ijee959.pdf
[Accessed on: 15 February, 2009]

2. Singh, C. and Sareen, K., 2008 Application of Deming’s Philosophy to improve the
Quality of Technical education, Available from
http://homepages.ucalgary.ca/~csgrewal/full_paper/journal/application%20of%20deming
%20IJTE.pdf
[Accessed on: 24 February, 2009]

3. Deming, W.E, 2000,The New Economics: For Industry, Government, Education, 2nd
edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT press

4. Deming, W.E, 1986, Out of Crisis, Reprinted edition, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT
press

5. Bender, A.D, and Krasnick, C.,1993 Quality Practice Management, Illustrated edition,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, , Diane Publishing

6. Wilson, D., 1995, Deming’s 14 point plan for TQM, Available from
http://www.educesoft.com/quality/demming.htm
[Accessed on: 25 February, 2009]

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W. Edwards Deming

7. 12manage, 2009, Total quality management, Explanation of Fourteen Points of


Management by Edward Deming, Available from
http://www.12manage.com/methods_deming_14_points_management.html
[Accessed on: 22 February, 2009]

8. Chartered Management Institute,2003, W Edwards Deming: Total Quality Management


, Available from
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/W+Edwards+Deming:+Total+Quality+Management-
a0151189058
Accessed on: [17 February, 2009]

9. Cohen, P., Deming’s 14 points, Available from


http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite2/articles/deming.htm
[Accessed on: 19 February, 2009]

Picture References

1. http://www.balancedscorecard.org/Portals/0/images/Deming.jpg

2. http://www.roi-ally.com/images/pdca.png

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