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Humanity and Efficiency- in Teacher

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E'd-u.c.a,ti.ofi.

Editor

Catherine Sinclair, Australia Associate Editor

Joyce Castle, Canada Designer

Colin Mably, England Past Secretary General Editorial Board

Anne-Marie Bergh, South Africa Jan Borg. Denmark

Lam Siu Yuk (Rebecca), Hong Kong, China Roque Moraes, Brazil

Wally Moroz, Australia

Janet Powney, Scotland

Leke Tambo, Cameroon

Helen Woodward. Australia

George Churukian, Founding Editor (ex officio), USA

Colin Mably, Designer (ex officio), U.S.A. Warren Halloway Secretary General (ex officia). Australia

Catherine Sinclair, Editor-elect, (ex officio), Australia

Joyce Castle Associate Editor (ex officio), Canada

Officers/Steering Committee Warren Halloway, Australia, Secretary General

Janet Powney, Scotland. Secretary General Elect

George A. Churukian, U.S.A. Treasurer & Records

Editor JlSTE

Catherine Sinclair, Australia, Editor, JlSTE Joyce Castle, Canada, Assistant Editor JlSTE

Bill Driscoll, Australia, Editor Newsletter John Maurer, Australia,

Directory & Membership

Colin Mably, USA, Past Secretary General Convenor 2000

Hans Voorback, Netherlands, Past Secretary General Ahmed Al-Bustan, Kuwait Convener 2001

Lotti Schou, Denmark Convener 2002

Alex Fung, Hong Kong, China Convener 2003

Craig Kissack. USA, Convenor 2004

It is with much appreciation that JlSTE wishes to thank the following [STE members for their reviews of the articles submitted for this volume. Their tireless efforts and the feedback they provided to potential contributors have enriched the papers published.tfyou wish to become a reviewer please contact the editor, Catherine Sinclair {c.sinclair@uws.edu.au).

Abdullah Al-Haskem, Kuwait Nu'man Al-Musaw, Bahrain Rich Blake. USA

Charuvi\ Chacko, South Africa Vic Cicci, Canada

Elizabeth Cooper, Canada David Daniels, Australia

Neil Dempster, Australia

Margareth Drakenberg, Sweden Alastair Glegg, Canada

James D. Greenberg, USA Anthony Hopkin, Botswana Roy Killen, Australia

John Maurer, Australia

Roque Moraes, Brazil

Wally Moroz, Australia

Bob O'Brien, New Zealand Donna Patterson, Canada Janet Powney, Scotland Karlheinz Rebel, Gennany Peter Reynolds, Australia Merle Richards. Canada Sybil F. Wilson, Canada Helen Woodward. Australia

The JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TEACHER EDUCATION (JISTE) is published as a service to those concerned with global teacher education. It serves as a forum for the exchange of infonnation and ideas related to the improvement of teacher education. Articles focus upon concepts and research which have practical dimensions or implications and applicability for practitioners in teacher education. The Journal limits its articles to those in which ideas are applicable in multiple social settings.

JISfE is an official. refereed publication of ISTE. The goal of ISTE is to publish six to eight articles in each issue. Using the Seminar theme, articles in the first issue of each volume are based on papers presented at the previous seminar. Articles in the second issue are non-thematic. Points ofview and opinions are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those oflSTE. Published manuscripts are the property of JISTE. Permission to reproduce must be requested from the editor.

JISTE is issued twice yearly by the International Society for Teacher Education. The subscription price of$US2S.00 is included in the annual membership fee. Additional copies ofthejournal may be purchased for SUS 15.00. Institutional subscription to J[STE is $USSO.OO per year.

Humanity and Efficiency in Teacher Education

JISTE

JISTE

Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education Volume 7, Number 1, January 2003

Copyright © 2003

by the International Society for Teacher Education

ISSN 1029-5968

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JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TEACHER EDUCATION Volume7, Number 1, January 2003

Humanity and Efficiency in Teacher Education

Message from the Secretary General iv

Warren Halloway.

Message from the Editor v

Catherine Sinclair

Invited Article

Teacher Education in Hong Kong: Policy Changes in the Past Decade I

Alex C. W. Fung

Articles

Creating Right-minded Teachers: British Columbia, 1872-2002.. II

Alastair Glegg

The Numemcy Issue: A Curriculum Initiative 22

Gordon Fulcher

Efficiency and Effectiveness in Science Education Reform: The case of the

Newark Public Schools, New Jersey, USA 30

Beth Anne Ebler & Jacalyn Giacalone Willis

The Role of the Colleges of Education in Developing Human Values

Among University Students in Bahrain and Kuwait.. 39

Nu'man Al-Musawi, Abdulla Al-Hashem, &Ebraheem Karam

Reflection on Teaching Oral English Skills in India: A Research Report 48

Hema Ramanathan & Merribeth D. Bruning

International Students' Experience of Gmduate Study in Canada 56

Alice Schutz & Merle Richards

Book Reviews and Recent Publications by ISTE Members 64

Douglas, J. D. (ed.) (2000). Despite Broken Promise:

The Memoirs of Sarah Pride Smith Review by Verne Clemence

Index to Volume 6 66

Publication Guidelines 68

Manuscript Guidelines 68

Submission Requirements 68

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Message from the Secretary General

I've been reading the bestseller by Simon Winchester, The Map that Changed the World. It is a biography of William Smith, the 'Father of Geology'. Smith was born into humble circumstances in the late 18th Century when new scientific thinking was challenging the received dogmas of a passing age. He devoted his life to unravelling the mystery of the rocks making up the island of Britain. Through painstaking observations, collection of specimens, reading and reflection he brilliantly related the fossil evidence to the different rock strata of the island. He published his great geological map of England in 1815. The book is really more than a biography as Winchester has skillfully woven the story about the social and intellectual history of England as the industrial revolution was transforming English life and landscapes. Smith freed himself from the rigid dogma of Bishop Usher that God had created the world in 4004 BC. He used scientific methods to make his great revelations about the earth's story. With the benefit of hindsight we may well wonder what was so amazing about his achievements.

I have been comparing Smith's achievements with the evolution of our thinking about teaching and find the basic principles quite similar. There is the need for courage to think new ideas, although they apparently conflict with received wisdom. There is the need for hard work involving careful observation, collection of evidence, analysis, reflection, and the necessary communication of findings to likeminded people.

This is the business we are about in ISTE. Our efforts are seen in the annual seminars and in a more refined form in our journal, JISTE. Just as Smith benefited from the assistance of colleagues we too acknowledge the encouragement we receive from fellow ISTE members. Teacher education will always benefit from the efforts of individuals and groups as we seek answers to the question "How can we improve teacher education?"

I have been greatly privileged to be the ISTE Secretary General for the last eight years. I thank everyone for their wonderful support and friendship during the last eight years. I especially thank all conveners and organisers of ISTE seminars, those who have worked constantly to maintain the Society and its communications and the scholarly efforts of ISTE members as we seek ways to improve teacher education around the world. I welcome Dr Janet Powney as the 4th ISTE Secretary General and Dr Cathy Sinclair as the new JISTE Editor and wish them success.

Warren Halloway

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From the Editor

Welcome to my first volume of nSTE as editor. I was thrilled at the many papers submitted for review. This, of course made the job of the reviewers, Joyce Castle (as Associate Editor) and myself more difficult as space limits the number of articles that can be published. However, it means that we can bring you the very best of the wide range of the research and conceptual interests oflSTE members as well as some of.the most exciting ideas presented at the 22= ISTE Seminar held in Denmark last May. There were so many excellent papers submitted to nSTE that Issue #2 also promises to be jammed packed with more great articles.

In accordance with custom, in the lead article in Issue # 1 Alex Fung provides us with an insight into education and teacher education in the country of the next seminar, Hong Kong. The remainder of the issue presents articles from right around the world. Alastair Glegg outlines the changing expectations of teachers in Canada. Beth Anne Ebler and Jacalyn Giacaloine Willis from the US describe a model for teaching improvement and enhanced student learning in Science education. Nu'man AI-Musawi, Abdulla AI-Hashem and Ebraheen Karam examine the beliefs college students consider are being promoted by their teachers in Kuwait and Bahrain. Gordon Fulcher reports on numeracy in the United Kingdom. Hema Ramanathan and Merribeth D. Bruning report on the beliefs, practices and activities of English teachers in India. Alice Schutz and Merle Richards from Canada remind us all as academics of the difficulties experienced by international students. There is also a review of a book published by one of our ISTE members, Douglas Smith, called "Despite Broken Promises". It tells the story of his mother's life and the hardships she experienced as a child of an early homesteader in Canada. I hope you will enjoy reading all the articles as much as the reviewers and I have.

Although I have been a reviewer and then editor-elect for JISTE over the last few years, it isn't until you take on the full responsibilities of editor that you realise the sheer enormity of the task. It is also a most enjoyable task as you come to learn so much about teacher education around the world. The submitted articles broaden your perspectives of what currently occurs and what is possible in teacher education. However, the journal does not come together without the enormous efforts of many in the ISTE family. Therefore, I would like to thank George Churukian for his vision and work over the last five years as foundation editor of JISTE and his continuing work printing the journal. To Joyce Castle. as Associate Editor, the Editorial Board and all the reviewers my heartfelt thanks for your advice to potential contributors and to myself.

I would like to encourage all readers to become an ISTE member if you are not already so, to attend seminars or contribute 'distance' papers, submit papers for possible publication, encourage your institutions to subscribe to the journal and offer to be a reviewer. Increased support of this nature will help further develop this wonderful journal.

Catherine Sinclair

Teacher Education in Hong Kong:

Policy Changes in the Past Decade

Alex C. W. Fung

Education is high on the policy agenda of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) Government, as proven by the wideranging education reform and curriculum reform agenda currently takingplace.

In his 2001 Policy Address, the Chief Executive (CE) has set three targets in education: (1) raise the general standards of primary and secondary students through current education reforms, to enable every student to enjoy learning, be good communicators, be courageous in accepting responsibilities, and be creative and innovative; (2) increase the number of post-secondary places, so that 60% of the senior secondary school leavers can attain post-secondary education. The transition from secondary to post-secondary education a/so needs to be improved, and the reform in the university system is needed to nurture more outstanding post-secondary graduates; and (3) continue to promote life-long learning, and to encourage Hong Kong people to actively enhance their own know/edge and skills, and participate in the development of the knowledge-based economy.

Recognising that teachers are the key to quality education, the Chief Executive (CE) reiterated that the quality of teachers has to be upgraded to complement the current education reform and ensure that early childhood, primary and secondary education is of good quality. This article describes the current situation of teacher education in Hong Kong, the recent changes that have taken place over the past decade, and deliberates on the issues facing the future of teacher development.

Education system and basic structure

Governance

There is no ministry of education in the Hong Kong SAR government. The Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) is responsible for the formulation, development and review of policies and programs, and the introduction of legis lation to ensure that quality education is being provided for Hong Kong's young people, and that the manpower needs of different sectors of the community are looked after through human resources planning and development. The bureau also oversees the implementation of programs that are designed to bring these objectives to fruition. Moreover, the Bureau monitors the services provided by the Edu-

cation Department (EO)I that looks after school education, the University Grants Committee (UGC) that takes care of universities, and several other agencies and authorities. The approved public spending on education in year 2001102 amounted to $55.33 billion, representing 19% of the total public expenditure. Closely working with the EMB are, among others, three major related education bodies - Education Commission (EC), Board of Education (BoE), and the Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications (ACTEQ). The following general terms of reference of these three advisory bodies are extracted from the EMB website at http://www.info.gov.hklemb.

The Education Commission advises the government on the overall educational objectives and policies, and the priorities for implementation having regard to resources available. It coordinates and monitors the planning and development of education at all levels. The commission submits its reports and recommendations to the Chief Executive.

The Board of Education is a statutory body established under the Education Ordinance to advise the Hong Kong government, through the Director of Education, on educational matters at the school level. Its main tasks are to advise on the implementation of approved policies, to review existing policies, and to propose changes.

The Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications advises the government on approved policies related to teacher education and training, and to the supply of and demand for teachers with the necessary professional qualifications and skills. Specifically, the committee advises the government on the levels and types of teacher education and training activities needed to meet present and forecast needs of schools, as well as monitoring the funding distribution, academic quality and professional relevance ofUGC funded and other nonUGC funded activities. ACTEQ also looks at the suitability of any academic or professional qualification acquired outside Hong Kong to teach in Hong Kong, and appropriate measures for assessing such suitability. Furthermore, the Committee is also concerned with the need for any policy changes, in the light both of local needs and of developments in teacher education around the world, and any other matters relevant to teacher education and training which the government may refer to it.

Structure and provision

Early childhood education is offered to children of the 3-5 age groups in kindergartens. These are private organisations mostly run by voluntary bodies, but are registered with and supervised by the Education Department. In parallel with this are also childcare centres belonging to the arena of social welfare.

Starting from the age of six, the government provides nine yearsof universal basic education up to the age of 15, with six years of primary schooling and

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three years of junior secondary. For historical reasons. thtre are three modes of operation for primary schools, a.m. p.m and whole-day sessions. The current government policy is to encourage more primary schools to adopt the whole-day mode of operation, Chinese is the language of instruction in most primary schools, with English taught as a second language. Most teachers in primary schools are nongraduates who went through teacher training colleges in the past, or the Hong Kong Institute of Education since 1994 (when the five teacher training colleges were merged as the HKIEd). The scenario is changing with recent government policies of providing up to 35% of graduate teaching posts in the primary sector, and the phasing out of sub-degree teacher training programs at the HKIEd.

Students entering junior secondary education are allocated through the Secondary School Places Allocation Scheme. The scheme consists ofa 'Discretionary Places' stage where schools admit students according to their own admission criteria, and the 'Central Allocation' stage where places are allocated according to school nets with three criteria: (I) students' scaled internal assessment results (primary 6 graduates are scaled into three 'bands' ofacademic ability); (2) parents' choice of schools; and (3) a random number.

At the end of secondary 3, a Junior Secondary Education Assessment (JSEA) system is adopted to allocate subsidised secondary 4 places, with the performance of the students in schools and parental choices serving as the basis for selection and allocation. According to the current policy (Policy Address, 2001), secondary 3 students wanting to and capable of continuing their studies will be provided subsidized secondary 4 places or vocational training.

Three types of school curriculum are being taught in secondary schools in Hong Kong - grammar, technical and prevocational. Around 70% of teachers in these secondary schools are graduates who are not necessarily professionally trained before appointment. At the end of a five-year course, students sit for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE). This public examination selects about one-third of HKCEE students for a further two-year sixth - form course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE) for admission to local tertiary institutions. About 18% of the age group, totalling 14 500, are provided with entry to first year degree courses at seven universities and the Hong Kong Institute of Education funded by the UGC.

The percentage of trained teachers in Hong Kong has been on the rise over the past five years 1996/97 to 2001/2002 - quite dramatically in kindergarten education from 32.9% to 70.9%; and steadily in primary education from 84.1 % to 90.8% as well as in secondary education from 76.2% to 86.6%.

Teaching profession

Teacher registration and entry into the profession

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Any person who wishes to teach in a school must be registered with the Director of Education as a Registered Teacher (RT) or a Permitted Teacher (PT). Registered Teachers possess the approved teaching qualifications andlor approved teaching experience laid down in the Education Ordinance, whereas Permitted Teachers do not fulfil such requirements but are given a permit to teach specific subject(s) in specific schools. However, school supervisors may apply to the Education Department for employing a person as a Permitted Teacher only if there is no other suitable candidate who is a Registered Teacher available for employment.

Under the existing Education Ordinance, a person must hold five passes in the HKCEE, one of which must be in English Language or Chinese Language, to register as a Permitted Teacher. As of today, untrained PTs are also allowed to apply for the Registered Teachers (RTs) status through the accumulation of teaching experience even without professional training. However, the ACTEQ has recently commented that such provisions are not conducive to enhancing the quality of teachers and education in Hong Kong, and considerations are being made to raise the requirements in teaching qualifications so that the minimum qualifications for PTs in schools offering a formal curriculum should be raised to post-secondary level (i.e. holder of a higher diploma or an associate degree or its equivalent), and that the existing practice ofattaining RT status by mere accumulation of approved teaching experience without approved teacher education should be abolished. It is anticipated that such provisions will become effective from eptember 2003 subject to approval by the Legislative Council.

In-service and pre-service teacher education

It can be seen from the above that Hong Kong has quite a unique system in the sense that it allows untrained people to enter the teaching 'profession', while allowing them to receive in-service teacher education later. This practice, for years, is more common in secondary schools than in primaries as the former employ a higher proportion of graduate teachers, whereas the latter appoint mostly trained non-graduate teachers. For this reason, there are both in-service and preservice courses for secondary school teachers offered by the universities and the HKIEd. Degree holders can take a one-year full-time pre-service Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PgDE) before entering the profession. Untrained graduate teachers can start their teaching career without the qualified teaching status, but upgrade themselves later by taking a two-year part-time in-service PgDE.

For primary non-graduate teachers, there are now in-service part-time and self-funded Bachelor of Education courses available to upgrade their qualification. With the recent move to pbase out the sub-degree teacher training programs at the HKIEd, a four-year mode pre-service Bachelor of Education program has been put in place. All HKIEd graduates in 2005 onwards will be degree holders and this will significantly change the teacher qualifications in both the primary and junior secondary sectors.

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Teacher edueatton provision

The Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKlEd), under the aegis of the University Grants Committee (UGC), is one of the major teacher education institutions. It provides degree and postgraduate programs as well as a range of preservice and in-service teacher education courses targeted at teaching from preprimary to secondary levels. The courses, however, still have to be accredited externally by the Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation (HKCAA). Teacher training in Hong Kong at sub-degree level is now part of history, with all HKIEd graduates in 2005 onwards as degree holders. The HKIEd is now aspiring to become a UGC-funded university and striving hard to acquire a selfaccreditation status.

The Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU), the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), and the University of Hong Kong (HKU) are the other main teacher education providers, besides the HKIEd. Others include also the Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK) as well as schools of continuing education of local universities.

Typically, the programs cover both pre-service and in-service teacher preparation targeted separately at primary and secondary education. The pre-service ones consist basically of BEd degree programs normally off our-year duration, and postgraduate diploma/certificate in education of one-year length. In-service part-time programs are naturally of longer durations and the qualifications awarded at the end are the same as the pre-service ones. There are other shortterm in-service courses, so-called 'refresher training' for teachers' continual professional development.

One particular program offered at HKBU - the Diploma in Education (2+2) - is worth elaboration here as this is a new initiative launched only in 2001. This differs from the four-year traditional BEd program in that graduates from the '2+2' will be awarded a double qualification ofa first degree in an academic major plus a diploma in education. Undergraduates pursuing a normal three-year bachelor degree, on completing their second year, are offered an alternative route in the following two years to be additionally trained for the teaching profession. The label of '2+2' for this special arrangement distinguishes this program from the traditional four-year BEd and the '3+ 1 ' mode of operation for the one-year postgraduate diploma in education (PgDE) for a degree holder. To some extent, the '2+2' may be considered as a hybrid model of the latter two modes of operation.

In general, student teachers going through teacher education programs are required to complete courses in areas ofteaching methods and practices, educational studies (with core and elective subjects), and supervised field practice with

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lengths varying from four to five sessions within two academic years for parttime courses and from 40 to 45 days for full-time courses. In addition, the coursework may also include student reflection papers, group project presentations, term papers, and other assignments with both formative and summative assessments.

Graduates with a BEd, a PgDElPCEd, or a Diploma in Ed are qualified to become registered teachers with the Education Department, However, the salary structure and career paths differ in primary and secondary schools. Owing to the historical fact that primary school teachers were mostly sub-degree holders, primary schools have had all along a Certified MasterlMistress (CM) salary structure different from that in secondary schools for Graduate MasterlMistress (GM) teachers. With the changing policy these years to upgrade teacher qualifications in primary schools, a new salary structure has been set up for primary graduate posts in parallel with the CM structure.

New trends - improving qualifications and competencies

In the Chief Executive's five Policy Addresses (1997, 1998, 1999,2000, 2001), much focus was placed on the ultimate aim of providing quality education for all students. Emphasis was placed on building a teaching profession of high commitment and quality to achieve such an aim. Some of the trends ofimproving teacher qualifications and competencies seen in recent years are highlighted below.

Enhancement of the professional status of teachers

In the "1997 Policy Address, the CE announced that the professional status of teachers will be enhanced by setting up a professional body of teachers - General Teaching Council (GTC). September 10 was also declared as 'Teachers' Day' to show the enduring importance of the teaching profession (1997 Policy Address). These were welcoming moves to the profession. Subsequently, a $20 million funding was allocated to the GTC according to the 1998 Policy Address. However, there is no sign yet when the GTC can be realised; and the teacher registration authority is still vested with the Education Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

Early cbildbood education

60% of the teachers at kindergarten level were expected to have formal training by 2000. All new kindergarten principals should be graduates of the Certificate in Kindergarten Education Course by 2004 (1997 Policy Address). The target date was further advanced from 2004 to 2002 (1999 Policy Address). The entry requirements of all newly appointed kindergarten teachers were also raised. They were required to complete at least one year of pre-service training

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(2000 Policy Address) and should hold a pre-service kindergarten teacher's qualification prior to joining the profession (2001 Policy Address). Overall the teacher qualifications in early childhood education have dramatically improved over the past few years.

Primary education

To improve the quality of teaching at schools, the Hong Kong Institute of Education was developed into a degree-awarding teacher training institute (1998 Policy Address). Graduate posts in primary schools have also increased from less than 5% to 20% (2000 Policy Address), and to 35% in 2001 (2001 Policy Address), with all HKIEd graduates in 2005 onwards as degree holders. Along this direction, all preservice training courses provided by the HKIEd for primary and secondary school teachers have been upgraded progressively from sub-degree to degree or higher level. This phasing out of sub-degree teaching training programs is an important milestone in the history of education in Hong Kong. although it remains a long-term goal to achieve an all-trained-all-graduate teaching profession.

Benchmarking - Language and leT

In 1998, the government launched a five-year information technology (IT) education strategy to promote the use of IT to enhance teaching and learning, and to equip students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the challenges of the information age. Teachers were expected to equip themselves with the necessary IT skills, and were expected to apply computer-assisted teaching and learning across the curriculum. Huge efforts were also placed on training in IT for over 30,000 teachers (1997 Policy Address) and by 2001 all teachers in the territory were supposed to have achieved a basic level ofIT competency. Nonetheless, whether the huge investment on the use of technology will enhance the teaching and learning is yet to be seen.

Language benchmarks were also set for all English and Putonghua teachers, and training for in-service language teachers was provided (1997 Policy Address). By 2005, it will be expected that all serving language teachers have attained the language benchmarks (1999 Policy Address). There are three channels for these teachers to demonstrate their language proficiency: exemption, training with internal. assessment, and open assessments. Currently, eight English authorised language proficiency courses are being offered, among which two are run by overseas institutes. Twelve authorised courses are offered for Putonghua, five of which are by course providers in Mainland China. A training subsidy ofHKS13,000 and H[($10,OOO is offered respectively for eligible English and Putonghua teachers, with another supplementary training subsidy ofHK$5,OOO and HK$2,OOO maximum offered respectively to those enrolling in foundation programs. The initial resistance of teachers to the benchmarking requirement seemed to have subside over the years, and the reality is that all new language teachers entering the profession in September 2003 have

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to meet the benchmarks. Hopefully this will improve the language standard of students in the long run.

Continuing professional development

Continuous support for leadership and continuing professional development was also provided to equip and develop all public sector school principals with the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude to become competent leaders to lead schools into the new millennium. A continuous professional development framework was drawn and implemented in the 2000/01 school year. All newly appointed principals will have to complete an initial part of the development programme prior to appointment. It can be envisaged that all teachers will be required to follow suit for continuing professional development in the days ahead.

Challenges ahead

The policy analysis in this paper has indicated clearly that the HKSAR government has put much emphasis in recent years on upgrading the standards of teachers. However, changes were not initiated only after the change of sovereignty in 1997. The ACTEQ was established, for instance, already in June 1993. Likewise, it was the recommendation in 1992 of Education Commission Report No.5 (ECR 5, 1992) to establish the HKIEd as an autonomous institution. This was achieved in 1994, which put an end to the long history of teacher training colleges as branches under the Education Department of the government, since the start of the first teacher training college in 1939. The HKIEd formally came under the aegis of the University Grants Committee in January 1997 and has since been striving hard to become a university. Interestingly, a new policy could emerge again soon as the government now seems to be encouraging a merging of the institute with a local university. Only time can tell what the fate of HKIEd will be.

The year 1997 was monumental also for a new educational policy objective announced in the Chief Executive's first Policy Address in October that year. This requires all primary and secondary entry teachers to have a university degree and teacher's training; and more ideally, all practising teachers are expected to be trained and to obtain a degree in the foreseeable future. This resulted not only in the phasing out of the sub-degree teacher training programs at HKIEd, but also impacted upon the structure and salary scales of teachers in both primary and secondary schools. As graduate teachers have been offered aU along a more attractive salary structure and scale in secondary schools than nongraduates in the primary sector, the new policy requirement of trained graduates for entry to the teaching profession is very resource -intensive. While a new salary track has been established already for trained graduates in the primary schools, such posts however are limited only to 35% of the establishment. In this

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period of economic difficulties, the goal for an 'all trained all graduate' profession is certainly quite remote.

In addition to the increasing number of trained graduates required for the teaching profession, the quality of initial teacher preparation is also a major concern of the government. Discussions in the ACTEQ on 'initial teacher education' are currently ongoing about what requirements a person should fulfil for registration as a professional teacher. The components under consideration include: knowledge foundation, theoretical background, skills, and comprehensive workplace experience or 'internship'. The first three components raise direct questions on the teacher education curriculum currently available at the different institutions, in "terms of content, mode of delivery, as well as duration. What should, and can be, packed within one year of a pre-service PgDE teacher education program (nine months in reality!) is in question, for example. This seems to be no unique problem in the Hong Kong context, as many other places have similar challenges to face. The Australian government, for example, extended some years ago their initial teacher preparation of graduates to 18-24 months. The competency approach of the Teacher Training Agency in the UK is another way of addressing similar issues.

The last component on the idea of internship has an even greater impact since this affects not only teacher education providers but also the entire education system. Although there are strong views that before a person becomes registered as a professional teacher, he or she should undergo a substantial period of real-life experience in schools, such an 'internship' culture is not there yet in our system.

Education reform is on the current agenda of many governments in different countries and this is no exception to Hong Kong. Irrespective of geography, context or culture, a unanimous view is that we need good teachers in order to have good education. The challenge, though, common to all is how to 'produce' them.

Alex C. W. Fung from the Department of Education Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University is the convener for the 23rd annual Seminar of the International Society for Teacher Education.

Acknowledgement

The author would like to acknowledge the kind assistance ofMs Jenilyn Ledesma in researching background information for the paper. Her comments and suggestions were most valuable in the preparation for the paper.

Reference

Education Commission (1986). Education Commission Report No.2. Hong Kong:

Hong Kong Government.

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Education Commission (1992). Education Commission Report No.5. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government.

Education Commission (1997). Education Commission Report No. 7. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Government.

Education and Manpower Bureau (1998). Information Technology for Learning in a New Era: Five-Year Strategy (/998/99 to 2002/03). Hong Kong:

Hong Kong Government.

Policy Address 1997. Building Hong Kongfor a New Era. Hong Kong: HKSAR.

Policy Address 1998. From Adversity to Opportunity. Hong Kong: HKSAR. Policy Address 1999. Quality People, Quality Home. Positioning Hong Kong for the 21st Century. Hong Kong: HKSAR.

Policy Address 2000. Serving the Community, Sharing Common Goals. Hong Kong: HKSAR.

Policy Address 2001. Building on Our Strengths, Investing in Our Future.

Hong Kong: HKSAR.

I A recent re-structuring taking place is the merging of ED with EMB, which will probably impact on the fate of EC, BoE, and ACTEQ as well.

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Creating Right-minded Teachers: British Columbia, 1872-2002

Alastair Glegg

Historically. teachers have been regarded not only as transmitters of knowledge. but as role models for their students: their character. behaviour. and attitudes have always been a matter for public and official concern. This paper explores the changing nature of expectations for teachers in British Columbiafrom the first formal teacher examinations to the present. showing how different forces helped determine what constitutes right-minded teachers.

Introduction

Schools have always promoted societal values, and the development of rightminded teachers has concerned not just training institutions, but the whole community. It is comparatively easy to identify the attitudes required of teachers by previous generations, but much more difficult to recognise them in our own society. Today's education students consider it quaint that their predecessors had to produce a letter of good character from a clergyman, but think nothing of being required to have a criminal records check. This paper explores the changing nature of expectations for teachers in British Columbia from the first formal teacher examinations to the present.

The Victorian age: moral exemplars

In 1872 John Jessop, a devout Methodist, became the first Superintendent of Education in British Columbia, and quickly made his priorities apparent. Prospective teachers had to 'furnish proof of good moral character' , and

Pay the strictest attention to the morals and general conduct of the pupils [and] omit no opportunity of inculcating the principles of TRUTH and HONESTY, the duties of respect to superiors, and obedience to all persons placed in authority over them. (Annual Report of the Public Schools 187-1873, pp. 12, 17, ]9. Hereafter AR)

'The highest morality shall be inculcated, but no religious dogmas or creeds shall be taught' (Act Respecting Public Schools. 1872, s. 35). This did not imply that schools should not practise Christianity, but that denominational schisms should be avoided; they were to open and close with prayer, and the Ten Commandments (AR 1872-1873, p. 20). For example, examination candidates had to name the earliest Christian missionaries, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, and the first translator of the Bible into English (AR 1873-1874, p. 45) and Jessop's use of value-laden language extended to pedagogical matters as

11

candidates had to 'state the influence for good or evil of competitive school examinations' (AR 1875-1876, p. 65).

Arithmetic papers expected higher standards from men, who were required to be conversant with square roots, and compound interest, whereas women could pass with a knowledge of basic arithmetic and fractions (AR 1873-1874, p. 43). The 1873 Composition examination asked men to discuss 'The influence of the CPR on the future of British Columbia', a speculative political topic, while women were to 'Write what you know ofDoUy Varden', a character in Dickens' Barnaby Rudge (AR 1872-1873, p, 30). In 1875 both men and women were questioned about social and political events (ie Californian gold discovery and "Woman's Rights"(AR 1875-1876, p, 71) respectively). Next year, however, the subjects were more traditional: 'Gentlemen-Politics; Ladies-Manners' (AR 1876-1877, p. 153).

With Jessop's departure in ] 878 the emphasis on religion declined: trustees could choose whether or not to open schools with the Lord's Prayer (p. 223), but the view of teachers as moral exemplars persisted. They had to produce proof of 'temperate habits and good moral character', and write 'a brief moral lesson on "Lying" (AR 187-1880, pp. 352, 366) or on 'Manners-good and bad' (AR 1880-1881, p. 311). Candidates for teaching were still expected to have a Christian background-how else could they 'Write the Lord's Prayer, being particular as to the use of capitals and punctuation' (AR 1888-1889, p. xci) - but values were becoming less specifically religious. Candidates were required to explain how to inculcate 'Truthfulness, Politeness, Respect for Superiors [and] Patriotism' (p. xciv), and to 'state at least four moral principles which you would earnestly strive to impress upon your pupils' (AR 1889-1890, p. civ). The authorities hoped that Queen Victoria would be pleased that 'the sentiments of loyalty and attachment to Her Majesty's person are inculcated in the public schools' (AR 1881- 1882, p. 200). Literacy was important, but the task of producing moral, industrious, and patriotic citizens imbued with traditional British and Christian values could only be entrusted to those who lived by the same standards.

The normal school years: Imperial apprentices

With the establishment of teacher training institutions, the emphasis shifted from the character of prospective teachers to their ability to prepare lessons, keep order, and teach successfully. It was not that moral values were unimportant, but that they were tied less specifically to organised religious beliefs (Sheehan, 1979)1. Student teachers came primarily from the ranks of the middle class (Calam, 1986): solid, respectable families encouraged their daughters to become teachers, and they brought with them their traditional values. Their instructors were practitioners, and made it quite clear what they considered important: good teachers 'prepared lessons, made their pupils work, and kept good order' (p. 77)., They set high standards and recognised 'the true work ofthe school- the development of

12

character' (p, 78). The new generation of would-be teachers were treated like apprentices, as in place of moral virtue they needed 'tact. patience, and the ability to maintain order and discipline' (AR 1904-1905, p. A50), and the previous emphasis on character was reduced to the requirement that candidates for teacher certification must provide a 'certificate of good moral character and a fee of five dollars' (AR 1908-1909, p. A62).

But this was the imperial age of school administration (Fleming, 200 I) and the attitudes of the superintendent were still of concern. Most notable at this time was the rise ofthe agrarian myth, and teachers in training were taught the importance of school gardens, school beautification. and the presumed associated social and moral benefits (Jones, 1979, 1980). Among other advantages, gardening was claimed to teach civic virtue, promote a love of the land, and make students 'more reverent in their attitude towards the sacredness of life itself (1980, p. 76).

This movement, though short-lived, shows again how the authorities attempted to shape the attitude and priorities of teachers for societal aims, a process which underwent another change during the First World War, Twenty-two student teachers and instructors enlisted in 1915 (AR 1915-1916), bringing home to the others the grim realities of the patriotic sentiments they were supposed to promote. Naturally there were critics, especially among the radical labour movement, which claimed that schools had been 'degraded ... into veritable training corps' (Maciejko, 1986, p. 224). This period also marks the first time that an organised body outside government deliberately set out to influence the attitudes of teachers towards social issues as the Women's Christian Temperance Union promoted Scientific Temperance Instruction in the schools (Sheehan, 1986b, p. 205). However they might feel personally, teachers would be expected to support this cause. Although the normal schools of the Edwardian age shifted the emphasis from the moral exemplar to the competent classroom manager, teachers were still expected to act as role models and demonstrate socially acceptable attitudes to such contemporary issues as rural enlightenment, patriotism, and temperance.

Between the wars: conservative progressives

This period was a curious mixture of conservatism and progressivism, and factors outside the control of those responsible for teacher training were becoming increasingly important in determining the type ofperson neededto educate Canadian children. Thousands of young men failed to return from the war, and a significant number of young women who had lost husbands, fiances, or sweethearts were to remain unmarried. Many of them became teachers, and continued in the profession much longer than they would have done otherwise. This, along with the not unconnected growth of the movement for women's rights, encouraged the emergence of new attitudes to women as teachers, culminating in the

13

1929 appointment ofa Rural Teachers' Welfare Officer (Fleming, Smyly, & White, 2001).

The First-World War is often taken as the point at which Canada emerged as an individual nation, and teachers were expected to reflect this as 'Canadian History' replaced 'British and European History' as a requirement for matriculation (Maclaurin, 1934, p. 301). A further contributor to the development of Canadian nationalism was a growing concern with the influence of the United States, particularly as American educational materials were readily available, and Canadian materials were only slowly being produced (Sheehan, 1986a). Another phenomenon was the rise of Progressive Education, and the attitudes expected of right-minded teachers changed to reflect this product of the Enlightenment's idealised vision of childhood, Victorian romanticism, and a genuine desire for a more sensitive and individual approach to schooling (Reese, 2001).

The first major review of the school system was bighly critical ofthe Normal Schools and their graduates (Putman & Weir, 1925). Instructors, drawn from the ranks of successful teachers and principals familiar with the problems of one-room rural schools, emphasised the practicalities of lesson preparation and classroom management, in marked contrast to the commissioners' view of the Normal School as 'a laboratory for child study' (Calam, 1986, p. 85). Young teachers were thus caught between conservative practicality and child-centred intellectualism, and the results were predictable: although there was some movement towards a more progressive approach,in practice things remained much the same: good teachers 'emphasized the fundamentals, drilled frequently and tested often, ... taught thoroughly and systematically ... [and] ran no-nonsense classrooms' (Sutherland, 1995, pp. 113-114).

Economic and social factors also helped shape the way that teachers were expected to think and behave. The Depression made it impossible for many small communities to pay for schools, and if they could do so the teacher might be put in the awkward position of being the only person with a regular wage (Fleming &. Smyly, 2001). She might need to change lodgings so as not to arouse jealousy, while underfed and ill-clothed students put further demands on her abilities and sympathies (Wilson &. Stortz, 1995). Social sensitivity was becoming an essential component of the teacher's approach.

As the drift to the urban areas became a flood, new demands were placed on teachers (Glegg, 2002), although the agrarian myth persisted, at least in the minds of the commissioners who claimed that 'the modem urban home offers no real life problems' (Putman &. Weir, 1925, p. 51). But things really were different in the cities: teachers had to cope with moral problems associated with 'the "movies" which make their appeal to the sensational and suggestive sides of life', and which necessitated 'a sane and scientific treatment of the sex question' (p. 51'). The establishment of vocational guidance programs is further evidence

14

that teachers were now expected to deal with problems extending far beyond what used to be considered the role of the school (p. 107).

The post-war years: social reformers

The negative perception ofpubJic schooling which accompanied the post-war social reform movement was not nearly so evident in Canada, as this extract shows:

This [history] book .... should be agreeable to adults who need no convincing that life in Canada is the best kind of life we know, who see better people than themselves in the younger generation, and who look to the future for a golden age. (Phillips, 1957, p. xii)

These optimistic sentiments were short-lived, however, as attitudes changed, and with them the requirements for teachers. Schools had traditionally served as sorting mechanisms, identifying the most inteUectually able through examinations, and leaving the remainder to get such further training as they might require as best they could. New social attitudes and the rise of the welfare state began to cause educators to look askance at a system which some saw as perpetuating distinctions based not just on academic ability but on social class and wealth. A result of this underlying social agenda was, in part, the shift to comprehensive schools to provide universal access to higher levels of education (Allison, 1993). British Columbia's schools became even more self-consciously democratic as the process of streaming went out of fashion, and while large-scale standardised testing was gaining popularity with central authorities (AR 1973-1974, p. D12), student teachers were now being encouraged to question not only the academic validity of these tests, but the moral implications of a system which seemed to discriminate against certain sections of society.

To the conscious attempts to break down class barriers was added the new concept of multiculturalism. Attitudes and opinions which for decades had simply been taken for granted were challenged with the arrival of increasing numbers of non-European immigrants. Although no formal alterations to teacher instruction were made, this shift in what was considered the proper approach can be seen in the textbooks. A 1918 Canadian civics text informed students that 'no Chinese, Japanese, Hindu or Indian is permitted to vote' (Jenkins, 1918, p. 109), and a history book in use in the 1940s noted:

A vast literature has grown up about the Indians ... but the truth is that this history bas little practical importance ... the civilisation of America today owes very little to the aboriginal inhabitants of the country. (Wallace, 1930, p. 10)

Twenty years later a junior reader contained not just Aboriginal legends, but stories about children in Africa and China, as well as one about immigrant chil-

15

dren (Baldwin, 1965). Societal change was ensuring that teachers were using materials more in keeping with the times, and they were as always expected to teach not just by precept but also by personal example.

The wave of anti-authoritarian feeling typified by the civil rights movement and anti-war protests also helped redefine expectations for teachers. Issues of justice, disarmament, and human rights were subjects of debate and dissent in the universities where teachers were by now being trained, and inevitably influenced their thinking. Radical changes in curriculum occurred as topics as diverse as Black drama, poverty, and women's studies found their way into classrooms (Glattborn, 1975). Teachers were not only expected to be familiar with such issues but to bring a sympathetic awareness of them into their lessons. Even the methodology changed in response to anti-traditional pressures: the new math appeared; foreign language instruction cast off the shackles of grammar; projects and class discussions took the place of formal lessons; concepts of punishment and reward underwent dramatic changes, and teachers had to incorporate these new ideas and approaches.

The pressures that shaped the expectations for teachers in this period were coming from outside the world of colleges and schools, and the definition of a good teacher went now far beyond personal character, classroom abilities, and educational philosophy to include a wide range of socio-political variables. As education became more involved in politics, so inevitably politicians began to take more notice of education.

FiD-de-si~cle: pollticised professionals

Over the last thirty years party politics, trade union politics, professional politics, and the array of social attitudes that comprise political correctness have clearly had much more influence on how teachers are supposed to think and act than ever before. Today's election platforms are built at least in part on expenditures on education, and for a teacher to openly support a political party which threatens to restrain or cut these expenditures would be seen by many as misguided at best, regardless of that party's position on other issues. Another important aspect of party politics depends on the degree of political polarisation present. For example, educational concerns expressed in the protests surrounding the i 988 English Education Reform Act were quickly abandoned for the more political issues ofprivatisation and centralised control. Teachers are put in a difficult position when parties are portrayed as either supporting or destroying education: there is certainly pressure to appear to sympathise with one particular viewpoint.

Party politics merge into union politics. The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) has become much more directly involved in party politics through associations like the Teachers' Political Action Committee (Fleming, 2002), and recent demonstrations against legislated changes to collective bar-

16

gaining leave no doubt about where the BCTF's political sympathies lie, and thus by implication where those of its members ought to reside. A more disturbing aspect of union politics concerns the relationship between teachers and principals. In 1987 teachers were allowed to fonn an official trade union, but principals were excluded from membership, and defined as Administrative Officers (Glegg,

1992). Principals quickly became typecast as • AOs'. While prospective principals are studying collegiality and teacher empowerment, the BCTF, although claiming the opposite, seems set on encouraging an adversariallabour-management relationship between teachers and principals (e.g. Clarke, 2002; Steffenhagen, 2002).

The BCTF describes itselfas a professional union, and this is reflected in its Code of Ethics. The first five clauses lay down expectations for teachers as professionals, covering respect for students. confidentiality, and relationships with students, parents. and colleagues. The remaining five items deal with the responsibilities of teachers a s union members. including acknowledging the authority of the BCTF, adhering to collective agreements. and not acting in a manner prejudicial to job action (British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2002). The Code of Ethics reveals the BCTF's view of how teachers ought to see their role: a tightly controlled balance between responsibility to the profession and to the union.

Professional politics also has a place in determining what constitutes a rightminded teacher, and this can be observed in the actions of the British Columbia College of Teachers (BCCn and the Universities. The BCCT was created in 1987 amid protests from teacher organisations, primarily because control over entry to the profession had been entrusted not to the BCTF, but to the newly formed college (Glegg, 1992).

Following an initial period of token involvement, the union decided to use the BCCT to extend its influence into the professional realm through its statutory right to control teacher training programs (Teaching Profession Act, 1996). The most significant example of this was the dispute over the BCCT's refusal to approve a teacher education program run by a Christian university which requires its students to refrain from certain practices, including homosexual behaviour (Glegg, 2000). The BCCT claimed that the university was discriminatory but the Supreme Court of Canada ruled against this claim, citing freedom of religion and religious thought This decision dealt a severe blow to the BCCT's efforts to impose a specific definition of what constitutes a right-minded teacher, or rather of what is not acceptable in a teacher.

However, the BCCT is still involved in detennining requirements for course content and recently announced an extension of the range of topics to be addressed by faculties of education. To Aboriginal issues, gender equity, multiculturalism, racism, and special needs students, was added sexual orientation, homophobia and heterosexism, poverty, religion and religious intolerance, and the immigrant experience (British Columbia College of Teachers, 2002). The choice of these particular topics shows that the BCCT considers it essential that teachers

17

should be not just aware of them, but actively sympathetic to the political attitude their choice implies.

The universities generally disapprove of this encroachment on their academic turf, but they too have turned to professional politics to ensure that student teachers emerge with certain attitudes and meet appropriate standards of political correctness. For example, teachers in training can now study 'Environmental issues in

. education' and 'Women in leadership' (University of Victoria, 2001). Again it is not suggested that these are not worthwhile and important topics, but their inclusion in the program hints to students a that these are the sort of subjects with which they ought to be sympathetically familiar if they want to be successful teachers. Today's universities expect their teacher graduates to adopt specific attitudes to issues of gender, race, the environment, and human rights, although these topics would have sounded just as strange to previous generations as their emphasis on Biblical moral values, respect for authority, and patriotism does today. What has changed is the source of expectations for teachers: they may be now much better trained and more professional, but political forces of every description combine to influence what is required of them in the way ofattitudes and behaviour.

Conclusion

Initially there seems to be little connection between Erasmus' view of piety as the most important part of education, Locke's conception of virtue as following reason rather than self, and the attitude of the BCCT to social issues, but they in fact represent similar attempts to identify, shape, and control the priorities of schooling, not just for the students, but for those entrusted with their education. Successive generations have taken different views of what it means to be a good citizen, and these have influenced their expectations for teachers, which in turn

are reflected in the programs designed to produce them. The ironies are obvious: religion has returned to the agenda, not as a cornerstone of morality and virtue,

but merely as a topic on the same list as homophobia and poverty. A book containing stories about multiculturalism opens with a tale called 'Bob's summer sleighride' which would not appear today: the 'sleighride' is in a rowing boat being towed behind a whale which the young hero has harpooned (Baldwin, 1965). When current education students are asked to define good teachers they now describe them as being respectful of students, nurturing, and aware of students' needs, and sadly appear to be under the impression that they are the first generation ever to think that way: a timely reminder that today's teacher educators need to scrutinise their own expectations and motives just as critically as they do those of their predecessors.

References

Act Respecting Public Schools (1872). Statutes of British Columbia.

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Allison, D. J. (1993). The problem with secondary schools. In L. L Stewin & S.

J. H. MacCann (Eds.). Contemporary educational issues (pp. 237-254). Toronto, ON: Pitman.

Annual Report of the Public Schools of British Columbia (various dates from I 872). Victoria, BC: Queen'slKing's Printer.

Baldwin, C. M. (1965). Stories offun and adventure. Vancouver, BC: Copp Clark.

British Columbia College of Teachers (2002). Policies of the British Columbia College of Teachers. P5.C.0 1 (b) 3.5. Approved February 28,2002. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia College of Teachers.

British Columbia Teachers' Federation (2001). Members' Guide to the BCTF.

Vancouver, Be: BCTF.

Calam, J. (1986). Teaching the teachers: Establishment and early years of the B.C. Provincial Normal Schools. In N. M. Sheehan, J. D. Wilson, & D. C. Jones (Eds.), Schools in the west: Essays in Canadian educational history (pp. 75-98). calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Clarke, P. (2002). AOs asked for it. Teacher, 14 (5), 2.

Fleming, T. (2001). 'Ourboys in the field': School inspectors, superintendents, and the changing character of school leadership in British Columbia In T. Fleming (Ed.), School leadership: Essays on the British Columbia experience, 1872-1995 (pp. 55-78). Mill Bay, BC: Bendall Books.

Fleming, T. (2002, March). The decline and fall of the British Columbia Ministry of Education, 1972-1996. Paper presented to the 2002 Ministry of Education B.C. Education Research Symposium, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Fleming, T., & Smyly, C. (2001). The diary of Mary Williams: A cameo of rural schooling in British Columbia, 1922-1924. In T. Fleming (Ed.). School leadership: Essays on the British Columbia experience, 1872-1995 (pp. 369-405). Mill Bay, BC: Bendall Books.

Fleming, T., Smyly, C., & White, J. (2001). Beyond Hope and past Redemption:

Lottie Bowron and the rural school teachers of British Columbia, 1928- 1934. In T. Fleming (Ed). School leadership: Essays on the British Columbia experience, 1872-1995 (pp. 101-132). Mill Bay, BC: Bendall Books.

Glatthom, A. (1975). Alternatives in education: Schools and programs. New York, NY: Dodd Mead.

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Glegg, A. (1992). Five years of teacher self-governance: The British Columbia College of Teachers. Journal of Educational Administration and Foundations, 7 (2), 46--61.

Glegg, A. (2000). Who guards the guardians? The British Colwnbia College of Teachers and Trinity Western University. International Studies in Educational Administration, 28 (2), 22-35.

Glegg, A. (2002). Schools in the city: The effects of increasing urbanization on education in Victoria, British Columbia, 1920-1929. Joumal of Educational Administration and History, 34 (1), 63-76.

Jenkins, R. S. (1918). Canadian Civics. Toronto, ON: Copp Clark.

Jones, D. C. (1979). Creating rural-minded teachers: The British Columbia experience. In D. C. Jones, N. M. Sheehan, & R. M. Stamp (Eds.). Shaping the schools of the Canadian West (pp. 136-176). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Jones, D. C. (1980). The zeitgeist of western settlement: The myth of the land.

In J. D. Wilson & D. C. Jones (Eds.). Schooling and society in 20th century British Columbia (pp. 71-90). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Maciejko, B. (1986). Public schools and the workers' struggle: Winnipeg 1914-1921. In N. M. Sheehan, J. D. Wilson, & D. C. Jones (Eds.). Schools in the west: Essays in Canadian educational history (pp. 213- 240). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Maclaurin, D. L. (1934). The history of education in the Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia and in the Province of British Columbia. Unpublished doctoral thesis: University of Washington, W A.

Phillips, C. E. (1957). The development of Canadian education. Toronto, ON:

Gage.

President's message. (January, 1996). Teacher, 8(4),2.

Putman, J. H., & Weir, G. H. (1925). Survey of the school system. Victoria, BC: King's Printer.

Reese, W. J. (2001). The origins of progressive education. History of Education Quarterly, 41 (I). 1-24.

Sheehan, N. M. (1979). Indoctrination: Moral education in the prairie school house. In D. C. Jones, N. M. Sheehan, & R. M. Stamp (Eds.). Shaping the schools of the Canadian West (pp. 222-235). Calgary, AB: Detselig

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Enterprises.

Sheehan, N. M. (1986a). Education, society and the curriculum in Alberta, 1905- 1980: An overview. In N. M. Sheehan, J. D. Wilson, & D. C. Jones (Eds.). Schools in the west: Essays in Canadian educational history (pp. 39-58). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Sheehan, N. M. (1986b). The WCTU and educational strategies on the Canadian prairies. In N. M. Sheehan, J. D. Wilson, & D. C. Jones (Eds.). Schools in the west: Essays in Canadian educational history (pp. 193-212). Calgary, AB:

Detselig Enterprises.

Steffenhagen, J. (2002, March 1). Teachers' representative fuels rancour with Gestapo analogy. Victoria Times-Colonist, pp. AI-A2.

Sutherland, N. (1995). The triumph offonnalism: Elementary schooling in Vancouver from the 1920s to the 1960s. In J. Barman, N. Sutherland, & J. D. Wilson (Bds.), Children, teachers and schools in the history of British Columbia (pp. 101-124). Calgary: Detselig Enterprises.

Teaching Profession Act (1996). Revised Statutes of British Columbia, Chapter 449.

University of Victoria (2001). University of Victoria 2001-2002 Calendar. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria.

Wallace, W. S. (1930). A history of the Canadian people. Toronto, ON: Copp Clark.

Wilson, J. D., & Stortz, P. J. (1995). 'May the Lord have mercy on you': The rural school problem in British Columbia in the 19205. In J. Barman, N. Sutherland, & J. D. Wilson (Eds.). Children, teachers and schools in the history of British Columbia (pp. 209-234). Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.

Alastair Glegg is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada with special interests in the history of education, educational foundations, and leadership.

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The Numeracy Issue: A Curriculum Initiative

Gordon Fulcher

The United Kingdom's school educational system bas been preoccupied withi definitions, prescriptions and assessment of the curriculum, and with the establish.ment of the Office for Standards of Education (OFSTED) it has attempted to evaluate the worth of the system.

Aspects of the core curriculum in terms ofEngJish, maths, science, and infermation technology have been constructed as four key stages from the age of five to sixteen, with Government targets of achievement being 80% in 2002 at the top primary age range.

International comparisons of educational achievement have been commissioned by the Government and a major study entitled 'Worlds Apart' (Reynolds & Farrell 1996) reviewed various studies. The First International Mathematics Study (1966) stated 'an additional concern is the fact that the tests had more items from certain Mathematics topics for example arithmetic, which may have disadvantaged certain countries like England. In this early study England is ranked 7 out of 10 (Reynolds & Farrell 1996, p. 17). In the second SIMS study (83) England was marked 11 out of 20 for the achievement of results, and an analysis of the tests showed that 29% of the questions were arithmetical. A major issue raised in 'Worlds Apart' considered the pattern of variation in terms of the intended cur .. riculum defined nationally, and the implemented curricula as presented by teachers with its variations on the 'opportunity to learn' the mathematics curriculum. Intentions of the planning were not reflected in the implementation. In summary, 13 year olds in England were nearly 2 years behind average 13 year olds in Japan, and a year behind those in the Netherlands, France and Belgium, with English students' retention rates amongst the lowest. Here family background continued to be an influential determination with little influence on other countries.

In the smaller scale studies Burghes (1995) shows other countries performing bet .. ter than England. The samples of 14 year olds scored (max SO) Germany 27.2, Hungary 28.6, Norway 20.9, England 20.2 on arithmetic. A study by Prais (1994)1 suggests it is the organisational aspects of schooling that disadvantages English children. It states 'the use of calculators at too early an age, the new mathematics. movement, and discovery and investigative methods oflearning have contributed to a concentration on abstract exercises at the expense of the everyday methodical needs of pupils'. Again the studies ofPrais and Wagner (1985) confirmed marked differences in arithmetic scores by students of 15 years n the lower half of the ability range. Sixty-nine percent of German students but only 13% of English students answered some simple division sums correctly.

These studies reflect major deficits in arithmetic and number operations, England now has a high proportion of low achieving pupils and therefore a periless foundation for later mathematics.

The current Secretary of State for education, in response to these research findings, has imposed a numeracy hour each day in all schools. 'Numeracy is a key life skill' (Bhmkett 1999). He has set a target of75% of 11 year olds reaching a national standard of mathematics expected for their age by 2002. This strategy was launched in September 1999, together with a 'Framework for teaching mathematics' defining objectives for all the key stages, a yearly teaching programs, supplemented by examples of effective classroom practice. It is in many ways a prescription for the arithmetical deficit, but withdraws the teachers' professional initiatives. The Final Report of the Numeracy Task force (1998, p. 11) defines numeracy. 'Numeracy at Key Stage 1 or 2 is a proficiency that involves a confidence and competence with numbers and measures. It requires an understanding of the number system, a repertoire of computational skills and an indication of ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts. Numeracy also demands practical skills, an understanding of the way in which information is gathered by counting and measuring and is presented in graphs, diagrams, charts and tables. This proficiency is promoted through giving a sharper focus to the relevant aspects of the National Curriculum programs of study for Mathematics'. The Framework also provides planning grids with copious examples and states that 'their purpose is to illustrate for each objective, a selection of what pupils should know, understand, and be able to do by the end of each school year' (1996, p. 3). With even more specificity there is a focus on direct teaching and the typical lesson is defined as 'oral work and mental calculation 5-10 minutes, the main teaching activity 30-40 minutes, and a plenary of 10-15 minutes' work with the whole class to sort out misconceptions and identify progress' (1999, p. 13).

The Government initiative has attempted to remedy the defect reported by Ofsted and smaller studies. However what it fails to address is the nature of mathematical thinking allied to the acquisition of know ledge. Of similar concern is the evidence of the teaching styles of teachers being compatible with the variety of learning styles found in the classroom. In simple terms how does the extroverted teacher generate confidence and competence in the introverted pupil? Is the pupil finding security in the numeracy base? In the mid 70s Bennett (1976) addressed this issue in a seminal text entitled 'Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress' exploring the range and variety of styles and pupil responses.

The nature of mathematical knowledge suggests it is both a collection of facts but also critically a way of thinking and so mathematical learning is generative (new facts) and not only reproductive. Pupils need to know how the system was created. Therefore in order to understand how children learn mathematics

23

one has to analyse their productions in terms of counting and solving. In simple terms how they think. All these apply to the foundation of numeracy as a gateway to maths. Historically the psychological analysis of the relationship between intelligence and mathematical knowledge was explored by Thorndike (1922). His view was that mathematical knowledge was reproductive but influenced by the 'gestalts' formed by pupils. What whole is greater than the sum of the separate parts? Again numbers have both cardinal and ordinal properties. Wertheimer (1945) in his classic parallelogram problems found that students . established that the solutions were not reproductive but a matter of insight. To teach the procedure without understanding is simply no good.

Piaget (1971) goes beyond these early thinkers in his constructivist theory.

Here the child is the active agent in its own learning. Hence the structure of knowledge was in the internalisation of actions. Addition and subtraction are actions that modify quantities, not simply reproductive operations. The philosophy of mixed ability, drawn largely from social engineering, means wider ability ranges and a wider range of internalisations within the classroom. The language 'it doesn't make sense to me' is very real. Piaget's invariant and sequential four stages of cognitive development suggest that at concrete operations children are not systematic until 11 years. Thus proportional reasoning as evidenced by 3/5 is 6/10 demanding the relationship of2 variables is not achieved at this age.

Thus with recent developments pupils may demonstrate the same intellectual structure but conceptualise differently the content of the problem, different mathematical representations: and the experience of different social situations. They understand 'sweets and money' but struggle with the length and width of a rectangle. Nunes (1993) found that 12-13 year olds solve problems with negative numbers with fewer oral errors than written errors. They were embedded within the situation and again Lave (1988) demonstrated that learning arithmetic in the supermarket was superior to the written text. Vygotsky (1978), the social constructivist, emphasised the social cultural climate in which the learning took place. In essence he stressed the context of a learning situation. His emphasis on the Zone of Proximal Development and the necessity of a trained instructor were necessary ingredients in making use of the context.

The deficit of psychological awareness in numeracy learning is demonstrated in the numerous low level scores of English children in arithmetic. Different arithmetic practices may offload the symbolic systems on to manipulatives as for example in the abacus, or counting with money rather than substitutes. Work by Nunes, Schliemann and Carraher (1993) demonstrated the advance of arithmetic skills in Brazilian markets in comparison with counting in schools. There is then a distinction between the arithmetic of the streets and that of the schools. In the streets symbolic systems are not accessories, but the meanings are kept in the mind. In school all too often there is a loss of meaning lend-

24

ing to higher errors in which children passively accept responses.

To develop mathematical knowledge and numerical skills it seems 3 major considerations are needed. First the mathematical knowledge has to be organised and generative. Pupils have to make their own models and organisation is not enough. There has to be a psychological understanding to grasp it fully. Second the teacher and learner have to consider situations which define boundaries of the concept under exploration. The response made by a 7 year old to the question 'the answer's 7 what the question was a million take away 999,993'. When asked why, he said 'I like big numbers'. The third issue is that symbolic systems need to mediate the reasoning process, that is they need to be in contact with the definition of the situation.

Therefore in learning to think the N.F.E.R. has produced the 'Let's think' pack and Michael Shayer at King College London's Centre for the Assessment of Thinking Skills notes for cognitive growth to take place there must be 'cognitive conflict' in which they struggle to make connections. The judgement as to the challenge is the generative application in their minds between different pieces of information. When they make those connections their ability to think improves (Times, January 13 2002), and so discussion in the class is crucial.

The National Numeracy Strategy lays down the details of the curricular content, objectives, a teaching grid, and supplemental work, but what is the classroom reality? What are the generative aspects of teaching compared with the simple reproductive processes? It is a question of chanting tables as against '301 on the dartboard'. In the Framework there is a list of related publications. In conclusion I suggest further references namely Margaret Donaldson's Childrens Minds (1978), Bruner's Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (1986), and not least Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (1993). Gardner describes a logical mathematical Intelligence among his range of intelligences. These three texts address the individuality of children, the adventures of learning, and the emphasis of context leading to disembedded thought

The Reality of Classroom Action

The Framework of teaching mathematics in exploring numeracy suggests what pupils should be able to do and it identifies 10 key points. They are:

• Sense of size: where a number fits into the number system.

• Arithmetical facts: number bonds, tables, doubles and halves.

• Answer mentally: by using facts known by heart.

• Calculate accurately: using pencil and paper and devising mental strategies.

25

• The use of a calculator: decisions as to appropriateness.

• Confronting number problems: recognising operations needed for solution.

• Methods of reasoning: using an appropriate vocabulary for sharing decisions.

• Judgement: whether answers are reasonable.

• Selection of units for estimates: their uses in approximation.

• Predictions from data: interpolation and extrapolation of graph charts.

These reproductive and generative labels were applied to a small sample of primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary school staffwho were interviewed and the following results were generated. In addition to the 10 dimensions of numeracy there was a determination of the extent to which generative and reproductive applications were employed by teachers.

A summary of the issues extracted from the responses made by teachers suggest the following points.

• Sense of number: most teachers thought that this was treated fully but there was a relative absence of generative work.

• Know by heart number facts: this was fully treated and with an adequate balance of both generative and reproductive work.

• Using factualleaming: the identified issue here was the balance of rehearsal and retention using the generative mode. As one teacher put it in an analogy, there is a numerical 'barking at print!'

• Calculate accurately: teachers are very aware of the challenge ofa wide ability range and the level of work with low ability pupils. The present response is too much reproductive work, but the challenge remains of how to develop innovative mental problems.

• Confidence in facing a problem: the responses of many teachers saw competence emerging from being confident. The language of numeracy was itself am issue. There was the evidence of both generative and reproductive applications.

• Using a range ofreasooing: a majority of teachers said that they were working on this area of the numeracy project. Some teachers suggested that there were differing approaches used by boys and girls. One teacher discussed the Gardner work on multiple intelligences and th~ aspect of a mathematical intelligence. There was only limited application of generative mental work.

26

• Judgement on a accuracy: this was judged to be effective with many teachers using methods of cross checking such as calculators with mechanical calculation and mental calculation.

• Doing estimates: there was only a limited approach to this, and the main route was by using the reproductive mode. Teachers accepted that there needed to be a search for more context driven generative work. Teachers identified that there was a need to make more use of the school environ,menl

• Predictions from data: in three schools there was a level of integration with the science curriculum. There was an emphasis on the visual estimation rather than the processing of numerals yet the wide ability range was a continuing challenge with the top end oflbe range also being able to interpret predictions, One teacher. in terms of simple graphical work. struggled \\ ith extrapolation.

General Findings

• Most heads and numeracy coordinators gave a positive evaluation to the numeracy hour. Competent teachers were already on track, but teachers insecure as mathematical educators found the printed materials.offering clear structure.

• Some responses indicated that the material provided was seen initially as a strait jacket that then became a user's guide.

• Two teachers said that the current implementation was reducing their flexibility concerning professional practice.

• It was seen by teachers as numeracy and not mathematics, and they felt that more explicit links had to be made.

• The teachers noted that the project and strategy techniques were driven by the pursuit of standards yet the introduction of the numeracy hour was impinging on other aspects of the curriculum. Again the reality for school staff is that there was now testing of pupils at 7 years, 11 years 14 years and at the general certificate level. This resulted in the pressure to deliver re- . suIts and hence 'corrupt' teaching styles.

• There was a general agreement that pupils should be encouraged to generate their own mathematics.

• All teachers expressed interest in the psychology of child development and specifically cognitive and emotional aspects. Gardner (1993) identified five aspects of a logical/mathematical intelligence. They are:

27

• learn by forming concepts and looking for patterns, relationships, and categories.

• need to actively manipulate objects and experiment with things in an orderly way.

• constantly question and wonder about natural events

• need lots of time to explore new ideas.

• follow the scientific process naturally.

Conclusion

Teachers have given a general positive response to the Government strategy. The deprofessionalisation of some competent teachers is seen as an issue in terms of the pressure of the material. There is seen to be a need for the consideration of bow to make the numeracy material more generative and to design materials located in the social context. Numeracy exposure for pupils is seen as both cognitive and emotional. Like most effective learning, teachers need to be aware of children's cognitive and emotional domain.

References

Bennett, N. (1976). Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress. London: Fontana Press.

Blunkett, L. (1999). Forward, The National Numeracy Strategy, DFEE. Bruner, J. (1986). Actual Minds, Possible Words. London: Harvard University Press.

Burghes, D. (1995). Britain gets a minus in Maths. Sunday Times 14'h May p.

Jl.

Department of Education and Employment. Numeracy Matters. The Preliminary Report a/the Numeracy Task Force: London, U.K.

Donaldson, M. (1978). Children's Minds. London: Fontana Press.

First International Mathematical Study as reported in Reynolds. D., & Farrell S. (1996). Worlds Apart. A review of International Educational Achievement involving England. London: H.M.S.O

Gardner, H. (1993). The Unschooled Mind. London: Fontana Press.

Gardner, H. (1993) Frames a/Mind' the Theory a/Multiple Intelligences. London: Fontana Press.

28

Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nunes, T. (1993). Learning Mathematics: Perspectives from Everyday Life in Davis R., B & Maher C., A. (Eds.). School Mathematics and the World of Reality. Needham Heights (Mass): Allyn and Bacon pp. 61-78 .

.

Nunes. T., Schliemann, A. 0,. & Carraher, D. W. (1993). Street Mathematics • and School Mathematics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Piaget, J. (1971). Biology and Knowledge. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Piaget, J., & Garcia, R. (1971). Les Explications Causales. Paris Presses: Universitaires de France.

Prais, S. J.(1994) Economic Performance and Training: An International Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.

Prais, S. J., & Wagner, K. (1995). Schooling standards in England and Germany:some summary comparisons based on economic performance. Compare Vol J6pp. 5-36.

Reynolds, D., & Farrell, S. (1996). Worlds Apart, London: HMSO.

The National Numeracy Strategy; Framework for teaching Mathematics: from Reception to Year 6, March 1999: DFEE Publications.

The National Strategy Framework for teaching Mathematics: Years 7, 8, and 9:

DFEE Publications.

The Sunday Times. 13th January 2002.London

Thorndike, E. L. (1992). Psychology of Arithmetic. New York: Macmillan. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psycho-

logical Processes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive Thinking. London: Associated Book Publishers

Gordon Fulcher currently teaches for Open University after a fifty year teaching career as a secondary school teacher and/or a teacher trainer. He has taught in Britain, Northern Rhodesia (present day Zimbabwe), Swaziland, Zambia, Botswana, and Canada. He has a strong background in psychology, with current interests in mentorship, cognition and personality.

29

Efficiency and Effectiveness in Science Education Reform:

The case of the Newark Public Schools, New Jersey, USA

Beth Anne Ebler

Jacalyn Giacalone Willis

The Newark Public Schools (NPS) Office of Science Education has. implemented a system-wide reform project that is now in its fifih year. The NPS science reform was designed by strategic planning processes grounded in methods and research models that sustain systemic reform. The NPS project called 'Learn Through the Lens of Science ' has several components that build and sustain the district's capacity for science education. These components include establishing long-range planning processes,' developing collaborative partnerships with universities; designing a science curriculum aligned with national standards,' retooling the elementary and middle grades teacher workforce; providing professional developmentfor administrators; creating a science materials distribution centre; and training Lead Science Teachers within each school.

Background

The Newark Public Schools (NPS) district in the State of New Jersey, USA, is a 'special needs' district, having large concentrations of students living in poverty. Despite a wealth oflocal resources, the Newark Public Schools exemplify the poverty and political isolation that often characterise America's great cities. Ninety-two per cent of the district's schoolchildren are members of minority groups, largely African-American or Hispanic. With 33000 children and an elementary and middle-grades workforce of 4000 teachers in 68 schools, the Newark system is large enough to be unwieldy and difficult to change. NPS's educational failures are well documented by statewide assessments in grade 4 (age 9); grade 8 (age 13); and grade 11 (age 17). These test results, reported by website im Education Information Resources (2002), are driving science education reform in Newark.

Needs

A 1998 needs assessment conducted in NPS by district administrators (including author B. A. Ebler) showed serious weaknesses in the teaching of science. Until 1998 the science curriculum was textbook driven, didactic in approach, and in competition with other subjects for instructional time. Mathematics and Language Arts Literacy consumed most instructional time. Science was taught only if time was available and the teacher had interest in the subject. NPS teachers, like teachers across the nation, were inadequately prepared for teaching science (Glenn Commission Report, US Department of Education. 2000). Teachers in the state of New Jersey with certification for elementary and middle grades are required to

30

take only one course in science during their teacher preparation, and it is usually a methods course, not a subject matter course.

A meaningful and cohesive plan for professional development was non-existent.

Long-term planning to address teacher attrition and classroom support was neglected. Student assessment methods did not address the kind of inquiry approaches mandated by ~ew national curriculum standards (National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment, 1996).

Before 1998, science materials had not been accessible to most NPS classroom teachers. Many teachers purchased materials out of their personal funds, while others relied on the use of the textbook alone. This approach worked for very few students and failed to address the national goal of science literacy for all. Students with special needs, bilingual students, and gifted and talented students all received a 'one-size-fitsall' approach.

New goals, objectives, and plans

The goal of the NPS science reform project 'Learn Through the Lens of Science' was to develop a professional educational workforce that would result in scienceliteracy throughout the district. Such a workforce would be self-reforming, have the capacity for developing local leadership, and evolve by reflection on classroom practice. The project adopted planning strategies used in business and educational systems. Essential to the reform were long-term planning, community and internal ownership, careful follow-through on implementation, regular review and analysis of results, and on-going improvements due to responsive leadership. The planning process focused on the needs of the teachers and students identified through collected data and the experience of individuals in the system administration. The project was given focus and direction by creating a five-year plan guided by a vision statement with measurable outcomes. The reform planners utilised existing research to shape the design of the project. Important resources were: The National Committee on Science Education Standards and Asessment (1996), The Glenn Commission Report (2000), and studies CODducted by leading cognitive researchers, including Lawrence Lowery (1998).

A system-wide refonn plan was developed around several components. Curricu-lum materials were chosen that embrace classroom inquiry and the constructivist paradigm. The materials are scientifically sound, pedagogically effective, and developmentally appropriate for all students (Lowery, 1998). A high-quality professional de-

, velopment program aligned with national standards (National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment, 1996) was established. The program includes the development of Lead Science Teachers, thereby building system-wide capacity for providing classroom assistance. A materials refurbishment centre was created to provide teachers with science materials. The centre also provides class visits, workshops, and teacher support (Newark Public Schools, 2001).

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The reform design was to be guided by fonnative and summative pro~ evaluation strategies. District-wide assessments yielded research data to provide ongoing analysis of project effectiveness in improving student learning (Newark Public Schools, 200 I).

Three k~y elements

This paper win focus on three key elements for efficiency and effectiveness of educational reform: planning, professional development, and university partnerships.

Planning

The need for sound planning may seem obvious, but thorough processes are rarely implemented in school districts. Administrators have little training in the kind of planning relied on by successful corporations and educational institutions (Holzman, 1993). A comprehensive blueprint is critical to meet the targeted needs ofany system. Very often, school administrators miss this point and reforms fail early. This leads to reform following reform in quick succession, with little progress (Isaacson & Bamburg, 1992). Recognising this problem, the national government's leading science institutions have sponsored planning programs for educators. A team ofNPS staff who participated in a national Strategic Planning Conference developed a 5-year plan for systemic science reform (Newark Public Schools, 2001). The team ofteachers, principals, assistant superintendents, and superintendent participated in creating the science reform plan. A critical feature of this process is that they utilised lessons learned from other systemic reform models.

The NPS implementation design provides a framework of curriculum mapping addressing three strands of science (Life, EarthlSpace, Physical) and Technology. Goals and student outcomes are defined in the curriculum guides. Curriculum implementation involves using teacher's guide books with both subject matter and instructional guidelines. The curriculum programs use constructivist approaches that support inquiry-based lessons and reflect current understandings of brain research ('Full Option Science System' from the Lawrence Hall of Science, University ofCaIifomia at Berkeley; and 'Science and Technology for Children' from Carolina Biological).

Effective teacher development

The plan focuses on teacher development to foster the 'constructivist teacher' and classroom. Professional development became the key to building lifelong learning among both teachers and students. NPS teachers moved along a continuum from the mechanical or novice level of use of science materials to. the expert level of understanding of content, skills, and pedagogy. Tailored programs were devel-

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oped to meet the changing needs of teachers as the program progressed. Teachers met r~gularly to provide insights into their progress and to share ways to improve teaching. Program feedback processes were designed to guide the fine-tuning of the program. Questionnaires were administered regularly to monitor subject matter understanding and the usefulness of support services, and to identity obstacles to success.

The program was designed to foster an awareness of effective instructional practices centred on constructivism, to increase subject matter understanding, and to develop assessment expertise (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Each teacher worked with peers on one content unit at a time, and new units were introduced over a period of years to prevent teacher overload while learning new strategies, curriculum, and pedagogical knowledge. Before receiving the units each teacher experienced a full day of training per content strand. Time was provided to reflect and learn from experience and to assess student learning from the new approaches. The changes involved moving teachers away from a scripted curriculum and placing greater emphasis on individualised student learning. As the teachers started teaching the units, the Lead Teachers provided assistance. Each school housed a Lead Science Teacher who modelled science lessons.

University partnersbips

Collaboration between the NPS and universities, especially university scientists, is essential to the sustainability of the reform. Often it takes an outsider to validate a noteworthy program in the eyes of a district administrator. How often do educational leaders fixate on the negatives and emphasise test scores that do not show immediate student achievement, and then throw out the reform plan? This is a common phenomenon, according to DuFour and Eaker (1998). Because of the inertia of systems and the complexity of reform, most reform models and new initiatives need at least five to ten years to become fully implemented. Consequently, reforms are seldom provided sufficient time and resources to succeed (Dufour & Eaker, 1998).

The identification of appropriate partners was central to the success of the reform. Partners were sought who had a track-record of successful reform initiatives in other communities, an on-going relationship with the National Science Foundation, an understanding of the needs of adult learners, and shared philosophies. Partners were identified and aligned to meet the specific needs of each component of the reform.

As a result, the NPS derived many benefits from partners who helped build capacity for reform within the district. They provided subject matter and pedagogy expertise, financial and human resources, visiting scientists for on-site support, and science teaching institutes and workshops. In particular, co-author Dr Jacalyn Willis, a biologist from Montclair State University (PRISM, College of Science and Mathematics), directed a university centre that provided valuable assistance, applying lessons learned in neighbouring urban community reforms.

34

Obstacles to successful reform

A reform program can be derailed by several obstacles. High teacher attrition in 2001 alone meant that 350 new teachers had to be recruited. A support system provides in-service programs that inform new teachers of the materials, approaches, and content they are expected to implement. However, new teachers need even more assistance than is provided, as evident from the loss of65% of first-year teachers who participated in the year 2000 NPS new teacher assistance program (B. A. Ebler, unpublished data). A study by Ingersoll (2003) reported even higher (75%) attrition levels nationwide.

The constructivist approach is not easily embraced. Although the term is used widely, the approach meets much resistance and teachers may let go of a didactic approach with great difficulty (Horsley-Loucks, et al., 1998). Just as students do not easily let go of their ideas, neither do teachers, administrators, and parents. To learn the new methodology, NPS teachers needed time to be eased away from reliance on a single textbook. Teachers lacked confidence and subject knowledge, and feared that students might ask questions that they could not answer. The extended professional development offered at Montclair State University was designed to increase confidence by teaching teachers using the same model they were expected to use in their classrooms. As teachers progressed in content understanding, developing the big ideas or conceptual themes, evidence of constructivist approaches emerged in their classrooms. Many teachers realised the importance of shifting from teacher-directed to student-oriented approache. But many have not (Ebler, unpublished data).

Administrative support and understanding of inquiry-based, student-oriented learning is essential to the success of the reform. Administrative personnel changes occurred frequently and re-educating the newcomers has not been an easy task. Many have limited understanding of cognitive development and constructivist classrooms. Some prefer to adopt new programs rather than build upon successful existing practice (Isaacson & Bamburg, 1992).

Major new reforms mandated by the State of New Jersey have required changes in school structure and curriculum that have taken resources and energy away from the science reform. A court mandate required the adoption of a state-approved model in every school by the 2000-200 I school years. The science reform model in NPS was not among those offered for selection. Even though the NPS science model is consistent with the most effective school reform models, no attempt was made to reconcile the newly mandated models with the one in place, so that they reinforce each other.

In March 2002, the New Jersey State Department of Education cancelled the state-mandated Elementary Proficiency Assessment in Science. This decision reinforced beliefs that science literacy is unimportant. All too often, if students are not tested, then the subject matter is not taught.

3S

Allowing adequate time for change in teacher attitude and knowledge base may be the most important constraint on the NPS project. As teachers progress through their professional growth, their needs become defmed and they learn how to guide the development of students' thinking. It takes several years before teachers move beyond the 'what is?' or 'how to?' of constructivist approaches and implement them effectively (Horsley-Loucks, et al., 1998). On-going, frequent, and tiered levels of professional development should be sustained beyond the time when all new curriculum units are introduced (National Research Council, 1996). Regardless of the conclusions cited in professional development literature, NPS science in-service programs have been reduced (Newark Public Schools, September 2001).

Conclusions

The need to continue the support of professional development in science is suggested by the fourth and eighth-grade results. The state passing-rate of75% has not been met in the NPS, although the fourth-grade results show an increase in the percentage of passing students in 2000, from 53.8% to 56.7% (Table 1). This apparent increase, as well as the slight decrease in the 2001 mean score, is not statistically significant. The eighth-grade mean scores were 28.8% in 2000, and 31.2% in 2001. Statistical analysis by r-test showed no significant difference (99% confidence level) among the mean scores from 1999--2001. The bottom line is that the standardised test results still show a school population that scores well below the state passing rate of75%. (These and other data are available from the New Jersey State Department of Education website: Education Information Resources, 2002. Data analysis was prepared by Kevin Killian.)

Table 1: Percentages of Students with Passing Science Test Scores, 1998--2001. A comparison across three school years ofNPS students passing the standardised test in science process skills and subject matter knowledge, expressed in percentages of students passing. Data are part of the public record available from Education Information Resources (2002).

Student age

1998--1999

1999--2000

2000-2001

Grade 4 Age 9

53.8

56.7

55.1

Grade 8 Age 13

Not tested

28.8

31.2

Analysis of the NPS data revealed specific weaknesses similar to the findings in the TIMSS reports (200 I). For example, the TIMSS report authors found that primary school teachers in most countries are inadequately prepared to teach Earth

36

Science. This is also apparent in our findings with regard to NPS teacher knowledge, and appears related to NPS student test results that show signi~cant weaknesses in Earth Science. The TIMSS results also resemble the NPS eighth-grade findings that show low student achievement in Physical Science. We conclude that this is at least partly attributable to inadequate teacher preparation (TlMSS, 2001).

We also conclude that the NPS district fell short of the goal to help all teachers become better equipped in seeing 'the big ideas' and developing integrated understandings of concepts (pre- and post-workshop assessment results, Ebler, unpublished data). However, the broad impact of the project has been positive, with more teachers teaching science regularly and more students achieving at the highest proficiency levels than before the reform. Now it is critical to spread the impact across all schools and classrooms. While the district is still in the process of reform. the value of this reform must be constantly explained and supported with evidence. Unlike five years ago, we can say that most NPS educators and administrators now recognise the value of teaching science. Furthermore, if the NPS can succeed in establishing constructivist approaches in all classrooms, this will benefit all children, not just those who do not succeed in traditional didactic classrooms. Now it remains to be seen how budgetary constraints and turnover of administrative staff will erode the priority of the science reform.

Acknowledgements: We are thankful for the loving support and encouragement of our husbands, Greg Willis and Kurt Ebler. Kevin Killian generously gave his time and expertise in the analysis and interpretation of data. Montclair State University provided support for both authors to attend the 2002 ISTE conference.

References

Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In Search Of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (Original work published 1993)

DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work:

Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement. Bloomington, Indiana:

National Education Service.

Education Information Resources (2002). (http.llnj.evalsoft.com/). Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Department of Education.

Glenn Commission and Department of Education (2000). Before it's too late. In a report from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21 st Century (Report No. EDDOOOO I). Retrieved May 2001

37

from http://www.ed.gov/americacounts/glenn.

Holzman, M. (1993). What Is Systemic Change? Educational Leadership, 51(1)

23-46. '

Horsley-Loucks, S., Hewson, P., Love, N., & Stiles, K. (1998). Designing Professional Developmem for Teachers of Science and Mathematics. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2003). Turnover and Shortages among Science and Mathematics Teachers in the United States. In Jack Rhoton and Patricia Bowers (Eds.). Science Teacher Retention: Mentoring and Renewal. Arlington, Virginia:

NSTA.

Isaacson, N., & Bamburg, J. (June 1992). Can Schools Become Learning Organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3).

Lowery, L. (November 1998). How New Science Curriculums Reflect Brain Research. Educational Research, 56(3), 26-30.

National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment (1996). In Coordinating Council for Education (Ed.), National Science Education Standards: Washington, DC. National Academy Press.

Newark Public Schools (September 2001). Annual Report of the Strategic Plan.

Paper presented at Newark Public Schools Strategic Planning Seminar, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

TIMSS State and National Publications (2001). U.S. Performance and Standards on a Global Level. Retrieved from http://www.rbs.org/nsf/pages/MNTIMSS

Betb Anne Ebler is a Science Supervisor for Newark Public Schools in the state of New Jersey, USA.

Jacalyo Giacalone Willis is a biologist from Montclair State University (PRISM:

Professional Resources In Science & Mathematics).

38

The Role of the Colleges of Education in Developing Human Values Among University Students in Bahrain and Kuwait

Nu'man AI-Musawi Abdulla AI-Hashem Ebraheem Karam

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the Colleges of Education in developing and enhancing the humanistic values among University students in Bahrain and Kuwait.

Based on Schwartz's (1992) instrument measuring the structure and content of Human values, a 36-ilem questionnaire to examine the belieft· of J 76 students enrolled in educational courses at the Colleges of Education in Bahrain and Kuwait was constructed by the authors.

Results indicate that Colleges of Education in the Arab Gulf Slates need to make the effort to develop important human values, such as Responsibility, Ambition, Honesty, Truthfulness, Democracy, Citizenship, Equality and Loyalty among University students.

Background'

During. the last two decades the Arab Gulf States have undergone radical economic changes that obviously reshaped the social structure of their societies, and greatly influenced the whole system of deeply rooted beliefs and values in th e traditional Arab culture. For example, the tendency to make money by any means has contributed to the dominance of negative values among young people such as deception. breach of trust, and egoism. These changes in values have imposed new challenges on the institutes of higher education. who were required to emphasise citizenship education as an integral part of the teacher education programs adopted in the Gulf States.

Based on this understanding, this paper intends to investigate how university students perceive the role colleges of education at the universities in Bahrain and Kuwait play in developing human values .:

Conceptual Framework

In recent years, the psychological study of values has progressed considerably toward the theoretical coherence that is needed as a basis for developing cumulative knowledge. The early work of Rokeach (1973) identified dozens of terminal and instrumental values, and further research (e.g., Braithwaite & Law, 1985; Crosby,

39

Bitner, & Gill, 1990) has lengthened the Jist considerably and provided some useful measuring instrwnents (e.g., Nevill & Super, 1986) and empirical tests regarding the structure of values.

Schwartz and Bilsky (1990) posited and found .evidence supporting the proposition that values can be described by a structure involving 8 to 10 value types; subsequently, Schwartz (1992, 1994) empirically concluded that there are 10 value types that can be located in a single 2-dimensional value space whose structure is quite stable across samples. At the opposite ends of one axis of this space are the value clusters Schwartz labeUed conservation (its constituent value types are tradition, conformity, and security) and openness to change (selfdirection, stimulation, and hedonistic values in some cultures). At the opposite ends of the orthogonal axis are the clusters called Self- Transcendence (consisting of universalism and benevolence) and Self-Enhancement (power, and achievement).

The discovery of parsimonious, well-defmed, and cross-culturally stable structure of values facilitates theorising about the relationships among values; between values and other personality variables; and between values and social psychological variables such as attitudes, beliefs, and behavioural intentions.

Innovative approaches (Jennings, 1996) to values suggest two models of values: values across the curriculum, and civic education built on a conception of democratic citizenship. Civic education is intended to help the individuals to practically and effectively acquire principles and skills of the desired social behaviour at home, in SChool, street, and everywhere (AI-Mugiedl, 2001). The concept of citizenship, as a perceived product of civic education, is formulated and grounded on three major strands: social and moral responsibility, community involvement, and political literacy (Morris, 2001). In this context, we should be reminded of Dixon and Larken's (2000) observation that 'citizenship education is not about teaching the "right" values but about teaching the totality of democratic values and the conflicting and competing nature of these values along with the knowledge and attitudes citizenship participation entails' (p. 16).

The main function of the university as an important institution of social control is to build students' personality and thought, and to establish a profound base for developing human values among students. Colleges of education in the Arab Gulf States, however, are mainly concentrating their efforts on the cognitive aspect of education, yet not giving an adequate attention to the emotional and social aspects of the teaching-learning process.

This is evidenced by a number of studies that stressed the importance of building a civic culture aimed at consolidating the educational, religious, and citizenship values among university students, and helping them to avoid the negative consequences of globalisation in the modem Gulf societies (AI. Rasheed, 2000; Al-Sulaiman, 1998; Guloom, 2001). This fact motivated us to

40

investigate the extent to which colleges of education in the Arab Gulf countries enhance human values among their students.

Students were asked to rate the extent to which their teachers at the colleges of education in Bahrain and Kuwait help them to acquire each of those values. A 3-point scale was chosen to make respondents commit themselves to those categories that more accurately represent their opinion, and to cope with superficial responding and position response set (Aiken, 1996).

Method of the study

A questionnaire was constructed, based on Schwartz's (1992) 56-item, and AI-Rasheed's (2000) 36-item questionnaires.

We turned to Schwartz's work because the egoistic values we had in mind seemed very close to Schwartz's Self-Enhancement cluster and because the biospheric and altruistic values both seemed to be encompassed by Schwartz's Self-Transcendence cluster. Al-Rasheed's inventory was chosen because it included the main educational values that are central to the formation of the student personality, cognitive system, and behaviour.

The prepared questionnaire measured five value types:

• Self-Transcendence values: Preserving Peace, Democracy, Freedom, Loyalty, Protecting the Environment, and Social Justice.

• Educational values: Ambition, Curiosity, Cooperation, Independence, Developing Talents, Doing Duties, Obeying Rules, and Accepting Different Opinions.

• Traditional values: Honesty, Patience, Faithfulness, Truthfulness, Obedience, Self- Discipline, Honouring Parents, True Friendship, Appreciating Family Life, and Encouraging Good Actions.

• Modem values: Conformity, Enjoying Life, Taking Risk, Making a Fortune, Striving to Win, and Discovering the Unknown.

• Self-Enhancement values: Achievement, Courage, Creativity, Health, Responsibility, and Power.

Students were asked to rate the extent to which their teachers at the colleges of education in Bahrain and Kuwait help them to acquire each of those values. A 3-point scale was chosen to make respondents commit themselves to those categories that more accurately represent their opinion, and to cope with superficial responding and position response set (Aiken, 1996).

41

The questionnaire was administered to 176 individuals (77% female) randomly selected from undergraduate students enrolled in educational courses offered at the colleges of education of the universities of Bahrain (70 students) and Kuwait (106 students). One hundred and sixty-two students (66 and 96 from Bahrain and Kuwait, respectively) returned the questionnaire (94.3% and 90.6% response rate respectively). Participants were homogenous with respect to academic, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds.

The Human Values Questionnaire was validated using factor-analytic techniques. Factor-based scales made up of the items with structure coefficients of at least .40 on a single factor (Gorsuch, 1997) produced scores with strong reliability in this data set. The alpha of the scale as a whole was adequate (alpha = 0.92). Reliability coefficients measuring internal consistency for the scores on the scale dimensions ranged from.72 for scores on the Modem values sub-scale to .84 for the Traditional values sub-scale.

Findings

Responses to questionnaire items showed that more than 60% of participants believe that colleges of education in Bahrain and Kuwait are paying an adequate attention to some self-transcendence human values, such as protecting the environment (65.5%), maintaining international peace (63.2%), and freedom (62.1 %).

On the other hand, about half of the respondents to the instrument items suggest that teachers of Colleges of Education in the Arab Gulf States have to work more to develop values of democracy (47.1 % of teachers "'never" helped students acquire this value) and loyalty (46.1 % "never") among University students.

In respect of educational val ues, almost three quarters of the participants of the present study indicated that colleges of education in Bahrain and Kuwait have successfully promoted some important values among their students, such as curiosity (73.6%), developing talents (74.1 %), and independence (74.1 %). Faculty at these colleges, however, are not paying enough attention to some educational values, such as accepting different opinions (34.5% of teachers "'never" helped students acquire this value), ambition (33.9% "never"), and obeying rules and regulations (33.3%"never").

Prospective teachers perceive that academic staff at the colleges of education directed certain attention toward fostering some viable traditional values, such as patience (72.4%), self-discipline (71.3%), and obedience (70.1%). Nevertheless, human values, such as appreciation of family life, honouring parents, and encouraging good actions are still not receiving adequate attention from the teachers at these colleges (41.4%, 39.7%, and 37.3% ofteachers "'never" helped students acquire these values respectively).

42

Means, standard deviations and frequencies for each item of the human val-
ues questionnaire are presented in Table 1.
Table I : Means, Standard Deviations, Deviations (SO), and Frequencies for the
items of human values questionnaire
Frequency (%)
. Value Always Some- Never Mean SO
times
1. Be faithful 9.8 58.6 31.6 1.78 .61
2. Be truthful 10.9 56.9 32.2 1.79 .62
3. Encourage good actions 16.1 46.6 37.3 1.79 .70
4. Be creative 20.7 52.3 27.0 1.94 .69
5. Be courageous 19.5 52.3 28.2 1.91 .69
6. Strive to win 16.1 53.4 30.5 1.86 .67
7. Be patient and forgiving 20.1 52.3 27.6 1.92 .69
8. Be curious 23.6 50.0 26.4 1.97 .71
9. Discover the unknown 27.6 46.6 25.8 2.02 .73
10. Be cooperative and helpful 17.2 50.0 32.8 1.84 .69
11. Be honest 12.6 52.3 35.1 1.77 .65
12. Maintain democracy 17.8 35.1 47.1 1.71 .72
13. Be loyal 11.5 42.5 46.0 1.65 .68
14. Enjoy an exciting life 31.0 48.9 20.1 1.89 .71
IS. Do your duties 17.2 53.4 29.4 1.88 .67
16. Be sensible 20.7 50.6 28.7 1.92 .70
17. Be healthy and active 20.7 47.1 32.2 1.88 .72
18. Protect the environment 24.7 40.8 34.5 1.90 .76
19. Take risk 31.1 40.2 28.7 2.02 .77
20. Achieve personal goals 22.4 48.9 28.7 1.93 .71
21. Make true friendship 20.1 47.1 32.8 1.87 .71
22. Be obedient 19.0 51.1 29.9 1.89 .69
23. Honour your parents 21.8 38.5 39.7 1.82 .76
24. Accept different opinions 22.4 43.1 34.5 1.88 .75
25. Support social justice 19.1 .44.3 36.6 1.82 .73
26. Make a fortune 27.5 44.3 28.2 1.99 .75
27. Take responsibility 21.3 42.0 36.7 1.84 .75
28. Be ambitious 18.4 47.7 33.9 1.84 .71
29. Be independent 21.8 52.3 25.9 1.96 .69
30. Preserve world peace 19.5 43.7 36.8 1.83 .73
31. Appreciate family life 16.1 42.5 41.4 1.75 .72
32. Develop own talents 23.0 51.1 25.9 1.97 .70
33. Go along with others 18.4 50.0 31.6 1.88 .70
34. Enjoy freedom 23.0 39.1 37.9 1.85 .77
35. Maintain power 25.9 42.0 32.1 .1.94 .76
36. Obey rules and regulations 21.3 45.4 33.3 1.88 .73

43 As to the modem values, almost two thirds of participants think that colleges of education are showing an increasing interest to the development of human values, such as taking risk (71.3%) and discovering the unknown (74.2%). About one third offuture teachers, however, believe that professors at these colleges are not working towards enhancing human values, such as confonnity (31.6% of teachers "'never" helped students acquire this value), and striving to win (30.5% "never").

Most of the respondents to the questionnaire items mentioned that university professors play an active role in maintaining some significant self-enhancement values, such as creativity (73.0%), and achievement (71.3%). The contribution of teachers to developing the values of responsibility and authority, however, have been considered by students as being ineffective (36.7% and 32.1 % of teachers '''never'' helped students acquire these values respectively).

Discussion

The results of this study clearly indicate that colleges of education in the Arab word in general, and in the Gulf States in particular, really contribute to the formation of human values among university students. Most students who took part in this study recognise that their teachers seek to develop many significant human values, such as protecting the environment, freedom, curiosity, self-discipline, discovering the unknown, and power. This finding is consistent with the findings of Abdul-Tawab (1993) and Al-Sulaiman (1998), who concluded that faculty members in educational institutions strive to enhance students' intellectual commitment, encourage them to think about their own values and future plans, and thus help them to acquire meaningful human values.

The positive impact of the college experience on student values, thoughts and beliefs, however, is far beyond the expectations of educators. Schools of education are not devoting sufficient time and effort to reinforce values of democracy, loyalty, ambition, responsibility, honesty, and faithfulness at the university campus. Many researchers who demonstrated the decreasing influence of educational institutions on students' values and orientations (Al-Obaidi, 2001; AI-Sulaiman, 1998; AI- Tahtawi, 1995) confirm this conclusion.

We suggest that there are several factors that contributed to these findings.

Colleges of education in the Arab Gulf States were mainly occupied with building themselves as strong educational institutions whose first priority was to deliver knowledge and skills necessary for the students to perform specific professions and careers required by the society. College teachers do not usually devote enough efforts to reorient the content of the taught courses in a way that would enliven conversations and activities intended to reshape the students' thoughts and beliefs about volunteering, democracy, citizenship, loyalty and other values.

Accompanied by deep socio-economic changes in peoples' lives and ways of thinking, the technological advances in the Arab Gulf States inspired observable

44

changes in the system of values in the Gulf societies that led to the priority of modem values over traditional and self-transcendence values. Within this context, the main function of the educational institutions was to create new patterns of personality that are able to control the new circumstances originated from the dominance of the culture of globalisation at the outset of the twenty first century. This task, however, has not been successfully performed because of the lack of co-ordination and co-operation between the educational institutions on the one hand, and other influential social institutions, such as family, information mass media and religious associations, on the other hand. This situation might explain why enforcing good and significant values among university students were based on haphazard rather than well-planned and systematic actions.

This line of argument confirms the notion that prospective teachers' perceptions of and orientations to the values they are embracing might be shaped by belief systems beyond the immediate influence of teacher educators.

Conclusions and recommendations

Colleges of education as social and educational institutions can and should contribute to the development of significant human values among prospective teachers. This can be achieved through the effective implementation of curriculum, methods of teaching and various activities in a learning environment that encourages social interaction between the teacher and the student as a necessary requirement for building a climate of trust and mutual cooperation.

The detected gap between the expected and real roles of colleges of education. in the Arab Gulf States in enhancing a list of substantial human values among university students raises legitimate questions about the essence of the educational discourse prevailing inside these educational institutions and its effectiveness.

The real challenge confronting the educational institutions as establishments intended to build an integrated student personality is to abandon the culture of silence and dictation inside the university campus and to create a new culture that enforces values of openness, democracy, equality, citizenship and responsibility among students.

These objectives can be achieved through careful consideration of the philosophy of change, which entails reconsideration of the ultimate goals of education in the twenty first century. This requires reformulation ofuniversity programs towards the enforcement of spiritual values that reflect the national culture of the Arab Gulf society and consolidate its religious and ethical foundations.

45

References

Abdul- Tawab, A. A. (1993). The role of the colleges of education in consolidating national loyalty. Educational Studies (Egypt), 8(59), 103-]66.

Aiken, L. R (1996). Rating scales and checklists: Evaluating behaviour, personality, and attitudes. New York: John Wiley.

Al-Mugiedl, A. (200 I). Civic Education: An approach to develop and implement in family/scbool context The Educational Journal (University of Kuwait), 15(59),17-63.

Al-Obaidi, A. S. (200 I). Identity in Libya: A field study. The Arabic Future (Lebanon), 24(267), 141-154.

AI-Rasheed, H. F. (2000). Some factors related to the educational values of Education College students at Kuwait University: A field study. The Educational Journal (University of Kuwait), 14(56), 15-63.

AI-Sulaiman, S. (1998). The role of Teacher Colleges in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in promoting national loyalty among their students. The Educational Journal (University of Kuwait) , 15(47),185-233.

AI- Tahtawi, S. (1995). The school role in enforcing national affiliation among secondary school students. The Educational Journal (University of 'Asiot), 2(11), 1227-1252.

Braithwaite, V. A., & Law, H. G. (1985). Structure of human values: testing the adequacy of the Rokeach Value Survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49,250-263.

Crosby, L. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gill, J. D. (1990). Organizational structure of values. Journal of Business Research, 20, 123-134.

Dixon, D. A., & Larkins, A. G. (2000, April). Conceptions of democratic citizenship in Supreme Court cases. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the New York State Political Science Associations Queens, NY. ERIC Document No. ED 438219.

Gorsuch, R. L. (1997). Exploratory factor analysis: its role in item analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 532-560.

Guloom, E. A. (2001, September). Building citizenship, building civic culture.

Paper presented at the International Seminar of the College of Education at the University of Bahrain on "Citizenship Education", Bahrain.

46

Jennings, B .. (1996). Values on campus. Liberal Education, 82(1),26-31.

Morris, G. (2001). Citizenship education in the United Kingdom. Paper presented at the International Seminar of the College of Education at the University of Bahrain on 'Citizenship Education' (Bahrain, September 20-30,2001).

Nevill, D. D., & Super, D. E. (1986). The Values Scale: Theory, applications, and research. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature 0/ human values. New York: Free Press.

Schwartz. S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1-65.

Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal cf Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45.

Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: Extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 878-891.

Abdulla AI-Hashem is Associate Professor of Education at the University of Kuwait. His specialty areas include curriculum, methods of instruction in science, and teacher education.

Ebraheem Karam is Associate Professor of Education at the University of Kuwait. His specialty areas include curriculum, methods of instruction in social studies, and teacher education.

Nu'man AI-Musawi is Associate Professor of Education and Director of Continuing Education Program at the University of Bahrain. His specialty areas include educational evaluation and teacher education.

47

ReOection on Teaching Oral English Skills in India:

A Research Report

Hema Ramanathan Merribeth D. Bruning

Eleven teachers of English in a large private English-medium school in India reflected on their beliefs, practices and activities related to teaching English in India. In the survey, respondents freely acknowledged the premier position of English in academies and the world at large and unequivocally stated that their students should learn to communicate orally both among themselves and with other native speakers. Yet oral and listening skills were not given much importance in the classroom. Barriers to implement them include: large class sizes inhibiting small group activities, impacting noise level, discipline and classroom management; test-driven curriculum; the low level of education of parents and their lack of mastery of English; predominance cf'the first language; and assessment and patterns of reporting student achievement.

Introduction

Excellent teachers are reflective teachers who seek to find why and how students are learning or not learning. They are responsible for creating positive learning environments and attempt to assess which elements are working, lacking or interfering with learning. The challenge to provide individuals with appropriate instruction expands with an increase in diversity. While there are significant individual differences in classrooms that appear homogeneous, these are magnified when students are linguistically diverse.

This article describes how a survey was designed and administered with a focus on aiding teachers reflect on their beliefs, practices and activities related to teaching English in India. The analysis provides suggestions for topics for workshops and professional development opportunities for teachers.

Methodology

Description of school

The setting is a K-12 private English-medium school in a metropolitan city in India with student strength of over 3000. With the diversity of about five languages among students, teachers work to ensure English proficiency for success

48

However, a clear philosophy about bilingual or multilingual instruction such as a Transmission Model or Social Construction Model (Cox & Boyd-Batstone, 1997) is not readily apparent.

All the teachers plan the curriculum together, follow a similar schedule, and use the same textbooks. At the end of every testing period, students in all sections of a grade level take common examinations set by the teachers in consultation with each other. However, since teacher schedules are not structured for weekly meetings or team planning sessions, there is little or no opportunity for teachers to reflect on how the English curriculum is presented. Nor have the elementary grade English teachers had any professional development for over ten years.

In the summer of 1999, the entire faculty of 11 teachers who taught all the English classes in grades 1-5, and impacted about 800 students, assembled to engage in reflection and assessment activities to increase their effectiveness in the teaching of English. To objectively determine these elements, they were willing to collaborate with the principal researcher, a native of India and a former teacher in the school. Her familiarity with the school and community culture secured her positive regard and enabled her to provide insights from the dual perspective of practitioner and consultant/researcher.

The Survey Instrument

As noted in Martella, Nelson and Marchand-Martella (1999, p. 472), 'the goal of needs assessments is to identify the level of existing needs within an organization or program'. The assessment then allows program evaluators to 'identify what resources are currently available to these individuals as part of their efforts to assess existing needs' (Martella, Nelson & Marchand-Martella, 1999, p. 472). Decisions can then be made based on the responses from the needs assessment. From this premise, the researcher prepared a survey to assess practices and needs of the teachers.

To provide base-line data from which to evaluate current faculty practices, it was necessary that teachers provide thoughtful responses in the survey, rather than 'find fault' with current structures and practices. Viewing the survey as an invitation, rather than a demand, to change, they should feel empowered by their willingness to engage in the staff development aimed at increased student learning. The survey should record their success, determine the portion of teaching over which they had control, and provide a basis for curriculum renewal. This was significant since in schools in India culturally teachers are not part of the larger decision-making process (World Bank, 1997). Towards this end, teachers were assured that their responses were confidential, would be reported anony-

49

mously, and would be used to fashion workshops with a positive approach.

The survey had 32 items with a mixture of open-ended and closed questions including prompts, providing for individual responses. It consisted of the following six sections: beliefs about teaching English; speaking and listening skills; reading and writing skills; assignments and testing of students; classroom focus - strategies used and limitations imposed on instruction; and a personal, professional profile of teacher behaviour.

In assessing the need for teacher involvement and empowerment only two of the 32 questions dealt with outside locus of control. Questions that were not part of conditions and activities that support reflection, such as peer group or team meetings, workshops and other professional development opportunities, and print and non-print resources available to the teachers, were omitted from the survey since they were obviously not available in the school culture.

Results and discussion

Purposes of studying English

Linguistic diversity in India is intensified by the sheer numbers involved. Of the 18 dominant regional languages recognised as official among the 845 major languages spoken in India (Pattanayak, 1997; Saini, 2000), English is the lingua franca, used for official and commercial business in the country. It is therefore perceived as a requirement for upward social and economic mobility; lack of fluency in English reading, writing, speaking and listening would affect personal and professional advancement. The ultimate purpose of English instruction should be to increase fluency and thus to provide upward mobility opportunities for the students (Aggarwal, 1991).

Results of the survey showed clearly that the teachers held the beliefs that students 'should learn to communicate freely (in) and to understand (English)'. They were well aware of the importance of English internationally and in India as 'a common language throughout the world spoken by 11 10th of human population' and 'the fITSt language in our country (India)'. They acknowledged its place as 'the best medium of communication between people of different nationalities', 'the language of the international aviation' and 'the unofficial first language of international sports'. The instrumental value placed on the language was obvious in statements such as English helps us 'to exploit the various opportunities offered all around the globe' and 'to keep pace with developments in science, technology and other fields of study' .

In this broader understanding of how ability in the language can open doors for their students, the teachers did not lose sight of their students' need to master the language as a requirement for success in the school. As one respondent can-

50

didly said, 'It helps the pupils a lot to learn subjects like science, social studies, etc.'

The intrinsic value of learning English did not feature widely in the responses. The only response that addressed it was an acknowledgement that English has 'the richest lexicon'.

Place of oral and listening skills In a classroom

Additive bilingualism, which states that a 'bilingual student who reads well in one language usually also reads well in the other language' (Cox & BoydBatstone, 1997, p. 34), should assist in positive transfer of language. However, multilingual students could lack some conceptual understandings in one language, making academic success difficult to achieve in it (Cox & BoydBatstone, 1997). Since greater target language use increases language facility, in an immersion-learning environment the focus and time on-task needs to be in the use of the target language, which is English. Teachers in this Englishmedium school must therefore be effective instructors of English, if students are to be academically successful in the whole curriculum.

To increase fluency, teachers would like students to use English outside the classroom 'in every possible circumstance'. These include 'communicating with their friends and teachers', dialoguing with 'students of other cultures speaking languages other than their own', or 'convers(ing) with anybody who is comfortable with the language'. Apart from social communication, teachers note that students need oral skills to be successful in 'school competitions, functions and other extra-curricular activities' .

Despite the overwhelming insistence placed on oral and listening skills, they were not given much importance in the classroom. On an average, for 10 minutes of every 40 minutes of class, teachers did not use the target language of English. Five of them (almost 50%) used 15 minutes of class time communicating with students in the regional language Tamil rather than English, representing about 40% of class time. Another five teachers indicated that they used 8 minutes of instruction in Tamil to communicate with students, which equates to 20% of the class time.

The reflection of the teachers on their activities and strategies helps them establish what they were currently doing to aid in English fluency and thus provides a place to begin thinking about the effectiveness of their classrooms. Most of the activities are structured and teacher-initiated or teacher-directed as when they read stories aloud to the class, give directions for an activity or conduct dictation tests. Students are encouraged to articulate in controlled situations such as spelling aloud, reading aloud a word written on the board, or reciting a poem. However, when they respond to questions asked by the teacher or narrate

51

a story in their own words they formulate their own language. Certain instructional strategies, for example pair work, role-play and dramatising situations,

require the active use of oral and listening skills. .

Problems with incorporating oral and listening skills in the classroom

While all the teachers acknowledged the need to incorporate more oral activities in their curriculum and classrooms, they also cited various barriers to implementing them. Large class sizes ranging from 40 to SO students inhibited small group activities which increase the noise level, leading to questions about discipline and classroom management.

Certain structural aspects of the program were also cited as not conducive to teaching oral and listening skills. That tests drive curriculum appears to be a reality in this context. The respondents said that since the exams were a major part of the school culture, they could not concentrate on anything that the exam structure did not include. This 'exam-oriented approach' defined their curriculum and their classroom activities. The school also has assignments every two weeks which are pencil-and-paper tests focused on reading and writing. The traditional approach to evaluation precludes using oral and listening assessments. Perhaps the recent change in administration will encourage re-vamping the assessment system.

In this school where the drop-out rate is very low, almost nil, teachers trace the lack of such mastery of the curriculum and teaching to the pre-primary grades. If a considerable number of students enter primary (elementary) grades without being adequately trained in English in the pre-primary classes, the cumulative effect oflow entry-level skills may account for the continued use of regional language in aU grades. This makes the gradual phasing out of the regionallanguage difficult, and the low incidence of English persists at all levels.

The level of education of parents and their mastery of English are reflected in the students' use of the language. One respondent noted, 'For some students, parents are not educated. So they find it difficult to speak and listen in English.' The parents are not able to provide significant opportunities for their children to hear and practise the language, which in tum affects the fluency level. A lack of exposure to the language outside the classroom detracts from the students' ability to attain a level of expertise that teachers find necessary to build upon within the curriculum and structure of the class.

The last issue relates to the relationship between the first language, either the regional language or the mother tongue of the student, and the second language, English. Respondents acknowledged that learning English may be affected by the students' unfamiliarity with it, interference of the first language, and negative transfer from the first language. Students may have inhibitions about speak-

52

ing in English since many of them do not come from English-speaking backgrounds. As one teacher succinctly remarked, 'The mother tongue of the child is not English. He finds it difficult to comprehend, thereby causing loss of confidence.'

Assessment of oral and listening skills

Regarding assessment of listening and oral skills, eight of the 11 teachers said that they spent no class time assessing listening skills. Two of the teachers said maybe 10% of their time was spent on listening comprehension. One teacher did not respond to the question.

None of the assignments focused on speaking skills. Therefore, there was no basis from which to evaluate oral language. Teacher expectations and behaviour affect student learning. With a lack of specific expectation for speaking and listening skill levels there is non-systematic assessment of proficiency. Therefore, it is less likely that students will focus on the significance of the task.

Conclusions

Areas of concern

Once teachers recognise their behaviour and acknowledge their expectations for students, adjustments are more likely to be made in curriculum content and in overall use of classroom time. Assisting teachers in the art of reflection can yield significant changes for more effective classrooms as teachers explore dilemmas by thinking and collecting evidence, then acting upon that evidence (Ross, Bondy & Kyle, 1993).

The survey identified three major areas of concern. First, English does not appear to have much intrinsic value for the teachers who more readily see the instrumental value of the language in the lives of their students. Ifintrinsic motivation makes a life-long learner, it is necessary for the teachers to communicate it to the students and enable them to transfer their skills to other content areas.

A second concern relates to the curriculum and teaching method. The respondents appear to use limited activities to encourage oral and listening skills. The text and the set material dictate the classroom procedures. While this is common in such settings, the teachers need to find a fit between the purposes they espouse and the experiences they design for the students.

Assessment is a key issue in all educational policies. The lack of assessment and reporting of English oral skills in the school system is a conunent on how low on a scale of importance these skills are placed, and creates a divide between purpose and implementation. This in tum causes teachers to see their stu-

53

dents achieving less than they should, leading to professional dissatisfaction and frustration.

Suggestions for professional development

Addressing these issues requires curricular, systemic, programmatic and personal modifications. First of all, the curriculum must be reframed to include oral and listening skills. Each lesson must include objectives aimed at these skills. The importance placed on these skills will be communicated to parents when they are included in the reporting scheme every grading period.

Teachers could reflect on the use of time on-task and teacher behaviours in choosing English activities. A skilled observer may ascertain conditions in which they use Tamil, the regional language, and how much of that is for functional purposes such as giving directions. This might help them identify alternatives to using the regional language and incorporating more time-on-English tasks. For example, using gestures or cognates to heighten the possibility of students guessing a word.

Time for team or faculty meetings could be built into their schedules to facilitate peer sharing of teaching ideas to expand their repertoire. Teachers could design assessment patterns that are not time-intensive and write rubrics that can be used with ease even in large classes of SO students.

Finally, for teachers to be reminded of the inherent worth oflearning English, they must analyse and decide for themselves what part intrinsic appreciation of a language can play in an English-medium school. A series of activities that emphasises this and raises their own awareness of it might be beneficial. These could include invitations to classes other than their own as guest speakers, listening to books on tape or discussion groups on English-language films.

While there is cause for concern regarding the curriculum and the dissonance between purposes and methods of teaching oral English fluency, it is encouraging that the teachers are willing to reflect honestly and deeply about their practice. In subsequent levels of professional development in which they may engage, workshops need to be conducted by a leader/consultant in an inclusive and non-threatening manner. Having taken the first step in analysing their status, the faculty is poised to effect necessary changes to make teaching and learning successful for themselves and their students.

References

Aggarwal, S. (1991). Three language formula: An educational problem. New Delhi, India: Gyan Publishing House.

Cox, C., & Boyd-Batstone, P. (1997). Crossroads: Literature and language in

54

culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill.

Martella, R. C., Nelson, R., & Marchand-Martella, E. E. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Pattanayak, D. P. (1997). Language curriculum/or teacher educators. New Delhi, India: National Council for Teacher Education.

Ross, D. D., Bondy, E., & Kyle, D. (1993). Reflective teaching/or student empowerment: Elementary curriculum and methods. New York:

Macmillan.

Saini, A. (2000). Literacy and Empowerment: An Indian Scenario. Childhood Education International Focus Issue. 76 (6), 381-384.

The World Bank. (1997). Development in practice: Primary education in India. Washington, DC: Author.

Hema Ramanathan is an Assistant Professor at Butler University, Indianapolis. She has a doctorate from The Ohio State University and 17 years teaching experience in India, Indonesia and Malaysia. Her areas of specialisation are teacher education, field experiences, evaluation and international education.

Merribeth D. Bruning is an Department Chair, Early Childhood, Elementary and Middle Level Education, Eastern Illinois University. Her research areas include multicultural education and effective teacher education. Her home studio is a mini-laboratory for research on and application of how children leam.

55

International Students' Experience of Graduate Study in Canada

Alice Schutz Merle Richards

Purpose of the study

This study examined narratives of international students enrolled at Brock University in southern Ontario, Canada. Our literature review suggests that they represent typical experiences of students studying abroad, and that host universities can do much to improve the lives of foreign graduate students.

Increasingly, students come to Canada to gain fluency in English while qualifying for their professions. At Brock, teachers often enrol in a Master of Education program specialising in methods for teaching English as a second language. However, many come from cultures where professors direct their students rather than preparing them for independent learning. Zhang (200 I) describes students who may not be 'fully equipped with the necessary selfautonomy that is required for studying in overseas institutions' (p. 83). Anderson (1999) points out that unrealistic expectations or motivations can cause students to interpret instructors' behaviours as prejudice against their academic backgrounds, race, or language.

Methodology

We interviewed second-language learners about their graduate experience, including perceived inequities and unfulfilled wishes. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using content analysis methods to determine recurrent themes and patterns.

Participants

The participants were five Anglophone Canadian and nine foreign students, from Europe, the Orient, and the Near East. Most were enrolled in a Masters program in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), where the majority of students were English-speaking Canadians. Three foreign students were in other programs (philosophy, business, and politics) where all or most of their classmates were Canadians.

Findings

The interviews revealed recurrent themes related to practical concerns of daily life, development of the academic skills needed in North American

56

universities, and the relationship of academic life to the personal selfdevelopment of learners immersed in a new culture and language.

Daily life concerns. Most of the students first learned about Brock from its website, and were satisfied with information about programs. However, the website ignores matters of daily life such as housing, shopping, or transport, which students need upon arrival. Most have little time to settle in before the term starts.

Nina: ... we have to go to access the facilities that Brock has, and nobody tells us about it. I mean, it says in the book, but nobody shows us where or what to do. And there's a lot of ... like, how to rent a place, or the bus pass, how to get the bus pass, how to get the phone card to call back home.

Difficulties of settling in can relate to academic as well as personal decisions:

Claire: I had a hard time when I came here, because I was really afraid ... and there was no one who could help me. I came here only in August, so I bad two weeks before my course started, so I just looked around the library, and there was no one who I could ask for help '" I'm an International student, so I have to take two English courses, and my English courses were conflicted to my required courses, so I was really shocked ... So we wasted almost two weeks to figure it out. So I didn't concentrate on my work and then, after that, they told us we didn't have to take the wrong course if it conflicted with our current course ... I can handle it now, but at the time, it was my first thing here

Academic expectations and skills. Graduate students, having previously been successfulleamers, may be unpleasantly surprised by different academic expectations. Several commented that their undergraduate study was solitary and competitive, focused on received knowledge. In Canada, therefore, writing

r essays became formidable because professors required independent reading and argument Cooperative work and presentations also created problems; Nina spoke for many of her colleagues:

Well, I wish I knew about the classroom setting, and how to do a presentation, how to write academic papers ... at home, it's teachercentred. Here in Canada, it tends to be student-centred, and then you have a lot of seminars, and I wasn't familiar with this kind of thing, so I wish I could have known before I came here, so I could prepare and know how to do things in the classroom. It was like a little bit of cul-

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ture shock for me, when I came here.

One major difference for foreign students is the writing style expected for assignments. Ed's experience had been to emphasise the aesthetics of language, whereas in Canada, 'flowery writing' is scorned. Heather, a Canadian student in the TESL program, described the situation thus:

When the students first come here they do have an issue with the rhetorical structures in their writing, which is understandable if they haven't been explicitly taught what the academic requirements are ... So when the initial essays went in last term, there were a number of international students who were asked to rewrite their final papers.

Academic life

1. Relationships with professors. Perceptions of professors depend on both the professors' behaviour and the student's background. Lizzio, Wilson, and Simons (2002) 'continn that elements of the leaming environment which are under teacher control can, and do, positively influence both the way students approach their study, and the learning outcomes they may achieve' (p. 44).

Our fmdings also support those of Hesketh and Knight (1999), who state that for students, traditional academic criteria are not necessarily the main considerations for a 'quality' program. Hesketh and Knight remark that students appreciated faculty members who 'understood that students would need induction into postgraduate level work and ... took care to structure their work so as to maximise students' chances of success' (p. 158). Our students considered the classroom climate highly important and largely dependent on the behaviour of professors. Andrew remarked,

When I go to the class for the first time, I told the professor that I'm an exchange student, I'm not good in English, so would you help me a little bit? Some profs said, 'Yeah, no problem. I will help you whenever you have a problem. Just tell me and I will help you. ' But other profs say, 'So what? I don't care,' and 'No mercy,' and things like that.

In our sample, several students recounted incidents where a classmate was treated with disrespect. The Canadian students were indignant on behalf of their classmates, whom they perceived as being harshly and unfairly treated. Dave, for example, remarked, 'Canadian profs can be cold or rude,' and described an incident where an ESL student had approached the professor to ask about a failed paper. The professor replied, 'This is not my office hours' and turned away. Cicely commented that:

The professor should have said, 'This is a problem. Let's work together on how we can get you to a passing grade.' ... I think she just didn't

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know how to do that, and so she avoided having to talk to him. But that, you know-it's her job to learn how to do that.

Many Canadian professors assume that graduate students should be independent learners skilled iii academic writing, seminar presentations, and class discussion. Most can master these skills quickly with support, but professors seldom feel responsible for teaching them. Heather comments:

'There's a lot of these initial things that they're having to work through on their own, by watching other students doing them, a lot of pain when they could really have had it a lot easier.'

In one class, several international students were asked to rewrite major papers, but no explanation was provided Like the students described by Hesketh and Knight (1999), the Brock students viewed the professor's actions as unfair; they expected instructors to give feedback that identifies 'action for improvement (rather than simply noting failings)' in order to be 'identified as good tutors doing: a good job' (p 158).

2. Social relationships and friends. Sun (1987) showed that Chinese students studying in Canada ranked both academic and social needs as highly important for learning. Because our students' goals included English fluency as well as academic success, they needed connections with Canadians and the local culture. However, their situation was daunting, especially in the first tenn. Most Canadian students work and live away from campus, and therefore do not 'hang out' there; in the MEd program, most students study part-time, coming to university only for classes. It can therefore be difficult to meet people.

Andrew: Korean students do not work; we just study ... I thought that I could get involved in real Canadian life. I thought that I could make Canadian friends very easily and get along with them very easily. But I think that I got it wrong, because it's very difficult, because we're very different kinds of persons ... people, because we have different backgrounds, you know.

Without English, students are isolated, with few opportunities for English conversation. For example, Andrew comments that he is 'a different person here'. shy, unable to express himself:

'It's sort of killing me ... my own personality's ... not so shy, and I'm outgoing, so I want to talk out there, and I want to do something ... I want to make it funny, you know, a humorous person? So ... but I, I cannot do that, so ... oh, ohl I can't say something like that! Yeah! Yeah, sometimes it frustrates you.

3. Cohort support. Sun (1987) comments that academic learning must be ac-

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companied by social learning, participation in 'conversation with Canadian friends'. However, students newly arrived in Canada seldom get to observe or participate in Canadian life and culture. For example, Andrew commented, 'I've never been in a Canadian house.' Canadian students in the TESL class tackled this problem:

Heather: Two of our classmates asked whether we could have conversations. So I said, 'Well okay, let's get together for coffees and make sure that we're always talking during coffee breaks, and we'll meet afterwards. So that's what we do; we spend an hour or two. We talk about social things mainly.

Unlike other masters students, TESL students take four required courses together in the first year, and therefore form a 'cohort', or cohesive group, within the MEd program. This led to action on behalf of a colleague:

Heather: '" one of the students went to the prof, and she turned her back on him. So the peers, the cohort, rallied around ... We went through the essays, and one of the students actually spent a full day pointing out the things that were required-just pointing them out and letting him work it out ... And she said to me afterwards, 'You know, he's never been out of his country, he's learned English in his country, he's learned and has never travelled abroad.' So he rewrote it, rewrote it, and finally handed it in and got it passed ... it's unbelievable how well he writes now. She said it's just because no one had ever pointed it out to him. Now, is that ajob or responsibility of the cohort to do that for all of the students? But that's what the cohort is doing.

4. Coping with the new situation. When asked, 'Where do you go when you need help?' most students named a classmate or friend they consult about social matters or academic assignments. If they can make Canadian friends, they progress more easily, as their friends become mentors and interpreters:

Andrew: I have a really good friend ... he can help me a lot. So, whenever I talk with him, we talk about things, [he] just says it slowly, slowly, and ... [gives an] explanation, and so he can help me ...

If the problem is academic, students often go to the International Office. A few ask their professors for help, but others feel intimidated by professors who have treated them abruptly. When the issues are personal, however, asking for help is difficult; Gloria comments that with no family here, she feels that there is 'no one to talk to and trust' .

Class participation is a concern. Non-fluent students need extra time to comprehend lectures in English, and get left behind in discussions. This makes them

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feel extremely shy about participating. By midway through the second term, however, several commented that they were beginning to speak up and participate in class.

For all the respondents, the greatest worry is academic success, 'getting the degree'. Fulfilling the expectations of family and sponsors is a constant concern. As well, the stresses of fmishing assignments on time are continual, because the workloads, heavy for Canadian students, are much greater for ESL learners. Every task takes longer: 'A 500-wordjournal entry takes all day'; 'it takes a whole day to prepare a seminar'.

5. Unfulfilled wishes. Asked what might enrich their experiences at Brock,

students wished for placements in their field or practical courses in methodology:

Claire: I'm going to teach English in Korea. So in TESL programs, I wish they had some practical things. We could go teaching high school ...

Gloria, from a background where English studies focused mainly on writing and reading, felt the lack of oral English practice. She and others would have liked less language theory and grammar and more pronunciation, phonetics, and oral language that they would teach at home. Cicely felt the lack of a 'listening and speaking course', and also of the opportunity to practise or observe in an ESt. classroom:

It's all very theoretical, and there's an assumption that somehow, we will know how to apply the theory ... What they're turning out, they say, is a masters level person who can teach ESL, but what they're really turning out is a masters level person who understands the theory--and I think those are two different things.

Like Hesketh & Knight (1999), we found that students valued flexible programs that allowed them 'to choose between options and to undertake work that they wished to do and had identified as personally important' (p. 159).

Nevertheless, most of the students were happier as they gained experience and fluency. In particular, English proficiency was allowing them to think more about their coursework and move towards deeper understanding and satisfaction (Lizzio et al. 2002):

Claire: Compared to last year, now I am really enjoying reading my material. Now I can handle it, so I focus on understanding. But last year, I just ... because I got a lot of reading, so I just wanted to finish it. So ... I fmished reading it but I didn't get the point ... But now I'm trying to read to get the point. Last year ... last semester was really hard forme.

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Conclusions

Generally, all the students describe their graduate experience as mostly good, although the initial phases are trying and frustrating. The first term is especially difficult, as the students must decipher routines and requirements, often without help. Administration causes problems when different departments make conflicting demands; one example was the unexpected requirement that some ESL students take English courses that conflicted with other requirements.

Establishing social relationships is especially difficult for students whose oral English is weak or who are the only foreigners in their courses. They recommended social gatherings soon after arrival to help them meet classmates and learn what is expected of students. Most ESL students do eventually make Canadian friends, but some remain isolated.

Several students recommended that professors who come in contact with foreign students should receive sensitivity training. Almost all the students had some story of how some professor had acted hurtfully. It was also suggested that because writing style is an important issue for many foreign students, the International Office could be a suitable place for tutorials in essay- and reportwriting.

The Canadian students were concerned that although they themselves might confront a professor's hurtful behaviour, ESL students often lack the confidence to do so. They also felt that professors ought to deal with students' academic problems without appearing dismissive or uncaring. In this case, it was the Canadian students who took the time to protect their ESL classmates and guide them to success. Perhaps Bruffee (1993) is correct when he says, 'the way college and university teachers have been taught to think about what they know and how they know it drives the way they teach it. So teachers can change the way they teach only by changing what they think about what they know and about how they know it' (p. x). Ifhe is right, perhaps it is time for a glance in the mirror, and we hope this study will provide an opportunity for that. As Kelly said of her ESL classmates, ' ... for sure, getting their feedback, or the feedback of their friends or colleagues, will be great in terms of helping them to adjust to the culture and to the program.'

References

Anderson, W. (1999). Cooperating internationally. New Directions/or Higher Education, 2 7(2) 101-107.

Bruffee, K. A. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

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Hesketh, A. J. & Knight, P. T. (1999). Postgraduates' choice of programme:

Helping universities to market and postgraduates to choose. Studies in Higher Education 24 (2), 151-162.

Lizzio, A., Wilson, K., & Simons, R. (2002). University students' perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: Implications for theory and practice. Studies in Higher Education 27 (1),27-52.

Sun, Y. (1987). An EFL needs assessment: Chinese students at a Canadian university. TESL Canada Journal 5 (1), 27-44.

Zhang, L. J. (2001). Exploring variability in language anxiety: Two groups of PRC students learning ESL in Singapore. Regional English Language Centre Journal 32 (1), 73-91.

Alice Schutz and Merle Richards teach in the Faculty of Education at Brock University, Ontario, Canada. Alice Schultz specializes in curriculum, adult education, and creativity. Merle Richards specializes in language development and curriculum. Their interest in learners' adaptation to new educational contexts has led to this research.

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Despite Broken Promise: The Memoirs o/Sarah Pride Smith Edited by Douglas James Smith

Review by Verne Clemence (book reviewer, Saskatoon Star Phoenix. 7 September2002)

Despite Broken Promises: The Memoirs of Sarah Pride Smith is a limited edition volume that was edited and published by University of Saskatchewan professor Douglas Smith. The book started out to be a project for family consumption, but it quickly found a larger audience. Smith is now looking at getting a second printing done, and looking for a publisher.

The book is especially appealing because the story is actually told in the words of Sarah Pride Smith. Douglas augmented his mother's words with italic inserts to flesh out some of the information, but for the most part the text is her own. The writing is informal and technically flawed in minor ways, but that just gives the book a conversational feel.

Sarah Pride came to Canada in 1910 at the age of six, the youngest .of four children. Her parents, Al and Lillie May Pride, were in the wave of homesteaders from the United States, Eastern Canada and Europe who had heard about the

free land and new beginning. .

The Prides came from Noble, Illinois, where they had lived comfortably on AI's income as a carpenter. But the lure of free land and adventure enticed him. He came to Canada for a look, filed on a homestead, and sent for his family.

Pride wrote that he had a three-room frame house all ready for them. He said it overlooked a glistening lake with white swans, and fertile, rolling fields. It sounded idyllic. Little May had high hopes that a new challenge and the isolation of a homestead would keep Al sober. He was a heavy drinker and nasty when in his cups.

When she arrived, however, the reality was vastly different. The family home was a one-room affair made of sod, cut into a hillside, with a sod roof. The lake was a bed of alkali. The white swans, when they appeared, were cranes.

When a shocked and disappointed Lillie May asked Al accusingly how he could tell such lies to his family, his answer was, 'would you have come if I'd told you the truth?'

The fertile land turned out to be sandy soil, unsuited for growing grain. The Prides eventually lost the homestead to creditors.

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Sarah's story is one of incredible hardship on that farm, and later as her parents eked out a living working for wages. The marriage failed when Sarah was still young, and her trials continued as she struggled to make a life on her own.

But she-was determined to get an education, and ultimately she prevailed. Her own marriage to Gordon Smith was long and happy, but the memories of those early years never left her.

The story underlines the sacrifices made by the women who, willingly or otherwise, played such large roles in the settling of the new land. They felt the loss of the homes and families they left behind. They bore the brunt of the isolation and deprivation of those first years, and it fell to them to maintain some semblance of family life. The work was endless and often, as in the case of Little May Pride, the rewards were few.

The book, complete with Sarah's poetry, the words of dozens of songs she sang for inspiration, has over 50 photographs. Copies can be ordered from Douglas Smith, 307 Nemeiben Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7J4S7.

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Index to Volume 6 (2002)

Subject Index

Addressing Interns' Concerns During the Extended-Praaicum, Ralph, Edwin G., 37-48, Issue 2.

Developing Teaching Strategies through Quality Feedback from Field Experience. Chung, Jenny S. L., 27-35, Issue 1.

Educational Research for Future Teachers, Cenci, Majda, 20-26, Issue 1.

Exploratory Study of Service Quality: Education Retrospection. Mahmood, Shahid, 36-44, Issue 1.

Future scenarios in the context 0/ global and local dynamics, Sousa, Jesus Maria, 49-56, Issue 2.

Preparing Better Teachers: Concepts and Program Orientation. Tambo, Leke, 45-53, Issue 1.

Secondary School Students' Attitudes to Social Studies: A Case Study, Moroz, Wally & Hansberry, Leah, 25-36, Issue 2.

Social Studies in African Education. Adeyemi, M. B. (ed.) (2000). Gaborone, Botswana: Pyramid Publishing. Reviewed by Sim, Cheryl,54-55, Issue 1.

Teacher's Emotional Sensitivity in the Context o/its Historical Development and Contemporary Debate, Bi1etska, Svitlana, 12-18, Issue 2.

Teachers' Perspectives, Al-Muqate, Humood, Al-Tammar, Jasem & AI-Jassar, Salwa, 1-10, Issue 2.

The Danish Educational System An Introduction. Schou, Lotte Rahbek & Borup, Joban Rosenstrom, 1-9, Issue 1.

The Impact of Studem Teaching Programs on Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning, At AI-Musawi, Nu'man M., 10-19, Issue 1.

The Information Revolution: What Has It Got to do With the Curriculum?

Jasim, Saleh A. & Al-Dabbous, Jawaher M., 19-24, Issue 2.

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Author Index (by Principal Author)

AI-Muqate, Humood, AI- Tammar, Jasem & AI-Jassar, Salwa Teachers' Perspectives, , 1-10, Issue 2.

AI-Musawi, Nu'man M., The Impact of Studem Teaching Programs on Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning, 10-19, Issue 1.

Biletska, Sviti ana, Teacher's Emotional Sensitivity in the Context of its Historical Development and Contemporary Debate, 12-18, Issue 2.

Cenci. \1ajda. Educational Research for Future Teachers. 20-26, Issue 1.

Chung. Jenny S. L.. Developing Teaching Strategies through Quality Feedbade/rom Field Experience. 27-35. Issue I.

Jasim, Saleh A. & AI-Dabbous, Jawaher M., The lnformation Revolution:

What Has It Gotto do With the Curriculum? 19-24, Issue 2.

Mahmood, Shahid, Exploratory Study of Service Quality: Education Retrospection, 36-44, Issue I.

Moroz, Wally & Hansberry, Leah, Secondary School Students' Altitudes to Social Studies: A Case Study. 25-36, Issue 2.

Ralph, Edwin G., Addressing Interns' Concerns During the ExtendedPracticum, 37-48, Issue 2.

Schou, Lotte Rahbek & Borup, Johan Rosenstrom, The Danish Educational System An Introduction, 1-9, Issue 1.

Sirn, Cheryl, Social Studies in African Education. Adeyemi, M. B. (ed.) (2000). Gaborone, Botswana: Pyramid Publishing. Reviewed by 54-55, Issue I.

Sousa, Jesus Maria, Future scenarios in the context 0/ global and local dynamics, 49-56, Issue 2.

Tambo, Leke, Preparing Better Teachers: Concepts and Program Orientation, 45-53, Issue 1.

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Publication Guidelines

Articles submitted to JISTE must be written in English, following manuscript guidelines (see below) and will be anonymously reviewed by referees. Each article must pass the review process to be accepted for publication.

The editors will notify the senior author of the manuscript if it does not meet submission requirements.

Articles are judged for (a) significance to the field of teacher education from a global perspective, (b) comprehensiveness of the literature review, (c) clarity of presentation, and (d) adequacy of evidence for conclusions. Research manuscripts are also evaluated for adequacy of the rationale and appropriateness of the design and analysis. Scholarly relevance is crucial. Be sure to evaluate your information.

Articles pertaining to a particular country or world area should be authored by a teacher educator from that country or world area.

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.:

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should be directed to:

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Penith DC NSW 1797 Australia

Telephone: +61 29772 6433 FAX: +61 29772 6738

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Future Submissions

January 2004 (Volume 8, Number 1) Deadline for Submission: August 1, 2002

Theme: Teacher Education: Meeting the Needs of the New Generation.

May 2004 (Volume 8, Number 2) Deadline for Submission: August 1, 2002

Theme: Non-thematic. Interested members of ISTE may contribute manuscripts related to any important topic in teacher education.

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Interested members of ISTE may submit reviews of books or other media created by ISTE members. Reviews may be no longer than one Journal page.

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ISTE members may submit-an annotated reference to any book which they have had published during the past three years. Annotations should be no longer than fifty words.

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Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2003