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Jake Hempel

English 1301
Article Summary:
From population structure to genetically-engineered vectors:

O.A.E. Sparagano, C.J. De Luna. (2007, May 8). From population structure to
genetically-engineered vectors: New ways to control vector-borne diseases. Infections,
Genetics and Evolution. Received 27 March 2007; revised 1 May 2007.

In our recent future many disease causing vectors, or parasitic hosts, are causing

impending diseases spreading globally. Scientists worldwide are in the path to ultimately

design and implicate vaccinations in the fight to control these infectious diseases. To

provide for the vaccinations of these infections, researchers are in the struggle to

completely understand the entire cycle of infection and what factors influence and oppose

the spreading viruses. To show for the progress of vaccinations of many diseases,

scientists worldwide have done trial by trial experiments to terminate existing infections.

Throughout much empirical data on viruses and vectors, scientists concluded that

population is a main factor in the role of infection. The population biology effect supports

the idea that a virus will spread quicker in larger groups than will smaller groups. This

was concluded with Galapagos’ hawks.

To vaccinate for infections from viruses, is undoubtedly difficult. Scientists have

experimented with antigens, usually protein, which the organism with the vector carries.

For example, many arthropods carry disease causing vectors, however the protein found

in the abdomen in some arthropods are resistant to infection. Scientists then take this

protein and develop vaccines, ultimately aiding in the struggle for impeding outbreaks.

Surprisingly outbreaks still occur, many of which seem unsolvable. Genetic

engineers have been experimenting with many options in order to vaccinate and cure

these harmful epidemics. The use of ordinary biological organisms, for example fungi, is
being experimented periodically. Genetic engineers are even trying to engineer vectors

that the host themselves can control. Every resource and idea are being utilized in order

the prevent cause and affect of viruses, ultimately enhancing humanity.