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Teachers for a Global Society


George A. Churukian, U.5A. Craig Kissock, U.SA.

Corey R. Lock, U .SA.

Graphic s, Design Editor Colin Mably, England

Past Secretary General Publications Committee Anne-Marie Berga, South Africa Rocque Moraes, Brazil

Janet Powney, Scodand

Leke Tombo, Cameroon

Sybil Wilson, Canada

Helen Woodward, Australia

Warren Halloway, Australia, ex officio Consulting Editon

Ann-Merle Bergh, South Africa Victor Cicci, Canada

LeOra Cordis, Canada

Wendy Crebbin, Australia Margareth Dankenberg, Finland Marta Lux Sisson de Castro, Brasil James Greenberg, USA.

Tony Hopkin, Botswana

Roy Killen, Australia

Anna-Lllsa Leino, Finland

Jarklco Leino, Finland

John Mauer, Australia

Bob O'Brien, New Zealand Peter Olsen, Australia

Janet Powney, Scotland Catherine Sinclair, Australia Helen Woodward, Australia

Officen/Sreering Committee Warren Halloway, Australia Secretary General

George A. Churukian, U.SA. Associare Secretary General Robert Meade, U.SA. Associate Secretary General Hans Voorback, Netherlands Past Secretary General

Lelce Tombo, Cameroon, Convener 1995

Maria Emilia Amaral Engers, Brazil Convener 1996

Sybil Wilson, Canada Convener 1997

William Fraser, South Africa, Convener 1998

Cornel DaCosta, England Convener 1999

Colin Mably, U.SA. Convener 2000

• The JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIE1Y FOR TEACHER EDUCATION OISTE) is published as a service to those concerned with global teacher education. It serves as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas related to the improvement of teacher education. Articles focus upon concepts and research which have practical dimensions or implications and applicability (or practitioners in teacher education. The Journal limits its articles to those in which ideas are applicable in multiple social settings.

• JlSTE is an official, refereed publication of ISTE. Initially, manuscripts are papers presented at the previous International Seminar for Teacher Education. Manuscripts are submitted by the authorts) for review for possible publication. Points of view and opinions are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of ISTE. Published manuscripts are the property of JISTE. Permission to reproduce must be requested from the editor.

• 11STE is issued twice yearly by the International Society for Teacher Education. The subscription price of $US25.00 is included in the annual membership fee starting with Volume 3. Additional copies of the journal may be purchased for $US 15.00. Institutional subscription to 11STE is $US50.00 per year.

• Please examine the label of this issue of JISTE. If there is an error, please send the label and your correct address to the editor.

Teachers for a Global Society




Copyright © 1998

by the 1 nrernarlonal Socicty for T eacher Education


Table of Contents

Secretary General's Message Warren Halloway Editors' Message

George A. Churukian, Corey R. Lock, Craig Ktssock

Teachers for a Global Society

Preparing Primary Social Studies Teachers in Botswana for a Global Society

Michael Bamidele Adeyemi

Maintaining Innovation as Teacher Educators Shannon K. Butler & James E. Young.

Teachers for a Global Society: Bra%il and the Common South Market (MERCOSUL).

Maria Helena Menna Barreto Abrahao

Teacher Education in Post-Industrial Societyl the Learning Society of the Information Age

Alex C. W. Fling s, David C. B. T eather

Forging a Discourse Community of Learners Using Website Technology

Norma C. Presmeg

Learning to Lead Schooler Competing Expectations for School Principals

Neil Dempster.

Correction Note

Index to Volume 1

Publication Guidelines

Manuscript Guidelines

Submission Requirements

Future Issues of JISTE

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Secretary General's Message

The President of a teacher education association in Australia recently published the results of a survey she had conducted in response to the dwindling membership base of that organisation. Among other thing she found that the association was not seen as desirable for the following reasons: it was viewed as a 'show and tell' organisation, female teacher educators perceived it as an exclusive 'boys club', it was viewed as appropriate for former 'teachers' college' academics but not for university academics steeped in a research culture and the association's journal was not connected with the organisation.

ISTE and the Australian association are quite different in purpose and organisation nevertheless as I read the report I wondered if we could draw any lessons from it by asking if our International Society is living up to its objectives. Certainly our journal OISTE) is closely connected with the Society. Our Editors, the Board and reviewers are all members of ISTE, papers submitted for publication are first reviewed in the presence of the authors in paper groups at the ISTE Annual Seminars and subscription to the jlSTE is part of the Membership Fee. On behalf of the Membership I congratulate and thank the Editors, the Board, reviewers and authors for their efforts in making jISTE a valuable international teacher education journal.

A final point in the review of the Australian association was that many worthwhile and productive activities of the organisation were simply not known by the membership. I wonder how well known are the many activities of our members, their innovative teaching and valuable research, the interaction between members leading to visitations, joint projects, staff and student exchanges and communication through the ISTE Newsletter, the E-mail Network and soon the outreach which will be created when ISTE has its own Website!

I invite all ISTE members to use all of the avenues available to them to make known their views for the improvement of ISTE. The Annual Seminars are the main occasions for discussing these matters but we should also use the ISTE Newsletter and the E-mail network. The jlSTE however is our flagship and while firmly based in the Society and its members it requires our loyal support in making sure it continues to reflect the scholarly and professional ethos of ISTE and maintains a secure financial foundation.

Warren Halloway

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Editors' Message

We are pleased to present to you another issue of JISTE. Publishing this Journal is an ongoing project, as we are already looking at another group of promising manuscripts.

jlSTE for us is a special publication because it is a place where our colleagues communicate ideas that improve teacher education across culrural llnes. In this issue we have articles from Botswana, the United States, Brazil, Hong Kong, and Australia. The Journal provides a truly unique opportunity for us to discuss Important educational Issues in our own countries and to read about what is happening in others. It helps us remember presentations we wanted to know more about, and to clarifY through our own writing how to better communicate with others.

We strongly encourage all of our readers to consider submitting manuscripts. jlSTE is a refereed journal, but we take the work of editing seriously as we make very effort to help writers say what it is they are trying to communicate in the best way possible. In short, this is your journal and we want it to represent the membership of ISTE In the most comprehensive manner. If you have an idea you think your colleagues would like to know more about, or if you have a controversial issue you want to debate, or if you have an interesting practice YOll want to share, consider submitting a manuscript for publication in jISTE.

Starting with the next issue, we are accepting for publication reviews of books written by ISTE members and an annotated list of books published by ISTE members within the past three years. Please refer to Publication Guidelines on page 57 of this issue.

If you haven't submitted an article for possible publication, please consider sending us your manuscript.

George Churukian Craig Kissock Corey Lock

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Michael Bamidele Adeyemi

This papeT builds a rationnk fOT the indwion of global education in the presewice education of Primary Sclwol reae/1eTS in BolSWGnn. 11 further examines some of the existing contents dealing with the knowledge of other places in the preservice education of primary school teachers.

I t then offeTS some suggestioN on Iww to prepare primary sclwol teachers fOT SeTllice in a global village. Finnl!" it concludes that fOT toda)'s children to face the chalknges of the next century, it is l'fT1 necessary fOT their teach= to have an orientation in the knowledge, skills and attitudes peTtaining to global education.


Botswana is a landlocked nation in the southern pan of Africa. Bray and Parker (1993) estimated the population of Botswana to be one million four hundred people spread over nearly six hundred thousand kilometres. It is siruared between latlrude 18 and 26 S of the equator and longirude 20 and 30E of the Greenwich meridian (Africa Today, 1991). It is located in the African plateau and shares boundaries with South Africa, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Climatically, Botswana is a country with mainly the continental type of climate and most areas are arid or semi-arid. \{gathi and Mlotshwa (1994) noted that droughts are very frequent and when these occur, they adversely affect both arable and livestock agriculture.

Botswana, prior to independence in 1966, was a British colony by the name of Bechuanaland. The economy depends mainly on diamond mining and the rearing of cattle (Adeyemi, 1996). A development strategy of the country is to re-invest the returns from its resources in order to achieve sustained development. Specifically, the development of human resources has always been a priority of government (Republic of Botswana, 1991).

Children that are already six years old are eligible to enroll in Standard 1 in January of every year. These children spend seven years in the primary schools before graduating as primary schoolleavers. Depending on many factors such as the parents' socioeconomic status and particularly the quality of success in the Primary School Leaving Examinations. the primary school graduates are either admitted into the junior secondary schools, or the Brigades for vocational training. Adeyemi (1996) noted that the junior secondary leavers may proceed to senior secondary, vocational training. secretarial, or commercial training. The graduates of the senior secondary may opt for the university, the polytechnic. the college of agriculrure, a teacher training college, a nursing institution or other similar institutions within and outside the country (Republic of Botswana. 1991).

The Teaching and Learning of Social Studies

Social Studies is one of the subject areas taught in the educational system of Botswana. The spiral curriculum is utilised in the teaching of social studies in the primary

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schools in the country. Students are exposed to the knowledge of their own environment before learning about their neighbours and other pans of the world. Other subjects in the curriculum include English language and literature, Setswana, Mathematics, Science and Agriculture. Immediately after independence, Botswana inherited an irrelevant curriculum from the colonial masters. Efforts were made to reform the curriculum to make it more relevant to Botswana. These efforts were made at equipping students with the basic skills, knowledge and artlrudes that they will require for use in their daj-to-dav activities. Content is balanced between Botswana and other lands. Reform in Education has indeed helped to set the direction of change (Weeks, (993).


The objectives of this paper are to:

Build a rationale for developing a knowledge of other places of the world (apart from Botswana) in the preservice education curriculum of primary school teachers in Botswana;

Examine some of the contents dealing with the knowledge of other places in the preservice education of school teachers in Botswana, and

Make suggestions on how primary school teachers in Botswana can be better prepared for service in a global village.

Rationale for the Knowledge of Other Places in the Preservice Education Curriculum of Primary School Teachers

The social studies programme is expected to prepare students for citizenship in a complex world in which we live. This enhances the capability of a citizenry to deal with global issues such as international development (Becker, 1979; Kniep, 1987). The whole world is a global village and what happens in one pan of the village affects the other pam. In fact, Becker (1979) maintains that global or international education incorporates an understanding that "the individual Is viewed as a member of the species and a citizen of the planet as well as a citizen of a particular nation". This being so, it is very necessary for children of today who would assume the leadership of tomorrow to be aware of the interconnectedness of the universe as a whole. If primary school pupils are to be globally oriented, then it becomes imperative to first of all train their teachers. The choice of primary school pupils and their teachers is quite deliberate. The primary school children are within the age range of 6 to 13 years, and as Adeyemi (1989) noted, this is a stage of life when the minds of children can be easily influenced significantly on issues, and global education in this case.

A global or an international education is used here as that which transcends national boundaries and involves the interconnection of cultural, ecological, economic, political and technological systems (Thorne et aI, 1993). A global or international perspective requires a holistic approach that gives students an understanding of themselves and their relationship to the world community (Tucker, 199 I). Students need to appreciate the elements of interdependence among nations of the world. The way colonial history has produced a mixture of cultural effects is capable of enhancing an aspect of


global education. The English Language and Serswana are the official media of expression in Botswana. Western mode of dressing has also blended with the traditional dressing. Intermarriage is taking place between Batswana and the citizens of other countries. These few examples make the encouragement of the knowledge of other lands very necessary. Interdependence among nations creates the need for greater understanding and acceptance of diverse cultural practices. This is seen as helping the promotion of the notion that cooperation is possible despite the unique nature of different cultures,

For instance, interdependence can be illustrated with the use of Botswana and a trading partner, Botswana is well known for cattle raising. Beef and leather, among other products, are exported to a trading partner such as South Africa. In rerum, vehicles, agricultural machinery and various food items are imported from South Africa. The countries of the European Economic Community also import beef from Botswana and in return, Botswana imports various goods. Furthermore, Botswana is a member of various organisations including the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of African Unity, Caribbean, and Pacific group of countries covered under the Lome Convention, the Commonwealth, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) (Republic of Botswana, 1991). These examples illustrate interdependence and that actions taken by individuals in one part of the world can have a widespread international effect.

In fact, other links with the countries beyond Botswana can be found in the railway system joining South Africa and Zimbabwe, the air services that connect Botswana with international airports in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Kenya, Britain and France, and the road network linking Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia. All these make the inclusion of international education imperative in the social studies curriculum of Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Botswana.

An internationally oriented education pre-supposes that students acquire a thorough knowledge of their own environment as well as those of other places. Through this means, students can gain understanding of a global society and the interdependence of nations and peoples (Osunde, 1987). This is in line with the concept of a spiral curriculum.

The Goals and Contents of the Primary Teacher Training College Social Studies Programme in Botswana

The Primary Teacher Training Social Studies Programme is structured to help a novice teacher become a competent social studies teacher in the primary schools in Botswana. This is to assist the student teacher master the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required to teach primary pupils to meet the challenges of a changing society (Social Studies Subject Panel, 1991). Invariably the contents of social studies at the primary school level and the Primary Teacher Training Colleges (lYJTC) are the same, except in depth and the addition of contents designed for Standards 8 and 9 in the junior secondary schools. The major emphasis is on the methods of teaching the primary school social studies contents (Social Studies Subject Panel, 1991).

As earlier mentioned, the duration of primary education in Botswana is seven years. l"he syUabus of the primary social studies is sequenced in the following way (Subject

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Panel, 1991, pIOl):

Standard I • Our Family and Our Home

Standard 2· Our School and Neighbourhood Standard 3 • Our Village / Town (our community) Standard 4 • Our District

Standard 5 • Our Country (Botswana)

Standard 6· Our Country's Door-Step Neighbours Standard 7 • Our Continent (Africa)

Standard 8· Our Country Botswana and her Neighbours

Standard 9 • Our Country Botswana and her Relations with the outside world.

An observation of the primary school syllabus which is also used at the P1TC but with an addition of contents in Standards 8 and 9, shows that it is in line with the concentric circles or the expanding horizon approach. A new syllabus is being designed for Standards 8, 9 and 10 since the junior secondary school duration is currently extended to three years. The students of this new programme are now in their first year of the three-year duration. The existing syllabus indicates that the snldy of phenomena starts from the family level to a wider society. In fact, of the ten objectives of the social studies programme, two of them stand out clearly in favour of global orientation to the teaching of topics.

These are:

To understand the interdependent nature of people and the prudent use for human and natural resources

To help smdenoteachers to emphasise the importance of developing pupils' skills and attitudes and thinking skills of discovery, observing, recording, classifying, problem solving, attitudes of appreciation, compassion and cooperation (Social Studies Panel, 1991, p. 102).

These two objectives have implications for the analysis of social studies topics through the global dimension. For instance, with respect to the first objective, the interdependent nature of people can be brought about through trade, education, access to better technological and medical facilities, and so on. With respecr to the second objective, the development of skills, attitudes, the art of discovery etc. is universaJly necessary if one is to function effectively as a global citizen. The suggestions for future development of the primary school teachers of social studies in Botswana follow.

Suggestions on how Primary Social Studies School Teachers in Botswana Can be better prepared for service in a Global Village

As earlier stated, the syllabus of the Primary School Teacher Training Colleges (P1TC) is similar to that of the primary school with the addition of "Our Country and her Neighbours' and 'Our Country Botswana and her Relations with The Outside World:

These themes when critically studied, are capable of preparing primary schoolteachers in Botswana for diversity, equiry and interconnectedness in the community, the region, the nation and the world at large. let me start by assuming that no teacher can be prepared to

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understand all universal phenomena and be a master of all 'the things' happening all over the world. However, my candid suggestion is that the curriculum of the Primary School Teacher Training Colleges in Botswana, and elsewhere on earth, should have a minimum standard of topics dealing with the rest of the world, and social studies in this case. The curriculum developers should endeavour to strike a balance between contents dealing with our immediate and foreign environments. Based on this premise, my suggestions are four fold.

Preservice Education of Primary School Teachers

The key elements in social studies should be examined at the Primary Teacher Training Colleges with the use of the global perspective. For instance, the definition, the philosophy, the goals and other social studies elements on citizenship education, decisionmaking processes and other social issues should be taught at the teacher training institutions through the angle of global education. As an example, how is social studies in Botswana perceived! Is it different or similar in conception compared with Canada, USA, Japan, Kenya, Britain, and Malavsla etc.! It is necessary to understand our similarities and our differences. Why do certain crops grow in one part of the world and they do not in others!

The teacher candidates should be taught of dlfferent climatic zones of the world, their characteristics and the conditions under which certain crops grow. A knowledge of different climates is capable of promoting the understanding of why some people traditionally wear light attires in hot climatic regions of the world, and warm clothes in cold regions. What are the benefits of interdependence! These and other key issues should be carefully analysed, and reflected upon using rhe global dimension, so that teachers, after their certification should be able to teach social studies beyond their national boundaries.

Some concepts in social studies may be sHghdy different, bur social studies theories are the same all over the world. For instance, the art of inquiry is the same worldwide and so also are some of the methods, approaches and strategies in the presentation of content to anxious learners. What curriculum designers of the PTTC need do is the inclusion of international contents in the curriculum and its implementation by teachers from the global perspective.

Intensive In-service Training on Global Education for Existing Primary School Teachers Leading to a Certificate in Global Education

It may be easy to design the preservice education of primary school teachers from the angle of global perspective. At the same time, it may result into having two rypes of teachers at the primary school level. The first category would be those who undergo the suggested preservice education based on the global dimension. The second category would be those already on-the-job. How then can the second category be globally-oriented! The social studies teachers already on- the- job can be made to attend intensive in-service courses during their long vacation at designated locations in the country depending on which is nearest to them. The locations and the course should be designed and implemented by resource people in the field of global education drawn from the University of Botswana and its affiliated Colleges of Education.

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This on-the-lob or in-service training should be seen in the words of Bolam (1986) as those education and training activities engaged in by primary and secondary school teachers and principals. following their initial professional certification. and intended primarily or exclUSively to improve their professional knowledge. skills and artitudes in order that they can educate children more effectively. A needs assessment survey may be necessary to establish which areas of the world should be covered by the intensive course in line with strong plea of Eraut (1987) in support of the improvement of the teaching profession based on the quality of its needs assessment.

It is advisable that the exposure of the trainees should spread over two long vacations. each of six weeks long. and be awarded on successful completion. a certificate in the teaching of global issues. In designing the course content. it may be worthwhile to contact similar institutions offering similar training in the area of global education. For example. Lim et al (1995) reported how Michigan State University's (MSU) Model International Department Experiment (MIDE). a programme designed to encourage internationalization efforts in curricula. research. public service and outreach activities is successfully internationalizing studies and programmes. A linkage programme can be initiated with this type of institution. It is possible through linkage to make professors in institutions offering programmes in global education spend some of their time or sabbatical leave in the Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Botswana.

Exchange Programme

An exchange programme of student teachers at the primary school level from Botswana with other institutions outside the country that are noted for global education is a wonhwhile suggestion. This may be costly if the numbers involved are large but the finance can be sponsored by organisations and agencies that are interested in global education. Just as Friesen (1995) noted with respect to an international teacher education project between Canada and Cameroon. the Regina-Yaounde Inter-University Project has been a successful approach to the development of global consciousness in student teachers. In the same vein. Thornhill (1991) highlighted how Ll.S. citizens who traveled to Indonesia avoided fallacies about that country by studying ahead of time.

In a related example. Adeyemi (1984) documented some perceptions of Americans about Africa from his personal experience as a graduate student in the United States. Two of them are relevant here: (a) There is the general belief that Africa is a country. and (b) Snow-fall is a universal phenomenon. By the same token. many Africans located in about fifty African countries also have wrong perceptions of the Americans. A well-designed global education programme by way of international exchange of students can positively change. not only the wrong perceptions Americans have of Africa. but the wrong perceptions both have of one another and of other environments too. An international exchange programme of this nature can as Singleton (1996) put it. enable srudenrs possess skills that will make them function within diverse societies whether at home or abroad.

An inrernational exchange of students of this nature is not new. However. when effectively planned and executed. it is not only capable of enhancing international understanding, but also of minimising the negative stereotypes students may have of other cultures. For instance. Klineberg (1976) reported an investigation conducted into


international university exchanges, both at student and faculty level in seven countries namely: France, Germany, Japan, India, U.K., U.S.A., and Yugoslavia. The srudy noted that international exchanges represent a definite contribution to education and so should be maintained, and wherever possible extended. In fact, Jenkins (1983) in a related development argued that international exchange of students abroad was no longer a scholarly pursuit, but also an instrument in national and international development.

Lombardi (1984) reponed that Indiana University Center for Global Education was set out to strengthen undergraduate instruction in global studies on all eight Indiana University campuses. This programme included mobilizing talent and resources behind global studies, encouraging the infusion of global perspectives into existing courses, helping to establish new courses, facilitating cross-disciplinary cooperation among faculty members who share an interest in global studies etc. Some other Universities that are also notable in the field of global education include Ohio State University and the University of North Carolina.

In essence, the proposed linkage can exist between some of these universities and the Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Botswana. The modus operandi, which can be worked out at the policy making levels can go a long way in developing good quality primary social studies teachers with excellent orientation in global studies. It is expected that the proposed graduates of the programme would be able to teach in any primary school in the world, unless other extraneous factors are operating.

Establishment of A Magnet Primary Teacher Training College

In addition to the suggestion earlier made, the establishment of a Primary Teacher Training College with an international focus may be necessary in Botswana. This institution, with a curriculum geared towards the knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to multiple perspectives, can go a long way in the preparation of primary school teachers of global education.

This institution, which is expected to admit not only students from the country, but also from other countries should enable students after graduation, be more sensitive and responsive to stereotypes arising from ignorance, prejudice, racism, ethnicity and shallow mindedness, Just as Elliot (1996) sees the Forest Glen Elementary School, a successful k·5 magnet school with an international focus in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A as success story, the proposed magnet primary school Teacher Training College in Botswana should be a centre for preparing primary school teachers for tomorrow's world.

The Teacher Training College should infuse international projects in its curriculum so that students from different countries would be able to have a better understanding and knowledge of different cultures by presenting, examining and analysing these projects. TIle instructional materials and the teachers in this institution should reflect international



The most crucial factor in achieving quality education at any level of education,

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particularly at the primary school level is the teacher. The primary school teacher is not only expected to demonstrate high qualiry knowledge, skills and attitudes in social studies, they must also not lack a high degree of global understanding.

Good quality primary school teachers, well versed in the knowledge of happenings in their environments, and other far environments are necessary if we are to thoroughly educate the children of today for the challenges of tomorrow. Otherwise, of what benefit is education if children of the next century understand what is taking place in rhelr immediate environment, but have little or no comprehension of the 'what, why and how' of other environments?


Adeyemi, M. B. (1996). Elements of intmultional education in the social stwiie.s cllmcllilim of junior secondary schools in Botswana. Canadian Social Studies, 30(2), 72-75.

Adeyemi, M. B. (1989). Social studie.s and the war against indiscipline in Nigeria.

Lagos Education Review, 5(1),0-77.

Adeyemi, M. B. (1984, Winter). Ttaching mltural pmpectit'eJ: Ideas from Nigeria. In F. Risinger (Ed.), News and notes on the social sciences. Bloomington: Indiana University, Office of School Programs, (pp. AI-A4)

Africa Todn,. (1991). London: Africa Book Ltd.

Becker, j. M. (1979). The uJ()rld and school: A case for world centered education. In j.

M. Berker (Ed .), Schooling for global age. New York: McGraw Hill.

Bolam, R. (1986). Omceptualising insmlict. In D. Hopkins, (Ed.), Inservice training and educational development: An international survey. London: Croom Helm.

Bray, M & Parker, S. (1993). Education in small states: Concepts, challenge.s and strategie.s. Oxford: Pergamon.

Cushner, K. (1990). Adding an international dimension to the curriculum, Social Studies, 81(4), 166-70.

Elliot, I. (1996). At home in the global village. Teaching PreK-B, 26(5), 34·38. Eraur, M. (1987). Evaluation and quality management. Management in Education, 1(2).

Friesen, D. McDougall, B. & Kang, H. (1995). T ou'(Jfd global horitons: Student stories from an intemationalleachcr edllcation projeci. Action in Teacher Education, 17(2),40- 46.

jenkins, H. M. & Associates. (1983). Educaling students from other nations.

Washington D. C: [ossej-Bass Publishers.

Kllneberg, O. (1976). Intemational educational exchange: An 4SSe.ssment of its nature and its prospects. The Haugue: Mouton.

Kgathi, D. L. & Mlorshwa, C V. (1994). Utilitation of fueluood in BotsU>Qna:

Implications for energ) polk.,. Gaborone: University of Botswana, African Energy Policy Research Network (Afrepren-Biomass) Research Group.

Kniep, W. M. (1987). De\1:lopment edllcation: Essential to a global pmpecli\'t. In J.

Carol & W. Kniep (Eds.), The international development crises and American


Education: challenges, oportunities and instructional! stmtegies. New York: Global Perspectives in Education Inc.

Lim. B. & Others (Eds.), (1995). Stmtegy fOT a globaluni\.trsity: Model internnncna!

Department Experiment. East Lansing: Michigan State University Imernational Centre.

Lombardi. J. V. (1984). Indiana University. In E. L. Backman (Ed). Approaches to international education. New York: American Council on Education/Macmillan Publishing Co .• pp. 10Jo1l7.

Lynch. J. (1989). Multicultural education in a global society. London: The Falmer


Ministry of Education. (1987). Social etudies: rel~sed junior secondary s,llahus.

Gaborone: Government Primer.

Osunde, E. (1987). Global education in Nigerian secondary school!. International Journal of Social Education. 1(3).72-77.

Republic of Botswana. (1991). National development plan 7. Gaborone:

Government Printer.

Singleton. D. L. (1995. December-1996. January). Multicultuml education: TIlt K" to global uni!). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction: Amrltsar, India.

Social Studies Panel. (1991). Subject S,llabus for the Botswana Teacher Training Colleges. Gaborone: Botswana Teacher Training Colleges.

Thornhill. Jr .• H. (1991). Culture Projects: Imaginary Tm\!elto Indonesia.

Unpublished Manuscript.

Thorne. B & Borne-Baker, C. (1993, August). Model for Infusing a Global Perspectil>e into the Cumrulum. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Centre for Critical Thinking.

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Michael Bamidele Adeyemi is a faculty member in the Department of Languages and Social Sciences Education of the University of Botswana



Shannon K. Buder James E. Young

InnIXl(Jti\re partnmhips and programs in Teacher Education ma, be shortli\'ed if those directing them fail to identih and nmrigate traditional resistance from public schools and uniumir, departments. Issues in maintaining an innotl(Jti\'e, interdiscip~na" site·based certification program oeer seven ,ean M\'e included establishing credibilir, among partners, pro\riding opportunities for re/kction and action research, creating new budget structures, and addressing on<ampw facult, concerns. Such efforts suggest tMt collaboration. ongoing communication of \rision and goals. and proacti\'e negotiation are ke, facton in facilitating reform efforts and acceptance of innovati\re teaching practices and paradigms.

Most innovative programs in teacher education encounter resistance to change from educational instirutlons that. by their very nature. are designed to retain stability. power. predictability and order (Caine. 1997). Perhaps that is why so few alternative programs become wholly adopted into established structures or survive beyond their trial period of three to five years. This paper is a qualitative study of the negotiations and issues involved in maintaining an Innovative teacher education program at a university in the western region of the United States over a seven-year period. In keeping the program alive, we have had to respond to varying degrees of resistance on two levels. The first has occurred with our mentor teachers at the secondary school sites where we implement and administer the program. We have spent the last seven years tiptoeing through school climates that often resist the efforts of student teachers to practice new methodologies that digress from established norms.

A second level of resistance to our program has taken place at the university level. In spite of initial accolades and support, traditional forces of conformity within the University have threatened to diminish. modify or eliminate the program. Maintaining this alternative program within our own departments has required a united effon and recommitment to the vision that initially inspired us.

Section one of this paper describes an optional certification program first piloted in the fall of 1990. Following the admonition of Goodlad (1990). this program was designed to incorporate some of the best aspects of partnerships between university teacher educators and public schools. The new program was our response to the premise that teacher education was "the big black hole in the movement to create smart schools" Fiske (1992) and others were advocating during the wave of reform efforts in the early 90's. Sections twO and three discuss the working relationships we have established with both public school partners and university personnel in order to maintain and sustain the innovations in teacher education this program introduced.

1. Description of the Site Based Program

Seven years ago an interdisciplinary team of six university professors. three from

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the English Department and three from the School of Education, received a university grant to design a school-based teacher education pilot program (or secondary English teaching majors. Our intent was to design a program lor training future teachers that incorporated four major components lacking in the regular certification program: collaboration with placement schools, on-site contextual teaching and learning, menroring sessions for support teachers, and teacher reflection through classroom action research.

In the traditional program, a ten-week secondary student teaching placement follows completion of all education classes and major/minor courses of studs. Students work with one cooperating teacher at either the junior or high school level. University supervision consists of five to seven visits. Sharing student teaching experiences with peers occurs through bl-monthv on-campus seminars.

In the new site-based program, collaboration helps to alleviate the isolation many students feel during student teaching. Cohorts of 15 to 20 students majoring in the same or allied fields of study are clustered at the same site schools for their student teaching. Student journals reveal that the students clustered by major at the same location have certain advantages over students singularly placed: they use each other as resources for planning, instruction, and problem solving; they discuss with peers common problems and frustrations; they seek council, advice, and encouragement from one another or from a cadre of mentor teachers (Butler 1992). Creating teams of cooperating teachers and university supervisors encourages further collaboration. Whenever possible, students are placed with more than one cooperating teacher to enlarge the opporrunttv to work with a variety of teaching styles and methodologies. The support teachers work together to direct, guide, and evaluate the student teacher's experience.

On-site contextual teaching and learning is facilitated in the new program by having university faculty teach education and methods classes at the placement schools throughout the two quarters of student teaching. Rather than teach full-time for 10 weeks as a culminating experience following university coursework, student teachers teach half days for twenty weeks, attending seminars and methods classes the other part of the day. Their student teaching experiences become the context for the seminars, they become their own case studies as they analyze the effects of various methods and management approaches as they teach.

The commitment of the support teachers is a vital component of the site-based program. The cooperating teacher takes a student teacher for 10 weeks for _ day but then accepts a new student teacher at the mid-point of the program for an additional 10 weeks. This allows each student teacher to have both a high school and junior high/middle school experience. Additionally, each support teacher is asked to attend a class in mentoring which provides opportunities to strengthen mentor skills and communication between mentor, student teacher, and university supervisor. The course begins with an all day offcampus retreat where the mentor and student teacher can become acquainted and communicate expectations. Six additional school meetings are held on-stre during the 20- week period between school faculty and university supervisors to assess mentor concerns and facilitate effective working relationships. A second retreat after the first 10 weeks allows for program evaluation and for new assignments of student teachers. While the program asks much of the mentors, they report that they gain a strong sense of collegiality, a renewed commitment to educating new teachers into the profession, and released time

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for professional development and curriculum planning. In rum, our university team gains an appreciation for the strengths and talents the mentors bring to the partnership.

A final component of the program is teacher reflection and classroom action research. Our goal is to produce teachers who engage in reflection at many levels during different siruations, and who use the reflective act as a way to refine their teaching strategies and educational premises. We use reflective processes by requiring journals of all the participants, analyzing video tapes of student teaching, collecting data and ideas on an electronic mail network, and conducting classroom action research projects.

Since the program's inception, more than 90 student teachers have graduated with the participation of over 150 cooperating teachers within three school districts. Eighteen different schools have served as sites, and we have rerurned to several schools two or three times.

II. Maintaining Innovation at the Secondary School Sites

Our preservice teachers enter their ptacticum anticipating that what they have been learning about teaching in their university courses is acrually practiced at the schools. For the most part, they have adopted a consrructlvlst belief that instructional judgments should be based on the needs and responses of srudents and that teaching and learning is an interactive, interdependent, and satisfying experience for all participants (Brooks, 1993; Savery, 1995). Having experienced a contextual cohort program (Buder, 1996), these preservice English and social science teachers expect to engage students in personal connections between their lives and texts in order to construct relevance.

The limitations of the public school system, however, force both student and university faculty to compare their paradigms to the actual one in practice, one that seems to demand conformity rather than reflection, promote isolation rather than collaboration, emphasize rote memorization of facts rather than productive problem-solving, and foster resistance to change rather than invitations to rethink teaching/learning dilemmas. Caine (1997) explains that conditions such as administrative control of outcomes,limited connections between curriculum and the personal lives of students, extrinsic and shortlived rewards and punishments, and deadline-driven curriculums act upon school personnel to reduce their capacity to solve problems productively and creatively. How can we work within the limitations of such school contexts and still pursue a fundamentally different paradigm? To what degree will our preservice teachers need to recognize rtaditional constraints and still experiment with innovative strategies! How will we establish strong working relationships of trust and interdependence with cooperating teachers whose allegiance to existing practices may make suggestions for change suspect] In short, how do we tiptoe around, between, within the school context and still effectively disrurb the status quo?

Finding answers to these questions has been central to our seven years of research with this program. Viewing our dilemmas as issues of maintenance rather than reactions to encountered resistance has facilitated our interaction with the secondary school personnel. Recognizing that "resistance" is a relative term, what we might interpret as resistance, may be, from the school's perspective, a logical and defensible response to our reform stance. Goodland (1990) confirmed that "the orientation and behaviors teachers

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and principals bring to schools are ill-suited !O challenging and changing existing practices." Ironically, many practices are at odds with what experienced teachers believe to be best. Thus, "resistance" is sometimes blatant, but more often subtle, and apt to surface when a student teacher introduces a new instructional strategy, questions a discipline procedure, or when university and school faculty meet for decision-making or sharing ideas. Positioning ourselves at the school sites has helped us anticipate, articulate, and assimilate all participants' concerns and keep the effects of resistance somewhat at bay. That is, we often can negotiate the wriggle room our student teachers need in order to risk ttying models of teaching and learning that counter ineffective practice.

Data analyzed from participants' journals, minutes of meetings, planning sessions, interviews with school administrators and personnel, indicate that our efforts to maintain innovation fall under four categories: a) becoming credible partners with public school personnel, b) facilitating the mentor relationship between support teachers and their student teachers, c) emphasizing collaboration, and d) using classroom action research to inform our practice. A discussion of each of these efforts follows including strategies and recommendations we have found useful in working out the dilemmas we've faced.

A. Becoming Credible Partners

In forging a partnership between the university and the public schools, the roles each partner assumes become critical to the success of the venture. The university team had years of experience in public school teaching before moving to higher education. Such background created an optimistic sense that teacher educators and secondary education teachers share a common commitment of promoting effective practices for the benefit of all learners. The need to stay in close touch with public school practices and issues was a driving factor for positioning the university course of smdy at site schools and tailoring the curriculum around school context. The university faculty entered the partnership under the assumption that we would be welcomed and valued for what we might contribute to the school setting.

Thus the general reception we received by a majority of the teachers who volunteered in the project the first pilot year surprised us. From the initial meeting, we encountered an uncomfortable and prevailing attitude that university faculty were suspect as indicated by our partners' questions: What do university faculty know about the problems and needs of public school reachers! How could we presume to suggest ideas or converse about effective practices] Why did we want a partnership at all? What was in it for them or their students! It was our first realization that by moving from the public school classroom to higher education, our expertise and credibility would be challenged in the teaching arena where we once flourished.

Developing credibility and trust with cooperating teachers takes time, patience, mutual give and take, and a redefining of our goals and roles within the partnership. As guests on their turf, we have consciously changed not only the language we use to describe ourselves but our roles as well. With each new school we enter, we must re-establish our reputation as sincere, knowledgeable, yet nonthreatening educators, without ulterior motives for changing their programs or criticizing their priorities. We've learned to focus on promoting what works at their schools, and we inquire about and support


improvements they are considering.

The strategies we have taken to establish trusting relationships with public school cooperating teachers and administrators may serve as recommendations to other teacher educators in similar settings:

1. Emphasize school partners' areas of expertise. At the opening retreat with all participants, we introduce the research concerning differences in practice, priorities, and perspectives of expert teachers compared to novice ones (Sternberg 1996), emphasizing the collective experience and expertise our cooperating teachers offer as mentors to our students. Throughout the year, we provide opportunities for the mentor teachers to present strategies, professional knowledge, and workshops to our student teachers. This approach demonstrates the university faculty's recognition and appreciation for the strengths and years of experience that OUr mentor teachers bring to the partnership. In addition, the mentor teachers have noted that such discussions and invitations allow them to reflect on what they know and how they will communicate that knowledge and expertise to their student teachers.

2. Respect the time cooperating teachers need to establish themselves with their students at the beginning of the school year. Cooperating teachers indicated that assigning our student teachers during their preparation week in late August was cumbersome, awkward, and frustrating that first pilot year (Herndon, 1996). Teachers needed to focus on getting ready for school openlng, they found it difficult to properly orient student teachers at this time. Although the advantages to our student teachers in experiencing how teachers prepare and start off their year seemed important, we reworked our university calendar to better meet the cooperating teachers' needs. In scheduling retreats and mentor meetings, our partners determine the calendar according to their needs and time commitments.

3. Be tolerant of the institutional demands that govern some curricular decisions (i.e. midterm reports, standardized testing, extra curricular assignments). As our student teachers begin to create curriculum according to learning and teaching style preferences, they can become disillusioned by their mentor's reluctance to embrace their ideas. Moving beyond the factory model of schooling, which builds accountability around seat time and defines success according to standardized test scores (Fiske 1992), requires creative problem-solving. While we acknowledge the need for teachers to respond to district-wide curriculums and testing, we help our student teachers learn to balance these demands through more student choice, personal ownership of classroom decisions, and authentic, hands-on assessments. Our student teachers focus on the areas they can influence and learn to appropriately recognize and manage those that are beyond their control.

B. Facilitating Mentor-Studeur Relationships

Research indicates that excellent teachers do not automatically make excellent mentors (Berliner 1990). Because a teacher's expertise is often context specific, removing them from the cenrral action of the classroom can be threatening, frustrating, and professionallv unrewarding for them. It is not surprising that many of the best teachers prefer not to be cooperating teachers; their enjoyment comes from the bonds they forge with students.

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In order to support and develop new teachers, mentors must relinquish their territory and authority long enough for the student teacher to establish his/her own teacher presence in the classroom. They must view the action back stage, willing to treat the student teacher's initial awkward attempts as necessary for professional growth. Their ability to cue, critique, and applaud simultaneously is crucial (0 sensitive egos eager to be successful. The best mentors acknowledge that their student teacher may reach some students better and more effectively than they do.

Strategies and recommendations that encourage teachers (0 assume mentor responsibilities include:

1. Provide forums where mentors can voice their concerns about their role. At an introductory retreat, mentors describe their ideal student teacher and student teachers describe the characteristics of the perfect mentor. In sharing these descriptions, participants explore feelings of hesitation and inadequacy. Role expectations are clarified and possible trouble spots identified. TIle ongoing mentor class keeps us communicating openly and directly about the needs of all participants.

2. Assign a student teacher to more than one cooperating teacher. A major modification from the campus program, the site-based option offers student teachers the chance to work with more than one cooperating teacher. Sharing the training of a student teacher with another mentor encourages commitment among mentors and stimulates communication among faculty (Herndon, 1996).

C. Emphasizing Collaboration

Teaching has been described as the most private of professions. Classrooms become islands where teachers control, perform, and dictate the reaching act according to individual needs and preferences. TIley may feel constrained by the hierarchical demands from administration and state mandates, but once the door to their room is closed and the teaching session begins, they have a wide range of options on how to meet goals and guide learning. Unless structures are in place for collaboration among colleagues, including time and recognition for collaborative planning, teachers can survive in relative isolation, and many prefer to do so. Although districts provide lnservice on developing interdisciplinary curricula, few departments we have worked with are involved in cross-disciplinary work or collaborative endeavors.

How then have we encouraged school faculty to consider the advantages collaboration and joint effort might offer them?

1. Model collaboration. As often as possible, the university team goes out to the schools in pairs or in small groups, showing that we value each other's contribution to our work. Faculty load for courses is shared, for example, and we have revised our goals to project a unified purpose and direction. Mentor teachers know we work as a network and that program benefits are a direct result of our collaboration.

2. Create site placements that reinforce collaboration. Administrators and cooperating teachers are not used to having scores of student teachers invade their

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departments all in one quarter. Unless so directed, school districts seldom assign more than one or two student teachers to any particular school; if they do, they urlllze several content areas for placements. Our program, however, demands the energy and resources of most, if not every, faculty in a single department. As our student teachers plan together, exchange lessons when applicable, and serve as each other's cheerleaders, their examples dispel the norian of teaching in isolation and emphashe the power of collaboration.

3. Require student teachers to use cooperative learning as a method of instruction. We have observed that many of our cooperating teachers steer away from small group lnsrructlon for mostly managerial concerns, particularly at the junior high level. They cite loss of control or difficulties in assessment as reasons for mainraining individual assignments and independent seatwork. If past efforts in getting students to cooperate in group work have failed, teachers are reluctant to give this strategy a second chance. As part of the partnership, mentors must allow their student teachers to experiment with cooperative strategies. When these srrategies prove successful, many cooperative teachers undergo a perceptual change about the benefits of small group work and how to manage cooperative learning advantageously.

D. Action Research as Reflection on Practice

Although many excellent teachers infonnally evaluate their teaching through reflecting on the results that their instruction produces, our experience indicates that most teachers do not embrace formalised research nor undersrand how it might benefit them. Less than half of our cooperating teachers in anyone year are willing to research a problem, strategy, or issue regarding their lnstruction through formal action research methods when given incentives or opportunities to do so. They cite time constraints and personal inadequacies as well as lack of support from their administrators as major reasons for not getting involved in this aspect of the partnership. While Houser (1990) advocates that the role of teacher-researcher helps define and shape the profession, most of our teachers feel minimally informed and seldom view themselves as legitimate contributors to a professional knowledge base. Reluctance to keep journals the first pilot year was initial evidence of teacher resistance to fonnal reflection. Several journals were merely grocery lists of frusrratlons with the program rather than thoughtful entries addressing mentoring issues. The majority of teachers recommended we abandon the journal requirement as it proved too rime-consuming and cumbersome (Herndon, 1996).

In order to involve mentor teachers in reflective practice and action research, we have made the following adjustments which we offer as recommendations:

I. Offer instruction in qualitative methods and encourage mentors to use current projects in progress. In an effort to broaden teachers' understanding of qualitative research, we introduce them to the nature and procedures for setting up a qualitative srudy. Helping classroom teachers examine their artlrudes and assumptions about research as a means of informing their practice often breaks down initial resistance to the role of teacher-researcher. Adding assessment components to a current school project, such as the school-wide reading fair or senior portfolio requirement, shows them how to convert their endeavors into research studies that inform their teaching.

2. Invite the mentors to become lrwolved in their srudenr teacher's research.

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Often cooperating teachers get excited about the research questions generated by their student teachers and enjoy helping gather and analyze data lor their project.

3. Provide opportunities to attend and present at research conferences. Students and faculty present their research projects to peers, principals, and department chairs in an evening of recognition and celebration. Funds from the site-based program provide pay lor teacher-researchers to attend regional professional conferences in order to become a part of a broader research force.

In summarizing our work with our school partners, our response to the site schools' resistance to innovation has essentially rechoreographcd our role in the partnership. Our purposes are much more focused toward the whole school environment and how all members of the triad support the best of what these environments are doing for student learning. By dealing with the dilemmas inherent in schools as institutions on a daily basis, we keep the possibilities of change clearly in front of us.

lll. Maintaining Innovation at the University level

Support for our program at the university level became complicated as we moved from pilot status to a recognized, acceptable "oprlon" within the regular teacher certification program. Operating under pilot Status for the first twO years gave lIS license to operate autonomously from the on-campus field placement center and from specific requirements for student admission to the program. Conversion from being a pilot project to becoming a part of the institutions' operating procedures has been a major challenge. Maintaining the innovative characteristics of our field-based emphasis demands that we gene tate faculty and administrative support from two separate departments (English and Education) as well as the university at large.

This final section describes some of the conflicts we have faced in seeking a professional status for ideas considered to be exceptions to the established norms at the university level.

1. Managing a cross-disctplinarv budget remains problematic. The university provost was instrumental in encouraging interdisciplinary partnerships by requiring it as a minimum criteria for receiving particular grant monies. After ollr two-year pilot effort, he converted our grant funding to a permanent unfilled faculty position which gave us a yearly provlsion separate from either of our department's operating budgets. The original intent of this provision was to enable us to expand the site-based option to other academic disciplines that had students certifying in teacher education. It also afforded a means to commit academic load for English faculty supervision as well as for separate administration of the program's unique needs, apart from Education's field director responsibilities.

However, because the university has no precedence for interdepartmental budgets, we have yet to determine the most efficacious way to house and distribute the program's monies. After several years of see-sawing the budget from one department to the other, this year we assigned certain spending categories to each department. Thus, the English department houses the budget for retreats, ("culty workshops, and supervision. The Education department houses the budget for travel, technical support, and miscellaneous requests. This shared responsibility does not give one department license to

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spend all of any remaining balance on other department shortfalls. We believe a line-item budget kept separate from either department's operating budget will ultimately enable us to use surplus monies to support other departments' involvement in site-based partnerships.

2. Faculty commitment to a site-based immersion model for teacher education has been minimal. Immersing faculty in school contexts demands time and a commitment to understanding how to shape university curriculum to the context of the field. It requires daily supervision and instruction off-campus over a much longer period than the traditional, final phase of student teaching practlcurns, For a myriad of reasons, not all faculty in either Teacher Education or other content area departments have been able to shift their practice from the university to the public school setting. Developing widespread support for substantial program changes that such a shift requires has not yet occurred. However, rotating on-campus faculty into the site-based team has increased faculty opportunity [0 teach, plan. and become intimately involved with the program's development.

To date, seven faculty other than the original six have joined the site-based program as supervisors and instructors. Some of these faculty have caught the vision and power of field-based instruction and, upon returning to on-campus duty, have redesigned methods courses with a stronger site-based component.

In addition. several site-based features have been Incorporated into the oncampus program. At, part of a recent national accreditation revision, the education faculty created a rationale for course sequence with a field experience component at every level of coursework. Cooperating teachers are now Invited to campus for an orientation on the goals and expectations of our campus program. The department has a permanent shared faculty position with a surrounding school district that allows a district person to serve as adjunct faculty in the department. All these efforts strengthen the links between university work and public school teaching.

3. The optional status of the site-based program has been a source of tension among faculty members. Although the majority of English teaching majors (along with some selected Histoty majors) opt to take the site-based program, we cannot require them to do so as long as individual scheduling problems prevent mandatory enrollment. With two programs to choose between, students need to he recruited, which puts our faculty team in the position of advocating the advantages of the site-based alternative over the traditional program. At times we may be seen as raking a competitive posture in order to maintain the program's Viability. In addition. because our integrated curriculum focuses on problems inherent to the student teaching context, we question certain on-campus practices that seem oblivious to real school conditions. Such stances have created some tension among faculty and administrators. Nor Is the program without its rumors: Is it as rigorous as the campus-based program! Are exceptions to admissions requirements being made for graduate transfers from other institutions! Must deadlines for student teaching applications be different for those in the site-based experience!

In order to keep all faculty informed of program aims and needs. we have found that we must communicate more frequently with regular on-campus faculty and staff. Insulating ourselves or Slaying autonomous from on-campus decisions docs not promote

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credibility of the program nor address misunderstandings or misperceptions of program operations. We are trying harder to conform to admission policies, to meet paperwork deadlines, and to answer administrative and faculty concerns in order to secure our continued success.

In summary, Morris (1997) argues that the high mortality rate of innovations may be more a function of their operation within an organization's institutionalized environment than in the educator's choice of innovation or its implementation. He suggests that innovations that remain open to modification in light of experience and onsite adjustments have a better chance of long-term survival. He proposes several conditions crucial to mainraining an open-ended approach to change: 1) reliable and constant internal feedback, and 2) a thorough familiarity with the aims and principles governing the innovation (p.2S). In maintaining innovative programs as teacher educators, we must continue to provide for and assess feedback from all participants in the program, allowing for adjnsrments and negorlations when faced with institutionalized resistance. TIle more familiar we become with the nature and degree of such resistance, the better we can articulate a response or absorb the resistance and move beyond it.

Our knowledge and commitment to the goals and principles of this innovative program have remained strong and clear, and continue to be supported by both internal and external research findings. Our collaborative diligence in assessing the progress of our students, the effectiveness of our mentors, and the reputation of the program among colleagues and administrators has helped lIS anticipate and survive otherwise seemingly insurmountable obstacles.


Berliner, D. (1990, October). An address presented at Northern Rocky Mountain Educational Research Annual Conference, Greeley, CO.

Brooks, j. G. & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist c1a.!sroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Dohrer, G. & Butler, S. (1996, August). Keeping the U'o!\'tJ at bllJ: Preparing agents of change in teacher edllCation. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference of National Council of Teachers of English, Heidelberg, Germany.

Buder, S. (1996, August). Rd,ing on student \'Oice to create contexts for knowing.

Paper presented at the Ist Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices International Conference, Hersrmonceux, England ..

Caine, R. N. & Caine, G. P. (1997). Education on the edge of pouibi!ity.

Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Fiske, E. B. (1992). Smtlft schools. Smart kids. New York: Simon & Schuster. Goodlad, j. I. ( 1990). Teachers for aUf nation's schools. San Francisco. jessey-Bass


Herndon, K. M. & Fauske, J. (1996, Fall). Anal"ing mentonng practices through teachers' journals. Teacher Education Quarterly.

Houser, N. O. (1990). Teacher-Researcher: The s,ntheJis of roles for teacher Empowerment. Action in Teacher EduCCltion, 12, 55-60.

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Monis, D. R. (1997). Adrift in the sea of innot"lltions: A response to Alexandtr, M"TPh" and Woods. Educational Researcher, 26, 22·26.

Savery,). R. & Duffy, T. M. (1995, September/October). Problem·based learning:

An irutrwctional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 31·38.

Sternberg, R.). & Horvath, ).(1995). A rnotot:ype view of expert teaching.

Educational Researcher, 24,9·16.

Shannon K. Butler is Professor of Education at Weber State University, Ogden, Utah. She has served as director of the on-slte certification program for English/History teaching majors. She specializes in reading/writing across the curriculum, secondary education methodology, and classroom action research. Her research interests include self-srudy in teacher education and authentic assessment practices.

James E. Young is Associate Professor of English at Weber State University, Ogden, Utah, teaches literature and composition methodology and specializes in American writers of the South. He teaches courses in western intellectual tradition and world religion in Weber's Honors Program. He co-directs an Innovative project for teacher leadership and inqUiry in the M.Ed. program.

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Maria Helena Menna Barreto Abrahao

With economic globalization in modem societies a burst of knowledge occurs. II results in globalitation of knowledge 1IIu1 in cr055<culturaVmulticuhural "iews of knowledge.

In South America u'<! hat'/! a censortusm of countries, where Bratil represents an important partner, called Common SOllth Market (MERCOSUL). Although MERCOSUL first aimed at the economic field, edllCation has an important role because it will be a challenge to prepare teachers for acting with a cross-culturaVmuhicultural lliews of knowledge, in a 5ocier, like Bratil or an, other in Latin America, in a time when the walls of international barriers are falling down.

First, I will describe the contest of globalization and integration in Southern American countries, emphasizing, in a brief hi5torical retrespecnee, to three different moments, which U'(fe important for the integrationalistic politia in Latin America. Then, I will approach the enlargement of thi5 integrationalistic lliew, b45ed on the Triennial EdllCational Plan for MERCOSUL and the MERCOSUL 2000 document. In the Ian part, eeen hailing knowledge that there are no read, recipes, and that the countries which make part of MERCOSUL mwt create U'415 of operating the projects of integration, especial!, the formation of qualified human resources, I point out some ide45 about teacher education for these new challenges.

Globali:ation and Integration in Southern American countries: the context.

In order to better understand the challenges of globalization era concerning teacher education, we need to bring up the issue of globalization itself and integration among countries. Without integration we cannot think of globalization.

We face globalization as a structural phenomenon caused by the deep changes, which modern societies are undergoing that affect the common citizen and the state itself, and not as a mere consequence of neo-llberalism, which is defended by many people. In this sense, the building of concepts concerning globalization should not become restricted to the economtc-tlnandal and commercial subject matter. Globalization has to enlarge the guide lines of discussion and the establishment of actions in the social area, bringing to core other approaches such as human rights (in which the woman's issue is emphasized); preservation of the environment (where the main point refers to the environmental managemene), cooperative economic development among nations, among other issues. An example that the agendas of international discussion are enlarging horizons can be menrloned, such as ECO 92, in Brazil, which pointed out the environmental issue; Habitat ll, in Turkey, which underlined rhe problem of dwelling, and the Conference of Peking about questions which reier [0 the woman. Globalization has brought as supposition the regional/continental integration resulting in the formation of megablocks like the

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European Union - European Common Market and the North American Free Trade Association - NAFf A. In this paper I will deal with the integration that has been made in the southern hemisphere of the American Continent, among countries that make parr of MERCOSUL- and the requirements that refer to the educational field and, as a consequence, to teacher education for this new reality.

Concerning the integration, Brazil has had a prominent leadership in MERCOSUl. This situation did not happen by chance. Historically, Brazil has developed an essential role in the integrationalistic movement among the countries of Latin America. According to Saraiva (1995), Brazil's partlcipatlon in this process is made in three historical moments: during Monroe Doctrine (1823 to 1942); after the Second War till 80's, under the influence of Bolivar Doctrine, with Brazil's international reinsertion in latin American integration; and final\y, the integration and even the Brazilian leadership in MERCOSUL.

The Monroe Doctrine was considered the first matrix of a conception of integration, within the set of Ideas concerning freedom of market and democracy, under the light of the dictum "the America for the Americans".

In the beginning of Brazilian Republic, the insertion took place under the influence of another integratlonalistlc matrix, built by Simon Bolivar, who conquered freedom of the majority of the nations of South America, which considered that "American integration would come by the adoption of strong Republics" (Sara iva, 1995, p.37). This change of the ideological political vector was based on the economic-political model that Brazil was then adopting: the national-development within the recent industrial development, replacing the agrarian-exporter model of the previous moment.

TIle third moment registers the creation of a zone of Latin American free trade - MERCOSUL. The former moments of Integration composed the source for the creation of MERCOSUL by the Assunci6n Treaty, which was signed on March 26, 1991 by Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. MERCOSUL has extrapolated al\ the previous artempts of integration, not only in the conceptual field but also in the operational field. In order to build a zone of free trade, MERCOSUL has managed to establish a dynamlc program to put an end to the inequalities of taxes. In August of 1994, the member countries adopted a common external tax. Such measures are unquestionably related to conditions different from the previous ones, especially because the present integration is being accomplished restricted to the Southern Latin American countries, instead to a continental scope.

The Integration beyond an Economic - Commercial View.

In Brazil, when one realized that MERCOSUL was presenting a tendency of giving emphasis just to economlc-commerctal issues - which indicates the name South Common Market - social movements starred to come to warn that guide economic line should be enlarged to comprise al\ the complexities that the concept of Integration carries, especially in the field of culture and education.

In Rio Grande do Sui, the most southern state of Brazil, there was developed an important forum of debates with tnrerlocurors from Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. This forum called: "International Seminar: Education and Mercosul/Conesul- political

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and pedagogical challenge" has already had six meetings. The tree first. in Brazil (1991. 1992. 1993). the fourth. in Paraguay. (1995). the fifth. in Argentina (1996). and the sixth. in Uruguay (1997). From each meeting was imprinted a document addressed to the authorities in the sense of calling their attention to the need that MERCOSUL guide lines also focused the socio-educatlonal issues discussed in that forum. The papers. which were presented. discussed the most different issues in education under the light of cultural and political ideological issues underlying the process of integration. This researcher presented papers on teacher education for integration in all seminars. except in Paraguay,

This movement contributed for the redirectioning of the objectives of MERCOSUL to shelter important issues in the socio-cultural area. emphasizing the educational matters.

Under this point of view. in December 1991. there was the first meeting of Ministers of Education of the countries. which signed the Assunci6n Treaty in March. 1991. At this meeting one reached the understanding that "the education would be the key element of integration" where "the formation of a South Common Market with its own rules and currency can only evolve if there is knowledge and mutual respect toward the culmre of its partners" (Souza. 1995. p.3). This meeting originated the Triennial Plan (1992/1994) for education. This plan has been extended until December 1997. in the meeting of Ministers of Education. which took place in Ouro Prete, Brazil. in December of 1994.

The advance towards an understanding of integration by the countries can be measured by the nature of the Programs that were established adopting as basic principles: a solid advance of educational integration of MERCOSUL with emphasis on the support to the rising democratization of the member countries; the productive transformation with equity, the statement of cultural identities of each nation and people; and the development and consolidation of a regional consciousness. In order to meet these principles the Programs have as general objective to stimulate the mutual knowledge. the cooperation and the interchange. Actions were planned concerning the learning of the Spanish and the Portuguese, official languages of the member countries; the adoption of contents of Histoty and Geography of these countries with emphasis on the contents concerning the regional lnregratloru curricular contents in common as Mathematics and Sciences.

Another document will mark the actions in the educational area. It is the "MERCOSUL 2000. Challenges and Objectives for the Educational Area". signed by the Ministers of Education of the member countries in March 1996. This document countersigns positions contained in the Triennial Plan and entails new theses when it points OUt the education of quality as a need which cannot be postponed. taking into account that it will perform a central role in the process of development. considering the characteristics of the global society and the development of the citizen.

The documents and the programs mentioned show that, in the field of education. one is not dealing JUSt with technical-bureaucratic issues such as mechanisms of students transfer and the interchange of technicians among the countries. though protocols have been Signed in this sense. Much to the contrary. the goals of MERCOSUL concerning the educational area present themselves as relevant not only in what refers to the actions in the economic-commercial area hut especially in the educational area within a

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perspective of humanization of social relations both in the scope of work and production and the scope of the other relations among men, people, nations. This undersranding affects other areas of MERCOSUL, which are not strictly linked to education because as it was already stated, the education would be the key element of integration, searched in its most comprehensive meaning in which the common base of the relations among countries "is the mutual knowledge of the partners and the respect to the diversities and the porentialization of reciprocal development by means of cooperation to the improvement of production, education, science, technology, culture, and other activities" (Dorta, 1995, p.8). This, ends historical dichotomies In our society between culture and education, science and production, what means a subsrantlve conceptual advance.

It is not the case of thinking that education is the determinant element of the building of a socletv- more or less humanlzed- or the formation of a block of nations with common objectives of development. What we must recognize is that globalization is part of our time, being MERCOSUL a reality in process of consolidation. What we should do as conscious educators is to visualize education in its potential of exerting influence on the infrastructure of the macroeconomics that has historically conditioned it, case In which teacher education is of most importance.

ChaUenges to teacher education in the Context of Globalization.

TIle process of preparing teachers is the one which rakes place in specific courses • as tnrroducrorv education- and the one that one verifies along the teaching practicecontinued formation. TIl is one is the most important because it allows to re-dimension and consolidate concepts and theories based on the daily pedagogical making. In the case of aspiring for a new position before education, culture and new relations of every order required by the new way of organization of society in a global world, it is necessary to take care of teacher education, both the introductory and the continued ones, so that they can be inserted critical and creatively in this context and act substantively in this movement of change of structures.

In the specific case of Brazil and other South American countries, how many teachers know about MERCOSUL, as a whole, and the proposals it entails for the educational area, in particular! How many teachers are prepared to act critically, however cooperatively, inside the new integratlonalisric paradigm, having in mind tim the school education, in our reality, is a selective and individualistic process per excellence, exactly the opposite of the integrationalistic thesis? How much teachers are informed about culture, customs, language, scientific discoveries, technological advances and the other realities of the countries that integrate Larin America, in general and the countries of MERCOSUL, in particular, considering that our generation was educated under a model that valued exclusively the European and North American nations and cultures] What do we know about their economies, their work relations, their struggle for development, their geographical and geo-political conformation! What do we understand about the Latin American Identity even knowing about our diversities so that we can search for a unity in the diversity concerning the differences of each culture!

On the other hand, what do we understand from the impact that the integration via MERCOSUL will bring to our countries, our culture, our lives; to our work relations, and life experiences? Which are the positive aspects and which ones are harmful to this


new form of relationship between peoples and nations? Which contribution can we provide either in the establishment of educational politics, or the pedagogical production so that the integration be an educational process and humanized development of our society, trying to compete to point out their positive potentialities and minimize/neutralize their negative potentialities? How to prepare the citizen to these new challenges, as much as at school as in other educational settings of the society? These questions show us the complexity of teacher education in any of the modalities presented before.

Again, without wishing to reduce the structure and the functioning of the society to the education and reaffirming, once more, the consciousness that it is a conditioned element, but reaffirming equally the consciousness that education, though a conditioned element can and should exert a strong influence on the conditioning instance, I send to educational process the responsibility for finding an appropriate response at this time. Here 1 refer to either the formal education- which takes place at schools- or the informal educatlon- which takes place in other instances of the society. For this reason, when 1 talk about teacher education I mean not only the preparation of the professionals of education but also the preparation of the citizen, in general, as a social educator according to Quintana Cabanas (1994). I also want (0 refer to teacher as a scientist who should exert his pedagogical practice based on the constant reflection of theories that will help him in his understanding and re-direcrloning, whenever it is necessary, and also his concern for being in touch with the news about the specific subject of the discipline that he teaches, his relation with the other disciplines and the relation of these disciplines with the dynamics of the society that we live. What I am preaching in this paper is the qualification of the teacher not only to transmit universal knowledge but also to understand it within a historicized view. This will actually be the teacher as researcher and rransformarive intellectual that Carr and Kemmis (1988), Quintana Cabanas (1988), Giroux (1990) among other authors refer to. A teacher, to be a rransformarive intellectual, a researcher of his own practice, a social educator, has to be prepared to know and to act in a Reflexive Educator Framework according to Sherr's (1992) and Zeichner's (1993) construct. Being more objective, it should be pointed out that for a program of the magnitude of MERCOSUL, to be successful and consolidate itself harmoniously, it should be known by the citizens that compose the society, and that these ones should have the possibility of influencing the decisions and acting on the actions required to put them in operation.

At this moment, I remember the old question: ·Who educates the educator that educates the citizen?" This, leads us to another: how to develop a favorable mind to a conscious participation of everyone in the integrationalistic process? Certainly through the knowledge about the theses that are being raised in the inregratlonalistic process and by the opening of channels of effective participation. This, particularly refers to ones in the educational field, such as the inclusion of contents and specific disciplines of the area of interest for the integration, adoption of didactic books, new methodologies, more suitable, and up-to-date technologies.

It is up to the establishments that prepare teachers to struggle for consistent actions in this process through the instrumentalizarion with relevant informariou- what can be done using the most different and creative approaches and methodologies but, above all, with insmllnentalization for the research in the area. ntis can be done by providing the students at the beginning of their professional formation and teacher students with the oppormniry of taking part in the research of their professors. Such

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practice will help these people become researchers, the first step to be a trans formative intellectual. Those professionals will have much more possibility of taking part in the integrarlonalisric process giving direction to the flow. I emphasize that this participation is more collective than individual and this is the reason why the school education itself has to be democratic and the school has to know how to act like a true community that assembles students, parents, teachers, leaders, in articulation with the central organizations of administration of education and learning and the living forces of society in general.

MERCOSUL will only be an effective reality within a humanizing view if it is really wanted and taken over by society as a whole. The cooperation among countries for a harmonious development. in which the citizen is in the center of the actions, within a humanist referential of society, in which the access of the citizens to the benefits of culture, science, schools, and employment can only be the result of the free will of the nations involved through the governments and citizens in general. In short, the political society and the civil society in a conjoint effort.

For this reason, it is undeniable the power of education in the building of a global society within this philosophy. Equally, we can not deny the need to prepare teachers to join in the construction, as professionals and citizens, of this new reality. It is undeniable, for that reason, the importance of education and the preparing of teachers/educators to reply on the constant challenges of more and more complex societies.


Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1988). A Teofia Grilica de fa Enseilanta. Barcelona:

Martines Roca.

Doria, R. (1995, out/des). In/ormar;do e InlegrRfdo. Em Aberro, IS, 15·19.

Giroux, H. (1990). Los projessores como inleiechUlles. Barcelona: Paldos. MERCOSUL 2000: desafios e mems para 0 serer educacional. (1990). Buenos Aires. Quintana Cabanas, J. M. (1988). Teofia de fa Educacion: concepcion anlinomica de fa

educacion. Madrid: Dykinson.

Quintana Cabanas, J. M. (1994). EdllCacion Social. Madrid: Narcea.

Saraiva, J. F. (1995, out/dee). 0 Brasil e a InltgfRfdo Hemilferica: eertente histOrica.

Em Aberro, IS, 20-25.

Schon, D. (1992). La /ormadon de profesionales rtflexi\'OS. Barcelona: Paidos. Souza, P. (1995, out/dee), A EdllcRfdo no MERCOSUL. Em Aberto, 15,3·5. Zeichner, K. M. (1993). A formar;do reflexi\'Il de prOftSSOTtS: idiias e prriticas. Lisboa.


Maria Helena Menna Barreto Abrabao is a Doctor in Human Sciences Education, professor in undergraduate and in graduate courses in Pontiflcla Unlversidade Carollca do Rio Grande do Sui (PUCRS) and Research Director in Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), in Brazil. She is a senior researcher in Teacher Education .. She is a visiting professor at Salamanca Urnversiry, Spain.



Alex C. W. Fung David C. B. Teather

Traditional ex/>ectatioru of schooling hat'e encom/>tI.Ised personal, social and economic dimensions. Inl1uenced Iry the school. the sllulent is to develo/> !alent talents and to prepare for life tI.I II res/>onsible citilen and productive worker. In addition, 1wweveT, the guiding principles of mlln, edUClllion s,stems in />ost.indusmal societies are now focused on globalisation, information technoloD, open education and lifelong learning. The workplace changes tI.I firms no longer hire educated />eople, rather the, hire talented />eople, flexible knowledge workers, u,ho !tam through networking and through collectitoe learning processes in a multidisciplinary environment, For schools, pre/>ming students to learn how to learn, learn how to think, !tam how to communicate, and !tam how to create tI.Isumes new urgtnc:1. In this pa/ltT u'!! explore the potential of information and communications technoloD (lCf) for tenchers lind students, and suggeJt wa,s in which teacher educaton can use lCf to achiet'!! their aims.


As we approach the 21 sr century, there is increasing concern about whether the quality of school education and outcomes for students will meet the future needs of society. Recent publications like 'Quality Counts' (Education Week, 1997) in the USA and 'Quality School Education' (Education Commission, 1997) in Hong Kong are but twO examples among many that raise challenges to the traditional schooling process.

Our lives have changed much over the past two decades under the influence of technological advances, but the technology of teaching and learning has remained stagnant in forms first developed to meet the requirements of 19[h century industrial society.

"Walk into most any classroom in most any school in America today and you'll walk into a time warp where the basic tools of learning have not changed in decades" (Rogers, 1997).

This scenario is as true for schools in Hong Kong and in other posr-indusrrlal societies as it is for the USA, in spite of the fact that these schools have been provided with computers since the early 19805. A recent study of 07 countries showed that the UK had the largest number of computers per 100 pupils in secondary schools and the third highest number in primary schools after Canada and USA (Bell, 1997). However, most teachers still remain pretty much immune to technological infiltration. In the UK. the National Council for Education Technology refers to those teachers still not engaged in the use of information and communications technology (len as the 'missing two-thirds' (Bell. 1997). The proportion of teachers in this category is much higher in Hong Kong as the government is only planning to provide computers to primary schools this year.

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It is a paradox of our time that, on the one hand, new information and communications technology has the potential to transform schooling and school systems in post-industrial societies, to provide the means whereby pupils can be prepared more adequately for the challenges of the world of the 21st century. Yet, on the other hand, this potential is recognised by only a minoriry of educational professionals.

There have, of course, been many exaggerated claims in the past for innovations that would transform education. For example, in the 1960s the theories of behavioural psychologists spawned programmed learning and teaching machines - and a new light dawned! But whether the theories were too simple or the machines too cumbersome, they largely fell by the wayside. In the 19805 the advent of the microcomputer led to another round of claims (David, 1994).

We realise now, however, that just by giving computers to schools, nothing much would change. Students might have the added opportunity of Sitting in a computer class, or at best a few teachers might attempt to use the machine across the curriculum. Fundamentally nothing much is transformed in the teaching and learning process. David (1994) describes this phenomenon as the acquisition of technology being viewed as an end in itself, and that decisions about technology purchases and uses are typically driven by the question of how to improve the effectiveness of what schools are already doing 0 not how to transform what schools do. This matches with the notion of Rogers (1997) that the educational industry is largely a delivery mechanism; that it delivers information, insrrncrion, and learning. As Rogers (1997) says,

"Within this traditional paradigm, technology has been harnessed to deliver more, deliver it faster and cheaper, and do it more 'efficiently', than traditional methods. However, in the average K-12 environment, harnessing technology to this paradigm has not had any notable effect on improving learning".

Accounts of the use of computers in education written a decade ago (e.g. Fasano, 1988) focused on the learning of computer-related skills as a preparation for the world of work. There was little appreciation then of the potential of the machine on the desk as an electronic gateway, either to the libraries of the world or to real-time interaction at low cost with pupils and teachers in other schools in other countries. Such has been the exponential pace of development of the internet and world wide web (www), that their potential is not yet widely appreciated among teachers. And, as Barra and Telem (1997, p. 13) observed: HIt takes time and effort to convince people to use the net. It seems to be hard to get used to a new tool."

Such has historically been the pace of change in education that, as observed by M.1cKenzie et OIl (1970), the phrase "new resources for learning" was, in the 19705, normally considered to include resources such as film (first used regularly in education about 1910) and slides (first used in education in 1890)! One reason lor this may be that most technical innovations in the classroom have been viewed as supplementary to the existing practices, rather than facilitating the adoption of new ways of organising learning. New equipment might allow more to be achieved, but at the added cost of the equipment itself and the added cost in time and effort on the part of the teacher. Typically technical

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innovation in the classroom has been viewed by teachers as a bonus, but achieved only at an extra cost. For some, such innovations are regarded as too demanding of time and effort to be worth pursuing.

For the potential of ICf to be realised, a prerequisite is the development of awareness of this potential among teachers, educational administrators and the school community. Books such as that by Tiffin and Rajasingham (1995, p. 0, which aims to presenr "a vision of what education and training could become as information technology develops," have an indispensable role to play in explaining this potential. But even when aware of what should be possible, teachers' attempts to innovate are frequently frustrated by the confines of existing organisational srructures, resource allocation, and expectations of colleagues and pupils. Assembling a class of 30 pupils in a standard classroom for a 40- minute lesson may be an appropriate pattern for the delivery of a teacher-centred exposition of the traditional type, but may be quite inappropriate for the most effective realisation of the potential of ICf.

TIle fundamental question of the adoption of ICf in schools, however, is whether schools themselves see the need to transform their approaches to teaching and learning in the light of changes in the world for which their pupils are being prepared. TIle fact Is that most schools believe that they can carry on business as usual - as long as they produce enough pupils capable of passing public examinations - without responding to the challenge of change to catch up with society's needs.


Traditional expectations of schooling have encompassed three dimensions: personal, social and economic. Influenced by the school, the student is to develop latent talents and to prepare for life as a responsible citizen and productive worker. The relative priority' given to each of these three dimensions has changed with time. In the 1960s, in the advanced industrial societies of the West, most emphasis was placed on personal development. During the 1970s and 1980s these societies experienced economic downturn which, together with the loss of social consensus and perception of social breakdown, led to renewed emphasis on the economic and social functions of education (New Zealand Treasury, 1987).

These shifts in the balance between educational aims, observable in the West, may not be occurring in the same directions nor for the same reasons in societies elsewhere in the world. In East Asia, for example, the economic trends of recent years have been very different. But here, for other reasons, stress on the vocational miliry of education is stiU high. Increasing or continuing emphasis on vocationalism has, together with the importation of a language and style of thinking derived from the world of business, led to increasing emphases on "deliverables", as if "education" is a product or service to be "delivered" by the teacher or school to the student "consumer".

Thus the modern world is beset by changes not only in technology, but also in values. Huntington (1993, 1996) has argued that the fundamental source of conflict in the 21st century will not be predominantly political or economic. but cultural. He points to the continuing endurance of fundamental differences herween peoples. Thus he identifies eight "major civilisations" in the world today. Western. Confucian. Japanese, Islamic.

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Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American. African- and Slates:

" .... differences among civilisations are not only real; they are basic. Civilisations are differentiated from each other by history. language. culture, tradition. and most important, religion. The people of different civilisations have different views on the relations between God and man. the individual and the group, the citizen and rhe Slate. parents and children. husband and wife. as wen as different views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority. equality and hierarchy. These differences are the product of centuries. They will not soon disappear." (Huntington. 1993. p. 25)

But in the closing decade of the 20th century we are living in a world of great change. Peter Drucker (1993). perhaps the best known of all writers on management in the English language. calls it a period of transformation. He states:

"Every few hundred years in Western history there occurs a sharp transformation. We cross what in an earlier book I caned a "divide". Within a few short decades. societies rearranges itself- its world view; its basic values; its social and political structure; its arts; its key institutions. Fifty years later there is a new world. And the people born then cannot even imagine the world in which their grandparents lived and into which their own parents were born (p, I)."

Drucker describes three previous rransforrnations of Western society. In the 13th century, the European world became centred in the new city. In the 15th century was the Renaissance. In the forty years from 1775 to 1815 was the industrial revolution. Drucker claims that our period, two hundred years later, is such a period of transformation.

There is. of course. an alternative perspective. The significance of the changes that Drucker describes are open to question. Surely there are enduring human qualities, values. aspirations. norms of behaviour, that transcend even the all-encompassing transformations about which Drucker writes. We can all observe that the application of science and technology has transformed. is transforming. our physical world - bringing both great benefit and opportunities, and the potential for great catastrophe also. The greater the power we command. the greater the potential for using that power wisely or foolishly. But we might well ask whether the forces that motivate men and women to act wisely or foolishly have changed overmuch. It is two millennia since the dramatists of Ancient Greece wrote their plays, four centuries since Shakespeare set kings and queens. nob\es and commoners. on the stage of the Globe Theatre. What playwrights wrore then resonates powcrfu\1y with our experience today.

It is fundamentally imporrant, therefore, if we are to prepare young people for the world of tomorrow. to attempt to identify. or to help them to Identify, what is changing and what is not. In those societies in which new Inforrnation and communications technology is readily available. they need to be familiar enough with the new technology to be able to use it effectively. All young people need to be secure enough in the values of

their own culture to be able to lnteracr productively with members of other cultures. Indeed. given Huntington's prognosis for our furure world, increased emphasis 01\ the social dimensions of education. with particular reference to issues of civic responsibiliry on

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how a global scale, would seem to have a high priority.

The guiding principles of education systems for the 21st century, in both OECD countries and their Asian dialogue partners, are now "focused on globalisation, Information technology, open education and lifelong learning" (Ruranen, 1996). The workplace changes as "The emergence of 'information workers' has created within flrms new competitive teams that require abilities to learn. It is being said that modem firms no longer hire educated people, rather they hire talented people, flexible knowledge workers, who learn through networking and through collective learning processes in a multidisciplinary environment" (Ruranen, 1996). Unfommately, traditional operations and settings in schools are not compatible with such principles. Nor is the mindset of most teachers in rune with such changing capabilities required of their students on leaving school.

Rogers (1997) illustrates much the same point by saying:

·With the advent of the Internet in the academic and research community (and the business community too), we now add the ability to collaborate, communicate, share, and exchange in ways that are rrulv now transforming our economy and, increasingly, our culture. Unfortunately, these tasks are exactly what most schools and most teachers are not equipped to accomplish, since the educational industry today requires teachers to 'deliver' a prescribed body and sequence of information." (underlined text added)

Schools are therefore facing challenges not just to Improve the training of their students in the 3R basics. Preparing students to "learn how to learn, learn how to think, learn how to communicate, and learn how to create" (Fung & Pun, 1997, p. 19) assumes new urgency. To be effective lifelong learners, students have to learn how to learn. To succeed in the global society, they have to learn how to communicate - not just be proficient in reading and writing but also proficient in lCf. They have to learn to be creative and to construct new knowledge in a multidisciplinary environment. And not the least they have to learn to use their head - as Ruranen (1996) has said: "The dry and inhuman information will be confused with worthwhile knowledge if people are not equipped with the ability to analyse the information from cyberspace."


Inventions in communication technology - the printing press, telegraph and telephone, radio and television - are often milestones in the advance of human history. The impact on society of current developments in lCf is best reflected by the degree of 'connecrivirv' that it can create for people of different cultures dispersed across the globe. If this is an acceptable supposition, then the internet with its access to the www (world wide web) has potentially a far greater impact than any earlier invention. Experts have estimated that the number of web sites doubles every 55 days, and there are already 40 million regular users of the internet with a phenomenal growth rate (David, 1994).

TIle power, connectivity. and porrabilirv of rodav's ICf, integrated With multimedia capability. have great potential for transforming education. Pioneering activities by schools connected to the internet that were inconceivable with microcomputers alone are now flourishing. There are many examples on the www of

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how technology can be used to facilitate authentic learning, collaborative learning, problem-solving, and cross-disciplinary work. What is most encouraging is that these activities are changing the traditional process of teaching and learning. As David (1994)

has described, "The systemic reform agenda of the 1990s no longer aims to improve what schools are already doing. The new image captures a much more dynamic view of schooling in which teachers guide students through individual and collaborative activities that encourage inquiry and the construction of knowledge." Towards this goal, many states in the USA and governments in other countries are taking the lead to get schools onto the internet. Canada's SchoolNet already began in 1994 and the intention is to connect all Canadian schools by 1999 (David, 1994). In Hong Kong, schools are also getting internet access through an internet service-provider this year. However, our government is not aiming to transform teaching and learning with technology; the provision is simply viewed, as in the case of microcomputers in the 19805, to be the acquisition of technology as an end in itself.

Telephones and TVs were once luxuries, now they are essential. Internet access will soon become essential. It is not difficult to envisage the internet becoming the network for a learning society around the globe in the 21st century, with homes, schools and other organisations connected; and with individuals providing, sharing and exchanging knowledge and information electronically. Ideally the vision is of a learning global society connecting learning communities of different cultures, each consisting of learning teams and individuals. While physical connections for such a globalnet are entirely feasible technologically - it is just a matter of time and investment - the human side of the enterprise is much more difficult to establish. Not only is this because of differences between cultures, as discussed above, it is also because transformational leaders are required to run learning organisations. T cachets, for instance, have to reorient themselves to become collaborative learners with colleagues and with students.


The image of a school being the major place where students can get knowledge delivered by the teachers is slowly breaking down. While access to teachers and resources are limited by time and space at school, students in future (some already now) studying at home, or in a library, or any place with internet connection can quickly access learning resources at any hour of the day. They can get advice or information from experts that may be superior to that which they can obtain from their teachers. This is threatening to those in the teaching profession (including teacher educators) who, traditionally, see the teacher as the fount of all knowledge. The consolation perhaps is only that you can change your self-image if you want to! As Rogers (1997) puts it

"Toda" more than ever, Wj! need teachers who are abk and willing to become·side learners with their snulents. Teachers who are not a/Taid to acknowledge, "don't know,' and who then can tum around and say. 'Let's find outtogetM.'1Rese teachers need to know how to use various technologies to shape and process and manage information, to look for relationshiPS. trends, anomalies, and details. u.,hich can not onl1 answer questions. but create questions as well. We need teachers who understand that kaming in tada:!,s world is not just a matter of mastering a static bod, of knowledge, but also being able to discover the rapid!, changing ideas about that knowkdgc itself"

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In effect, teachers and teacher educators have to be lifelong learners, and reshape their mentality in line with the above. There are encouraging signs, from different parts of the world, that some teachers are willing to do this. About a decade ago, the Education Department of South Australia set up a trial project, NEXUS, as an electronic infcrmarion service to provide information to teachers and students (Leonard, (990). NEXUS was later developed further to consist of electronic mailing, bulletin boards, and Information databases. Users of the system can now share ideas of common interest, access materials and obtain experts' assistance through the network. Leonard (1990) remarks that schools are even willing to pay for the telecommunication service which can enhance the learning and teaching of their students. In the United Kingdom, the 'Campus 2000' project, launched in 1988, provides similar services of e-mailing, information retrieval, and teleconferencing to schools Oones, 1990). In Israel, the Ministry of Education initiated in 1995 a pilot project "The Israeli Informatics Teachers' Net" to provide personal mail, bulletin boards, discussion groups, and information banks using the Internet for teachers (Barta er 011., 1996). In Japan, the NEC corporation has set up its own in-house education system for staff development even using satellite communication (Kurar et al., 1990). These activities in different places reflect that there is a demand for on-line support in teaching and learning, as well as in staff development.

In Hong Kong, there are two 'Teacher Support Systems' (TSS) currently in development and access to both is limited to teachers from selected schools. The first TSS network is 'TElENEX'; this was started by the Teaching of English Language Education Centre of Hong Kong University in 1994 in support of English language teaching (Tslli, 1994). The other is 'Cl, TSS', for teachers of Chinese language, which began in April 1995 at the School Administration and Management System Training & Research Unit of the Hong Kong Baptist University.

The Cl, TSS project is funded by the Language Fund of the Hong Kong Government. The Language Fund promotes research and development work in improving the language proficiency of people in Hong Kong. TIle aim of the ClTSS two-year project is to develop a computer-based information system network to support the teaching of Chinese language in local secondary schools. Technically the system is simply a computer network with a server at the support centre of the SAMS T & R Unit which can be accessed by teachers with computers and modems at their schools. The content database in the server stores Chinese Language teaching resources for secondary class-levels one to seven, including standard reading passages, teaching plans, teaching ideas,learning tasks, and test papers. Such contents, however, are not materials centrally developed by language experts. They are materials collected from front-line teachers in the schools. The Cl TSS, in other words, serves as a pool of teachers' materials, experience, and expertise that are in the field. TIle system is basica\1y only using IT as a tool to help with the sharing and dissemination of such valuable teaching resources. This may be a characteristic of the

Cl, TSS which in a way distinguishes it from other similar networks (Fung & Hau, 1997).

From our experience of operating Cl, TSS in the past two years, we have wirnessed the feasibiliry of using ICT to facilitate learning and sharing among teachers from 80 secondary schools. A number of things learnt from this collaborative project are worth mentioning:

the system provides to teachers a learning opportunity to use ICT

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the teacher educators have learnt more about lCf during the system development teachers are not necessarily resistant to lCf when they can gain benefits readily although teachers in Hong Kong are accustomed to work on their own, they are willing to share with other teachers

teachers welcome this opporrunity to learn from their peers

ICf can be used as an efficient channel to promote learning and sharing among teachers


In post-industrial societies, life is getting tougher for teachers and schools working in the traditional way. Teachers not keeping pace with technological developments will find it difficult to survive in their profession in the 21st century. Lifelong learning and professional development is becoming a norm for teachers of today and tomorrow, Whether technology can or will bring about systemic change in schools and school systems is still difficult to judge at this time, but the potential is there. Teachers' awareness of ICf and their efforts to harness its power for teaching and learning purposes, as well as for selfdevelopment, will cenainly contribute to moving toward such a goal.

Collaborative learning is not just an aim for srudent learning but also for teachers and teacher educators. Networking, in both the technical and human sense, is an effective approach for professional development. This is particularly so for new teachers who can learn much from their experienced peers and get professional support from them; but it is also relevant for more experienced teachers in helping them to adapt to changing circumstances. Teacher education institutes should consider how they can playa key role in networking schools and teachers together. The observation that classroom teaching is old fashioned - having its roots as an organisational response to the needs of education for the young in the 19th century industrial society - applies equally to most teacher training sessions. Systemic transformation in education requires changing not only the schools but also teacher education, and perhaps the latter has the higher priority too. Teacher educators have to be conversant with ICf before they can help to develop teachers to help develop srudents. In this connection a way ahead that may hold much promise is for the ISTE (International Society for Teacher Education) to lead by example in ICf. A website is being developed under ISTE for teacher educators around the world to share experience and resources in teacher education, to learn from colleagues with different cultures, and to promote the use of ICf for teacher educators themselves. (The ISTE website is under construction at

"Too often," as Hixson and Tinzmann (1990) have said, "professional development has focused primarily on helping teachers and administrators develop isolated skills and strategies for improving one or another aspen of the educational process. This condition is largely a result of the reductionist approach to education; that is, all aspects of schooling have been viewed as simply a compromise of discrete skills and bits of information that can be taught separately with the hope that they will somehow be PUt together into a coherent and meaningful whole." Perhaps this is a reason for the commonly observed reductlonlst approach in classroom teaching!

New approaches to professional development, according to Hixson and Tirumann, have to reflect three central challenges of the 21st century: (1) meeting the


needs of an increasingly diverse srudenr population, (2) adopting new and more

appropriate goals (or schooling, and (3) implementing new organizational srrucrure that promote shared responsibility, collaboration, and continual learning, (or both students and adults. As lCT is driving the global society into the information age, many educators lack the proper mindset and skills to take the wheel.


Barta, B. Z., Salant, A. and T elem, M. (1996). Internet support to school inruxlation management. In A. C. W. Fung, A. J. Visscher, B. Z. Barta, & D. C. B. Teather (Eds.), Information Technology in Educational Management (or the Schools of the Future (pp. 7- 14). London: Chapman & Hall.

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Address given at the North of England Education Conference. IOn Line], Available:

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Hattie, R. Kefford & P. Porter (Eds.), Skills, Technology and Management in Education. (pp. 5M2). Deakin, ACT: Australian College of Education.

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Fung, A. C. W. & Pun, S. W. (1997). The impact of Internet on ITEM: educational management in preparation for the future. In A. C. W. Fung, A. J. Visscher, B. Z. Barta, & D. C. B. Teather (Eds.), Information Technology in Educational Management for the Schools ofthe Future (pp, 15-22). London: Chapman & Hall.

Gilmore, A. M. (1995). Turning teachers on to computers: e\'aluation of a teacher cboelopment program. Journal of Research on Compurtng in Education, 27(3),251-269.

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Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilisations! Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22-49. Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilisations and die remaking of world order.

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Kurara, M., Maekawa, Y., Nomura, Y., Matsushita, S., lnorsnme, K. & Ohrake, Y. (1990). A netuorking educational SJstem with NESPAC. Proceedings ofthe IFlP TC3 Fifth World Conference on Computers in Education, 997·1002.

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Alex C. W. Fling was a secondary school principal in Hong Kong for more than twenty years before taking up his present post as senior lecturer in the Department of Education Studies and Director of the School Management & Administration System Training and Research Unit at Hong Kong Baptist University. His professional interests include teacher education, information technology in education, educational administration and change management. He is presently vice-chairman ofW.G. 3.7 (Working Group on Information Technology in Educational Management) under T.e. 3 of IFlP.

David C. B. Teamer taught in teacher education programmes at the University of London Goldsmiths College, the University of Liverpool and the University of Otago. He was the Deputy Principal of Armidale College of Advanced Education, which had a major responsibility for teacher education, from 1984 to 1989, and was the Dean of Education, Health and Professional Studies at the University of New England from 1990 to 1993, before taking lip the post of Dean of Social Sciences at Hong Kong Baptist University. His professional interests include teacher education, adult education, educational administration and comparative higher education.

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Norma C. Presmeg

In all tellCher preparation programs. rejkction on practice is an essennal component of eff«tit'/! kaming CHendmon. 1992). Such reJlection is enhanced'" the establishment of discount communities in which prospectivt or practicing teachtn can communicate their reJlections and respond to those of o then (Ptmm, 1995). At the same time. in a global socie". distance kaming is assuming increasing importance. This paper examines a theoretical framework and possibk means of reconciling the seemingly conflicting goals of hailing tellChen communicate in a critical discoune communi". and of kaming effectivtly through the internet.

Discourse communities of learners.

When a teacher and students interact with each other and among themselves in a classroom at any level. negotiation of meanings is contributing to the construction of a classroom culture which enables and constrains future face-to-face interactions among the participants, In her chapter, "The culture of the mathematics classroom: an unknown quantirvl", Nickson (J 994) describes culture as "the content of the socialization process that differs from one society to another". She continues, "The shared meanings that come to be accepted by a society form its content" (p, 8). As she points out. at the mlcrolevel of the classroom key aspects of culture are concerned with unseen beliefs and values, "hidden perspectives of teachers and pupils in relation to the subject" (p, 9). These hidden perspectives are intricately interwoven with learning. They are an aspect of what Tobin (in press) calls habitus. He elaborates as follows.

"The extent to which teaching and learning in a classroom community are productive depends on the habitus of participants, a set of dispositions that incline individuals to act and interact in particular ways (Bourdieu, 1992; Lemke. 1995). As students and teachers enact a curriculum, their roles are adaptive to the interactions of the community and its associated constituent cultures. Accordingly. interaction is a critical analytic unit for understanding teaching and learning" (Tobin. in press).

In the face·te-face interactions of a classroom. habitus and the culture (or cultures) of the classroom reflexively constitute each other, mediated by discourse and repeated patterns of discourse (Walkerdine, 1988). In this way a classroom habirus may facilitate learning, or in some cases or circumstances hinder learning. The concept of "learning" itself, and what learning entails, could be problematlzed, but since the focus of this paper is the use of distance technology in this endeavor, learning will be taken to be cognitive change. in the context of an operational curriculum (Posner, 1995). which is relevant for the learner in some way.

In distance learning the discourse component which underlies face·to-face interactions changes radically. Body language and speech, two powerful aspects of discourse, may be absent; and even when these are present (not the case in the distance

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components of the project which is the focus of this paper), their nature is changed by the imposition of a technological barrier between the participants. TIle main concern that is the focus of this paper, is the use of technology when these components are absent. In these circumstances, how may technological components be used optimally in ways which will progressively facilitate the construction of a discourse community of critical thinkers in a distance learning program! The following paragraphs describe a graduate mathematics education program in which this question was confronted. This paper focuses only on aspects of one course of the program that are relevant to the question.

The Dade project.

This seven-semester Master's and Specialist degree program, consisting of 33 semester hours of coursework and a comprehensive examination, involves a cohort of 250 practicing elementary and middle grades teachers in a county, Dade, which is 500 miles from the main campus of the university offering the program. Approximately half the students are enrolled in science education and half in mathematics education. This paper highlights the components of a course in the mathematics component of the Dade project. The project, funded by Dade County as a school reform initiative, started in summer, 1996, when a team of instructors went to Dade County and taught courses which included the technology which the students would use in distance learning for the remaining twO years of their degree studies. In fall and spring of each year the predominant modes of insrruction are the project website, and Email. In all the courses an important goal is for the various groups of students to constitute reflective discourse communities <Walkerdine, 1988), as they construct meaning for what they are learning, in terms of their ongoing classroom practice. To that end, the students correspond with dialogue journal partners on the website, and with the instrucror. They hold website conferences in which a convener, presenters and a critic present papers and other participants comment and question. And they make connections with their own classrooms, reflect, and write research papers. All these products are collected automatically for each student in a website portfolio, which facilitates self, peer, and instructor evaluation for the course grade. All these elements are discussed further in this paper, together with problems encountered, and an assessment of the efficacy of this technology in meeting the challenges of consrructmg a community of critical thinkers through distance learning.

Discourse, as defined by Lemke (1995, p. 8, in Tobin, in press) refers to a "social activity of making meanings with language and other symbolic systems in some particular kind of situation or setting". This definition includes the forms of discourse which are available through the internet and Email. The forms of discourse associated with the four components of a particular course, together with their strengths and shortcomings, arc discussed in the next section.

Four components of a graduate course on mathematics curriculum.

The four components in the course, School Mathematics Curriculum, taught in spring, 1997, evolved slowly from experiences in the program from its inception in slimmer of 1996. The complete program was modeled on the existing main campus program, with two major differences. Firstly, the courses would need to be reconceprualized for distance learning, and secondly, the Dade County students would comprise a large cohort. We anticipated that the project would be as much of a learning experience for us for

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the students. We were not mistaken. By spring, 1997, the Curriculum course website had evolved to include the following components.

I. Dialogue journals. For the reasons explained in the section on discourse communities, it was important to have a forum in which students could reflect in a scholarly yet informal way on the substance of their readings, have one or more other persons who could react to their ideas and to whose ideas they could react, in a rime frame that was flexible and possible amid the constraints of their full teaching schedules. Groups of two or three students who were not teaching in the same school chose to work together or were assigned to a dialogue journal group by the instructor. (Support for students was provided by enrolling at least two teachers from the same school in the program, but the dialogue journal groups were changed each sernesrer.) Most people, when first writing online, tend to write "rather hastily and informally" (Owston, 1997, p. 31). Our students had been no exception in the previous courses, and the dialogue journals were intended to encourage scholarship and reflection in a format balanced between the informality of the notice boards and the formality of their final research papers. In written dialogue only with

. an instructor, the richness of interaction with peers is lost and the work becomes overwhelming for an instructor. The current dialogue journal format avoided these negative facets, the teacher could interact flexibly with the two or three group members, whose dialogue continued even without the teacher joining the conversation. In the final course evaluation, most students judged the dialogue journals to have been facilitative of reflection and discussion. Some of the benefits were lost to students who for one reason or another could not keep up with the weekly reading and journal writing. A few students completed their missing journal entries "in a lump" at the end of the course, eliminating the opportunity for peer interaction. In some cases, this omission was evident in their research reports. TIle dialogue journals when optimally used enabled students to "try out the language" of various theoretical positions and analyses, and thereby become part of a community of scholars, while making sense of theoretical issues in terms of their own classrooms.

2. Asynchronous conferences. In the previous course in the program, a weekly "conference" consisted of a prearranged period when the instructor would be "present" in one of the six mathematics education conference rooms on the website, to "talk" with any of the students who "entered" the room. In the spring curriculum course, we decided to

use a format more like a live conference, except that papers would be presented on the website rather than spoken. Each student was assigned a role in one of the three on-line conferences, and the order was prearranged. At intervals of about two days, papers were posted by a convener, five or six presenters, and finally a critic, whom the students preferred to call a "svnthesber", although they understood that the purpose was to critique rather than to criticize. Conference topics resonated with the sections in one of the prescribed books: "Curriculum documentation and origins"; "The curriculum proper"; "The curriculum in use" (Posner, 1995). Once a paper had been posted, there was a place on the website where comments could be made by the instructor or any class member, after the manner of a "time for questions" in a live conference. Presenters could have responded, although in these virtual conferences no presenter did so. Many students were still learning how to use the medium optimally; some students felt triumphant just at the successful posting of their papers! (Technological problems are discussed later.) As some students expressed in their evaluation of the course, the asynchronous nature of the conferences gave them flexibility to work 011 papers in their own rime: some srudenrs missed

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the "char" aspect of having the professor in a particular "room" at a particular time. We believe that the asynchronous conferences served a valuable purpose in fostering a critical discourse communiry. Conference papers lay somewhere between the relative informaliry of the dialogue journals and the formal research reports at the end of the semester. A purpose of the conference papers was to reflect on and integrate theory (Posner, 1995) and practical suggestions (House & Coxford, 1995), in the context of students' own classrooms. For most students, the conferences served this purpose, as judged by the evidence of students' final evaluations of the course.

3. Final reports. Early in the semester, students negotiated individually with the instructor which curriculum they would analyze using the theoretical framework developed in the course. According to their individual choices, they each wrote a final major report on their analysis, which was sent in hard copy to the instructor, or attached to an Email message. There was a place on the website for students to post their final reports, but problems were experienced because of the length of the reports: students had to post reports in two or three installments, which became cumbersome. Since this report took the place of a final examination, we were required by the universiry to keep hard copies. AbOUt half the students used Email to transmit their reports; the others used the postal services. High qualiry learning was evident in the caliber of the reports of many of the students,

4. Portfolios. There was one feature of the website which was available but which we did not find necessary this semester, namely a site for posting critical reviews of readings. Our science colleagues used this feature. There was one final aspect which we did use, namely, portfolios. Each student had a password-protected portfolio on the website, into which their work on the web was posted automatically. There was also a place in the portfolio where their grades could be viewed. Peer- and self-evaluations were carried out for conferences, and self-evaluations for dialogue journals. The professor could take these evaluations into account in assigning a final grade. Although the grading scheme was informal (students clicked on "superb", "very good", "good", "satisfactory", or "unsatisfactory"), a few students were uncomfortable with this practice. In me Courses Feedback section of the website, under the heading, "Are any changes needed!", one student, Jane (all names are pseudonyms), wrote as follows.:

"Everything was fine except the peer evaluation component. I am not comfortable posting a specific word which signifies a letter grade over the internet. Mistakes have already occurred, so I don't want to continue this action. It is acceptable for a trained professor to evaluate our performance formally, but 1 would rather keep my evaluation quite casua\."

This perception was taken into account in subsequent courses, in which students were not asked to evaluate their own or each others' work.

Efficacy of the technology in fostering a discourse communiry.

Under the heading, "What aspects of the course are working well for you!", a different student, Rose, wrote, "Being able to work at my own speed (pace) throughout the semester. Also being able to do my assignments through the computer." She added, "I am really enjoying this program, reflecting and learning a lot. I'm glad I got the opporruniry to participate - all of the professors are excellent so far." Most of the students were positive

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about the course and their learning experiences. However. the positive features of being able to work flexibly at their own pace and on their own computers at any time of the day or night. were offset by difficulties some students experienced in accessing the internet at times. and by a website whose functionalities were not always functioning when they were needed. A full time webmaster is needed for a program such as this. In spite of several excellent people working part-time on the technological aspects. students and instructors did experience frusrrarion at times. The work involved in teaching a course through this medium is considerable, without the added difficulty of technological hitches. In planning such programs. funding needs to provide adequately for technological aspects of the insrructlonal design. A new website, which became operational in summer. 1997. allows instructors more l1exibility in customizing the site to their needs. This feature relieves the web masters of some of the burden, and increases the efficacy of the medium. As Owston (1997) commented.

"We have to realize that no medium. in and of itself. is likely to improve learning in a significant way when it is used to deliver instruction .... The key to promoting improved learning with the Web appears to lie in how effectively the medium is exploited in the teaching and learning situation" (p. 29).

Of the four components of the course. it was the dialogue journals that particularly facilitated discourse and reflection.

Owston (1997) lists three "distinct advantages" offered by website learning; we have evidence for each of the three in student evaluations of the program. Firstly, the Web appeals to students as a learning mode. Many students wrote positively. some with delight, about their prowess in mastering the technology and gaining access to the internet with its vast informarlon systems. Secondly. the Web provides for flexible learning. Rose's

comment at the beginning of this section illustrates this aspect. This l1exibility demands a different role for the teacher. one which is more resonant with a constructivist philosophy of education than with the traditional (US) model still found in many classrooms, in which the teacher is a dispenser of knowledge. Owston (1997) commented that in this kind of distance learning. "faculty have not removed themselves from the educational process. Their role has shifted from deliverers of instruction to academic guides and creators of learning experiences for students" (p, 30). This shift may be demanding. but it is deeply satisfying. Thirdly, the Web enables new kinds of learning. Owston includes critical thinking. problem solving, wrinen communication and the ability to work collaboratively, as valued skills in this learning. All of these were Indispensable in our learning experiences too. It could be added that staying power. mental stillness for reflection and critique, and the ability to remain focused. were necessary character traits for the students to experience the satisfaction of the kinds of learning inherent in website courses such as ours. The openness and flexibiliry of the environment (as well as the overwhelming quantity of knowledge potentially available on the Web in general) require the development of critical thinking skills which are an asset in many areas of scholarship, and life in general.

Based on the evidence of student work and written comments before and after the course, it may be concluded that it is possible to fulfill both of the goals stated at the beginning of this paper. namely, having teachers communicate in a critical discourse community, and learning effectively through the tnrerner.

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In the- "suifting configurations of power, knowledge, space, and time that characterize a world that Is at once more global and more differentiated" (Aronowitz & Giroux, 1991, p. 115), in the age of global nerworking and instant information, it Is essential that the internet be raken into account in education. At this stage, using this medium in insrrucrion is a pioneering endeavor fraught with pitfalls, but also a satisfying and promising one. While not a universal panacea, early evidence suggests that internet courses do have the potential to playa powerful role in teacher education.


Aronowitz, S. & Giroux, H. A. (1991). Postmodem education: Politics. culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Henderson, ]. G. (l992). Reflective teaching: Becoming and inquiring educator. New York: Macmillan.

House, P. A. & Coxford, A. F. (l995). Connecting mathematics across the curriculum. Reston, Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1995 Yearbook.

Nickson. M. (1994). The culruTe of the mathematics classroom: An unknown quantir,?

In S. Lerman (Ed.), Cultural perspectives on the mathematics classroom (pp. 7·35). Dordrechn Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Owsron, R. D. (1997). The World Wide Web: A technology to enhance teaching and

karning. Educational Researcher, 26(2), 27·33.

Pimm, D. (1995). S,mbols and meanings in school mathematics. London: Routledge. Posner, G.]. (1995). Anal,ting the cuniculum. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tobin, K. (in press). Sociocultural perspectives on the teaching and learning of science.

In M. Larochelle, N. Bednarz, &]. Garrison (Eds), Constructivism and education. london: Cambridge University Press.

Walkerdine, V. (1988). The mastery of reason: Cognili\'t de\'tlopment and the production of Tationalir,. New York: Routledge.

Notel Principal Investigator of the Dade County Science and Mathematics Distance Learning Project at the time of the course described was Kenneth Tobin (Science Education). Co-Pis are Nancy Davis, David Foulk. Norma Presmeg, and Ken Shaw. The project is funded by Dade County. All opinions expressed are those of the author.

Norma Presmeg is Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Mathematics Education Program at The Aorida State University. Research interests include distance learning, visualharton in teaching and learning mathematics, semiotics, use of analogical reasoning including metaphors and metonymies, and the role of ethnomathematics in multicultural mathematics education.

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Neil Dempster

This paper discusses the outcomes of a stud, into expectations held of school principals b, teachers, parents, students and educational poli" maktn. The findings show that in the ~es of those closest to the schoo~ the principal's role should be one which emphasises concern for students, effective school management and participative staff and parent relations while poli" maktn expect principals to be 'branch managers' concentrating on S)stem poli" implementation. Finall" the paper describes several implications of these competing expectations for principals' professional development.

The purpose of this paper is to examine differences in expectations held of school principals by education authorities, students, teachers and parents in the light of shifts in the policy framework governing education in Australia. To undertake this task, it is necessary first to sketch some of the more significant features of the economic and political context within which Australian education policy is being framed.

Australian Political and Economic Context

The economic and political context in Ausrralla bears great Similarity to that which has influenced education policy in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, the United States and other western economies in recent years (Dymock: 1996, MacBeath et al: 1996 and Townsend: 1996), Rightist post-welfarlsr policies have had political primacy irrespective of the parry platform of the government in power, whilst rationalist, freemarket policies have held economic sway, again irrespective of changes in government (Yeatman: 1994). Differences in policy setting are in degree not in kind (Smyth: 1996).

In Australia over the past fifteen years what has emerged politically is a sea change in views about the role of governments. All governments, federal, state or territory have been wrestling with the issue of whether they should be engaged in providing services to the community directly or whether they should be using their powers to ensure that appropriate services are available through agencies which already exist or which might be created in the private sector. The outcome of this ongoing debate is an inexorable move towards a purchaser-provider model of public service provision throughout Australia. Indeed, prlvansatlon of government instrumentalities is almost an automatic corollary of changes in the way governments operate and the effects are being felt in all Australian States and Territories.

Significant amongst recent national reports inlluencing thinking about government's role in service provision has been the Hilmer Report (1995) on Competition Policy. This report and State clones such as the Report of the Queensland Commissioner of Audit (1996) set OUt a series of broad positions which are designed to ensure that public services are outcome oriented, consumers are afforded maximum choice, agency costs are minimised, competition in the delivery of services is mandated and accountability for the quality of services is government and consumer controlled.

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Achieving these changes has required allegiance (0 the concept of competitive neutralitv- the 'level playing field' of economic activity and structural reform in government and public service.

The Restructuring of School Education in Australia

111e inlluence of the change from government engagement in public service to government management of the public sector has impacted directly on schools in all Australian States and Territories (Dymock: 1996; 137·139 and Townsend: 1996; 123,124). It is now possible to distinguish a range of general restructuring trends across the counrry:

moves to school-based management placing responsibility and accountability for the provision of educational services at the point of delivery,

the development of block funding allocation methodologies;

• expanding the powers of the principal;

the placement of control of staff, premises, ancillary and support service in schools; increasing pressure for srudent performance measurement to compare the effectiveness of schools;

'contract budgeting' for school transport, buildings, refurbishment and asset maintenance, utilities purchase and school cleaning;

allowing schools to carry over budget surpluses from one financial year to the next; the imposition of requirements for schools to report annually to their communities against the goals of their development plans and indicators set by the system;

the injection of consumer control into school operations through the creation of policy making councils of parents and other stakeholders;

the change to a user pays market oriented approach to the provision of professional development for teachers; and

the creation of a competitive climate between public and 'private' schools.

Taken together, these requirements have changed the expectations system administrators and policy makers have of principals. Overall, the climate in which schools are operating in Australia is quite different from that in which they worked in the seventies and eighties. Accountability is now both local and systemic, competition is a fact of life and pressures for improved performance by all have increased (Logan, Sachs and Dempster: 1996). At the same time, because of the developing role of consumers and other stakeholders in school governance and management, a new power dynamic has emerged. 111is new dynamic has placed the traditional power of principals under pressure, calling 01\ them to employ knowledge and skills not previously asked of them. System authorities are now expecting principals to exhibit the micro-political skills associated with relationships between boards of governors and chief executive officers; they are expecting practical knowledge of change management; they are demanding entrepreneurial ism in resource acquisition; they are seeking commercial standards in school accounrancy; they are insisting on comprehensive public reporting of student and school achievement and they want innovation and change in the management and use of information technology and in approaches to teaching and learning. All this is being pursued in addition to the improvement of curriculum programs, the implementation of which still constitutes the 'core business' of the school.

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It is clear from the discussion so far, that the principal's role is under pressure from policy makers and senior administrators. These circumstances led research teams in Australia, England, Scotland and Denmark to undertake a srndy of expectations of school leaders as they worked in their changing policy environments (see MacBeath. Moos and Riley: 1996 for a full account>.

Expectations of School Leaders- The Srudy in Australia

The Australian srudy was concerned with investigating how the work of school principals is shaped by the expectations of stakeholders both within and beyond their organisations. Its design rested on a collaborative approach linking university researchers and participating school principals as co-researchers in interviews. case studies and surveys of parents, teachers and students.

A Summary of Selected Results

Two sections of the data from the survey only are presented here. TIle first reports students' expectations of their principals while the second discusses the importance attached to the six major areas of the survey by parents and teachers.

Expectations of Students

TIle data on expectations students hold of principals was gained from responses to an open ended question on the students' survey (N-584). A very brief taste of the analysis is now presented. It concentrates on sharing leadership with staff and students. keeping in touch with students, caring and respecting students, disciplining disruptive students and treating students equally.

Sharing Leadership with Staff and Students

By far the most dominant theme in the general comments of students was that of sharing school leadership. Students recommend. suggest or note the lack of leadership opportunltles for members of the school community other than the principal. They express a desire that the responsibilities of leadership be spread across the school to include staff, parents and, mote often, students. Indeed. most comments called for participation by students of all ages in school leadership. The tone of the responses ranges from rational suggestion to direct demand. Three examples illustrate the point:

Quite often the leadership of schools is determined by teachers, with minimum input from students, This needs to be changed so that the students have a lot more say.

I think that a strong leadership team consists of student leaders. teachers, Deputy, Principal and parents.

Generally, I think that leadership in schools is concentrated too tightly in the people high in the hierarchy of schools. I think that leadership opportunities should exist in the staff and with all students in all year levels.

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Keeping in Touch with Students

Students expressed a concern about accessibility, approachability and familiarity in school principals. These comments highlight a desire to be able to talk with principals, to know them and to be known by them. Students also recommend that principals make an effort to understand what goes on in the classroom and to mix with the 'general population' of the school. The large number of responses on this theme suggests a preference by students for personal contact with a friendly principal who understands their world because of his/her regular contact with it. Putting it lightly in the words of one student:

Principals should take note of the "pal" in principal and really get to know the students as indlvlduals- not just some, but the quiet average achievers as well as all the rebels.

Caring and Respecting Students

Students not only appear to want regular contact with their principals, they also have expectations of the nature of this contact. The list of adjectives found in students' comments provides the kind of personal qualities recommended for principals (accessible, friendly, listening, helpful, caring appeared frequently. Other words indicate what students are against- 'the military dictator', an 'authoritarian position', a 'persecutor'. Students also expect principals to be responsible for their safety and protection.

Disciplining Disruptive Students

Comments related to discipline were divided in their emphasis.

Recommendations concerned suspension, expulsion and punishment of students whose behaviour is inappropriate. Some students were concerned that expulsions occurred too readily while others had concerns that tougher lines need to be taken with disruptive students. On a strict frequency count, the latter dominated responses, for example:

In schools there is a huge disciplinaty problem, even though this is not widely recognised. Juvenile crime rates are huge, and even though it is the parent's responsibility to look after their kids, the school should help out with this by using harsher punishments and more counseling with students who are continually badly misbehaving, abusing or destroying property etc.

Our school is well led, hilt greater pressure on troublesome students would lead to a safer and more trouble free environment.

Treating Students Equally

Student comments revealed concerns about inequality in the way they are perceived and treated at school. In the main these concerns revolved around selection of students for leadership positions and the perception and treatment of them by school staff. Two comments indicate the flavour of student concerns:

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Students should be allowed to lead even though their culture and religion may be different from the norm.

I think many students feel cheated because they know that only a select few are given the opportunities to lead in the school.


In summing up this part of the analysis, it is fair to say that there were many very favourable comments from students about school principals. Overall, students appear to expect leadership responsibilities to be shared across the school but their strongest interest is in student leadership. Of their principals they expect regular, friendly contact and an understanding of the 'real world' of student and classroom life. They expect him/her to be caring towards students and to hold dear, responsibility for the safety and protection of students. Also of concern to students is the issue of discipline with some ambivalence between students expecting more listening and less punishing and those expecting stronger punishment, though the latter view seems to figure more prominently. Students also appear to be concerned about issues of equity- particularly the perception of unfair treatment and bias in the selection of student leadership positions.

Parents' and Teachers' Expectations

Only a very brief selection of the study's questionnaire items with their responses from parents and teachers is presented here. This is done to provide a comparison of parents' first three priorities with those of teachers. For a full description of the survey and its results see Dempster, McGnlther, Lennox and BOlin: 1996).


Parents Rating

Teachers Rating

1. Expectations of principals related to concern for students (16 items)

to treat students as individuals to develop students who can contribute to society

to provide role models for students

2 3

2 5

2. Expectations of principals related to the management of the school (24 items)

to ensure the school provides a broad general education

to provide a positive atmosphere for learning

to ensure the school prepares students for work





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3. Expectations of principals related to their personal qualities (12 items)

to follow personal views when making major decisions

to act fairly

to communicate effectively

1 3 2

6 2 1

4. Expectations of principals related to vision,

values and futures orientation (11 items) to express his/her vision dearly to plan strategically

to attend national and international conferences

1 2

1 2



5. Expectations of principals related to staff, parent and community relations (18 items) to demonstrate loyalty to school staff to maintain high levels of trust with staff

to encourage staff to use their initiative





6. Expectations of principals related to the management of change (13 items)

to control the agenda of the school council

to prioritise issues of change

to resolve competing priorities in the school's interest

I 2

\I 5




It can be seen from a comparison of the priorities of parents and teachers that there is much agreement on what they expect of the school principal. Both groups expect that the principal will treat students as individuals while recognising the responsibility to develop them as contributing members of society. This latter expectation is picked up in high priorities being attached to ensuring that the school provides a broad general education while preparing students to take their place in the workforce. Although these priorities may create tensions in curriculum development and implementation, it can be assumed that parents and teachers expect principals to help resolve them. Clear communication figures prominently in both lists of priorities as does the articulation of a school vision. Parents and teachers want principals to trust school staff and to give them initiative and they have similar views about keeping change to a minimum. Low in priority is the expectation that principals spend money on changing the school. There ate also a number of differences between the views of the two groups which have the potential to create difficulties for principals as they lead and manage their schools. Amongst these shown in the full data set are:

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concerns by parents that the principal should have control of school council agendas while staff do not share this view;

• teachers ranking the changing of community values highly while parents place this expectation in the lower half of their rankings:

parents placing a higher priority on the principal dealing with difficult parents than do teachers.

To sum up, there is much more the same about the strength of expectations held of principals by parents and teachers than there is different. This is understandable, given that both are interested in what goes on within the school gates. The low priority attached to change is an interesting feature of the data- a feature that is exposed when the percentages of parents and teachers attaching importance to the six categories of expectations listed above are examined.

Categories of Expectations Parents Teachers
Management of the School 36.99% 20.86%
Concern for Students 26.77% 17.65%
Personal Qualities 17.81% 22.99%
Staff Parent and Community Relations 10.96% 28.34%
Vision, Values and Futures Orientation 5.48% 7.49%
Management of Change 0% 2.67% When a comparison of parents' views is made with those of teachers', the patterns of priorities are similar. Both groups consider change and a futures orientation to be expectations of lesser significance for school principals than those matters which directly affect rhe daily harmony of the school.

Overall, the distinctive feature of our results is the fact that those closest to schools hold to fairly predicrable expectations of their principals. Continuity in management, demonstrable concern for staff, parents, students and the community are logical internally felt needs. On the other hand, the expectations which have most to do with a macro-political perspective encompassing system priorities and changing the status quo consistently receive lowest priority. This outcome stands in stark contrast to the kinds of expectations identified earlier, which authorities external to the school have of their branch managers. Their expectations are firmly fixed on the principal as change agent, restructuring advocate, efficient manager and mediator between external demands and local wishes, while the expectations of students, teachers and parents are focussed on enhancing the student learning experience and environment, sound and supportive staff relationships and the creation of a well managed, happy school. Such a contrast places the school principal on the horns of a dilemma when it comes to enhancing his or her professional practice. Dilemmas for principals are not uncommon when leading locally is framed by system policies and priorities (Dvmock. 1996). How principals can attempt to address these competing expectations is a question with Immediate and long-term professional development implications.

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Implications for Principals' Professional Development

Space permits only brief speculation on some of the implications of these research results for the professional development of principals. I mention three matters.

I. These findings indicate that principals need to concentrate their learning on immediate functional issues affecting the smooth running of schools: developing knowledge and skills about ways to create the right kind of climate in which learning can take place; learning more about students themselves, their needs and asplrations, pursuing personal improvement in communication within the school community; and acquiring the micro-political skills to ensure that the interests of stakeholders are accommodated in what the school does; these are all important elements in the professional development of school leaders.

2. It is clear that principals face competing expectations in the way they lead and manage schools. Developing the necessary self-confidence to withstand the stresses and strains encountered when external and internal priorities conflict is essential for the wellbeing of a modem principal. Refining, confirming and understanding the educational values that lie at the heart of consistent decision-making are important components of principals' professional learning. A set of professional values is necessary if principals are to mediate productive settlements in contradictory situations. In addition, knowing and being able to apply processes which spread involvement in decisionmaking and knowing when to invite initiative and when to take decisions alone are critical capacities for principals.

3. Notwithstanding the low priority attached to change and a futures orientation by parents and teachers, principals must address their attitudes to these matters during times of organisational restructuring. External expectations on schools from governments, educational policy makers and members of the wider worlds of bustness, industry and commerce will always be with us and principals have no way of making their schools immune from their influences. As a consequence, school leaders must not allow their professional development to be seduced by the functional issues I referred to in 1 above. Life is easier when the status quo is undisturbed but leading schools is about creating the circumstances to achieve preferred goals - and to do requires a concern for doing many things differently. Principals' learning must embrace the vision and values inherent in innovation and the requirements of mandated change. More than this, principals should be committed to the expansion of theoretical and practical knowledge about how 10 bring new ideas [0 fruition in their schools.


Finally, it goes without saying that being a principal these days is, in part, like being the Archbishop of Canterbury. His Grace was heard to say recently about his leadership of the Anglican Church: ·Whatever I say or do, I'm bound to offend somebody!" However, he went on to say that no matter what the criticism of him, he was always at peace with the decisions and actions he took. This sense of personal belief is what principals need during their careers but it does not come without a continuing willingness to learn about leading and it does not come without struggling with the often

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contradictory expectations of those with an interest in schools.


Dempster, N., McGrmher, T., Lennox, P. and BOlin, S. (1996, September).

ExpectatiolU of school principals in times of change. Paper presented at the International Conference on School Leadership, Rochampton Institute of Education, London.

Dvmock, C. (1996). Dilemmas for school leaders and adminislTators in restnccturing. In K. Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson, P. Hallinger, & A. Han. (Eds.). International handbook of educational leadership. Volume 1. TIle Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hilmer, G.F. (1995). National competition poli,,: Report of the independent committee of inquiry. Canberra, Australian Government Printer.

Logan. L.. Sachs, J., & Dempster, N. (1996). (Eds.), Planning for Better primary lClwols. Canberra: The Australian College of Education.

MacBeath, J .• Moos, L. and Riley, K. (1996). Leadership in a changing world. In K.

Leithwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson. P. Hallinger, & A. Han. (Eds.). International handbook of educatlonal leadershlp, Volume I. The Netherlands: Kluwcr Academic Publishers.

Marginson, S. (1996, March). Effects of the abolition of the new lChools po Ii". Paper presented at the Council Seminar. The Australian College of Education, Canberra.

Queensland Government (1996). Report of the commission of amlit. Brisbane, Government Printer.

Townsend. T. (l996). Sclwol effeclil..mess and Improeemenr initialil'(S and the restnccturing of education in AuslTalia. School Effectiveness and Improvement, 17(2), 114·132.

Smyth. J. (1996). The sociall, just ahernatil,( 10 the self-managing school. In K.

Lelrhwood, J. Chapman, D. Corson. P. Hallinger, & A. Han. (Eds.), International handbook of educational leadership, Volume 1. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Yeatman, A. (1993). Corpemre managerialism and the shifl from the Wt!lfare to lhe competition slate. Discourse, 13(2), 3·9.

Neil Dempster is a faculty member in the Centre for Leadership and Management in Education at Griffith Univcrsity in Brisbane, Ausrrralta.

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In Volume I, Issue 2, the first name of the first author of the article "Students' Letocls of Salisfaction 'llitilihe Vocalional Program "lid its 'Malion 10 llteir SdwlaSlic Achietoement" was incorrectly spelled. It should be spelled Lalla Habib T aresh.

In Volume I, Issue 3, an incorrect page 62 was printed. The correct page 62 is printed on the following page.

Please cut the following page out and insert it into its correct place in the original copy of Volume I, Issue 3.

Our sincere apologies are extended to the authors for the errors.

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CORRECI10N - Volume I,Issue 3, Page 62

1995). Partnerships have been shown to lead to an improvement in each partner's competency and create a 'reciprocal influence' (Fraser, 1995; Millwater & Yarrow. 1995).

However, despite the reported benefits attached to the development of partnerships wid, schools, problems also exist. As reported in the literature, these problems include:

1. The need for time to develop and maintain the partnership (Mayer & Phillips. 1995; Sinclair-Gaffe Dobbins. 1995).

2. The reluctance of schools to make the "hard decisions" such as failing student teachers in their in-school experience (Mayer & Phillips. 1995).

3. The university - school partnership (particularly between the university lectures and the supervising teachers and school coordinators) being seen by student teachers as a threat to their own relationship with the supervising teachers (Mayer & Phillips, 1995).

4. The importance of high levels of interpersonal skills of university personnel to work closely with the various partners and the need for training of university and school personnel (Sinclair Gaffey & Dobbins. 1995).

Partnerships at UWS, Macarthur

Firstly. what arc partnerships! The definition used in this paper. extends that used by Dobbins 0993. p.l) in describing a "practicum partnership', to include all relationships between the schools. teacher employers, teacher unions and the University which acknowledges their involvement in the education of prospective teachers. recognises the particular contribution each partner has to make and considers that each partner is equally valued and involved in the process,

In the context of the Faculty of Education at University of Western Sydney.

Macarthur. the University and the Metropolitan South West Region of the Department of School Education in New South Wales have enjoyed a long period of cooperation in the initial preparation and continuing professional development of teachers. Through this cooperation there have been many connections made in our endeavor to create a partnership between these two educational organizations and with student teachers and the teacher unions. This cooperation is characterised by committees, professional development, research, secondrnenr and school-based programs.


The committee format operates at many levels from school and university executive personnel to teacher and lecturer. The primary committee. The Committee of Cooperation, as its name implies, seeks to encourage cooperation at the top level between the Metropolitan South West Region of the Department of School Education and the University. TIl is committee deals with ideas for joint implementation of... .... (Conrd.)

Index to Volume I (1997)

Tide Index

A Rtt~tw of Coll4boTation in Ttacher Education Bttu'un t~ Uni\omilJ of Ntw England and Papua Ntw Guinta. Halloway, Warren. 7(}.79, Issue 3.

Africia NttdJ to RHducatt Iud/. Voorbach, J.T. 1·8, Issue 3.

&ginning Ttachm in a Changing Educational En\-ironlMtt. O'Brien. Bob. 39-46. Issue 2.

Cre4liang a Balanct: Who Owns ~ Partntflhip! Sinclair, Catherine &. W()(xiward, Helen. 6Q.69. Issue 3.

Growing into Ttaching: Whol Teacher Educators Ltamtd from Not'ice Teachm. Cordis, leOra &. Krenn.

Caroline. 38-49. Issue I.

History and Philosoph, of ISTE. Mably, Colin &. rkCost.l. Cornel. 1.3, Issue 2.

Innot-ation in Stcondary Social Sehitnee Teacher Education: An Australian (Au Stud,. Halloway,Warren; Bennett. Lyn; Harris. John; &. Maye, Brian. 16-22, Issue 2.

Inltrnational CollaboTalion for t~ Im/>fO\otment of Teacher Education: Tht Cast of t~ Regina·Yaounde Project.

Cooper, liz. 3+41, Issue 3.

Uaming 10 Teach: In\'tSligating Proftnional Growth Using Criticallncidtnu. Ma}'Cr. Diane. IB·19.lsssue I.

MtlilSCimtiflC Re~ctions on t~ Science of Education. Beck, Nestor Luu J030. 59-65, Issue I.

North-Saulh Conflict and Cooptralion in Pllnllit of Common Objtcli\'ts. Crecv, Tawah Che. 9.14, Issue 3. Partnmhips and Linkages for Teacher Empowerment as a Function of the Cogniti\ot AuthorilJ Among Partnm.

Tchomhe, Therese Mungah. 15·27, lsssue 3.

Preparing t~ Nat Generation ofSchooll'rincipals. Low, Guar Tin &. Chew, Joy Oon Ai. 415, Issue 2. Relating ~ UnHomir, Curriculum 10 lRtotlopment Actit'ities in African Rural Comllnitia. Tambo,ltke I. 29· 38, Issue 2

Stoff Pmpectim on Teaching and Ltaming Sr,les in Teacher Education in Bouwana. Hopkin, Anrhony. J. I· II, Issue I.

SlI\dtnu'Satisfactions of t~ Vocational Program and irs relation to Thtir SlIbjects' Achittotmtnt Taresh, laila Habib &. Al-Busran, Ahmad. 47·52. Issue 2.

Supmuion of Colleagues to Help Teachm Bentfn from Interdependence and Personal Growth. Rigbolr. Peter. 21.27, Issue I.

Tasks of Teacher Educators: Some Inttrnational Similarities. Churukian, Georee A. &. Lock. Corey R. 28- 37. Issue I.

The Impact of Re~cti\ot Journal Writing on Studelll Teacher Professional Dttotlopment. Sinclair, Catherine &.

Woodward.Helen. 5MB. Issue I.

Unitomir, Affiliation and the QualilOti\'t Dttotlopment of Ttacher Education. Hopkin, Anthony 0.42·59, Issue 1

Unnomir,·School CoUaboTalion in Siudent Teaching Issuts and PmpeClnots. Tambo, Leke I. 28-33. lssu e 1. Whal is Happening to La Tech Media in Canadian Public Schools! Ganske, 1.I1I1"'ig. 23·28, Issue 2,

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Author Index (by Principal Author)

Beck, Nestor lUb JU30. Mel<ucitnliJic Re/kcuolU on die ScitllCe 0/ Educalion. 59-65, Issue I.

Churukian, George A. & lock, Corey R. Taslu o/Teachn Educalors: Some Inltrnalional Similarilies. 28- 37, Issue I.

Cooper, liz. Inltmalional Collaboralion for die Impro<oemtnt 0/ Teachn Educalion: The Cast O/Ihe Regina.

Yaouruk ProjeCi. 34-41, Issue 3.

Cordis, leOra & Krenn, Caroline. Growing inlo TtadUng: Whal Teccher Educaton Lumtd from Novice Teachtn. 38-49, Issue I.

Creey, Tawah Che, North-Soulh ConJlicl and Coo~alion in Punuil o/Common Objtclives. 9·14, Issue 3. Ganske, ludwig. Whal is Happening 10 1.0 Tech Media in Canadian P .. blic Sdwo1J! 23·28, Issue 2. Halloway, Warrtn. A Review of Collaboralion in Teacher Educalion Belween the UnitomiIJ of Ntu, England

and Papua New Guinea. 70..79, Issue 3.

HallowaY,Warren; Bennett, Lyn; Harris, John; & Maye, Brian. Jnl\O\'<Ilion in Secondary Social Schience Teacher Education: An Australian Case Study. Hi·22, Issue 2.

Hopkin, Anthony G. Siaff Pmptclit't$ on Teaching and learning SI)1eJ in Teacher Education in Bouwana. I· II, Issue I.

Hopkin, Anthony G. Uni\mil) Affilialion and the QwJ!juui<oe Dnoelopmtnl o/Teacher Educalion. 42·59, Issue 3.

Low, Guar Tin & Chew,Joy Don Ai. Pnparing the Next Generalion of School Principals. 4-15, Issue 2. Mably, Colin & DeCusta, Cornel. Hislory and Philosoph, o/ISTE. 1·3, Issue 2.

Mayer, Diane. learning to Teach: Jnt'tJligaling Pro/wional Growth Using Criticallncidtnu. 123·19, lsssue \.

O'Brien, Boh. Beginning Teachm in a Changing Educational Ent1nmmtnt. 39-46, Issue 2.

Rigboh, Peter. SupaviJion of ColltagKts 10 Help Teachm Benefil from Inrndeptruknce and Pmonal Growlh. 21·27, Issue: I.

Sinclair, Catherine & Woodward, Helen. Crealiang a Balance: Who OIl,"S lhe Partnenhipl6Q.69, Issue 3.

Sinclair, Catherine & Woodward. Helen. The Impacl 0/ Re/kCli\oe lo .. mal Wriling on Student Teacher Professional Dnotlopmtnl. 5Q..48, Issue I.

Tambo.Leke I. Relating W Uni\omil) Cu",culum 10 Dnoelopmenl Nlwilies in African Rural Communilies. 29· 38, Issue 2

Tarnbo, Leke I. Uni\omil)·School Collaboration in Sludeni Teaching Jnues and PenptClives. 28-33, Issue 3. Taresh, Lalla Habib & Al-Bustan, Ahmad. SI .. dtnu' SaliJ/acliolU of the Vocalional Program and iu relalion 10 Their Subjecu' Acrutt'tmtYIl 47·52, lssue 2.

Tchombe, Thtr~se Mungah. Partnenhipl and linltagtl for Teacher Em"",,~nl as a Funclion of lhe Cognili,'t ANthoril) Among PmtlIm. 15·27, lsssue 3.

Voorbach, J.T. A/ricia Nttlh 10 Re",ducale Jutlf. 1.8, Issue 3.

- S6-

journal of the International Society for Teacher Education PuBLICATION GUIDELINES

The goal of ISTE is to publish its journal, twice each year, with six to eight articles in each issue. The journal is thematic, using the Seminar theme for the issues to be published following the Seminar. In addition, each issue will have a section for nonthematic articles.

Articles submitted to jlSTE must be wrirren in English, following manuscript guidellnes (see below) and will be anonymously reviewed by referees. Each article must pass the review process to be accepted for publication. The editors will notify the senior author of the manuscript if it does not meet submission requirements.

Articles are judged for (a) significance to the field of teacher education from a global perspective, (b) comprehensiveness of the llreramre review, (c) clarity of presentation, and (d) adequacy of evidence for conclusions. Research manuscripts are also evaluated for adequacy of the rationale and appropriateness of the design and analysis. Scholarly relevance is crucial. Be sure to evaluate your information.

Artlcles pertaining to a particular counny or world area should be authored by a teacher educator from that country or world area.

If English is the author's second or third language. manuscripts accepted for publication will be edited to improve clarity. to conform to style. to correct grammar. and to fit available space. Submission of the article is considered permission to edit the article,

Published manuscripts become the property of the Society. Permission to reproduce articles must be requested from the editors. The submission and subsequent acceptance of a manuscript for publication serves as the copyrighr waiver from the authorts).


• Manuscript length. including all references, should be l ,000 to 3,000 words

• All text should be double-spaced

• Margins should be at least l" (2.5 COl)

• Paragraphs should be indented five spaces

• Paragraphs should be separated by a space.

• Tables. Figures. and Charts should be kept to a minimum.

• Abstract should be limited to 100· 150 words,

• Reference entries should be indented five spaces on the first line, just like other paragraphs (See example below).

• Electronic references should have an address permitting retrieval.

• justification should be set to "oW or "left margin only" (the right margin should be uneven).

Writing and editorial style shall follow directions in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994, 4th ed.). References MUST follow the APA style. The following style is from the APA Publication Manual:

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Kissack, C. (1988). Curriculum planning for social studies teaching: A cross cultural approach. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.

Journal Article:

Churukian, G. A. & Lock, C. R. (1995, Summer). A case for creating an international research agenda for teacher education. Action in Teacher Education. 17. 1- 6.

Unpublished Paper:

Lock. C. R. & Churukian, G. A. (1996. February). Teacher educators in other countries: Some comparisons with teacher educators in the United States. Paper presented at the 76th Conference of the Association of Teacher Educators. St. Louis.


Send a copy of the manuscript complete with cover page. abstract. and computer disk. Due to rhe high postage rates. manuscripts and computer disks will not be returned. If you wish to submit an article bye-mail. send it as an attachment and fax a copy of the manuscript.

The cover page shall include the following information on a separate sheet: Title of the manuscript; name of author or authors. institution, complete mailing address. business and home phone numbers. FAX number. and e-mail address; Briefbiographical sketch. background and areas of specialization not to exceed 30 words per author. Authorts) namels) and instlrurionls) should NOT be on the manuscript.

Send the manuscript with a 3.5 inch computer disk, indicating Macintosh. IBM compatible and the word processing program used to:

George A. Churuklan, Editor

1102 Elmwood Road Bloomington, Illinois 61701-3317. U.SA.

Telephone: +1 3098286437. FAX: +1 3095563411 Emall Address:

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January 1999 (Volume 3, Number 1) Deadline for submission: September I, 1998

Thematic Submissions: Challenging Teacher Education

Manuscripts presented at 18th International Seminar, for Teacher Education will be considered for publication, with corrections suggested by the paper group members.

May 1999 (Volume 3, Number 2) Deadline for submission: January 2, 1999

Nonthematic Submissions

Interested members of ISTE may contribute manuscripts related to any important topic in teacher education.

Book Review Submissions

Interested members of ISTE may submit reviews of books wrinen by lSTE members. Reviews may be no longer that one Journal page.

Recent Publications Submissions

ISTE members may submit an annotated reference to any book which they have had been published during the past three years. Annotations should be no longer that fifty words.