J'9~

Editor

Catherine Sinclair, Australia Associate Editor

Joyce Castle, Canada Designer

Colin Mably, U,S.A. Past Secretary General Editorial! Board

Anne-Marie Bergh, South Africa JamBorg, Denmark

Lam Siu Yuk (Rebecca), Hong Kong, China Roque Moraes, Brazil

Wally Moroz, Australia

Leke Tambo, Cameroon

Helen Woodward, Australia

George Churukian, Past Editor (ex officio), U.S.A.

Colin Mably, Designer (ex officio), U.S.A. Janet Powney, Secretary General (ex officio), United Kingdom

Catherine Sinclair, Editor (ex officio), Australia

Joyce Castle, Associate Editor (ex officio), Canada

Officers/Steering Committee

Janet Powney, United Kingdom, Secretary General

George A!.. Churukian, U.S.A., Treasurer. & Records

Catherine Sinclair, Australia, Editor, JISTE Joyce Castle, Canada, Assistant Editor JISTE

Bill Driscoll, Australia, Editor Newsletter John Maurer, A'UStralia,

Directory & Membership

Colin Mably, U.S.A., Past Secretary General, Convenor 2000

Warren Halloway, Australia

Past Secretary General

Hans Voorback, Netherlands, Past Secretary General

Cornel DaCosta, England, Convener 1999 Ahmed PJi-Bustan, Kuwait, Convener 2001 Lotti Schou, Denmark, Convener 2002 Alex Fung, Hong Kong. China,

Convener 2003

Craig Kissock, U.S.A., Convenor,2004

It is with much appreciation that nSTE wishes to thank the following ISTE members for their reviews of the articles submitted for this volume. Theintireless effor.ts andlthe feedback they provided to potentiaJ contributors have enriched the papers published. ff you wish to become a reviewer please contact the editor, Catherine Sinclair (c.sinclait@uws.edu.au).

Salwa Al-Jassar, Kuwait

Rich Berlach, Australia Charuvil Chacko, South Africa Vic Cicci, Canada

Elizabeth ~ooper, Canada David Daniels, Australia

Neil Dempster, Australia Margareth Drakenberg, Sweden

Gordon Fulcher, United Kingdom Alastair Glegg .. Canada

James D. Greenberg. U.S.A. Warren Halloway, Australia Anthony Hopkin, Botswana

Roy Killen, Australia

John Maurer, Australia

Roque Moraes" Brazill

Wally Moroz, Australia Bob O'Brien, New Zealand Donna Patterson, Canada Karlheinz Rebel, Germany Merle Richards, Canada Bill Stringer, Australia Helen Woodward, Australia

The JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TEACHER EDUCAT-ION (JISTE) is published as a service to those concerned with global teacher education. It serves as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas related to the improvement of teacher education. Articles foous upon concepts , and research which have practical dimensions or implications and applicability for practitioners in teacher education. The Joumallimits its articles to those in ;which ideas are applicable in multiple social settings.

JISTE is an official, refereed publication!ofiSTE. Theigoal ofiSTE is to publish six to eight articles, in each issue. Usingithe Seminar theme, articles in the first issue of each volume are based on papers presented at the previous seminar. Articlos in the second issue are non-thematic. Points ofviewand opinions, are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of ISTE. Published manuscripts arc the property of JlSTE. Permission to reproduce must be requested from the editor.

JJSTE is issued twice yearly by the International Society for Teacher Education. The subscription price of $US2S.00 is included in the annual' membership iee. Additional copies of the journal may be purchased for $USIS;OO. Institutional subscription to JJSTE is- $USSO.OO per year. To obtain additional or institutional copies email George Churukian at gchuruk@titan.iwu.edu .

N0111- Thematic

NS~E

JISTE

Journab of the International Society for. Teachen Education Volume 8, Number 2, May 2004

Copyright e 20041

by the International' Society for Teacher Education

ISSN 1029-5968

ii

JOURNAL'OF THE INrERNATICllNAL: SOCIETY FOR liEACHER EDUCATION Volume 8, Number 2; May,20Q4!

NOD-Thematic

Messag~ from the Secretary General I

Janet Powney .' i'"

Message Ifrom the Editor v

Catherine Sinclair

Articles

Black Supplementary Schools in the iUnited Kingdom, and! Theories on Black Ulideracmevement:¢arryiDg the Debate Forward

Lionel MOCaIinan I

Participants' Concems in the Practicum

EdWin G. Ral)?H 13

The Professional ~owledge of Teachers; Retlections on· the German-Debate on Pedagogical Professionality

Josef Mikl 23

Sciene&.-based ITeaching!f!Learning: iil Science Education I

Saleh Jassim 33

Teaching Thfuking Skills to Students with· Emotional andBehavioural' Difficulties:

Policy Implications and Implementation Issues

William M. Wiltand!Kwan~eewan 47

The. Webtas Super Oulture--AA Amalgamation .of Subculmres.

Ludwig Ganske: & Zlihari Hamidon 60

What HappenslWhen TeacherslBecome Students?

David R,' Sooter 73

Publication Guidelines 82

ManuscriPt GUidelines 82

Submission Requirements 83

iii

Fliom the Secretary General

In 2004 we canrno longer think.paroehiafly, initerms of our own country 011 even our I own Icontfuent. !Now i communications are not constrained by interna .. tional frontiers andl infonnation is accessible Ito individUals I who I can by-pass educatiGnal and work organisations in tHeir search I for I knowU:dgc, and understanding, Mitre access to the Internet I and email isi commonplace teaches educators andl teachers I have Ito readjust their role and methodS to g~ the maximum benefit from the new technologies, For example, even assessment is subject to change. :Should assessment criteria ibe reviewed if information. can be gleaned! from what seems to be an infinite number of detailed I sources? I Tricky, issues oflPlagiarism'havelemerged IiJi the UK recently among students who have been using and abusing Internet sources .. 'Ilecbnologies camalso offer tremendous creative possi&ilities in I modes of 'assessment such as those used in medicine; business and science. Teacheneducators IWilll also lbe eXRloriilg how to .eKploit sophisticatedlteehnclogies in their assessments ..

Yet thereare :those excluded !fromlthis aspect of global I prosperity, Some families, even in themosttprosperous societies, cannot afford accessto computer teehnolegy fol'l learning. Teachers must take their circumstances into! account to ensure a fair approach to learning and assessment fbr all) There: are 'Students and schoolsrin many parts ofithe world whoido not have the &asic requiiement ot1a continuous and reliable.electricity ~suppl)\ let! alone computers. It Isiimperative thatl we: do alll in eur power to ensure that the gap !between the haves and the have-nets - both within, and between countries - is not !Widened irrevocably in thisiperiod ofworUllviolence and uncertainties ..

Newneaehers will face al\lety differ.ent world from that when I5ITE started. a world nowl tlypifiltd b~ i greater opponunities, greater uncertainties and I sadly, continuing cruelty land destruction, Spending !on arms has increased landl so has the number of'confllcts aroundlthe world.Bunjust as technologies cross intema .. tional barriers so methodS of 'intimidation and violence have developed tOlmake everyone-a possible 'Victim. None of Us is cocooned. Never before has there been such a 'need I fur the international I teacher education community to safeguard values oflhWllanit)! and justice .. ISTE can make a great contribution to this endl

]anet'POW1t1eYI

From the Editor

Welcome to tho second and final issue of[(STIE VolUme 8 for this ~ear and another I wonderfull array 'of articles i from across the world and on I a variet)l of topiCs. Thank you no all whol submittedl papers even if not all were able to! be published at tIiis time, 11iankl)'ou again Ito the reviewers whorgive deir dine and expertise-so fteelylta enhance the quality of the pepers pJlblished. However, more reviewers are needed so I ~f you think. you can I help. email I nne ~ at c.smclair@uws.edu.au and let me knowrif you I are available, and iffuere are any particular subj~ct areas: or research method6lagy; you would I prefer to receive papers on.

The firstl article fori this issue" by Lionel I Mccatman" addresses ithe plight of black students in I the British, educational system. EdWin Ralph I from Canada compares the concerns expressed by stadennteaehers oman extended practicum with those of'tbeirl SURCTVising teachers; compares the -concems I ef both with CWTeDt 'ooncem' models: and draws impUcations for practicum organisers. Josef MIkl frOm Austria revisits the question .of teacher professionalism im German speaking jCOuntriesland Saleh Jassim' from Kuwait explores the benefits af!inq~ based teachiilg and learning oven the more traditional lecture and exposmon methods !for students studying: biology .. From mquiiy in IUIliversity education to teaching thinkfug skiUs, ,William Wu and Kwan Yeewan tftom Hong Kong :discuss the benefits and policy and implementation issues associated with teaching thinking skills to students with emotion81 and beliavioural difficulties .. From face-toface teachinglto the web; where Ludwig O&nske and Kah8lli Hamidom frODli Brunei Darussalam uepol'tlClln a "Little Study" of the :im~act ofthe .internet on 'Malaylanguagpl8Dd'EngUsh language'students to describe:"subcultures' within the larger intemetl"supen culture".: The final article comes ft<pm PBRua- New Guinea where Da\iid Booren reports on a IAilotl survey of the role reversal experienced! by qualified!teacbers and administrators when they goibaek.to university as students, and!the resultant stresses and effects on their learning that creates.

Apih a wonderful tapestry ofiarticles from around the WOJld. I look forward to lSeeing!man)f of you apin atlthe 24111 AnouallSeminar of ISm at the lhtiversity ofiMinnesotlij Minneapolis campuS', MinnesoUiJ USA! from AU8lJSt 7-m2. I encourag~: all anendees aad 'distance paper' participants I to seek feedback from eolleagues iat the conference: and submit your papers for review for nSTE. Submissions must be reeelved by l"'September, 2004 andithat's onlyja couple of weeks after the conference: Please submit your' lPaRers electronically to c.smclairt@uws.edu.au (pr om disk) and Ifollowing the guidelines printed in this issue ot'lnSTE; I look forward to being iaundated with wonderful papers.

Catherine Sincftiir-

V'

Black SupplementalT)! Schoolsl in the United Kingdom, land I Theories on Black llnderacbievement:

CarrylDg tlie Debate Forward

Lionel McCalman

Most working Ie/assl people in IIhe ,United Kingdom assume that the opp~rtunity exists to acquire quaiitpieducQtio1'.lfor tneir childr.en within I the attlte education system: fed beneath the sUJface! of supposed 'opportunity for all, there remains an !inequality :in the system that continues to qffect 'the educatlonalloutctomes of many students. 'Dhis paper: addresses; Ihe pligh4 of bl'ackstudents inl the, British education SY,slemJ llighli'ghtSi the Black Silpplementary Schoolslmovemem, alongl with sheone« oi,lJlack !Underachievement, and uses bfith to frame an lar~ment for needed ch'anges in the state education system.

Intvoduction

Most working, class people inuhe United Kingdoml(lJ.K~) assume that the opportunity exists to acquire ql,l8lit}'leducation for aheir children within the state education system. Afterl all, we are toldl that, ,whether male or female, black O~ white, we can all exercise parental choice as to where we: wish iour children to be educatecU Our childJlen are able to study the same curriculum and are entered f0J! the same examinations within the wider framework, thus enabling all6ndividwds to have the same joti opportunities or chances for bigfler education.

The British standard I of education is resl1ected; throughout !the world {we:are tokij, sought I after I for the solid foundation itlationis itsrrecipients, The!teacliiDg profession has: high: standards; and the systeml has noble: initiatives,: namely, .the planned reductfon 1m the size of infant classes, guaranteed education for all four year olds; extra money for books and the improvement of buildings, and the drive to I mise stand8rdSi for literacy and numeracy. These are all positives: in the education system;:gains that I have: been hard fought andl won, Yet, beneath ithe surface of supposed I oPIlortunity for.all, thereremains an inequalit}! in the. system that continues to ,affect. the: educational outeomes ofl m~1 students; I rem specifically here to the inequities surrounding the education oflblack students. In thisipap,er I addressithe plight of black students in the Britisheducation system. I highligHt I the: Black SupplementaIyl Schools .movement •. along with theories of black underacHievement, and Use both tOt frame my argument fo needed changes in the state educatiomsystem.

The Supplementary School Movement

To ifellowr the. development of Black! Supplementaryi Schools, and to obtain U

some appreciation I for the significant effort made: by black parents, community groups,and activists in the U(K., we need to consider the-educational setting iliat facilitated the emergence of this black community-based educational initiative.

It was amid numerous reports and I concerns ill' the 1960s about the' underachievement of African Caribbean children in British schools that a new phenomenom in alternative' educational concepts 'came: into: being. lilian effort to address-some of the concerns .of tte tiines, Black' Supplementary i Schools were conceptualised and set u~ to assistblack children inithe 'iDner,oity. These supplementary schools (also calqed Saturday Schools) were seen as part CDr the solution for black children" particularly in I light of! the criticism of! lack, of i parental involvement in the education I of their children.Bducationrl'rierity Areas; and the debate on single parent families and' the : absence of fathers. Since its introduction some 30 I years ago, the: movement has, had ;its share' of both supporters and detractors witliin the Local Education Authorities (LEAl), and lin some areas the teaching unions and educational agencies have been anxious I to be seen lending their supportito these Saturday morning educational projects. The 'Inner London Educatioi Authority; (IUEA) has not only acknowledged the contribution the movement made to maiIistream educational thinking, bus also registered concerns for its future, .p,artitularly iin inner Uondon, in a 'post (LEAr era (Rice: I 99DD.

It was following the establishmentts failure: to respond' positively! to the complaints ofi'!;lack parents and other professionals that the supplementary schools movement came into being: as the black community's response to, its awn grievance, First installed in die. homes of blackreducationists, and in church halls, this: alternative school concept gradually penetrated the school i structure and becameapermanent Saturda)l fixture in many.schools and-colleges throughounthe country, Johill(1989) explained the.emergence of Supplementary Schools in this way:

The: Supplementary, School Movement emerged as part andt parcel oflthe committed struggles oft the; black, working : class I against racial and class oppression. It took its place side by side: with' struggles .against oppression byl the police and criminalt justice system, and hy! a range ef other state apparatuses. It !Wasr not a remedial education service; it was not our owm homespun. and Icommunity based 'special: schools' ....... Above all, howeVeJ1 Ithe supplementary education movement was seen not as: re-active but as; pro .. active; to, De about positive education. It! aimed to I proj~ot positive images <D€ black people, of black, history, oflblack achievements in a socie~ where ar person's! worthr was thought to be determined b}' the colour OD their- skin. It aimed to celebrate the life and worth and struggles, of black working people, amd give back the confidence' and selfassuredness that class oppression within, a culture' of racism.

2

denied them. ~. 2)

TIle average intake Iper .schoof was apprexlmately, 80 children, with most schools I reaching their full complement and ioperating a waiting list

In 2002, !thirty;-tbree years after the first Supplementary school openedl its doors, to, black students in inner-city: areas, the: general consensus is thannot: much .has: changed in the educational fortunes of black students. As.Gillborn and Mirza (2000), point oun "African Caribbean pupils have drawn least benefit Ifrom Ithe rising levels: ofl attainment: . the . gap between them and their white peers is: bigger now than a I decade ago" (p.14),

Tbeorieslon Black Underachievement

In examining the forces withineducation that contributed towards the setting up, of It be Black Supplementary School imovement, it is mseful to! consider the theories I thatrhavebeen advanced to explaimblack underachievement. The question as to why, black childrenof AtfricantCaribbeanlbackground perform ~esslfavourably' thannhein white or. Asian!peers-plU1icularly whemexam results areitaken into considerationhas. been explained on. the one hand as a I deficiency within the' black child's I environment (e.g, cultural deficiencies, relating!to the debate of cultural capital) and: on the oilier, as a deficiency within-the British.school environment (¢,g. institutional: racism), Thisseetien briefly summarizes the theories on deficienciesrin blacks, whilethe next section points to the deficiencies within the education system.

Genetic In/et:loriljl Theor.y

The !inferiority of black people: has been championed in every. decade of! the' twentieth century, most notably by G. Stanley Hall and Henry Goddard atlthe tum of! the century, Robert Yerks in the 1920s, Louis Terman in tihe 1930s, Henry, Garnett in, the 11940S, Carl Brigham in the 1950s, €ycil Burt in the 1960s, Arthur Jenson and; Hans Eysenck.in the 19:70s and 1980s (!Block & Dworkin, 1987; Franklyn, 1980),. andlRichard Herrnstein and Charles Murray in the 11990s,

It was the emergence of! IQ testing that: led to I the' specific theory of genetic inferiority. The argument: surrounded the belief that 'innate ability" (a loosely. used i term) existed'in allihumans andithat this phenomenonrcould be measured by IQ tests. The commonly, held' view. in education is that .children \Wth greater 'intelligence 'C8l11 be, expected to learn more rapidly and achieve higher levels .of academic mastery. than children I who are less intellectually. endowed. When it was revealed, that black, children as a igrOUP tended (on average) I to score 10 Ito 1151 points lower on I.Q. Itest I than white children, the stage was; sen for pseudo-scientific theories tihat would! openly attribute a supposed backwardness to the inheritance oflrugged I~I genes. If! black children scored less on average than thew white peers, it was arguedlthat they. were less intellectually endowed. It. is interesting to note; however,. that while: the

3

theory of genetic inferiority was based Ion the worR: ofl a British psychologist; cyril Burt, iti did not receive: the same attention in Britaiil 8Si it received iin the U.S~

Cultllrali DejkJency Theory ,

This i theozy subscribes to I the: beUef'tbat black; children umderachieve and willi continue Go underachieve !because of deficiencies within. the bllwk;culture itself, aiculture thattdoeamonlend Stselft4> suceessrwithim the:dominant culture:

Apart from the obvious I filctors of social deprivatlom such as bad housing: ov.ercrowding,IWlenlJ)loymen~ and low income, other 'Variables !have been cited as well, such as! lack of books in the mome, lack iof educational toys, and restricted conversation IOf blllc'k children 1Witi1 adults (intelligent and' meaningftil conversations). Black ip,arents, it iis argued, db not !function adequately las teachers within the home, particularly in regard to I the acquisition of languag~ skills, The lbelief driWng:this view is that .suceess inl school relies on a iliumtier' of! behavioural patterns and that black parents: do not raiSe their cllildren I the :way white ~middle class parents db. This lack of adequate or,ganized stimulation is viewed as leading to cultural deprivation, whichriit tum is viewed as the: cause of bor reading scores and'retardation in linguiStic, cognitive, and soeial development GRist. .1972).

Critics of the cultural depriivation theory have pointed out its shortcomings, both in its metllodS and its assumptions. Mabefl(198S) contended the:follbwing::

•. Thitt there were built-in biases in tile theory.of cultural deprivation from the start, and that black children who were perceived as culturally deprived but doing. we II at school; 89 well las black children who were not culturally! deprived, ,b'ut were performing:poorl}! at school) were Dot studied.

•. That the criteria furlmeasuring school performance andtadequacy of cultural background Iwere based on !White middle-class culturallvalues; tests, and skillS, and that by i those ,standardS, mostl of die world is cul~!deppved.

•. That it as implied I that children who fail in r school are ithemselves responsible furJtheir !failUre, rather than the schools 011 thel society.

lAw Teachert ExpectatiOn

This Itbeo!,&, explains blackrunderachievement ii1 terms> of low teacher expectation of :African Cl:aribbean children. Teachers, through preconcetved ideas of black children, expect them to produce work of lower quality than ether groups, andtas such, demand little from AfriCan caribbean ehildren. The spiral continues when their expectations are justified and I'tlfrican Caribbean chiidreOlproduce less work.

Numerous researchers 4Sagley. 19V5; Britain, 1976; Gashmore, 1982:

4

Fipera'& Swart HJ86; Gilesil977) have contended thantheir smdiea showed tliat such attitudes I were widespread among: teachers i in British schools, and tliat teachers did indeed expeet less of i6lfiican . Can'bbean children thana of their white andl Asian peers. C])se study found that black I Can'btieanl pupilsl were often above average ability, but I were: assessed by the scliools as underadhieving andl ha\liDg difficulty/in fonningirelationships with other pJ.lPils and teachel'SI(ORSTED, 1996). The Socialist. Teachers' i6lllianae once summed it up like this:

We have toichallenge racistjconcepts both in our mindsrand mlothelt processes of our education s)!stem, which often helps to Iproduce in teachers an nmder-estimation of tile black chil'd's intellectuall poten« tial, and ofl their, social I behaviour, Such under-estimation is a ke)'l factor, in the :underachievement ~drome - setting SOl many Iblack and ethnic minority youngsters on a course not onlY for. theinschool life, but for: their! opportunities, or Back of them thereafter (Etiutt &J 1i'earce,.l988~ p.9)l

lnstitlltlonal Wacum

ThisltheopY suggestsithat educational underachievement may be seen within the widen context of society and the' institutional racism Ithat exists iwithful institutions asia whole. This plays a largeipart in curtailing tbe ambitions oflmany witlUn the black commanity, The Ramptonr Committee (1981) was set UPltO look atuhe problems facing ethnic minority pupils ill the British ieducation system. The report deflned-racisnn as: :

a set of attitudes and I behaviour I towards people of another race whichliS based on beliefithat races are distinct and can be.graded as 'superior' or 'inferior'; A racist is,therefOre some who believes that people of a Ip,articular race, colour or nationallorigiiJ. are inherently' inferior, SOt thatl theiI ijdentity, culture, self-esteem,. views; and feelings are! less valued than. hisIher OWDI and can be disreganted or treated as less important (Rampton Committee of1Inquiry, 1981).

Almost two decades later, the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry qNlacphersoD, 1999) also adciiessed the issue of racism in the educaticm system. They 'recommended that

consideration be.given to amending the National Curriculum aimed at valuing cultural diversity! and preventing racism.

Locall Bducationr Autliorities and school governors have a I duty to create and implement strategies in their schools to prevent and address racism.

s

The Stephemllawrence.repcrnwas welcomedlby die black community and it heralded a national debate on race and racism I and fhe embracement oflBrltlSh values. 'lroday,~however,: some educators are alread)f lamenting!the reversal bftlie gains made iIi that cruci8ll diseourse .. G8I)'! Younge (2002) tis in no doubt that the pendulum is swingilig baek: "We are retumingjto the crude and flawed mythol": ogy! of ill mono-racial, culturally uniform Bl1itish identity in whiohl non-white people's presence lstoleratedt- and eventhen only eonditienally ..... " l(p. 25).

Though these interp,-etations may imp;ly that certain attitudes and behaviours must be in place in iorder to lfacilitate certain outcomes, and that the notion of 'superionand inferior' tieings. must be at the core of! thls, some social scientists (Sivanandan, .1I983D have pointed out that the s~fieant dssue ~ in sucll matters is power and where this power nesides iin the society. Sivanandan stated that: "The acting out of prejudice is discriinination and when it becomes institutionalised in the power structure of society. thenlwe are dealing - not with attitudes - but willi power. Racism is about power.mot about prejudice" {po 2).1

This i notion of! power ean be: connected to I the Supplementary School movement. The development lof these schools was purely of local interest and' a reaction to local control ofl schools ani power' from a variety: of p,olitical perspectives, li et it is I the overwhelming experiences of black: peol¥e that reinforce:the:realities ofiraciSm: the exclusion ofibigberl percentages oflblacld chiltiren within the educational system; die denial of! access of full participation in BritiSbllife ($ociBl exclusion); the almost total exclusion of lbe contribution (If blaCk people in ehildrenls books and the~schooll curriculum; the situation of poer houaing, bigher rates ot unemployment; and Ithe awareness among some !black school1eavers:that their career opportunities :depend not on their skills; Hut on the degree oflnwismt oflbeir prospective employers,

Low SelfiConeepttl..oKl SeljlBsteem

This ithear.y explains Iblaclq underachievement by the dehumanising process experienced by larg~ sections of tHe black community, leadilig:many to experi« ence self .. hatred and self-i'ejection.1 <I;hildren of! Afitiean Caribbean backgrounds were experiencing Ithe effects of the negative way society! tends to view tliem. As a whole theyiwere, perceived las having lewen self-esteem land' self-Concept than their English peers, It could be argued that negativeanitudes directedltowards an ethnic or cultural group were likel)l Ito engender some: degree ofl self': dlsparagemennas members of that Igroup struggle tOI escape from their negative environment, .

Studies first caniedl out in America, and later repeated in the United Kingdomr(Bagley &: Coard, ~97S; !Hill, 1970~ Milner, 1915; Pearson, 19174), all showed I some degree of self-relection among black' children I and a: craving to identify I willi Eurepean typel i style characteristics; and cultural images. The

6i

studies were large~!basec!l around the 'doll tests,' where-children were shownlthree: dolls ot1 different cultural'origins and were asked to pick! out the dol] they IresQmble, most However, other studies (Davey &! Mullen, 1980; JLomax,: 1977; Stone, 1980)1 all emphasized that the case of rej~on of ethnic idenb'ty wasmonsubstantiated im their research. As well, in today's eurrentscciety, some ~ctslonlack culture are: no.w very acceptedl Black cultural I events such as i Kwanza I or The Nbtting HiIll Carnival,. and anusieal trends such as steel bands, rap land raga. me today more: popular, thanl ever. As;8 consequence, concepts .of black low self esteem and! selfl.concept and the. cultural rejection of1tilack children may not be totally bomerouti by! the realities, of today's situation;

Black MllchiBmo and A"tl-sohool Culture

This i theouy explains: black underachievement i as a !by-product of 'black ; masculfuityl"a behaviouraltpanem adopted, by black youthS;as 8 survival mechanism: within the school system. lHowever4 the resulting thought 'p'ocesses of these chiildren I are a completedismissal of the institution ofschoolihg throughla desire tolbi'eak with: the dominant' culture and Iforge an alliance with the underclass communit)! (Seweil; 19917). This is:a variation on Ithe theory iof cu1furall deprivation; and recommends a' program IOf black ego-recovery to, save bfack.youths (in particularly black boYS)i from educational oblivion.

In a I stud)! of black youths ana community college in the U.S;, W.eis 0988)1 explained this behavioural pattern: .

Given that student cultural form at Urbani <College acts largely I to reproduce the urban underclass, success m school represeets al severe break with tile underclass community. Since! the collective otrers the only seeuriq.. smdeurs have, the individUal must carefully weigh his or her chances for success; against the lOSSi of security, that tthe community pllovidesl(p.12S).

Supporters of this perspective have identified a number o1inegatiJie behavioural' patterns.tbat accompany! this blackunachismoisub-cuhure.i'Ihe tension and at times I op,en conflict between blacki students and their teachers, the banding together oil black youths ,into the 'Rosse/ the anti-school attitude and the opea challenging oil authoriq..~ have alllcombined to produce, this hyper~masculine :heterosexuality black I sub-culture that is althreat to all black youths in the educetionsystem. According tOI Mac and Ghaill (l994)~ "The Black Macho I Lads were particulaITly vindictive tOI Africanl ctariblJelUb academic :students wh'o overtlYI distanced Ithemselves from Itbis anti-school strategies. In JJeSponse, die Black Macho Lads labelled them 'batty men" - a homophobic comment" (cited in SeweU & Majors, 2001, p.:188).1

It is; argued that a ioombination of! factors, namel)1, .10W! teacher expectation, teacher racism, and peen groupjpressure are sRecifically working together. to support I

this i anti-school culture. Othen cultural i phenomena • that add I to the- culture of resistance, such as black music; gangster rap, underworld 'yardie' criminal; have allicontributedito thiS 'racial identity. development' that leaves black youths in an educational vacuum, with disastrous consequences. Sewell and Majors: (!ZOO 1 ) argue that most schools and I educationall authorities lack clarity and direction (courage -even) tOI take' on the issues of black masculinity, and 'to this end] prescribe:a programme ofr'ego-recoveryr"

There .are three aspects .of the 'black ego recovery' to! be found in Townsliip. First, the abandonmennof Black.Nationalism, not Iblack: pride but a theoreticalfframework ~at has its 1I'00ts. in the European Enlightenment. Second.ithe need not to. engage in a,mindlbody split, which 1 should have the same subversive implications - it had f/i)r feminist theory. Third'was the need for, black youth sub-culture to shift from an uncriticall reportage' in learning and' play. to a 1 more oreative framework that explores I new avenues; and opens, fresh spaces. (p.l95)

It is i suggested I that the' deconstruction of black masculinity (the: taking control of their behaviour) w.ill not ialone bring about a change in the level of school achiev.ement, but-that this needs to be accompaniediby changes in the way school is organised.ias well as changes in iteaeher-attinide and I their expectations ofiAfrican Caribbean bQy~. Sewell land Majors (200E) see'black ego recovery as specifically tackling the, idea 1 that some -black children have that to be good in school means one :is acting wHite (R. 198). Arnot (2004) I concurs: : 'Formidable peer pressure is applied bn those who are oncool enough Ito appear torbe keen on lessons and homework' (R. 6)1

Deficit models; focussing on cultural deficiencies Wiithiri :black children's environments have, promoted for a long time. To concentrate solely on the macho misogynist excesses of black youth iculmre-eholding these up las the dominant culture features in the community-is nothing more than extrapolating al part to represent I the. whole. Even today, _ some of the most visible: exponents of the excesses of black macho .culaire, i.e., Ali G, .are not even black. Similarly, the issue of working class youth disaffectiom with the education system is an age-old problem, lone, that crosses cultural boundaries .and has been the iissue: of a recent study (Davies, 2000). TIle attitude: of young Ipeople to the - education . system depends largely upon the academic aspirations of the immediate community, the encouragement the)! get within the school environment; and I a host of other factors ..

Taking:tbe debate forward

The current debate 'on ecllucational aehievemenn and the black: child seems too -often to ignore: anbnportant factor-that. of the very nature of the state

81

education system. I argue.here that.the preblems experienced by the black-child are' strongl)l connected 'to lihe education system. Schools are increasingly I becoming; stratified lalong class lines and! the: overall effect has been schools; with 'larger and i larger intakes ofworkingclass.children .. As one example, Ithere'is one school iruthe Landon: Borough oil Hackney! with :1Ii pupil population oftup to 80% liIlack j African I Caribbean children, and another school, merely ,3001 metres away from the first, with: a similan student population of visibly white middle class children. This form of! educational apartheid seems to have the endorsement of some' officials : with in I the' LEA. A I parent enquiring about a school fCDD her, childi was. once told I that she' shouldn'n entertain the thought of sending her childlto the nearest lprimat}' school" because it had a high percentage of African Caribbean children.

Though most state mainstreamschools weuld insist that their intake isibased om a transparent: process-the caption system-eitiis becoming increasingly clear that I 'biddem selectiontis openly p,racticed,on grounds .of attainment (West:& Hind" 2006), socialgrouping, and, asitheGommission fon Racial Equality.haveshown, by, 'race.'

It is i this sort of inequity that has: spurred some. leaders within, the black. community to call I for the setting u~ of 'black only schools' employing black' staff and'being adininistered tlirougb black school governors (Jasper, 2002). Itee Jasper; probably the, most formidable voice im the. education debate within I the black: community, is convinced !that the only credible'responsefromrthe black community. is to take responsibility for their' children's, education I and dictate: the; education I agenda themselves. In Jasper's words:

Schools are racially separated currently: righn threughout the country, the: experience of fblacki children aSI a consequence of parental choice, and selective education is :quite simpl)! resulting in selective; raclally. separated: schools largely located! in black areas, The general I result is, sink, run down, local I authority schools that are majority black schools, with I failing education standards, with-majorit)! white teachers, and' with usually allwhite or majority. Governors boards (p. 6.)

Black) Supplementary schools, l1Ul1 by parents and community groups.ihave.beem around for ov.er thiJtbt years, and have been promotedlas one solution to the problem, Yenmoreis needed.lBastiimi fj2000) seesithe role of1Education ~ctionl Zones (EAZs)1 as; the facilitators of more effective' practice: .. by. identifying ways. in which both I supplementary: schools and mainstream providers, statutory and: voluntary, cam involve 'parents, families . and the community. and strengthen .theinsupport fori the: progress of children (or whom they. share vesponsibility" CR. 3).

Despite widespread'dissatisfactlon among the black community with the state oil the education system, then. black-only schoolsuapartheidtin educarien) are nonthe:

answer.:Black parents domotlneedlto be. constantly! reminded of their crucial role in 'the education of !their ehildrem: their, community Ibased educational fuitiatives speak fon themselves. They need to know Ithat their' children w.ill gain equal status with others within Ithe . state! education, system. This means: that any proposed initiatives willibave:to be examined1closely. For example; the proposals by New Labour to bring in l<pJBSii-academic vocational schools OOSEs (General certificate of! Secondary Education) will need to! be particularl)'! scrutinized particularly carefully.: Many ofithe vocational areas will be givemacademic status; but are they academic disciplines? Will these: fuitiBtives i h geared ItoW8l'ds working class children, 'and iil particular, toward !African Ciribbean children in our schools? In 1997, New lI,abour 'abolished !the :Assisted Places: Scheme (peviously set up to cream offthelbest ofworking:classlchildren whose parents could not afford to pay for an independentlschoolleducation). Though a:C8Se is notlbeing made here forsbe re·ojlitrodlictioD' of this scheme. (the :abuses of the scheme are weill docwnented), black parents would welcome a more equitable distribution of! second8IYI school places for quality state schools.

In the U.K., w.e:seem to have an educated elite, one:tbat islbent on extending further and further privileges to some indiViduals at itlte expense of others., It would seem that in the presentio~ the II11li:i1g classes g~ the-best (subsidized by tax payers money !though their private. school's charitable status)J the middle:classes get all that is in the middle ~tbe replicas; of the private: education !System that ds being put intOI place b)l the present government)" and the working, class, black children in particular, get whatever' is lett within 1he education system, unfortunately.

References

Arnot, <I:.: (2004, March 30). Where white Iliberals fear to tread, The Guardian, .

EdUcatiolll Guardian, p.6l

Bagley"a. (119:75).'A comparalive perspective on the edUcation o/blackiohildren in Br.ilaim London:· Centre fon Information and IAdviCe om the :Educationally Disadvantaged ..

Bagley" C., 8d Coard, B. (1005).1 Cultural knowledge: and rejection of ethnic identity inlWest Indian children I in II,ondomln O. Verma &; C. B'agleJi (Edsr), Race and educatiomacrosseultures (pp.322-33 1). Londom Heinemann.

Bastiani,lJ. (2000)~ SupRlementary schooltng In the:Damb8lh Educational Action ZOne. Uunbetti EAZ: Institute for FubliclPolioYlResearch

Blbck, Nl, & !Dwollkin, G,; (1 ~7). The /(1 k:ontrover.sy. London: 'Quartet Books. Brittan, B. (1916). Mu1ti-racialleducation:Teachersr opinions on aspects of school life. Educational R8Searo/t 18,97-JOO.

·10

Cashmore, E; (1982). Black youths. sports and education: New O>mmunity,; X, 213-222.

Davey, A Gi,.& Mullelij P. N. (1I980)~ Ethnie identificarions.and references of BritiSh primary.school children. 30urnal o/Child Psychology and Psychiat1W. 11. 2411-251.

Dawes,N. (2000) .. The School report: WhY BrJtain'~ schools are failing itSipuRils.

London: V~ge Press.

Ehutt, K., & Pearce, B. 41988). Raeism and schbols..· £ducat;o1J J.4.dviSory Committee! London: Socialist Teachersl AlliBnce~ Communist Party of Great Britain.

Figueroa, P.,. & Swart.. T. (986)1 Teacher and RUPils1 !l'8ciSt and !ethBocentric thunes

of reference: A case study. New laommunity.i XIIl(f1.), 40-511

Franklyn; V .. (198.0). Black social 'scientists I and the mcntaillesting movement 1920-1940. Iil R. Jones (Ed.),IBlack Psythologx. (2pd' ed), New York::Harper andlRoane.

Gillborn" D." & Mirza. H. (2OUO).! Educational inequality: Mapping race. class and "ndel'! London:,lIJniversit)\ of London ..

Gites, Rl. (1977). The West Indian experience in British sc"ool's.~ Muld-racial education.and socialladvantagB! in Landon. London: Heinemann,

G~ If. (D998)~ From !New RigJ;ttl to New IDeal: Nationalisml glabalisation and the: regulation I of teaches professionalism .. Journal 'of In-servioe Education, 24(nl,9-29.

Hilll D. :(970). Theattitudes of West Indian and Etiglishladolescents,in Britain ..

Race, .11.21-30 ..

John, G .. (1989). PiJrenJs and. students r power. ajier the Baker Education Attt.

Keynote :Address atl the 2ad Annual General Meeting' of the :NationallAssociation of Supplementary Schools. London, lllK.

Jasper, L. (2002, APril I D6). Black schools. white 'ru/es~' Briefing:Baperfor the Trust Conference on Black Education, IPrlde.ParkIDarby, UK.

Lomax.P, (119r77).! Selflconcept of girls in a.context of disadvantaging environmena Educational Review; 29,\117-114.

Mabey" C. (1985) . .Achievement of B/'ack ~;lsL' Reading: eompetenees as a predictor cf exam succe~;among .Afoo-Caribbean~pilsdn London. Unpublished doctoral I dissertation, Institut8 ofl Bducarion, Universiljyt of l!.ondon, U.K.

Macpherson, .1Lord (] 999, Februar}l). The StepheKlI Lawnence Inq~iry. Ilondon, HMSO; em. 4262-1

Id

Milner, .Ii>. (1975)~ Children land race. Harmondsworth, U.K~, Penguin Books, OFSIfED.: (1996) .. Exc/usions .from secondary sf;flools . 1 99J16. Uondon, HMSO.

Pearson, A. (974). West Indluns in Easton: A study of tHeir sooial t9rganisations. Unpublished tlbctoral dissertation, University of Leicester, Leicester, U.Ki ..

Ramptonl Committee of'Inquiry lIlqwrt .. (1981). Westv lndtan cHildren, in our

sch'ools: The report of the committee of enqui7')f into the edilcation ofiohildren from I ethnic minority groups. lJondom HMSO, COnndJ 8273.

Rice, A!. 1{1990, March 120). :Saturday schools, face : uncertain future. Caribbean Times.3J

Rist, R.1(1972). Th'e'selfLfulfilling prophecy in ghetto education) In V! Hunt (Ed.~, Human intelligence (pp. 232 -247) .. New Brunswick,NJ::1l'ransactionIBooWs.

Sewell, :Ii. (1997). Black masaulinities and schooling. Londom Trentham Booksl

Sewell., T., &. Mlijors, R. (2001)j IBIacIt ~ and schooling: Ani intervention ftameworlt fOIi understanding tile dilemmas of masculinity! identity land underaehievemenn In R. Majorst (Ed.~, Educating oar Blbck ohlldren ~. 183-203). ILondbn: Rbutledge/iRalmer.

Sivanandan, A. (1983)j BritiSh raelsm; The roadl to 1984! Institute of Race Relations,'l, 2431.

Stone, M. (r980)~ The' eduoauon. of the Black cHild in Britain:' rrhe ~ my tit. of multiracial edUcation. Londonr Fontana Books,

Weis, L. (1988). Class, race and g~nderlin American educationl Albany: :state:

Universif:)l of New Y erk Press i

West, f!k., & Hind,.A. (2003).,Seconda'YI school admission in England: Exploring the. went. o/,uvert. andl covert: seleclion.~ Londom Centre fort Educational Research; :Department of Socia1 Policy; ,l1ondon Schooll ef Bconomics and Political Science.

Younge, G. (~002,.Pebruary 8)1 Britain is againiwbite. The Guardian; 25.1 •.

Lionel MbCaIman as a seniorlb!:cturer intthe S'Chool ef Education and Community Studies,j llJniversit)j GfEast London. He was a schoollteaeher iit secondary schools in Guyana and'the IUnited! Kingdom, .andi is a peripatetic teachen at Ilister Communify, School, Londbn Boroughl of NewItam. Lionel is also a rschoel' governor at Lauriston Primar}'! School in Hackney, ·Correspondence tOI Lionel McCalman should be ad~sed to: :School of Education" liTniversilyJ of East London, !Dagenham, Essex RlM8 2IJtS; +44 (0)2082123 2592; L.McCalman@uel.ac.uk

12

Pameipants' '<roncems in the Practicuml

Edwin G.Ralph ,

As afollow-up study to the ,outhon 's report presented in. 2001.in JISTE, ·6 (2), regarding interns' concerns during, their. extendedJpracticum,' the present study cempQKes the concerns of the interns with the sconcernsv of tlte'classroom, cooperating teachers in the same extended praaicum .. Both! groups a/participants, identified iheir initial concerns aboutl the internship, and describ'ed how these concerns changed over the course' of the 16j,week praaticum. Eviden&e Wasl found th6l~ bOlh supported and questioned '}fullen and! Bowni's (J975) original thT'ee.,.stag/f .concem model) The implicatians of these: results may help inform -procticum. organizers, in their ongoing quest /.0 improve, pre-service. schoal-based experiences (or pnospeetive teachers.

Introduction

The growth process by whichmovice teachers,expand their professional expertise.Iberliaer; 1986, Shulman; 1986, 19817) involves: (a) thew piecing together of their personal and professional' identities CMilIer Marsh, 2003 ); (b) the development of. them teaching! self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986; C1Juskey! & Passaro, 1994;, Soodak &I Podell, 1996); BIldl(~} their progression tI\rougll a series of Stages of professional improvement in their teachiDg practice {Borich & Thmbari, ~995; Pigge & MOrso,1997}1

A key purpose of extended-practicum programs .in teacher education has been to Iprovid~ opportunities for neophyte teachers Ito experience die reality oflday-t~da)1 school life as they begin to rdevelop their professional teaching repertoire for Itheirfuture career (Beynon, Geddis.& onslow, 2001). One measure of bow effectively an extended-praoticum program. achieves, this objectiv.e~would be to ascertain to What extent the program helps to alleviate the personal and prcfessionaltconcerns 6md reduce 1fhe apprehensions} about the practicum thanbothrthe pre-service and the supervismg teachers experience.

The two-fold purpose of1this study.was: i(a) to examine teacher .. interns' andltheircooperating teachers" expressediconcems.about the intemsliip, both

I A more expansive report of this stt1dy (4:omplete with statistics, tables, de~ tailed analysis and iextensive bibliogr:apby) is available from the author,

13

before and after their extended-praeticum experience, and (b) to draw implications fr.om these findings for helping. pre-service teachers to resolve: their concerns. and thereby improve the everall effectiveness Gf extended-practicum programs.

What Has Previous Researeh Revealed IAbout Teachers' Concerns?

The pertinent iliterature regarding die concerns' of novice teachers identifies a range: ef findings, On; the one hand, some: researchers have suggested that novice teachers pass through a liner progression of speciflc developmental stages elll route to their achievement of prefessional' expertise (Fullen & Bown, 1975j Nyquist & Wulff, 1'96). Fon instance, Allen and <J:asbergue fj1997) identifiedia grouping: of 1Ihree stages;' Piland and Anglin fj 1993) from Itheir research derived four stages oflteacher development; while Head, Reim8I4 and' Theis-Sprinthall (1992) reported a progression of four-to six I phases or steps that! neophytes traverse toward achieving teachingicompetenoe.

Fuller and Bown (1975)1 originally maintained that 'novices were primarily concerned with "self' and "survival" issues; then with, "task" concerns; and finally, "impact" concerns. Subsequent research on this model has yielded mixed results .. For instance, Pigge and Marso (1997)1 contlrmed' the: original findings, while other research indicated that the stages did not necessarily follow in sequence (Calderhead, ~989')J because of intervening personal, program, or contextrvariables such as: gender, cognitive ability, belief systems, uime-frame (Ghaith' & Shaaban, 1999). Moreover, some research has shown that neophyte teachers are not necessarily: eharacterized ti),! a strict passage through, these hierarchical stages I(HousegQ •. 1992; Sandlin, Young, & Karge, 1992~ 1993)! Furthermore, professionals all any age or stage may exhibit a range. of attributes characterizing-a varlet:}'! of developmental stages depending on the' context of their unique 'situations (Smith I & Sanche, 1992, 1993 ).1 Thus, . a more realistic perspective seems ito b one that conceptualises I beginning ~eaohers' 'professional development: as an, individual I path I that rna)! reflect a gf!nel'ai pattern toward increased professional autonomy, but thatialso allows for: specific and contextual differences according to the individual's personality" life experience, and immediate context!(Valli,.1993~.

All of this research=though not in perfect agreement as Ito the particular pathway ithat teachers folloW! as they negotiate their professional development journey-c-is consistent about the fact that teachers do develop.their.professional knowledge and skills in aiprogressively sequential mannenas they encounter and deal with a variety of difficulties and concerns. However, this. sequence is individual andlcontextual,

1141

What Dltt tht!Present Stud)'! Find?

In the present study; I as the CoUegl'~Supervison of niDe cohorts IOf teacherinterns and th'eir classroom cooperating teachers (CCTs),.requested dre interns to identifyltheirlooncems al:iout!the mternship and teacbing"both ibefOre and aften theft extended!practicum experiences, Asr a manenof comparison, llalso asked five: of ·the nme sub-cohorts! of OCTs 10 identify, their pre- and Ippst-sessioD concerns about the,practiaum and their supervisory role in the practieum,

I cempared tl1e: tindfugs iwith Ithose in previous related sesearch, aad also drew inferences not only for eobancmg the supervisory practice:in the ex\eIlded-l practicum program investigated here, but also! fori infonning: other institutions seelting:to improve Itheir practlcum linitiatives (Donmo}F, 1990). Not surpris« ingly, a clear: finding was tlBt respondents !fi'oQlI both, sub-groups reported experiencing: initiaIl apprehension I in some foim .about certain facets .cf tl1fI internship. Likewise, these subjects reported than whil~ most of itheit· earl)'! concerns, were alleviatedl as Itl'le praetieum progressed., ii:l some cases certain concerns tingered (In new ones emerged.

Fi11dlnpon lhaeller-Interns .

Although a certain degree.of apprehension about onlis fUtUre performance in an unknown situation is nQllJl8l.,1 and even health)'! to some extent (Buskist 8d Gerbing, .1990), it !Would be unrealiStic to exgect pre-sellVice teachen education, na matter h~ effective at is PllfROrtedi to be. to prevent sucll concerns: from arising .. A critical principle of constructiVism in cogliitive-develbpment psychology! in general, and current teacher edueatlon refbrm sAecificall)'l,. is that the mentoribs pmctices duriilg 11m practicum period I Should nat I merely seek to prevent I dissonance from ,aris~g among, teacber-interns" but 1bat the practicum should assist tl1em to deal 'constructively With their concerns (Brown & Palinscar ~ 1989; Housego, 19.~; MayerJ200l)i

A general i6nding frPm tl1e:present study was tI1at alnofthe interns indicated thanmany ofltheirlihltia1lconcerns,tiad been aIIevi~ during their four~monili internsJ»p. However, a ~jority of tHese mternS! also expJiessed that tHey Had one orsnoreillngering concems, altIiougblthey stated that most oftl1ese later concerns did Inot !Seeml as pressing! as 1hose tliat they reported at die beginning. Anotherr finding;W8S that 411 teaoher-dnterns rep'ortedi having gaiiled lpositive personal results from their wactioum. experience. Bachlrespoodent was able, i8t the end IDf the practicum, to identify two lor more areas of prof~sional streagtlll

Taken tcgeiher, the1 teacher-interns': ueportll ofitheir,experiimc8SI seemed to reflect the generallmovomenutbrough FUler and Bown'. (197~) three stages Q)f professional concern, This same generalhaovementrwas reflected in· the findings

lJS

for those COTs who were new to the I supervisoIy role. For instance,l at tile begInniDg ofi the !term,1 one: mentor who was workiDg with her, firstJ intern expressed: ''Will Dbe an effectivetmentbr- What and How much do I llave to otTer my intern? Om I sive criticiSm in 8 professianal way? I migHt WIlDt to tie too Dice." 11te veteran CCTs; on the other band, cgcpressed concems lqely at the thin! Ievell (e.&. "Will the intern learn? Will he findlit rewardiDg and come away and say. 'Thi's has been a great experience'") ..

In sum. the d81a ftQm teacher.&intems substantiate die previoUS! research QD novice teadta' concerns (B0rlch,,2OOO; Fuller&; BoWllj 197~; Ghaith" Sbaaban, 1999), namelY that (a) initial concerns centre mainly I on self and task categories, 00 1hese concerns diminish with increased P.JOfessional experience, (e) noviCes' QODcet'IL'i are indiVidualized Bnd are not necessarily experienoed inla riaid sequence, (d)lthese K individualized" contextslare fiIamed by uDiquelsets vf variables, such as:; personal tieliefS, personallteacher ~ copit:io1ij matBrity, en'Viromnental condiIioDs, and'supervisory relationship, and (e) an iicrease in leachers' sense of effiCacy alleviites tfle neptiveleffect of teaching concerns.

FlbdIBgs OR Clusrooaa Coopera .... Teaehen

The initi8I concems cgcpressed by the CCT'a iin the study focused Ion die following issues: 4a) their overalllseDSI of effectiveness as B mentor; (b) tile limitations olongqiDg time constraints ("to get everytbiiIg done weU");:( c) die decisi~ to inlmvene in the intem'lI teaching; (d) ~ intern's actualIreadfness to talte over full teaching duti. (e) the intern'. classroom-management abilities; (f)! the desire,to make the practicum anloverall positive:experience for interns; and (g) the sttuggl~ to relinquish CQDtrollof"tl1eir" students to the intern.

Anlanalysis of the data ,,~ that althbugh tthe CCTs Initially expressed concems refl6c1:iDaall tHree stages of Fuller and Down's (197'> concemsmodel, the CCTs' early concerns were weigtltechnoreltOwanl1helsecond and third ~ than were those of their intem.protIg6s. n is ~ notewordty that, aslW8S the case for the iintems in the post-survey,;all oftbe!CCTs ideJ1tlfied a decline in die extent oftheit original concerns. Purthermora, the CCT$' initial concerns about the interns' ~fessicmaP leamiDg were either elimiDatecl Or &ODlCwtIat alllwiated because! of the interns' develqpment ofgedaP,gical competenee and confidence that occurredIas ~ practicum progressed. By the end of the pacticum,1 0Dly18 tow of the cooperating 1leaChars repmted either that new concerns Bad msen or that some dearee Qftheir initial anxieties stilIlremained. .However, compared to the number of interns who b'ad lbigering concerns. the! number of CCTs wlio reported havibg them was very sma1l.

A ~esis of the !above fiDeSinp IC011'Oborates the resUlts frOm previous researdi bot11 in the areas of diflkences between expert and novice teachers (B\2iJDer, 1986; Shulman, 1987), and the stages or levels of teacllers' profes-

16

sional development (Borich. ,2000t Valli; 1993). It.is evidentnhat although both the interns and the CCTs identified specific: concerns. these, eoneems were different for each group, due to thein diffi:rent!Sets oflrolesrand responsibilities, .in that the interns were learning to teach andlthe OCTs were developing their supervisory skills. Although each group reflected !the tHree stages-ofconcern, the ,ccn' concerns were generally in tae second and third categories. while those of 'the interns were: typ,icall}f iin the first and second categories.

Thus. this study confirms, first, that experienced teachers tend to centre on concerns and priorities that are at a higher 1PT0fessionali level than IthOse of ' beginning teachers (Livingston &! Berko, 1989)., Interns. initially' anxious about self and task issues. shifted to I task .and impact! concerns: as they developed their instructional competence and cenfidence throughoun the practicum. Likewise, new COs expressed early concerns lat the self and ltask stages and similarly shifted I to task and imp,act concerns as the)' gained supervisory experience during the 16 weeks. Experiencedeupervisors, on the other hand, identified initial concerns at Ithe :iinpact level; in fact, a fewl of them wrote on their pre-survey thanthey had no I initial concerns.,

A second related finding; confirmed both by the related research andlby educators' personal experiences in a variety of teachingl1eamiiIg settingsl is that expert teachers-by virtue off their richer background af accumulated experience-have developed not only a more integrated "cognitive schemata" about the teaching process than their neophyte ceunterparts I$oru::h, 2000; Livingston &' Berko, 1989), but also a keener> abilib'l to diScriminate between important and unimportant facts. evems, or situationsl(Berliner. 1986). Hence, the CCTs in this study were able ''to see.thefbrest.nononly.the trees,'"and thus could draw the interns'; attention rto certain broader issues that these novices lmay had not even considered at that point.

A third finding that emerged wast that although the CCTs bad more pedagogical expertise than their proteges, iiJ.experienced supervisors often expressed the same levels oli concern (i.e., at the .self and task stages) I that interns identified, but in the area of Ide vel oping their,OWD levels of campetence and confidence in applying the supervisory: model used im the practicum program. Just as the CC:Ts mentored th:eir interns ito develop their teaching efficacy, I in, my role as College Supervisor mentored the C~Ts to .develop their mentoring effieacy.in their understanding and application of the supeevisory approach.

What are Some Implications for Practlcum !OrgQnizers?

One imp'1icatioD emerging from this study of the differences lbetween

117

experienced and novice teachers' concerns is that neophytes' professional d1evel~ oRmentlmustltie facilitated individually and cODtextuallYf Thus, a key insjght ~s not to deny or prevent protegc!sr concerns from arising, but to assist them to work through these: difficrulties. Thus, mtherl fuanl being: discredited for' addressing novicesf "low level'f self'andlsurvival skills, administrators of1teacher education programs should bolster, theirleft'ortSl in this regard,.with the realization diat with "sensitive andl sensible" mentoring,. theirl pre-service neophytes will shift then; areas of coneern from self, to itask, . to learner considerations, (lUlpH, 1993 , pI 283D.

A second inference ~ !draw ifi'om this IStud}l is thatlcontiilued work needs to be done by College of Education personnel in I order tID assist . teacher-interns to imwove iin the three areas identified as deficient,. namely: classroom management, iIistructionat mettiodol6gies, , and evaluating pupilst'progress. These: areas have been identified in other researeh about the program in our college (Ralph, 1995, 11998);! but teachen eduoatorsiwithin other campus- andlfieldtbased programs may also need to I consider 'assisting grospective:teachers torreduee the proverbial practice/theory g~p: with! respect to these three areas (1)1 classroom teadhing ..

Yet Ithe :resollvingof interns' andl CCTSI~ concerns andl thein continued professional development wilt not I occur as a result of mere experience or practice alone (McGown et. al., 1999) .. Novices, must be mentoredl in the development lof the reflective construction ofltheir personal tlIeories of teaching onmentoring, as the case mayibe (l!.ivingston & Berko; J989)J nus stutty bas confirmed that veteran teachers, in them mentcrshipiroles do; m fact, help thew inexperfenced lcolleaguesron Ithis reflective journey" During the practicum pregram examined here, the mentors allgnedlihelnsupervisory responses in inverse proportions to Itbefr proteges • 'respective .developmental fevelslaf teaching skills, By following this pattern, thei supervisoll}'! pm were able Ito confront collabora" tively the novices' 'specific concerns, and ", .• to take onnhe negative emotions . , . ;workillg tbrGug11 the diScomfort of diversity! , ... " (Full~ 19917, p. 231), whicli SOl OftellICharacteri2:es tIE anxieties thatt both. arise and I recede fon beginniJig teachers :an~ mentors during: theirr ealily respective teaching or. supervisol1! experiences.

A third implication as that the key stakehoUierslresponsible Ifor die org!lDiza .. tion and operation of die: internshipl namely,. the College: of Education and the school d1visibns in ,0urIjPrisdictio~ have further work to do-iindWiduall&' and jointly-m order to amprove the extended-practicum program .. The goal of all pre-service teacher' education .programs.. moreover; should be tor address the participlUlts' concerns in a pre-active rather tllan a reactive manner,: and to-do so at I the precise level diey appear; The IUltunategoal for individuals i in the mentoriag role is to deal' seriously with diem proteges' needs.dn order to help

18

them " .•• to structure their own self-improvement plans i ••• " ((Joodl& Brophy. 2000, p, 506).l8y doingso, mentorsiwill helpmovices on thew way to becoming effective' and .exemplaryr professionals i who, themselves, will eventually be enabledlto mentor the next generation of1educators ..

References

Allen, R., & ~asbergue, ,R. (1997) .. Bvolutionef'nosice througb expert teaehers'' recall! Implications . for effective reflection on' practice. Teaching and Teacher Bducation, J 3(7)~ 741-755.

Bandura, A. 01986). Social foundations ofllhought and aotlon: A sociill c081litiVe Iheolj{. Englewood Cliffs, !NJ: PrenticetHaU.

Berliner.. D. (~986). In pursuit ofl the: expert pedagogue. Educational Re .. searcher, JD(7)~ 5-13 ..

Beynon, C., Geddis, A., & Onslow, B .. 1(2001). JJ.eaning-to-teacm Cases and

&oncepts!pr novice teachers anditeacher educators. Toronto. Prentice

Hall.

Borich, G. (2000) .. Effective teaching methods ~Ih ed.), ~blumbus, OH: Merrill.

Borich,.G., &;Tombari~ M. (11995~.1 EdUcational RS)'chology1 A cDntemporazy.

I1IpproaCh.i NeW! York: Harper Collins.

Brown, A, & PaliiIscar,;A. (J989)~ Guided, cooperative ~earning and individual knowledg~ acquisitien In IIJ. Resnick OEd.), .Knowingl teaming, and instrucnom Ess~ in. honot: of'Rober~ Glaser (jpp. 300-452). Hillsdale, NoR Erlbaumr

Buskist, W.,.& Gerbing, D .. 01990). Psychology. Boundaries and frrmtiers; Glenview, 11: Scott, Foresman.

Calderhead, J. (1989). Reflective teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teaoher Education, Sit/, 43.;51.

Donmoyer, RL (1990). GeneraUzability and the single-case study.IntE. Eisner &l A. Peshkiitl(Edsi), Qualitative inquizy. in education: The continuing:debate (pp . .1175-200). New Ybrk::Teachers Cellege, Columbia UniversitY,.

Fullan, M. (1997) .. Emotion and hop.e: Constructive conc.epts for complex times.

In At Hargreaves (Ed), Rethinking educational change withsheart and mind:

J 997 ASClJ yearbook (Pp.1 2 16-233) • .Alexandria, 'VAl Association fori Super-

yision and Curriculum Development.

Fuller, IF.; & Bown, O. (1975.)J Becoming a teacher .. In K!. Ryan (Ed.), Teacher. eduoation: The 7tf" yearbookifor th'e National Society for the Study of Education ~Part II, pPJ 25-52). <i:hicago: University olf <Chicago Press,

Ghaith.G; &i Shaaban.. K. 61999). The: relationship between perceptions (j)lf teaching concems,

teacher efficacy andlselected teacher characteristics. Teaching and Teachen Education, 15, 487-496.

Good, T.; &'Brophy, Jl (2000). Looking in classrooms (81h ed.). New York:

Longman:

Gtiskey, T., & Passaro.. P. (1994). Teacher efficacy: A study of construct! dimensions! American, EducatifJna/lResearch Journal. 3 J; 627!643.

Head, R,. Reiman, )t, &i Theis-Sprinthall,' L. I{ 1992). The reality of'mentoring:

Cornp)exit)l in its process and function. In 11I.M. Bey &I C. T. Holines I(Eds.),' Mentoring:: Contemporary oprinoiplesand issues (pp. 5-24~. Reston, VA:

Assaciation of Teacher Educators.

Housego, B. (1992)1. Monitoring student! teachers' feelings at1preparedness to teach" personallteaching effic~ andtteaching 'efficacy in a new secondllllY: teacher education program.' The .Alberta Journal of'Educational Research, 1 J8(lD,149-64.

Housego, B. (1994). How prepared were you to -teaeh? Beginning teachers assess their prepareooess,The Alberta Joumali of &iucationan Research; 40(3~,1355-373J

Livingston, C., & Borko, \H. (1989, July-August). Expert-novice differences in· teaching: AI cognitive analysis and implications for teacher education.' Journal ofiTeacher Educafion,.36-42.

Mayer, Rl (2002). The promiseof educauonak psychology: Volume 1I: Teaching .for meaningful;

learning. Columbus, COH: Merrill Prentice: Hall. ,

McGown; R., Driscoll, M., Roop,R., S'akloske, D.,. Schwean,.V., Kelly,.I., & Haines, L. (1999). Educational psycholoW: A learning-centred'approach to slassroom practice (2nd ed.); Scarborough, :Ontario: Allyn & Bacon.

Miller Marsh; M. (~003). The sociatfashioning of teacher identities: New York:

20

Peter Lang,

Nyquist; IT., & .wulff, D. (1996). Working effectively with graduate assistants.

ThousandlOaks, CA: Sage.

Piland, D., & Anglin, J.I <( 1993). It is only a stage .they are going through: The development of student teachers. Action in Teacher Education. 15(3),. ]9-261

Pigge, It, & Marso, R. (l997)~ 'A seven-year longitudinal multi-factor assessment of teaching concerns develbpment through I preparation and early teaching, Teaching and 'Ireachen Education. 1 3~ 225~ 235.,

Ralph, E. (iI993). Sensitive, sensible praeticum I supervision: A. contextual application lin Saskatchewan. The Alberta Journal ofiEduaational Research) J9(30J 283-296;

Ralph, E. (1995). The transfer of knewledge Drem practicum to practice: Novice teachers' views. Brock Edueatian, 50),6-21.

Ralph, E; (1998) .. Difficult teaching skills: Novice' and experienced teachers ~ views. Journal 'of Professional Studies. 6(1),20 ... 30.1

Sandlin, R, Young, B.,. & Karge, .B. (11992-1993)i Regularly and alternatively credentialed beginning teachers: .Compariscn and contrast of their development. Action in reacher Education, J4(4)j 16-23.

Shulman,' L. (1986). Those who understandt Knowledge growth in teachers ..

Educational Researcher, J5(7),4-14!

Shulman,' L. (1987,)1 Knowledge and teaching; Foundations oflthe new reform.

Harvard Educational Review. 517(1), h22.

Smith, J!)~, & Sanche, R. fjI992). Saskatchewan interns' concerns at three stages ef a .four-monta IPracticum. The! Alberta Journal ofiEducational Research; 38(2~; 121-132!

Smith, Ell, & Sanche, R. (l993~. Interns' personally expressed concerns: ~ need to extend the Fuller model?' Action iii reacher Education, /5(1)j 36-4.ll

Soodak; L., & Podell, 01 (1996). Teacher.efficacy: :l'.oward the understanding of a multi-faceted construct, Teaching and Teacher. Education. 12,401-4111.

Valli, U .. (1993). Reconsidering technical and reflective concepts; in teacher education I Action in.Teacher Education. /5(3),35-44.

21

Edwin Ralph :is a IProfeSson and 1 the Graduate li'rogram COOrdinator' In the Department of Ciuriculum I Studies, College of Education, University (J)n Saskatchewan.. His duties have also included the supervision oft extended'; praoticum programs; Correspondence should be addressed Ito:

Department .of Ouniculum I Studies, College of Education; University an Saskatchewan,,28 C8mp~ Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7NiOXI Ph: (306) 966-1583~ Fax: 1(300) 966-76581

E-mail: edwiiualph@Sask.usask.ca

22

The Professional Knowledge ofrIi'eachers: Reflections on the German Debate Ion Pedagogical ~rofessionality

aoseflMikll

1I'his article: highlights Ithe ongoing debate :on the professionality of teaching in Germani speaking countries .. Thisi debate is discussed against the background of changing conceptions .of teachers that! range from educators of the young: to learning coaches under the .impact of economic, technologieal and policy changes. Changes injperspecdve are also considered with regard ta !the issue of teaching as a professien. The emphasis loas shifted' froml the concermwith professionalisadon as a' socio-political development to the professionality ofi the individual teacher. This shift canlbe interpreted as a reactionrtc the pressures Oili education I and on teachers deriving: from llhe pervasive iinflilence of economic goals andl technologieal means. The prufessionality argumentemphasizes the autonomy and expertise af1teachers and the importance of understanding as a.basic competence withl consequences for teachen development.

Introduction

While the, issue of the professionality of teaching has i a tradition in Englisli speaking.countries, ijt has only! recently emerged in the educational literature in German speaking areas.. The question of teaching as is profession has arisen as a reaction to the challenges and' pressures !put Ion schools and tteachers from the pervasive market orientation to cater to the demands of labour markets, tOI teach jobrelated skills, and ta conform toithe .development oflan information society:

This article explores the ongoing! debate on professionality in I teaching in German speaking countries and discusses the debate in terms oflsix key concepts associated with professioaalisatiom

From educator to, learning coach': Changing !l'ohislof teachers

The 'expectations of teaching have! changed over the course: of the 201b century, This, change has reflected the: changing: functions, of schools and education as.welltas the: aims of ' the state with regard to educational ipolicy, Changes lin the role' of teachers must also be seen in the context of the specific culturah and institutional conditions, The very comp,lexit)! of educational requirements and the responsibility oflthestate bave furthered the theoretical underpinning of education I by the development of educational science: This coincided

23

witli the dominant conviction: that teaching: Should be a scientifically! based occupation. The main interests of! educational science concemed I the optimal ways oflinstruction and education ofyoung persons to become valuable members ofl the society, and culture. This was especially stressed in !the pedagogical tradition in Germany and! also in AU5tria due to the need following' the replacement 011 the church in lts.role for education o}l the state. and the importance Illf education fonthe new German nation-state 1871 (Plessner, 1992).

Based on 31tradition derived from Humboldt's (1980)lidealiof "Bildung" and the methodolqgicall stance oil "Geisteswissenschaften," a great emphasis on personality fomation emerged in, the concept ofl teaching, Fischer (1967),. a noted pedagogue iil!the 19201si saw Ithe combination of education, teaching and guidance !With regard to personalityiformation, the transmission of cultural values and I the : development of community; feeliitg as i the .tasks: which teachers .should fulfil. Alfter Wbrldl War III the tenorchanged and gave way to greater emphasis OIlJ competence and a view of teaching as the iinparting of useful knowledge.

In the: 1980's, education in !the traditional sense 0f "lEniehung"'was seen as too comprehensive a task, From this perspective, teaching was to be .redueed to providing guidance m learning. According tOIGieseake (1I987~J teachersshould facilitate ~earning processes and not attempt to form personalities or. direot value orientations. In short, teachers should become: learning :aideSl er coaches; This change of orientation regarding teaching reflected the awareness of 1!he pluralism ofldemocratic societies and of inarket forces. The formation of human beings in the imag~ of certain values; or goals was thought tOI be incompatible' with democratic pluralism and individual freedom. The: transmission of! skills and specialised knowledge gained more' importance while education came te mean training. fur skills and competences, Giesecke: (1985) preclaimed ithe "End CDt Education" while nevertheless defining teaching as i81 pedagogical action since it is :concemed! withi relations !between teachers and I pupils. The dimension CD! teaching as a social acion was stressed. If teaching changes! according' to the speeificisituatien in time and space, there cannot be arconception of it universall)1 valid way or. acting pedegogically, This notion was underlined further Iqy the reduction of the sharp delineation !between teachers i as imparters of !knowledge and pupils who are malleable recelvers.of knowledge. This became: evident 119 more and more adults .re-entered' educational courses. In this period I strong emphasisrbegan to be placed on the needs of the market, thus making iit desirable to I see education asl integrating people into the occupational systems oil thew society ..

Teachers and IProfessionalisationltheory

Ib the iGerman context; the a:ivill service orientation with regard tol the 'role CDf teachers has been the most prominent view traditionally. If professionalisaticn

24

was, mentioned at all in I connection witli teaching, it! meant the: acquisition ofla complex range of knowledge, skills and competencies for which a specialised education existed .. That ds, the emphasis was on the .educational background (l)D teachers rendering' a public service. From the . 196ms onl the ~glo-American prefessionalisation. discourse-was received in German educational science. In thjsrcase the greater.emphasis was placedlon the political-social aspects and the role of the profession itself to control entrance: into teaching and legitimise and enhance the socialland economic status of its.members. Although these notions were at variance with the German context, teaching In Germany! became defined in academic discussion and in educationall science asa profession marked !by the following characteristics CSchWanke; 1988):

• a scientifically based education ofteaohers with a definite specialisation

• client-orlentation I service-crientation towards society

• an organised professional group as a self-administrative body

• the development! of professional ethics

• controD of' entrance into the occupational I market b)l the professional group

• contrej of the professional behaviour ofunembersi

• autonomy with regardito work based on.a social recognition IOf expertise:

Tworcriteria are fundamentally .conneeted I with Ithe concepnof a professiom the autonomy of work, and professional monopoly. In reality teachers, especially in Germany and Austria, are mot ful~ professienallsed in the sense of the above criteria !because their autonomy is: restricted b~ the: organisational' demands (l)f schools; and the strong negall and political control by the' state, Moreover, professional groupsof teachers do mot really have control' over mark'et entrance and.income, As such, teaching is regarded1more as a semi-profession ..

Under these conditions the discussion omprofessionalisation couldlnot conceatrate for long on strategies and actions .of psofessional lgroups im the: sociopolitical context. Instead; the discussion itumed to IbokiQg: at the act of teaching as; such, The discussion I of the meaning of professionality Ohe p,rofessiona' actions of teachers] replaced that of'professionalisation (/sociol"political recognitioOl of teachers based en the actions of iprofessional grOUpS~.1 This: change 0f focus was caused also by !the new demands on education I and training in modem societies ..

New demands on education in a changing world I

Newl c!lemands bavebeen I made Ion education and training: by the massive influence: that the economy and new .technelogles exert. These influences on the ideas off politicians and intellectuals .enten into programmes guiding educational policiesion national or supra-national levels. They are notjustipressures that are

251

experienced; they become strategies changing lives and work profoundly. Educationr and ttraining are at the 'centre: of these' changes which- is shown oy the buzz-words "knowledge-society," - "life .. long: learning," and! "empowerment." Here, I consider the effects onrteaching and its professional aspects in terms <DfJ' three aspects.

Knt9wledg~ turns into information. As knowledge becomes information, it becomes : redundant I but: transient.1lhis .affects not only the content taugbt in various !subjects but also !the ways I ii:t which it is taught" and l!he ways in which teaching iis perceived, Pressures to ·take account (Dfl' accumulating. and foreven changing.information place more emphasis on learning processes since teaching in the sense of imparting knowledge makes sense only when there is some' lasting stock ofiknowledge to be imparted.! The speciallsed'knowledge of teachers !(them expertise) is affected by the necessity, to renewiit constantly, Teachers themselves become: learners. Their I expertise changes into human capitall in the sense <D1i competencies that ropem up market chances, but their expertise also looses its character.as a Pasting stock oflknowledge. This results in a reduction of expertise andlautonomy and weakens the.monopolyiposition ofJ'the'p,rofessional group that cannot determine standards so easily •

.Know/edge becomes generalised skill formations In dndustrial society 'skills were transmitted to industrial I workers in vocational training. Todayt skilllformationr and I vocational training, are extended 00' alll fields! ofknowledge;: even university education is now eonsideredas vocational training, Lyotard 1(1986) has. named this ''performatiVity'' implying the evaluation of all knowledge according to its economic utilization, Teachers.are asked to develop specialised skills (e.g, skills oflhandling.information, using electronic media, .and demonstrating .social skills; learning skills; personallty skills). Teaching is understood as i performance competence' in the: classroom and' becomes something. quite different from what it used to.be, 110 accommodate: these shifting views, teacher education must change, accordingly. Since skills can' be standardised more readily than expertise, this results. ill an iincrease of control over -the work alI teachers. As such, !the autonomy off teachers and the ;power ofltheir 'p,rofessionar groups cilecrease.

- Career choices become market tbiiven. :while the choice of career is generally considered to be the individual's responsibility, in is in reality) the- market that decides.whether iti is a success or.not, Individualisation calls for an increased orientation towards self-marketing to enhance one's.chances in-the labour market under conditions of uncertainty, This obviously: leads; to a reduction in the. powen oflprofessiona! groups in terms of their ability to determine standards, incomes, and'market access ..

26

Know wbat"know bow, .and know1why'

The developments that have occurred to date are IDOt conducive overall to an enhancement' of the professional standfug of teachers since iliey turn teachers inta skilled workers.in the educational arena. Nevertheless, the developments do also contain I some !positive aspects. FOIl one; given the reality (Dt redundant information and transient knowledge, it becomes; most important; that ! people learn to choose whicbi information is most relevant and appropriate. This presupposes an educational foundation than enables people to ask the: right questions and Ito filter the information in order toimake iit meaningtui and not instrumental for f(mowing the matestl fashions, Educatim» must provide the basis for comparisons, for placing information into context,. and for increasing the capacity of learners to maketheinown d\idgements.: Therefore; education must encomp,ass historical, ppliticaU and lliterary studies even iif they should i not be taught as an lend inr themselves butt in a rrelarional, .problem-oriented way that connects i totop)call problems in the present day situation .. The education that is needed today,. more than ever, is one 'that develops the ability for reasoned judgement 1Ibis should guide.the.decision regarding the content of education andl answer the questions related torthe "Know what" (Markl, 1999)1

The 'emphasis on skills implies a new recognition of the importance of experience and training in relation to

education. It idoes not suftice:only ItO "know what;" one must also "know hom" Bub one: must consider that skills I can be developed onl)'l on the basis of knowledge (without! this, .leamers merely. perform tricks).' Skills mean not only those that concermspecialised competences and key qualifications necessary fOI1 jobs but also tliose:needed to survive in the middle of the civilised jungle of ours; oflmarkets and organisations, politics and media. Skills may mean cempetences for surviving, for tackling problems and overcoming difficulties (Wollersheimj 1993).

There: is nothing! disreputable in transmittihg skills as long as there is also: a discourse oru the goals: that these skills: should serve.. The : demand for skill formation in teaching must be seem in the context of the deep conviction 1118t our werld is our own doing.' lit order to shap,e:the world by our own actions we must foresee the consequences. It iSI the.predominant emphasis I on action and change that underlies i the! quesn fon skills. Also, in I ow; occupational lives we are confronted with the necessity: of acting .and solving problems in the face of factual constraints: lButi action: and change presuppose decisions on goals and therefor.e: entail the: question I of "know why,!" It is .this, question of goals and values that must not be overlooked because of! concern abouti economic growth and the raising of stock exchange notations.

Teachers should Ibe ready I to impart ilie skills and key, qualifications needed

27

for polyvalent use, !but tbey must nat forget that these 'skills! and qualifications are also acquiredl through training on the jolt !Education should provide foundations for individual careers by promoting creativity.and self-reliance combined withia readiness to accept guidance and evaluation. The task oflteaohing js a difficult one.because itl combines contradictory requirements and encompasses not onlY! skill formation and knowledge for job performance; but also the development 0€ the ability to cope with the challenges oflliving in tliis fast changing world, '

Shifting emp,ilasis concerning pedagogleal professionality

The above overview .of teaching in the present 4lay world allows for eonclusions tOllbe drawn t8S torwhan constitutes pedagogical professionality, As far as this I was dealt 'With iin educational I science, the professionality -of teaching was seen as: a transfer 'itom! science to practice. At frrsti this nneant the 'transfer 0jl' findinga ef pedagogy in the humanistic sense, but later it referred to-the methods ofl tieacbiitg. In tills connection a technology deficit has been noted i in the educational literature (LuIunann & Schorr, 1982).

In scientific discussion the:question of what constitutes teaching expertise has occupied a large space. '['eachiilg knowledge has been differentiated into what is needed I for guiding and controlling classes, the methods of: iinstructian (didactics), factuallknowledge of the 'subject and diagnostic knowledge (Weinert, Scltraderi& Helmke; 1990). Even Giesecke (11987) saw instruction, tiDfonnation,t consultfug, arranging, and motivatiilg as the basic forms of pedagogical action ..

Schwanke! 61988) points out thal' the! perf6nnance-oriented competencies 0€ teachers do no' suffice fGln successfuf teaching-in the professional sense, but must! be: combinedl with! intuition. Knowledge; competence, and intuition' thus: form professional teaching. Similanl;-, Schorr (1986)lsees the deficit of understanding as i a basic problem .in teaching, one than can be solved onl~ by interpretative behaviour in illI concrete ~ situation. In the present academic discussion there is .a decline .of the: reliance 'on the social science nnethods .that had been nulUling strong since the 1960s and 1970s. Instead of the orientation to I social engineering,. a renaissance' of humanistic pedagogy (Koring; 1989) can be seen in the educational discourse, especially ml Germany" but, also Ito some degree' everywhere.

While' the IProfessional competencies of. teachers are not understood in relation.to subjective intuition ialone, theexpectations that had been placed on quantitatilVe criteria have been reduced. The ongoing debate concentrates now an the reality ofleducation expressed in-qualitative terms. Wagnerl(l998) has tried to develop a theory ofpedagogicallprofessionality on the basis of action theory. Teaching in ahis view means .interpretingthe .objective demands by taking into consideration the subjeotive lPerspeotive! of the: pupil as well. Teachers become

28

mediators between the objective and the subjective perspectives inherent in the educational situation.

Teachers need to develop! interpretative competences bath with regard to understanding the problems oflthe :~pili; andlthe difficulties arising lin learning situations. The teaching isituation must not be 'seen from the outside. but must be understood b~, taking into consideration both the perspectives. of teachers and pupils. The interpretations teachers give to what I the.YI do, itheir subjective experiences, and the development, of specific professional I cultures, are all essential. This: means also that definitions oil teaching must rely more on how teachers define them task. '

Teachers are to be viewedlas experts: regarding.theinjobl and the teaching situation .. Thisi presupposes a certain amount of autonomy that is at the veF)1 centre of! professienality. The: concrete: meaning of professionality: cannot be determined byscience or educational policy a!lone, .but depends also on the wa)1 practitioners interpret their experiences. Innovations m! teaching. develop in actual situations and therefore the autonomous experiences oflthe teachers must be-taken into account.

Professionality always! implies some element oil ''tacit knowledge' (Rolan)!i; 1986) that is not made explicit I because it lis accessible only in actiom in a social siniation.. As such, this knowledge .can neither be grasped entirely by empirical scientific: research! into, education I nor prescribed ltiy policy regulation: What constitutes teaching expertise-is formed"then,.l:iy reflective enactment of know 1- edge, competences and skills: by alllmembers in the: teaching ! situation. Terha11 (1992) eoncludes that pedagogicallp,rofessionality cannot be determined normatively but involves, personal experience and biography, Teaching competence is seen by.Dick' 0199li) in uhe professional' powen of judgement land the reflective handling of rules and cases based on ia practicalunderstanding, This .p,resqpposes constant self-reflection b}l teachers :on what they are doing;

Teacher development and professionalisatlon

The 'professionaUsation debate emphasizes i the' interpretative and reflexive aspects .inhereat in the practical actions of teaching; (see Schoen, 1983" for! a discussion of the "reflective: practitioner"). The socio-political and technicalmethodical aspects, of former discussions have receded I into . the ~ background while the: autonomy .of the teaching experiencethas.become theicrueial factor CDf professionalisation. lfbe:message is: Teachers bow. illest.' they:are the experts OD teaching.andlthis should be recognized b)1 society, state and educational science; This shifti in the emphasis on pedagegical professionality can be interpreted also as a reaction to the pressures. put on education b}l the newi developments in technologies and policies,

Professionalityis seen as: desirable on the: grounds of improving both the quality of education andl the: teacher-pupil relation I by heightening .the : understanding capacity off teachers, At the same time there is a pronounced emphasis also on the professional I ethics and Ithe contributions Ito societallvalue awareness (Carr, 2000).1 Teaohers must be conscious ofitheir responsibiflty with regard to their power to transfomn situations and ways of thinking and believing.

WhenlS1111lll1ariZiig wltat teaching as :a profession' means, then, the following; aspects take precedence:

competence in the specialised field i

expertise with regard to Ithe practice: of teaching (w.ith a core of tacit knowledge)

proficiency in particular skills i (presentation skills); but· oeaclllitg as sucli doesmot-constitute a skill

self-admlnistration I and control with regard to market: access and standards iof evaluation

and discipline. by the. professional group development and monitoring oflprofessional ethics

The essential facets; of pedagogical professionality are expertise in teaching andlprofessional ethics .. Thesershould not beseemas twa separate' criteria, but rather as.mumally.sustalnlng, such thatrone would be ofino 'Value without the other. To regard oneself.as an expert inrteachingwithcut value commitments could lead to arbitrariness, and ethics without an awareness of one's rele in shaping! and influencing the teaching situation I would be either meaningless (1)]1 lead to ideological manipulation. This union of autonomous expertise andlethical responsibilit)l constitutes the core competence-in teaching as a profession.

An this is" of course,: not new; -conscientious teachers have already dnternalised this. But what is meant nowi by professionalisation is :that these aspects become:externalised and recognisedlin society. Professionalisation lin this sense seems necessary in erder Ito master: the challenges emerging from economic and technological changes. The roles oft teachers las civil servants andlor as .skilled educational workers I are not adequate fonthis task.

The emphasis on the autonomy and iexpertlse of! the. individual teacher has consequences for teacher education and development More importance must be attributed to personality development and value formation, but the specialised knowledge and the skill !formation of teachers I must! be given greater attention as well. This is important for' the image .of teachers as professionals. Social awareness ofjthe importance of teaching: and oj the prestige of teachers must be raised by; striWing for excellence hi teacher education and by, achieving greaten social recognition ef the.ouhural role of teachers.

30

References

Carr, DJ ~OOO). Pnofessionalism and ethics in. teaching. London: Routledge.

Dick, A. (1996D. Vom unterriclulichen wissen zur pKoxisrepexion [From instruetiona/ knowledge 10!p,raClicalrrej1ectiQn). Bad Heilbrunn: minkhardt.

Fischer" A. (1967)1 Erziehung als heruf~Education as profession).' Heidelberg:' Quelle und Meyer.

Giesecke; H. (l985)1. Dasi ende den erztehung :fl'he end ofseducation]. Stuttgart:

Klett-Cotta.

Giesecke; H. (l987)i Ptidilgogik als beru[I{Pedagogy as profession]: WeinheiIm Juventa- Verlag.

HUmboldt, w..V. (980). Theorie der bi/dung des menschen {Theory cf'human education]. Stuttgart: Cotta.

Koring, B. (~989). Eine. theorie ptidagqgischen handelns: Theotetische und empirisch-hermeneuttsche untersuchungen zur professionalisierung den ptidagog/k [A! theory ojipedagogiaa/ aetioni. Thearelic{l~ andsempirical: hermeneutic studies I on,professionalisalion oj Redagogy}.' Weinheim:, Deutschensmdten- Verlag.,

Luhmann, N., & Schorr, K. E; (1982). Das technologiedefizit der erziehung und die: padagogilC [The technology deficit of education and the 'science ef pedagogy}. In N.

Luhmann & K. E .. Schorr (lBds.)\ Zwischen 'tecHn%gfe und selbstreferenz:

Fragen an die 'Plidagog~/d [Between I technology and self-refe,.ence: queslionsonpedagogy}i(pp. 11-39). Frankfurt,lMain: Subrkamp.

Lyotard; 1. F.~ 01986). Das postmoderne wissenl[Postmodern ItnowledgeA GrazWi€m: BOhlaui

Markl, Hl (1999). Gegen iinformation hilft nur bildung [There's only, bildung to counter

information]. Merkur. 53(1 G), 1073-1679.

PI essner, ,H. (l992)! Dteverspatete nation: Uber die polttische verftlgbarkeit biirgJ1rlialien geistes; [The. belated 'nations About politioaf O'.Iailability oj bourgeols'mind}. FrankfurtlMafu: SUhrkamp.

Polanyii M. (l98')J Implizites wissen llmplicit knowledge).' Frankfurt" Maim Sulirkampt

Schoen, ID. (D983)~ The rsjlective practitionen London: Temp[e:Smith.

Schwanke, U .. (1988). Der berufi des lehrers. Professionalisierung und autonomie im histortschen prozess [The. profession of teachers. Prsfessionaltsation and autonomy in I the: process tJj history]1 Weinheim-Munchen:

Juventa- Verlag;

Terhart, B. (~9.92)~ Lehrerberuf und professionalitllt [The profession of teaching and protessionality], In 81. Dewe, W. Ferchhoff, &F. Ol Radtke (Eds.~; Erziehefll als p,rofessKm:Zur l'Ogik professionellen hande/its in piidi:zgogischenljeldern [Teaching as prtJjf!Ssion: The logi,c of. professional action in pedagoglcaljields]iOpladen ~p. 103 ... 13 o Leske and'Budrich ..

Wagner, H. J~ (1998). EJine theorie pddagogisdher professionalita: {A theory oj pedagogical Professionality]. Weinheim:' DeutscherStudien- Verlag ..

Weinen, F.,. Scbrader.. J., &. Helmke,: A. (990)J Unterrichtsexpertise: Em conzept zur verringerung. der khtft zwischen zwei theoretischen paradigmen [Instructionalexpestise: A concepti for. narrowing the gap between two theoretical paradigms]. InIL. M. Misch,. J. Baumert, &K. Beck.(Eds")J Professionswissen und projessiQnalisierung [Professional knowledge and professionalisation] (pp. 11'73-206). Braunschweig: Braunschweiger Studien zurIErzieh'ungs- und Soziillwissenschaft.

Wollersheim, H.WI.I(199l). Kompetenzerziehung: Beftihigung zur bewtiltigul'l8 [Education for. competence: Empowerment for. coping].! Frankfurt; Maim Lang.

Josef Mikl isan Assistant Professor at Vienna University of! Ecenomlcs and Business ; Administration, . Institute .of General Educatlon/Philosophy. He is involved intteacher education within die field oflstudies "Business Education". His areas o1i specialisatien are history CDf education; vocational education and Eurepean Refonn iPedagogics ..

32

:Science-based Teaching {ILearning in Science;EducatioD

Saleh Jassim

This article: higfllights! the' concept oj teaching by inquiry , and the significance of b'asing!pedagpgioa/ approacJies to Ithe ' instruction oft science on tnquiry.. The' theonetical basis ofl inqlliry-basedlteaching I learning flBTIIBl) is outlined, :with I special referenae ta the ~qgnitiVe constructionist approach to ! learning-and instruction.' The inquir~Jicycle is described, along; with! the' basic' tenets of .the 'seven' stage model of inquiry' proposed by GougJi (J99t2j. The effectiveness oJ,theilB'T I IBL app,roach IS contrasted with thesraditionak app,roach to teaching: and I or learning science at the. universityllevel! Findings; indicate -that she IBT I N3L approach is more effectiVe in: studj(ing : biology than the traditionali method fJ.fi lecturing and! exposition;

Introduction

!The: development of ithinkiogand problem salving' skills. is an important objectiv.e' of science education in the :21 II' century. Worldwide reform movements in Jthe field ofl science education have spawned a variety! of approaches to the teaching andtleaming of science. Pnominent among-these recent approaches is the iinquiry-based learning approach to sclence education. Earlienwork in the 1980s promoted this notionr in the literature: Driver's seminal work of the early-mid 1980s on ichildren's "alternative frameworks" is one example of note (Driver,: 1983;;Driiver, Tibergliein & Guense, 1985), As well, significant I work was done at the University ofiNe\l\ England, Australia, inrthe :large:scale. use Ci)f constructivist approaches! both, in th:e Department of Curriculum Studies, (now. part of the School of Education) in uhe training ofi primary teachers in science teaching (Daniels &:Fleming" I1996D andlin the School of. Resource Management in ttlie area of ecological management (Daniels, Lobry de Bru~ & Reid,' D99S~J More recently, The !National R'esearch (touncitl in the United States of A:merica released the national science education standards document as a comprehensive vision for the: improvement of science, teaching and science -leaming :(NR,€; 1996). The most prominent feature in this vision was the rutilization :of inquirybased instruction in which classroom environments and experiences are redesigned Ito enable students to learn science: afteli the fashion of the real life scientist's inquiry methodology.

Inquiry learning.is a learner-centredtapproach that emphasizes higherorden thinking skills. It may take several forms, including: analysis; problem solving; discove1:)l and I creative' activities" both in the classroom and outside. Most

33:

importantly, in inquiry learning, students .are 'responsible -for processing! the data they' are working with in order to reach their own conclusions. Inquiry is a process thanallows scientific diScovel)'l to eecur.through a process oflinvestigating scientific questions conducive Ito understanding on the part of the learner. The :inquiiy precess may also be thought of'as a· mindset (Keller! 200 1)~ An fudividual'sl natural curiosities willi motivate: the learner. 00 generate .questions and seek 110, discover ithe solutions to the problems to wllich the learner is facedl.

1fhe: inquiry leaming.approach stimulates Ithe 'processes of science: and 'the procedures iliat scientistsuse-in their discoveries everyday. The bodies oftknowledge thattwe call science are censtructed in part because' scientists make mistakes during their scientific quests. Therefore, failure: is as valuable in ther inquiry-based classroom as!is success ( !Keller, 200 I). Our neal life failures often !teach: us more andtprovide us with more in~depth ,insigttts about I now .we learn and help us to change and improve, This is what occurs during inquiries that help create. our own knowledge and build our skillsito develop! scientific and technological literacy.for the learners of the worldoftoday,

Despite the promotion of inqairyrleaming, however, there is stillsome ambiguit}1 around the: term "inquiry," According to the American ASsociation for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), .there: are three areas in which the : term dnquiry is usedr:

• Scientific' inquiry: this refers tol the scientific .processesthat scientists employ to study nature

• Inquiry-based learning: this refers to-the active process in which students are engaged in as they; work towards understanding science and iSi related to active learniil.g

• Inquiry-blued teaching: this refers' to teaching' that promotes iinquiry learning (NSES, .1996).

Fromr this Iperspecti\'e, science is an active process I in which • students are engaged in inCUliryl activities that support file oHjectives oflthe science curriculwn, allowing themrto build on their previous Ibackground information attained in nhe past. Therefore, the linql,liry-based learning/teaching approach I is deeply grounded in I cognitive . constructivism .. The following . sections will review. the different theoriesof leaming associated with inquiry, with special reference to the eognitive constructivist view of learning.

Approaches to Teaching and l.earning

Man)1 different' strategies are available to help students learm. One of-the most common strategiesds teacher exposition and lecturing. This is known as a' teachen-centred approach because knowledge-is presented to students in .a more or dess uni-directional format in which students are no more than.cubicles receiving

34.

knowledge.

Active lemming:is another I approach tto teaching and' learning; this; includes anything marstudents do in the. classroom !but watch and Iistento the teacher and it is directly related torco-operative learning. Cooperative learning is a more formal kind of active' learning. in which students usually' work; in teams for extended periods .of time wita collective objectives to accomplish, According to Johnson, Johnson,'& Smith (]998)~ five criteria underpin! co-operative learning:

• positive tmerdependence: the team members have to.rely en one another to do what the}' are supposed to. do, or-otherwise, everyoneloses

• individual accountability: everyone is.held responsible for. what they.are supposed to be !doing, and whaneveryone else isdoing;

• face-to-face interaction: this should occur at least part of the time.

• intespersonal skills developmem: one needs to work effectivelyiin teams and I develop the necessary skills, including conflicn resolution skills, communication skills, .leadershlprattitudes; and time management skills,

• regular self-assessment of !group functioning: this helps keep the team work on track.

It is the incorporation.of active Ileaming and co-operative learning that leads to the approach I known as !inquiry based teaching I learning (IBT / IBL). This is! a student-:centred approach.that involves students in the active and careful analysis of a situation I or problem iin light of the different types of information available to them. It, is more than a "hands-en" activity. In inquisy learning; students .use their own thinking, skills to make their own generaliaations or conclusions 'and I generate 'knowledge' in forms meaningful touhemr There are different approaches to linql,1Uy learning, . depending upon the: subj¢ct area or topic, the background skills of students, and!the Iearniagtobjectivesof the teacher ..

There has been research am the effectiveness of inquiry-based learning/teaching.. Previous studies showedl that I in :inquiry classrooms, learners of science outperformed traditional learners insofanas achievement was concerned, as! well as process land analytical skills and other relevantskills, e.g., language or mathematics (Rodrigue2J& Bethel,.1983~ ShyJnansky, Kyle & Alpert, 1982), Otherstudies indicate that science becomes.more interesting and exciting, realistically useful; for the learners' daily.lives, and conducive ·to success ; and positive attitudes towards science as well as diminishing to discipline troubles (Allen, 1976; ~yle, Bonnstetter & Gadsen, [986).

IBT / IBL and Constnlctivisml

According Ito Bruner, C 1966, 1990), the following nenets apply tOI allleaming:

• Learning is an active process» learners use sensory input! to construct meaning People: learn to ,learnl as they learn: learning cansists both of

constructing meaning and construct systems .of meaning

The crucial action of constructing meaning is mental: learning happens in the anindl Physical' actions and hands-on experience may be necessary for learning, especially fOD children to provide activities that I engage the mind as well a8I the fiands ;

Learning !involves language: the: language we use influences learning:

Researchers have noted that people talk to themselves as they learn

Learning iis a sociilll activity:: our Iearning is closely lihked Ito OU11 connection I with iothen human beings=our teachers, peers, lfamil).' and casual ecqueinrances, includingshe people-before. us on ne)Q1: to us.' Learning is contextual: we:do not learn isolated! facts ana Itheories in some :abstract ethereal land of tile mind separate from the rest: of OU11 Jives.

One: needs; knowledge tOI learn: it is; not possible to assiinilate new knowledge: without building some structure developed from previous knowledge, The more:we know, the more we can learn. Therefore, any! effort I to teach must rbe connected to the state (j)fJ the; learner and' must provide a' path' into the suBject! for the learner' b'ased on fuot learners previous knowledge.'

It takes time tOI learn: learning: is not instantaneous; For' significant learning we need to revisit ideas; ponder them, ,tJ(Y them out, play with them and use tliem.

Motivation: is aikey component in learning,

A. major theme-in Bruner's (1966) theoretical framework isuhat learning is an active process in which learners construct newiideasor concepts based upon thew current and past knowledge. lJ'he leamer selects.information, constructs hypotheses,.and makes decisions, relymg om a cognitive structure Ito dOl so, exactly as is the case in science inquiry, Cognitive structures (i.e., schema) provide meaning andl organization ta experiences and allow the individual oor go, beyond the information 8iven.As fanas instruction is.concerned, the science teaehenshould try to encourage students, to discover principles b}'lthemselvesJ The 1ask of the teacheris to nransform the target information iinto, a format appropriate to the learner's current state oil understanding and I oommensurate with the learners' current content of tlheir cognitive structures.

Constructivism emphasizes the careful study of die processes, by i whiclJ children create and develop their ideas. Its educational applications: lie in creating curricula I that match I (but I also' challenge) children's understanding; fostering: further growth I and .development of the mind, simulating the HI! hypothesis in.language acquisition , proposed by Krashen (l981~1. Ifwe believe that! knowledge consists IOf learning about the real' world out there, then we endeavour first and I foremost' to understand that world, organize it in the: most mtionallway possible, and, as teachers, presentrit to the learner-in ani interesting

36

wa)'l that challenges their abilities. TIlis \liI~w will still engage usiin providing the learner with activities, with hands-on learning, witli opportunities to experiment! andlmanipulate the objeets ofithe world, but the-intention is always to make clear to 'the learner the: structure of the 'World independent of the .leamer. This is exactly what happens ima constructivist [BTIIBL classroom environment! learaers 'collect and translate: information into a I format commensurate: wittn them current kilowiedge, iconstruct hypotheses, andtmake decisions! using cognitive structures such, as mental models. For creatingen IBfIIIIBL environment, students need to construct knowledge buildiilg ontheir schemata-current knowledge and concepts . already established I in their cognitive structures, and initially linternalised fiiom .prion knowledge :andl experiences. The dynamics: of mTIIBL are built on Piaget's theories oflearning and the 'current view of learning> called construetivismrwhich has now developed into cognitive constructivism

A Oonstl'uctiv.ist View of Science :EducatioD

The tenets i of a constructivist philosophy, assert Ithat all knowledge is con .. structed as a result 'Of cognitive !processes within the:human mind with no amount of stimuli, experience, on thinking ibeing sufficient Ito prove the existence lof an external: facton or phenomenon. But science presumes such an externalt realit)'l and seeks to describe its nature and behaviour and how this: cou1d be qualitatively orquantltatlvely explained. Thus, allltha~ we know is actually a set of'stimuli and experiences. This iSI totally in accord with the scientific view. of inquiry, So, at the level' of: epistemolbgy-how we know' or learn anything-science and constructivism.are m complete hannony .. Here, the premises oficonstructivism as an.epistemology are.outlined be Staver (l986).:

• Knowledge is constructed' not transmitted I

• Prior knowledge.impacts the learning process

• Initial understanding! is local, not/global

• Building useful knowledge :structures requires effortful and tpurposefuf activity

Thlnking or learning aboun the .process of learning, rathen than I the material

I Stephen Krashen, ani applied linguist, .claims in his JnpUI ! Hypothesis !that an "important condition for language : acquisition to occur iSI that the leamen understand input language that contains a structure aibit beyond hislher current level of competence": for instance, ifithe learner is at stage or level i; the input ,that slbe understands must contain i+ 1 thatl challenges the learner: to exert more ieffort do understanding .. The present authon finds IthiSI relevant in I science education. For more effective .learning of science, comprehensible material must contain material a bit beyond the learner's current level of competency,

37

being learned, ds often called ameta-cognitive process. For pedagogic purposes .. the tenets of constructivism can then Ibe nephrased as follows:

• Students come! into .our classrooms I with I an established iworld-view, formed by years of prior experience and learning

• Bven as it evolves, a: student's: world-view. filters all experiences and affects their intetpretarioniof observations

• Students are emotionally attached to 1h'eir world-views and !will not give up their world-views I easily

• Challengmg, revising, andirestructuriag one's world-view requires much efforti

If we: base: instruction on the principles of constructivism; the role, ef the teacher is raised from someone who simply diSpenses information: to someone who structures activities that! improve communication, iliat challenge students' pre-conceived notions, and that! help students revise !tlleir world-views. In spite CD€ the difficulties, cognitive research lias been able to identify impertanti patterns in the ways students and experts rthink about their subj¢cts (Maor, 199 J)I

The Inquiry ,Uearning Process and: Science Education I

Inquiry-based learnbig occurs when students learn byicarrying out! an investigation. In shon, IBL occurs when students find something out for themselves rather than being told by, the teacher. Inquiry-oriented 'science instruction has been characterized in a tVarieWi of ways over the years (Collins, 1986; DeBoer ~ 1991; Rakow, .1986) andl promoted Ifrom ia variety, of perspectives. Some have emphasized the active nature of student involvement, associating inquiry, with "hands-on" learning and experiential on activity-based instruction. Others have linked mquiry with a discovery approach lor with development IOf process I skills associated with "the scientific method." Though I these various concepts are interrelated, inquiry-oriented linstruotion is not! synonymous with any of them.' From a science perspective, inquiry-oriented instruction engages students in the investigative 'nature! of science. ASI Nowak C1964) suggested some time ages "Inquiry is th'e: [set] lof behaviours involved in the struggle oflhuman beings fon reasonable e~p)anations;ofphenomena about which they are curious"i(p.2~). So, inquiry 'mvolves activity. andl skills" but the fecus is on I the active: search fer knowledge or understanding to satisfy a curiosity emanating from schemata Gil co~itive: structures Ithati needl to be complemented by new elucidative, explanatol')'! or additional information.

However, there !is considerable diversity in the way! teachers endeavour to engage students in the active seareh for knowledge; some advocate structured methods of guided inquiry Ogelsrud & -Ileonard, 1988), while: others advocate providing students with few: instructions (Tinnesand & Chan, 1987). Others promote the ase of heuristic devices I to aid skill development (Germann, 1991~.'

38

A f6cUSJ on inquiry alway~ involves data collection, analysis and interpretation of Information in the course of exploration.

Therefore, meaming is.the result of ongoing changes imounmentel frameworks as.we attempt I to make: meaning out of our experiences: (Osb'orne .& II'reyberg, 1986). In classrooms where students are encouraged tOI make meaning; they are generally, involved in "developing, and restructuring [their] knowledge ·schemes throughexperiences withrphenomena, through exploratory talk.and reacher intervention" (Driver, 1989,.p. 16)i Indeed, research findings, indicate that, "students are likely to, begin to understand I the natural would if; they worlC direc:dy with natural phenomena, !USing them senses to observe and using instruments to extend the power of their senses" (National Science Boardj 199),IP. 27D. As noted above, this I is the essence of am inquiry-based teaching !leaming' approach" an approach than basicallyisimulates scientists in their' real life scientific inquiries,

!fa contribute effectively toithe thinking skills needed to wCllIik for a sustainable future, inqu~, learning needs to include four processes. Figure I sumsup these intertwined interrelationshipsa

Figure 1. The IIBTIIBL ILeaming CYcle

Challenge. Students. are : introduced to a! significant question, issue: or problem; afterwards, they may reach a state, of puzzlement, . curiosity and/on concern andffeef challenged to make furthen inquiry. Then, they work to clarify, define and rec!lefine the particular question, issue or problem tOI investigate.

Active student ,investigation. Students gather resources and work out what they need to knowand do. They consider the problem and try Ito predict and work out what the)'! already know, and/or assess ~efr ability to succeed. This is the stage wlien students analyse and interpret the data before them.

Making: generalizations. Bventuallj; students i synthesize what tliey have found into generalizations on principles that lean be used to, decide on I possible solutions;

Reflection. Students need Ito reconsider how they achieved what theYi set tout to :do. They reflect; confirm, see where to iimpreve, ,p)an new things, evaluate, and consider possible action.

The Seven St~ge IBL Model

Gough (B992) I has !provided' a seven stage model' for the inquiry-based teaching Ilearning~ approach in science education. Broad guidelines are presented below:

Stage 1 t !funing Im Questions

Why should we investigate this? What doiwe already know? How does this affect

39

us? What do we want to-find out? What epinions do we have? Whatlis the issue?

Objectives

Identifying and defuting!the issue. This involves activities designed to:

o generate interest:

o establish eurrentiknowledge

o draw on past experiences

o identify possible.aspects fOI! investigating

Stage It Deciding:Direetions Questions

What would happen I if ... ? What guess .could we make about! .. ? What are we likely ta see waen .•. ? How can we explain ... ? What do we-want to focus on? What questions doiwe need ta ask? I Whyds this happening?

Objectives

o Formulation of hypo tiles is I Involving;

o Choosingjsfbcus

o Extending the scope:

o Identifying!andlrefining questions

Stage 3t Preparlagrto Find Oilt Questions

How are we going ~o conduct I our inquiry? How can we plan to do it? What type oflinformation do we need and how do we, collect itl} !How do we allocate tasks? .

Objectives

o Organising: an approach to Ithe dnquiry is crucial land! relates closely to the J!)eciding Directions stage.

Stage 4: Finding Out QUestion~

How are we goingito find out about Ithis!] IWhOI what, where has/is the infonnation? How relevant or useful lis thisdnformation? Whose views are reflected in the Information? How else might we: find information? How will we present OUl' data?

Objf!ctives

TI1er collection of data is .not Ian end in litSelf; but a uneans to.wards developing understandings.

Stage SI Sorting Out Questions

How might we sort lout «mr infonnationl?' What similarities and differences can

40

we see? How camwe categorise this information? How does :thisl information compare or contrast with iothen situations? What connections can we: see? What inferences or.conclusions can we draw? I Does this information change our view. of tIle issue?

Obj~ctives

Data collection, processing and analysis, as weIll as refining' of' issues, This involves::

o organising and presenting data

o forming or modifying concepts through classification!

o strategies;

o comparing and contrasting findings

o discussing the issue and hypotheses

o evaluating

Stage 6: Drawing!(tonclusions Questions

What can wei now say about .... ? Have.you eltang~ your thinking about: ... 1 What differences and similarities did you motice? What genera II conclusions can you make? W1tat evidence do you have to support tIiis? How dbes this reline to our earlier questions and &.ypotheses?

Objective«

Drawing . conclusions requires students Ito express their understandings and communicate' them to others. This involves:

o interpreting infennation

o developing: and modifying, generalizations :

o explaining similarities and differences;

o establishiilg connections

o confimling: rej~cting or modifyiqg hypotheses and predictions

o suggesting solutions to problems ;

Stage 7t Considering SociallAction Questions

How cam we; contribute to decisions made inithe: classroom! or school? What could be done iabout this nssue? What would happen if these things were done? How might we make others aware of what we know? How can we contribute to or:influence decisions made in the communityand society? What should be done about this?

Objecttves

o Social action requires !that students be active in decision making-during theiti inquiry andlat itsrconclusion, This involvese

o Identit)'ing!action thancould bean outcome of the inquiry

41

o Implementing if appropriate

The Effectiveness; of the !m1i' I mL.Appro8ch in SCience Education

TOI explore the effectiveness I of the inquiry-based learning/teaching approach against the.traditienall approach of lecturing and I demonstration, a ,stud}1 wasrdesignedland conducted anthe Oollege ofiEducation in Kuwait. The purpose was to determine whichl approach was most etrective in enhancing the achievement ot1students in science education.

Design ofi.the Study. The population ofthi!i study included freshmen studying Biology! in the ~Science !Department of the-College "B Educatiom in Kuwait! Tw.o samples were randomly selected for thiSiStud~, even~ distributed in two experimental groups, There were 30 students in I eachi group; XI .studying I in the traditional fashion, and X2stud)1ing im an i inquiry-based fashiom that I used Gough's seven-step model. Aicomrol group of30 subjeots was-also included in this-design,

The' experimental design I used in this study was of the' Pretest-Rosttest Cantroll Group Design. This design hivclved two treatment groups. Experimentel' Grou~l received traditional instruction that dnvolved lecturing and demonstratioili in the biology course. Bxperiinental [GrolW2 received instruction after the fashion .of inquiry-based! teaching; We: control group served to control fon internal i validi~ together 'with !the pre-test andl random assignment; of subjects. Random assignment also-served ta contrel fori regression and selection factors while the pre-test controlled if0r history, testing and instrumentation (see' Gay,: 1996: p~ 365 --68).,

Data were analysed lusing One-way Analysis .of Co-variance (~N(WV A) since ''variance adjusts IPPst-test scores ; for iaitial differences on any variable; including pre-test? and controls fQr extraneous effects that I "randomisation cannot controll fon given the fact I that randomisatien does not guarantee that groups will be equated on all variables" (Gay, 1996, p.367). Another more important function I of ANCOVA isithat it increasesthe power ofa statistical test b}'l neducing within-groups (error) variance, or the residual error (G~, 1996, p.1 482D·

Findings,and conclusions.

The subjects in the experiment, having .studied in I thein respective group, according to the traditional approach (Xl) or the mflIBI!. approach according to the Gough's model 1(, 992) (XJ;werelall givenarpre-and post achievemenntest an the maj91' concepts and pieces of biological knowledge covered or.experienced in the course,

42

Table E .IResults of one .. way ANC({)V A for Xi and contrG)~ groups:

Source ofvariatioD Sum of Sq~aresl dJl Mean
Sqnare- R
E~plained 39.!J ' 3 34.83i 111.111
between gTOUpS ,
Residual B6.00i 1115 31.33;
wlthinl/Uoups
V5.5(3i 1118 41.381
'liotal Note: R is significant atl.01

Table 2.IEffects between XI • X2 and control groUR::

Groups Experimental) Experimental2 Controll
l'A 431.93 611173 57.SS
Total population 30 301 301 The scores fOI1 aUlthree:groups on.the pre-testtwereapproximatelyr equal.

Omthe post-test, the scores forlthe experimental greup, that was-taught using the: traditional method of exposition and lecturing were !higher than omthe pre-test, but! not as higJl 8SI the scores fur the experimentalgroupj. Table 1 and Table 2' show that there were significant differences betweeruthe experimental groups to, the: good of post-testing for the experimentalgroupjthat received instruction in, the, inquiry-based! model of'leaming and teaching: illustrated I in the Goughls seven-stage paradigm.

The scores for the control group that had received no instruetion remain, similar I before and I after, taklng the achievement test. Therefore" it could be: deduced I fronn this stud;Y, that learners construct their knowledge of science inl three main ways:

• They! discover-the world around' them from personal observations and: .experience with their iimmediate environment,

• They! acquire' knowledge of scientific facts througJt first hand or! vicarious experience if transmitted directly from other people (i.e: their, instructors).

431

• They construcn their. science knowledge by utilizing the repertoire 01 basal knowledge: previously! stored in. their cognitive structures.

What also emerged in this study, !but iSI mcitl)! expressed here, is ;that in teaching science thmughi inquiry, teachers must make time to linvolve learners actively! in asking questions about the world, designing investigations and collecting data, categorizing: information and I data in their respective classes reflectively using investigative evidence : and current 'schemata, if drawing, expla .. nations for the :science phenomena at issue.

References

Allen, 11'.1(1976). A study 10/ the behaviours oj two groups 10/ disruptive children when ull~ghtlwith c(Jntrasting strategies: Directive VS. non-directive teachirw. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida. State. University,

Bruner,. J. (1966).i Toward a' theory of! instruction .. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bruner.Jl (1990). Acts of meaning, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Collins, A. (1986)1. A sample dialogue based on a theory oft inquiry teaching.' (Tech. !Rep. No. 3'617). (Cambridge; MA:: Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service: No: ED266 :423~ I

Daniels, D., .& Fleming; K.(~996,· July~. Curriculum 'studies in .science and technology K~: An innovative approach. Paper I presented I at the: 26th Annual Conference of the Australian 1 Teacher Education Association, Launceston, Australia.

Delsoer, ,G. E. (1991) .. A history: of ideas in scienceeducation .. New York:

Teachers College Press.

Driver, R.I. (1983). The pupil as.sclentist? Milton Keynes: Open University Press,

Driver, .R. (1989). The: construction of scientific .knowledge iin school classrooms. In R. Miller (Ed.), 1J)0ing~ science: linages iof science: in science education (pPJ 1 ~22) . New Yiork: FalmeriPress.

Driver, R, lIibergbein,E., & Guense, Ft (1985) Chlldren's. ideas iin science:

Milton Keynes : Open lLJiliversity Press ..

Gay.. L. R. (1996). :EducationallResearcht Competencies for analysis; and application. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Germann; P. 11 (1991, April)! Developing science process skills through direoted inq11ir>'!. American Biology Teacher; 53~), 243-47!

Gough, [N. (1992). Bhieprintsifer greening schools. Gould League, Melbourne.:

Igelsrud, ,D., ,& Leonard,. W .. H. (Eds.).1019881 May). Labs: Whatl research says about biology laboratory instruction. American Biology Teacher, 50(5), 303-06.

Johnson,lO. W., Johnson, R., ,& Smith, K. (1998). Active learnfug: cooperation iin the.college classroom. Edina, MN~ Interaction Book CO.I

Keller, JI (2001) .. lfrom theory to \practice: : Creating an inquiry-based science classroom. Unpublished masterls: thesis, Pacific Lutheran' University, Tacoma. WA.

Krashen"S. ~1981~., Seoond language acquisition and second language ~eaming.

Oxford: Pergamon Press;

Kyle, Tt W.,lBonnstetter,:R., & Gadsen,JIr., T .. (1986). An ana~sislofelementary students, and I teachers, attitudes toward science . in process-approach I vs. traditional science classes, Journall of !Research im Science Teaching, 2S, I03-120!

Maor, 1]); (1991, April)j Development of! student inquiry, skills: AI constructivist approach in aicomputerized classroom environmean Paper presented anthe Annual Meetiitg oflhe National Association for Research, in Science-Teaching, Lake Geneva, WI. ED 316 26!

National Research! Council (jNSES). (1996).; National Science Education Standards. Washiqgton,.DC: National Academy Press.

National Science Board. 1(1991). Science & engineering indicators-m991.. Washington, , DC: U.S. Government Printing (!)ftice. (NSB 91-1)

Novak, A. (19M). Scientific inquiry. Bioscience, 14,,25-28.

Osborne; M., & Freyberg, P! (1985). Uearning in, science: Implications of children's knowledge.' Auckland,~NewiZealand: Heinemann. I

Rakow,.s. J. (l986)i Teaching science as inquiry. Fastback 246., Bloomington, IN:

Journal of Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Available online fiiom ERIC, ED 2?S 506 I

Rodriguez, I., & Bethel, IJ. J. (1I983~J An dnquiry ap~roacl:i to science and language teaching, Journal of Research in Science lI'eaching~ 20(4),: 29li-96.

Shymansky, J., Kyle, Jr.; W.C .• & AJ,pett, a. (11982).!Nowleifecti"e were Hamdson science programmes oflyesterday?'Scienoe &!Children, 20 (3),114-15.

Staver, lJJ R. (1986"Se~temben ).The constructivist epistemology ofJean !Piaget:

Its philosophieal roots and relevance to science. teaching and learning. Paper presented atithe United States-Japan Seminar IOn Science Education, Honolulu, BII. (ERIC Reproductien Service No. BD 278 :S63~ I

Tinnesand, M., & CI:han,A. (1987, September); Step 1: Throw out theinstructions, Science !feacher, 54(6)j 43-415\

Saleb AbdaUab Jassim is a professor 1 fu Curriculum and Science Instruction, College: of Education, Kuwait Ubirversity. PIe has! been involved I in teaching several subjects and courses in science education and I other cross-disciplinary subjects; . and was. a founding: member of the: college of education at :Kuwait. Professor Jassim. particlpatedlin several national andlintemational conferencesion education, educational technology; science education, environmental education, women I issues i and .gender issues. He is a member of such international and national organizations and committees as the Internationat Federation of Inventor at IGeneva, environmental protection association in Kuwait and the Consultative Board for Special Education in Kuwait. Professor Jassim ~s Secretary GeneraD of the International Federation, ef Amb Inventors, IAA1!,. Vice-president of the National Committee: for Environmental Protection in Kuwait, Head ot1the !Foundation of the Advancement ofl Science in lKuwait, the b.ggest scientific 'bodYI in Kuwait,' the chief administraton of which I is the Emir of Kuwait and editor-in-chief ofdts joumal.\

461

Teaching Thinking Skills to Students! with Emotional andBehavioural Difficulties::

Policy Implications and Implementation Issues I

William Y. Wu and Kwan Yieewan I

While inclusive education is.a goal as~ired to internationally, SReciQ~ schools for childreulwith emotional andl/earning d(fftculties tare also needed to ensure d"ljJerentiation and diversity of schooling. 'Since. the! aim fJ/.teaching:thinking i~ to equip childr.en with the: skills required Ito take control :0/ their <pwn teaming and to better prepare shem I for, the world beyond school) it would! appear that there' is a role for teaching thinking in special schools: This. artide discusses the poliCy implicatton» andl practical ,implementation I issues associated with teaching thinlcillg skills to students with emotional and behavioural·dif!lcultieSl

Introduction

The: United Nations Educational,. Scientific andl Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has advocated, through I The Salamanca Statement I and 'Framework for :Action on 'Special Needs Education i(JJnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Culturali<Drganization &1 Ministry Gil Education and Science Spain" 1994)~ that children !WitH disabilities should be included in the mainstream school S)'!Stem and should enjoy the same learning opportunities I as ordinary children. In Hong Kong, .educating children without prejudice and discrimination is ;vlewed as one way to respect human I rights and to strive. for lIhe attainment of :social equity (The Board of Education, (996)1..As such, .inclusive education plays an important role in meeting the: requirements of The Framework for. Action on SReciaft Needs Education and! in allowing studentsi' needs tol be 'met th'rougb educational reorganization and instructional! innovations (Sebba & Ainscow, 1996). In 1 '97, the British' Government adapted I the; principle . of inclusive education and lissued a green ,p.aper entitled Exeellence f()r. Alit crhildr.en Meeting Speciall Bdueattonal Needs (pepartment IOf Bducation and Employment, 199~) which Glfrected theimp,lementation I of special I education land its range of pro+ grams, In thiS paper, the teaching and learning Dfthiilking skills to students with emotional andlbehavioural difficulties (EBD) are addressed and explored,

Meeting:thelNeedslor Students with EBD

Emotional andsbehavioural difficulties (EBD)i is a term referring to ene of the categpries of special-needs students. h1 Britain, die number ef students in this

47

category is increasing (Department of Education and EIlij)Joyment, 1 P97) and is drawing the attention oft educators r(Education Dep,artment Services Division, 20.00). However, tlie term Emotional and Behavioura/'Diffieulties has: been confusing (Gamer 1& Gains, 1996; Peterson, 1995), especially given its expression in variousiterminologies [Department.of Bducation and Employment,' U9970J MaladjUstment was i the: term, first used Iby frontline' practitioners to! indicate: a dysfunction between ani individual and societ)l (Gamer ,& Gains, (996). IFrom 1944 to 198]" this term was used lin British schools, together withl other terms SUCD as idistuKlJed, disruptive, ; and psychiatricQNy ill.. Peterson 1(. 99S) concluded thatrall these :terms referred to students whose school progress iis disrupted as I a result of their behaviours According tOI Uptom (19.912), these terms also IclearJ)l suggested that lit is !he child or young personrwho has the problem. Emotional andt Behavioural DifJlculnes is currentlyrhe most commonly used term. In 1199V ~ Britain's Green Paper defined IEBD as a term that" : .. app,lied toa broad range of young people, .preponderantly boys; with I a veny wide spectrum oftneeds, from those with short term emotional difficulties to those witli extremely challenging behaviour or.serious psychological difficulties!' (Department .of Education and Employment, ) 9971)1

Th'e:causes ofEBD have been attributed to a range ofpossibilities:.famil)l breakdown; disadvantage; poor parenting skills; poor 'experiences, at school; poverty; plor 'health; and gender I dlifferences, (Department of Education and Employment,' 1997;: Peterson, ~ 99$). Taken together, these attributes represent both a psychological andl sociological amalgam. Sometimes, children wbo disrupt the. status I quo or children· whor=ruffle" adults' 'Values may be regarded as challenging (J3rault,20o.0~. Students may behave in a challenging way in.school and'home to draw attention, tolshow thein power, to galn revenge, e>r. to express feeling of assumed. inadequacy,

In many: eountriesfn Asia, the educational aim is to help students with special educational I needs develop I them fulll. potential' (Lo, 11998~ Sebba &i Afuscow ~ 1996). The education SY,stem I in these countries is i in the ~ process of! becoming inclusive with various, ~es .of curriculum nnodels and designs. However, the iimp'ementation .of inclusive education in some cases has. been hindered !by a number oflfactors: the restriction ofithe teacher I student ratio in ordinary schools; the lack ofknowledge:ofmanagiilg special needs I students; an exam-oriented culture; the public exam syllabus; andlthe already existing assessment scheme (The' values, 1999)l As such; the progress of' Asiim countries towards inclusive education is istill far behind Britain and other Western countries (Lynch, .11994)~ leaving special I schools ~l,Iite common in Asia. Therefore, the coverage .of support. to children with special educational needs I is restricted and I limited.

Yet whUe: inclusive education is argoaltthat is aspired to internationally;

48'

special schools still have 8 significant role to play in-the provision IDf support to students !With -disabllities and I learning! 4ifficlllties.; Even in countries; where inclusive: schools are well-developed, special schools still exist. Bor example, Britain is retaining some' special schools even whil'e it I is promoting inclusive education (Department of Education and Employment, 1997() and itopenly acknowledges . that a small mJnority of: students will always need specialist provision, In the UnitedIStates,. the:Uos Angeles school district in California was also urged to Ikeep I special education schools. to provide support! to disabled students {L.A. . school, 2002),i This illustrates.that inclusion programs alone do not guarantee that a ehildlwith learning difficulties and ppor social skills will be automatically! accepted into the.social network. rAlthoughlsocial skills.instructiun was' popular in the 1980s as an intervention strategy for. special needs students (peterson, 1995), there: is a I lack ; of convincing research evidence that such approaches lead WI improvements in student's performance .. However" it is important to note that sacial skills training may uesult in more positive outcomes for some MTitlidrawai students (Vaugbn, ElbaUDll& Boardman, 2001) ..

In the United IStates,: EBD students constitute: a high risk .group wbo maYi have poor academic skills, the highest dropout rate of any identified group in school, and who are more likely to &e involved withl thejuvenile justice ·system and I oilier community services even before' they! leav.e' school (CJ:hesapeakes Institute, .1994~. Since the developmental patterns' of children: with I EBD maYi impact negatively on themselves and their peers and special counselling pregrams might not be.available fur these students imnormal schools :(CurniCulum Developmennlnstitute, L998); the Board lof Education (1996) mlHong Kong has suggested a tenn "Special School !for !Personal and Social Development" to describe any speciallschool catering to theneeds oflthese,students. 1i'his term has been recommended I to emphasize' the kind of cureiculum designed for' EBD students and to avoid the employment oflany improper 011 negative terms to label their preblemsi It would appear that these special sehools migJlt be: in a betten position to meet the; needs oil EBD students. Given the needs .of these students; however; special training and special teaching pregramsi are: needed for' EBD students.

Tbe Relevance oftr.eaching Thinking Skills i

The mov.ement of teaching students-how to think has blossomedtin the past few: decades; (!McGuinness, 1999» Fori instance, 'both the direct I teaching 0D thinking skills (de Bono, 1993) and the infusion method (Swartz & Parks, 1994) have become popular sot only in Ithe' Europe and North America, but also increasingly in Asian Racifio Rim countries I (,Chang, 2001; Rajendran; 2001; SUn, 2001; WU & Ohan, 2003). The aim of thinking. skills programs ris to equip, children withthe skills required to take centroj of their own learning and to betten prepare .thenu for the world beyond I school (Fisher, .19~D. The aiin of special

490

education for. EBD students is.to help them adjust I and reintegrate dnto society, including family life, mainstream schooling, vocationall training, or 1!be job' market (<turriculum !Development Ilnstitute, 199.8). As SUCD, the aims of thinking skills programs are 1C0n8'Uent with those: of speciall schools for EmD students. Fonexample.rsome specialists in thiriking believe tliat the behavlounprcblems Ci)f EBD students! can stem from a .lack of particular thinking skills such as "Considering.Others' Paints otlView" (iie. CoRT skills developed by de Bono/ 19,7380 19731;, .19713(:). 11lieretbre, it is worthwhile to examine the role of thinking programs in lij)ecia1 schools with EBD students.

The literature reveals that uhere are 'various thinking skills-programs in the market (<I:otton, 1991; Lake, [9196). Some examples iinclude Beuerstein's.Instrumental Enrichment (IE)lprogram (Feuerstein .. Rand" Hoffmam & Miller" E980[)J Cognitive Research iTrust (CoRn,! Phil6sop~i for ,(!hildren (r4C)J and Cognitive: Acceleration through Science Bducation I(~ASE). Most of these programs focus on nhe t]1rocesses of learning; and ways ito help students develop thfuking skills to! enable them to Ilearnlmore. effectively.. Some educators judge that! most existing thinking' skills courses: do not have adequate understanding 0f how low achievers resolve a problem. 1lbinking skills programs are also being criticized for imposing :unnecessarily restricted tasks, and fOI! providing few opportunities to I use students' local knowledge: (Quicke, 1992)~ The. British Governmentls 19917 Green Raper .didl propose that ElBD provision Should dnclude tailored programs combining skills. training, work experience and pastoral I care (Department of Education and Emplbyment, 1997).!

As traditional 'teaching methods dornot seem to meet the needs of special students, researchers and I educators have to look f0I: alternative teaching meta .. ods. Westwood (lOOO)1 conducted .a meta-analysis off the effective teaching methods t approaches fcllD studentsrwithrspeciel educational needs, .and pointed out that teaching students !how to learn, tegethen withhigh quality direct teaching ofi curriculum content, is much more effective <than matching :students' learning styles. His findings contrast with the beliefs oflthe 1B0ard of Education in Hong KOQg which ,ll1ce importance on teachinglstyles and effective learning situations to address students' emotional needs; and direct their attention from misbehaving (The Board of Education, 1996). WestwoodPs research on the most effective methods Ifor assisting students whhi learning: difficulties rreported :that generaJ classroom methods : proving successful ,to all students were also effective fon special-needs! students (Westwood" 2000). THe key components of effective teaohing :allo;w more time fon students! to ''think i about I their OWOI thinking," including self-monitoringjand self-correcting ~Schunk, 2000). Most IOf the thinking skills:programs include these components.'

Wliile there iSI a good body ofireseareh on neaohing thinking, there are onlY! a few researeh studies on thinking .programs for students with EBD orothen

so

special educational l needs. One program, Instrumental I Enrichment (IE). was originally, developed fonstudents with special educational needs; It is designed to help studentsrlearn how Ito learn, to define and solve problems I whilst restraining their impulsivity, and to assistnhenn in addressing tlieir behavioural ldifficulties (Bead & O'Neill, 1999); The aims of the IE program appeared to meet die need for the students to develop im suchra way Ithatlthey were able to ac1iieve a sense oflcontrol ov.er their environment i(Fisher, 1995). The engagement of IE is to achieve· a balance .between the emotional ana lcognitive factors that determine behaviour (Feuerstein, Rand, !Hoflinan, &1 Miller, 1980).: Therefore, IE could be helpful to special needs students. It is a matter of developing a better emotional intelligence (Goleman, U9.95)J

The research that hasibeen conducted Ion thinking skills programs; for special education students-has found that the impact GffthinlOngprogr.ams was positive:

Robsomand Rfu (2002) described a' three-year-project that aimed at developingia thinking skills model for students with le8l'l1i1\g difficulties and/or disabilities in Tianjin, China. FiildinSS i from' the pilot 5tu~i which taught .thinking skills in separate classes and Ion !by infusion into eeguler classes, showed that students' learning and behavioursdmproved and positively changed) Teachers alsorvalued the contribution of'trafuing in thinking skills; interventions and in, theitr own professional development. As wellj Vanll!.uit (1999)lreported !that students with learning difficulties could improverin mathematics iitrthey:are provided with the underlying principles and!given thelQpportunit¥lto generate thein own procedures for solving mathematical prol:llems.

Elias and Friedlander (1994) and MartiD 1(2001) also found Ghat thinking skills programs have a I positive impact on speciall needs studentsas well as general I needs students .. Martiil (2001) I concluded· that I special-needs students benefltedithrough the adoptionof some forms ofthbiking!strate,gy Instruction in all classrooms; and he reported positive results-for special needs students in the areas of [learning disabilities, .autism, behaviour aiSorders, cognitive deficits, educational disadvantage: and !brainl injUries .. Furtlier, the results of! the social decision-making and life: skills development prognun of Elias .and Friedlendes (1994) indicated iliat smdentsdnvolved in the studYihad 1iigb.el'lself-esteem~ were more skilful fulhandling problems, became more sensitive to others' feelings, had positive- behavioun changes, and transferred their skHls into other contexts. The program; aimed at developing: critical thinkiDg skills of students from various school levels land hackgrounds, includingspecial needs students, had been used in awide:variety cf'school contexts.

One of the common successfuljkey. factors in ~ skills pregrams has been the: promotion oft self-esteem, Self-esteem may .also ibe al facton in a student's i ability to, bear adversit)1 (Peterson, 1995) andl creative: competence (Anthony! & Cobler, 1987). Bor students with low self-esteemespecially.those

511

with EBD as III result oil past ifailure .experiences, these programs ceuld be used! to enhance not only tlheir cognitive skills, but also their self-esteem, With dmproved selfesteem, ohildren can become more conscious oftheii ownlthinkirlg and of their own control over their own behaviours. (iJeoffl(J991) alse stated that EBD students with problems' of jppor 'attention and impulsiveness could create social .and' behaviour, difficulties,i and I that learning a sense of .control over their impulsive behaviour andladaptingto the environment may be beneficial. However, thisiwill demandi a highilevel !of commitment and input Dom the staff ofithe schools (Head & O'1NeillJ 1999)~ The relevancy oftlie~·'theory of mind I' (TOM) becomes apparent as significant diinensions nfleurriculum development" staff land student Idevelopment, and I research Istudies wliere different components of! TOM such social perception andl social cognition are: to Ib'e included (Suf & Su, 2003;: Tager .. Flushberg: & Sullivan, 2000).

FOil those EBD istudents in special schools, there is a 'need Ito ensure that well designed I and tailor, made curriculum approacbes i are inl place. Having scanned througbltbe relevennlheratereras reported in this paper, inwould'appear that there is indeed a positive and contributing role fon a thinking: skills prograrm iii the teaching and learning olEBD students.

Policy Implications

The kind of school that.wouldl provide for the needs of IEBIDI students ,is a school for personal and social development. 110 establish' such I a school, there are a number.ofnecessary considerations to keep in mind.These include attention to the mission , and culture of the school, the curriculum design in the school, the fearning ofithe students, and the noles off the :teachers and parents imthe schooll

School Mission and Culture,

Altheugh the provision of inclusive education fsithe !intended goal for students willi special educational needs, there remains a need forspecial schools Ithati can perform certain roles iii I meeting the learning needs of! some students. Among students :willi various learning needs, lEBO I students irn particulan demand I this special attention. These! students should be arranged to' enrol iin schools; such: as "Special School for Personaf and I Socihl Il>evelopmentr' in order to I erase' or minimize: the: stigma associated willi thein labelling, The. importance .of the school culture and the teaching tbinkfug is agreed upon by experts (fishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995) and'this should be-recognized by the scliool administrators and teachers in such la school. The successful implementatien ofla tliiDking:pro8f8lllliil such a i school depends on the kind of school policy! adopted bYI the: administration .. 1I'he support of school policy,nas been considered torbe extremely crucial..

52

School Ourrlculum Design

The findings oflMcOilinness (l999)liJlustrated that strongtheoretical underpinnings endtwell-designed and contextualised materials are iindicators of successful teaching thinking approaches. In practice, the thinking program used can be! any reedy-mede theory-based thinking ,progr.am in the market. Educatoss and teachers can use a "pick land mix" approach iru designing IIlthinking program that willi suit' the life context of the, EBD students. It is suggested thatithe " contextual" consideratiom may be more important than the Itbeol}'-based factor m designing the thinking program, Empirical studies includiIig action research will have to be conducted to substantiate ,the claims made by established theories and the merits oflthe "pick and mix" approach.

Student Learning.

In a Special SclioollfQr Personal I and Sociilll Development, .the tliiDking:skills program should be one that the students consider to be "fun, ~ and Ithe teachers feell is "developing the students." The meaning ofl"fun" includes matching the level of the cuniculum with the abilities of the students (QIJicke; 1992). Accor4-l ing Ito <Iieoffl(l991), sp~cifio and short-ternngoals couldl also !be added to the "fun" component because of the attention deficit: of the students. Therefore; "having. fun" and "being, useful" could be the two key! concepts for designing and implementing the specificthinking program. In comparing !thinking programs fOJ1 mainstream and EBD students,. the:Rrimar,y role oflthe thinking! program Ifor the latter group is aot "value-added" but rdevelopmentelt in nature .. The objeetive CDr the thinking skills program is 11:0 hel~ EBD students Ito adjust to the sociaillife on one:handl andi foster nhe fooling: of being :valu~ significant, and unique for both EBID and'mainstream students on the other.

Teachers and lParents

A number oil researchers (Conn, 20001 Feuerstein; Rand, Hoffman, &J Miller, 1980j Geoff, 1993) stress; that the roles CDff teachers! are important in teaohing thinking. ~ygotSky QI978),.FeuersteiIll et alJ (1980), Geoff Q199B), and Kozulin and IBalik (199~) concluded that many problems in learning are the result of insufficient! or inadequate mediational teaching ioJ the .currlculum.Conn (2000) !pointed outithat nesponsive teachers were vital fon aurturing and supporting the socia] and emotional well-being of the students. With increased practice in teaching thinking skills, teachers became; more ·receptive .. The !knowledge about tIiliOOnglinflUencedi the: attitudes of teachers and vice versa. It is hypothesized that knowledge about the practice lof thinking skills ,wilD promote positive attitudes of teaching: thinking for new comers.

The parents in the schoollplay an iinportant supporting role in connection with the: teaching: of thinking. Involvement of the parents in tb'e thinking

531

workshop series cneatesrthe apportunitylfor the parents to engage iIl1 common and I constructive dialogues. lmturn, these/dialogues build a common goal'in shrug their . concerns; thtWiwill starllthinkiilg about thinking in.theincommunicationwith each I other at/home and in school as well.

To .cenclude, we must take one oil the major! themes of the book ":A Blace .

Called Sohool" (Goedlad] 1984) tciheartand ot understand schools before we can I expect torchange or improve them.

Future !Research

While there is evidence ·to support the Jauncl:lfug oft special schools suchl as ; those proposed asl'$pecial School for Personal and Sooial Development," there ' remains-the need to respond to I the call fur additional research I studies validating or developing exlstingjschool practices. Four key directions for ifuture research are : outlined here.

Br.oader !Roles fOIi Speciill Seliools i

Inclusive eduoation I does mot guarantee that a student !With learning difficulties ; andlpoor.secial skills will be accepted in the sociafinetwork ofinainstream school. Research! studies on government policy 1 will be needed Ito evaluate Itheimpact of: broadening the roles of special schools,

Matching Objectives of Special Schools land TeachinglThinking ~kills

There is evidence that the .aims.of thinking skills programs are in congruence: with those of special schools; for EBD students. Carefully controlled studies to I validate'tbinkiilg skills programs such as lHatiits OD Mind (Costa &: Kallick, 2000) i andl to develop appropriate testing: instrwnents (He. TOM) are needed.. Action I research studies are: importanttto generate the:necessary evidences Ifor classroom I practices. This amounts to ai quest !for identifYing~ the most effective method for assisting students with learaingrdiffieulties,

Developing and Training Staff

According to Head and O'Neill (HJ99),! the development of special' schools. requires a highi level of commitment and' input Born the staff of the speeiallschools. In iaddition to the regular/teacher training, these staff members lhave Ito understand I the . essence of teaching . thinking .in theory and practice. Both !pre-service: and I in-service programs are needed. Research studies with pre-and post-training design should be in (place.

Key' Components of Thinking Special Schooll

McGuinness (,1999) suggested that Iteaching materials with strong theoretical

54

underpinnings .and well .. designed and contextualised components are effective indicators ofSuccessfullteaching thinkingiapprcaches. fulpractiice,.the thinking programs can be any ready-made 1lheolJl-basedl thinking ~p,rogmms of which the "pick and mix" approachicambe adopted .. In order to suit the life context of the EBD students, case study approach ,are needed· to address the "contextualt facton thatlmaylbe more importimt than the theory-basedlfactorin designing thibking programs fonthe BBD students. Both quantitative and qualltarive studies I can be conducted witli existing! special scsoolsdn order to generate useful information for the building oflth~g specialtschools. Action research will be :b'elpful, too, to r substantiate' the! elaims made by' established theories and Ithe merits I of the "pick and mixl' approach, Lastly, the comparative studYI of speciall and mainstream schools should be an important area fOli research with follow-up studies <D!i transfer smdents.

Summary

Meeting :the needs of EBl!> students calls !for the establishment I of Special Schools !for Personal Development where thinking skills programs can be implemented. Keycompenents and considerations of this kind ef special'scboej have been described! in this paper, along :with an ovenview of the nature of future research studies in l1his area.

References

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Brault, L. (2000). Childten with challenging behaviour: Resourees for reflective thinking.:Bridges, 5(1),8:.10.

Chang, S. C; A. (200 1 ~ r Implementatiom of the "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" itiitiative in Singapore. Jlour.na/ of Soutlieast, Asian oEducation,1 2(1~J 13-41.

Chesapeake Institute. (D994, August I)J National agenda for achieving betten resultsfdr1children and youth with senous emotional disturbance (pp.l-14)j Washin~on. DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs.

Conn, D. (2000) .. ResRonsivel teaching:' Nurturing: and supporting childreo·s social andlemotional development, Btidgfl8, 5(1 Y. 171 28-29L

Costa, AI L.. & Kallick,. B. (Eds.) .. (20.00). Habits .of mind: A developmentlll series. Alexandria, VA: Association for Sapervision 'and <turriculum Development.

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Curriculum Development! Institute: (191;;18). Guide to corniculum fori maladjusted children. I Hong Kong; Hong Kong Education Department, Curriculum' Development Institute.

deiBono.B, (~973al CoRT thinking: CoRT I. New,Yorl¢ Pergamon Press.

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Feuerstein, R., Rand, V;, Hoffman, M.B., &l Miller, R. (1980)J instrumental Enr.ichment: An imesvemion Program fo, cOgl!litive'modijiability. Baltimore, MD:: Uruversityl ParklPress.

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Van Luit, J. E.H. ~1999~.'Teachin8 mathematical thinking-to children withispecial needs. In J. H. M. Hamers, J. E. H. Van! n.uit,! & BI Csap6 (Eels.), Teaching and learning thinking skills (pp.!24D-257).lLisse: Swets & Zeitlingerl

Vaughn, S., Elbaum, B., ,& Boardman, A. 0.1(2001). The social functioning of students :with learning disabilities: linplications for inclusion. Exceptionality, 9 (1-2), 41-65l

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WUI Y .. W., & Chan, DJ W. K. ~003}., Thinking teachers' 'inltiatives .in Hong Kong: Context, IPlanning.: lmplementationrand ~oncems. Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 4~ID, 30-47.

William Y. Wu Pb;D. isCo-Director of the Thinking Qualities Initiative Project, at Iilie Centre :tbr EducationallDeve'.lopment, Hong Kong 'Baptist University and lis a faculty member of the : Department of Education Studies teaching educational psychology courses i and supervising master and doctorall students. He has been experimenting .with ithe.direct leaching of higher order thinking skills, problembased learning, andlthe:ihfusion ofthinking skills !into the schoolrcurriculum lin Hong Kong.

KW ANI 'Yee. Wan I M.Phll. .is a, Project Associate of the Thinking Qualities Initiative; at the Centre for Educational Development, Hong Kong Baptist Universii&'; Hong Nong. Her research interests are teaching thinking, assessment for learning and out-of-class experiences. She ,is the co-author of Teaching Thinking in Primary Schools: Lesson Plans and 11Iustrations.

lI'he W.eb I8S SupelT Culture-AD! Amalg"mation of Subcultures

lLudwig!Ganske &iZabari Hamidoa

This article: is a report of, "The .Little Study" within a larg~ sur.vey axploriitg the effects of ihe Internet on. teacher educators. ,The·larg(frl survq sample. tronsiSted '0/192 !teacnera and teache1'3~in-training [educaum] at Unwersity Brunei Daruasalam [UBDJ.' TwolsubgroupS! that we veil')' similar. in nature except for their choice in the language-medium I oj insl11Ucliomat liBD are compared in ,"TheIIJittleSludy". 'Jrhe datil provided .from these Itwo groups 'Showlsimilru variation but we qflite dljforent in Iterms of what might !be called tJie general iinpacl of the lmemeu The :Malay-medium cohon reports Q similar number- oj'com]?UlerS! 'bul'oonsiderablry different eomputer imeraatlon time thai shtiTWS :up especial" in time spent on the lmeme: 1'1ie authorSi aomend that these remarkable differences in penetration are! similar 10 other subgroups beilJ8l defined an the Web and 'cDu/dibe descrilied as subcultures within the large" Internel super ali/lure.:

Intll'oduction and Context

The ideas iexp,essed !here come: out! of a Istud)'1 examining the effects iof new recJ1nologies on educators im Brunei. TIle main study conducted Iby Ganske 1& Hamidon' (200B) and reported in the:International JOurnal oj Instructional Media [JJIM] used la sUllVey to gadler R«C~tions; of teachers' enroUedl at University Brunei Darussalam (UBOJ especially with respect to the impact IOf Internet ! access. Data were gadiered from teachers at different stages in their educational p~grams. USD basi two parallel programs--one taught in Malily-mediUlJll and one taught in English+mediiun. .Als a result of unanticipated I delays, the data coming from Ithe Malay-medium respondents were not ready in I time for reporting in tile main study so, did not form part of! the earlien report, The Malay-medium results generally supported these found from Ithe EQglish-medium educators but there are some differences. Those differences give rise to this article.

Brunei ]Darussalam is a smalll country' of approximately 350,000' peap)e located I near I the equator on !the ! island' of' Borneo. Aboutl one .. third I of 'the population consists of expatriates with the remaining two-thirds; being made up of loeals, l!.ocalS are further divided into seven different! cultural groups, The official language i of Bnmel is Malay and until \-lery recently, the second official language Wasl English to facilitate international communication. Three :mainll8n8ij~es iare spoken in Brunei: Malay, Chinese and English.1

601

Methodology

FOil the main smdy a survey questionnaire (AppendiXIA) was J>repared to ask the ,'S8Dle' questions j usedl in a: much larger American survey' eondueted I by the Stanford !Institute fdr ilie~ Quantitative Study of Sooiety! [SIQSS] (INie &:!bring. 2000), The plan was to compare the behavioursoofthe educator group in Bhmei to those of the 41 13 I Americans surveyed I~ Slq,SSJ Slq,SS lias announced their intention IOf longitudinally monitoring Internet behavioun withl8f long-termjgoal of better undemanding its effects on society. ' In this conten, it seemedlappropriate to use iit as a backdrop I for examining !die early effects I()f the Internet 001 educators in Brunei.. Ther meth'odoldgy used by! SIQSS was also replicated. 1Ttiis meant Ithe results were reported as lJJ,el'Centages lof the people polled. GraRhicallanal}!Sis was used to Irevealldivisionsl of time and behaviours associated with Internet use. In tim lway a portrait of what is happening to peeple as Ithey make :the !Iiltemet a !part ofttheintlvesrean be quantified in !terms of what they dornd What activities they curtail. As mentioned earlier.:~liCation deadllnesnesulted imthe exclusion oflthe Milay-Ianguage students in reporting the results of the main study. Later whenlthe data from the MaIay-Ian~ subgroup were examined they alinost exactly paralleled those of the EngliBik-Ianguage :students excepn thein percentages were substantially smal1~ suggestiOg that the impact was dess gronouncedi on thiS group. Further' analysis all this subgmuPI became affectionatel)! known as 'The Little Study'.

Tbe Little Study

Three EIiglish~medium classes made Illp the 125 original respondents; FiftYfi\lei students I were first")!ear'students with anraverage age of122 y~ and Ithe remainder came from teachers returning :for further iedacatlon with an average age of 35. 1lhe Malay-medium classes consisted' ef 6V I students made. up mainly of teachers returning: for tUrtherl education! When I the 5' YOlBlger ·students are removed from the Eilglisli-mediumrrespandentslthat leaves two grou~ oflapproximately the same size and of similaJ! composition with one main ditference-the choice ofllanguage of instruction in thew program of1education at mD. Since all resgon<tents were chiawn from practicing teachers 01'1 teacliers'iul-traiDing' they rare referredlto esreducators tIIrougboutlthis document.

The Iarg~n SI(~SS study of Internet Ibehaviour iin the United States draws Ithe conclusion that the!bebaviourlOfditferent Internet audiences isiremarkably similar, that is. they pass throug\1 very similar 'stages I as their histo~ with, the Intemet lengthens (OWoole.,200()l, p. "1).

What's ... interesting" however, is that once peap)e have access; to the Internet, there are !more: similarities I than rdifferences in I terms!Ofliow much they use it and the activities they use it for ... . Once people have access,.blacks look like:whites. the college- ,

61

educated look like the uon-college educated, and age !groups tend.w be! mOM homogeneous than we'might have thought..

Tliecomparison oflMalaYrmedium and Bnglish-medium responses replicates this SIQSS observation.

The Ten General Findings-Internet 1lJse in Brunei

The eriginal Bruneii stud)! reported ten general fihd~. 1Ihese findings will bel summarized here withl paraDel eommentary=one side :wilt Jeporll the: Malay! perspective and the otherside the Englishlperspective. Since only 70lpeopJe are used in the parallel English sample in place oflthe original 126i the results here differ slightl}'! from those reported mIUIM!

1.. EVIllY edueaUJr bas 8 bome computer.

Malay-medium I

EngUsb-medluMI

• 97% have a computer:

• 64.2% have 1 G plus speed

• 1.6 computers Ref bome

• 43.1% have a laptop

• 3.7 televisions Jler home

• 1000,1, have a computer

• 6L8% have 10 plus speed I

• He COIDRuten per home

• 41216% have a laptop ,

• 2\9 telcvisions per home

2.. Most educaton are connected;

Malay-medium I

Englisb-mediuml

• 62.7% have Internet connection

• 7.5% bavee-speed [ADSL] I

• 89)7% have Illtemet connection

• 8t8% have e-speed I

3.. Ioteroetleomputer,.time,competes with othen computerr-fime.

Malay-medium I

English-mediuMI

• •

1.6 hours per day! on computer 70% of computentime is Internet 41% of Intementime is e-mail

• 2t9 hours perday on the com Ruter

• 69% ofi competer tiine is Internet!

• 4~% ofiIhtemet timeis e-mail

4 •. Lengtb otUimeiusen have been connected to.the Internet varies widely •.

Malay-medium I

English-medluml

• hadtlntemet connection 3.6 !years ;

• had Intemet eonneetton 2'.1 years

s. TIme speat on the Internet reduces time speat on otter penDnaiaettv.

by. .

Malay-mediam

"reading newspapers" first to go "watcbiDg TV" second to go "social evmts'" most protected time internet time thief effec:t-smaU

• • •

• "reading newspapers" first to go

• "social cveofS" seccmd tQ go

• "taDdog willi fimliIY' pnRcctecl

• intemettimCl1hief~

Internet Time Theft-Malay

soc events talklngfam shopping

time fam -c'~' watch tv

read news ~ ....

o 10 20 30 40 50

Percent Responding

Internet Time Theft--English

ta'k'ngfam'i~""'~- ii~

tlmefam

watch tv shopping -.

soc events .•.. ", _ .•.

read news

o 10 20 30 40 50 Percent Responding

Figure 1. Comparison ofMalay-Eng!ish Time Theft as a Resul1 ot1lntcmet Activity

6. FlDdlag generailDformatlon aad e-maD are the most popular lateraet aethitles

Malay-mecHUID

• "reading f1ftWS" most popular

• "general iDfurmatioo" second

• we-mail" tbinl

EnaJIah-medla ..

• "general infcnmtion" most popular

• "e-mail" secend

• "reading news" third

63

Internet Activities--Malay trading stoek -

stock quotes

banking auctions , buying ::J Job search ;::::t hobbles ~ travel arr presentation

chat room reading product Info

surfing entertain homework

e-mail

gen Info reading newS

o

10

20

Internet Activities--English trading stock

stock quotes

auctions buying' Jobsearch , banking ~ hobbies ~ chat rooms ~ travelarr ~ presentations product Info

reading entertain

surfing homework

reading news

e-mail

gen info

30

40

50

20

40

Percent Responding

64'

o

60

80 100

Percent Responding

Figure.], Comparison ofiMaIaf~Eaglisb Aetivities Done: on tile Internet

7. Brunei educators do.an average!of five different activities Ion the Internet! lalI:data.,......Malay~ English, )lounger, 01der-191 edeeators]

Maray-mediuml

English-medium

average of 4.8 activities

•. average of S.S activities

8 .. €:bat rooms are ,more commonly frequented by, younger. Internet users ..

Malay-medium I

English-medium

• 14.9% visited chat rooms

•. 14.7% visited chat rooms

Although there was some age difference between the two subgroups aflMalay-medium [average age 28.5 years] and English-medium [average age 3l5.9 years] nearly identical proportionsireposted visiting chat.roomsr Larger differences ;in this category occurred with younger Brunelan educators who were removed from this comparison.

9 •. Younger educators embrace technologies-tbey app,ear ·to be. more "plugged·Un" Itban 10idelT teachers afready In the system •.

• The}' spend more total time omthe Internet.

• The~ engage in a greaten number of Internet activities.

• They have been connected to the Internet> for a longer time.

• The)! spend more time watching television!

• The)! !ipend more time on mobile phones.'

As in general: finding 8 above, these results are derived from a comparison to the youngen educators who were removed frem the comparison of:the Malay and English subgroups.

10. People generally feel that tbe Internet bas not bad a large effect on their lives even Ilthey repor.t!Spendlng several bours daily on it.

Internet !Profile fol'l Malay-medium Educators

Looking lat the comparative percentages CDti' educators lin the Malay-medium as; opposed tOI English-medium programs, a ,consiStentl6'i lower penetration Illf Internet: actiV!ity iSI evident. Only in the Malay-medium. grOUP! did I any respondents report not having a 'computeIi at home. The especially significant statistio is that only 62.7% of Malay-medium educators I reported having: a home-Internee connection cempared to 89. 7!Yo for the English-medium .respondents, Again in terms of total time spent "on the computer, Malay-medium people reported 1.6 hours per da}1 om average as compared t011.9 hours per day for English ..

mediwn-spending1only about 55%1 as much tiine Oil the computer daily as their English-medium counterjparts .. Considering the huge segment of computer time devoted to Internet activity thiS indicates a much lower impact of tl1e Internet OD the :lives of those people enrolled in the Malay-mediwn programs at WO.

Aside from language difterence these two groups are remarkably similan Hence the considerable difference with! respect to; Intemet behaviours must be largely attributable to lillguag~ faeility, Both groups 8IIe: conversant in Eoglish but: the, English-medium I group iSi much: more confidenti about their ability in English. They pian to teach in Emgtisn or are already .emplcyeddn Eng1isb~ language teaching;m the schools.

Language and Otber Subcultures on tbe Web

This is not a unique finding to: Brunei, In a general social survey of Internet use: in Canada (Housing, Family &; Social Services Division, Statistics Canada, 200 1), Statistics Canada reported Franco phones as less likely. to use the Internet than Anglopl:lones. Basing their i repom on I a yeat-200() telephone survey of 2S,()90 !a&1adiansi Statistics .Ganada reported that only. 44% of Franco' phones used the . Internet as comparedlto 58% of! Anglophones. When asked about the Internet, !fOWl in tenlFraneophooes felt there was not enough content in French Itt) suh their needs,

The . matter of language .. use on the Intemet is a critically: important I issue.

English still dominates the Internet, larg~lY as a result ofli1lS American origin, but this picture is. changing. Once there was even disoussion of the possibility of English becoming a global language as a result oft its dominance in the earJy history .(jf the ilnternet but that scenario, is bigb1y unlikely, according to Barbara Wallruffl(2000) writin8! fur the At!anticMonthiy. English as a Ilanguage. is most likely to lose.ground rather than gain it over the, next two decades moving:te> third place in world Janguageslbehind Chinese, Hindi andlUrdu, andlfoHbwed!dloseJy by Spanish and Arabic as measured by the number of native speakers iin the language. The softening rof Englishl as the language iof the web is also indicated by the following statistics:

• The Internet bas 172 million English speakers and! 163 millien nonIEnGlish speakers online (Global Reach, 20012a).,

• As of Much 2001, anly: 47.5% oftpeople swrfing the Internetspoke IEn!§liSb as their primary language (Global Reach, 2002b).

• Within a few years, English willi only represent one-third of! theworlci's online population (Dunlap; 19998).

• Only 7 countries use JEngliSh as: a mother tongue, representing 7%.ofthe 'world's population, 26% of its economy, and 55% of online population (Dunlap, 1999b).

66

About one-thud of web; sites I are in a language other than Englisb (Gl4lbal Reech, 20021i).

ApproximatelY, 43% of web users speald no Eilglish (Global I R.eadhL 200aa).

Malay Uanguagelon tbe Web

Global Reach; keeps track IOf Internet Istatistics !in terms of the language used to! access the Internet. In their scenario I a useneccessing from the United States im SpaniSh would be countedl as a Spanisll-Ianguag~ l\ISer .. Their count of Malay users is! estimated to be abou1l 1.3% of the world Internet! popuhition er about 8.1 million'peopJe (NbiAuthbr, 2001)1 Ofltlle estimated 313 billion web pages OD the: Internet some 214 binion, are iil English and the remaining 100 !billion i are :m languages other than EngJish «)ffiee oflntemationalIPrograms,!U.S. Department of State,: 200J). Malay is; !Woken in Singapore,. Malaysia and I Brunei witIl Indbnesiil using a ,variation ofiit in everyday discourse. The Dumber of Malay websites i on .tIle !banet; is estimated at i about 5000 (Shirk}1, 1999~. Then statistics I are !Consistent in one respeG:t-Malay is not a p0pular Internet language atl this time. An IJitemet ;USe!! whose languag~ of preference is Malay might feel that the web is a foreign domain.

Cbneiusion:: Dlf&rendation of Web Silb-gfoups

As; more statistics .are reported about IDtemet:penetration in; societies all over the:world, generalizations about lnternet behaviours from die: pOpUlatiOD mainstream are being made and dl1lferentiatioD inOO, differenn web ISUbgtroupS; is a1BQ occming. FQl example, the US Department of State (2()03) reported that while Internet penetration remains: steady among~ the American population lat between I 570/0: and I 610/0i using the net, there also were fairly well defined subgroups oir'lnet evadera", 'bet dtQpoutS" and the "'truly disconnected" that had clearly~finable profiles in die ClU'l'ellti population. Further~ "disabled IAmeri~ cans" made UR another eategoI)' exIu"bitiilg a mach lowenrate oflIntemet use thlm the;general ROPUI8tion .. Of course there is considerable :sbiftfug in tthe membership of! these subgroups over :time and I also ,in the numbers belon~g to eacb category. With the maturation af1the:yo1.lllFr generationsi who show·mucb higher levels of lntemet interest and use than the; older people that they are replacing, the poplations IOf the lesser-use subgroups; are .predieted to' be smaller, In an Jpsos-Rleid stud~ (W orldLingo, ne date) identifYihg Sweden as i a bell .. weather country forr Internet predierion; l2-2~lyear-oldS held! a penetration rate off 900/01 indioating:that the ''tmly disconnected'r category is resilient albeit mucb smallerrthan itfregisters lin current eoUDtJIy populati<ilns. Taken in this: context the di&rentlbehilviour levels reJ¥>rtedlby tbeMal8&'-meo1ium group distussed in this particular peper ii 'shoply enouglJ. I defined to classify ia into I a dift"erentiatioD categorynnueh like other diftel!entiation groups described above.

Language:is critically important to .communieenon, culture, and tOI i(lenti~.

Therefore, die: subdued profile of people wllo align themselves: strongJy with Malay in nerms of commtmication is mot !Surprising.. . That ;people in! this sUbgroup should react with lessen acceptance of Intemen culture that is: still predominantly Eng!lishland offering onlYivery limited opgortwiity for expression tolthose viewiIig the world from a Malay! orientation ~s simply!a rational approach to lreality. The results ofl'The:Littla Study' clearly! set apart the quantity,of Internet! behaviours of the Malay-medium respondents from the.Bnglish-medium ones ..

The Internet is a complex [phenomenon. which, at present, ,is not welD understood by either its msers: or its non-users, A variety of metaphors have grown up areund itt to help explain itsl effeots. Vakninl (na date) loutlines three: of these metaphors-1he Internet as a chaotia library, as a aoilecliVe brain, reminiscent of Wells (938) world brain cancept,;and/ as a' unknown continent with territorial borders i of cylberspace, ,Terra' Imernetica. These! are interesting ~ and romantic portrayals ofldifferent perspectives of the InternetJ However, .the .results: of this study suggest another metaphor-that of the Internet las a super 'CUlture c~ntainiJig a numbeD of pockets characterizedj by various degrees of resistance :which differ from the: larger culture. insignificantlY'in terms Q€ the ,quality afltbel Internet behaviours; but differ substantiaIlyifromlthe larger culture:in terms of the. quantity oCtile Intemenbehavlours. These subcu/h/res may! have them originr in language, p~sical handicap, psyab:ologieal resistance, lor even age, bun them character lis defined !bY a different degree of participation by each subgrou;p.-like a reflection of the larger g{ouPr-Similar infevery way, existing:ii1 the same space bu& smaller. This description seems to aptly describe die difference between 1lhe Mlllay~medium students and the English-medium smdents.in this "lJittle Study'r of tho educators in Bnmei Darussalam ..

References

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Dunlap, B. ~1999b). Interview in: Web! Marketing Tools (Italian Imagqzine for Internet Professionals). Retrieved September' 13. 2003: Ifroml httplll www.g~acli.com)eng1ed1artlinterviewOE99.btml

Ganske; L. &I Hamidon, Z. (2003)J TeChnologjca/liinmllrsion. in Brunei) IntemationallJoumal of Instructional Media, 3.3(1), .1-20.1

Global Reach, (20028). Globaliintert,et statistics: (ljyIlanp,age)J Retrieved March 12,20.03 from http://WlWW.g~acli.comlglobstats.htm1.

168

GLobal Reach: (2002b). GI(}bai internet statistiost Sources .and references.

Retrieved March 1112, 2003 from ihttp:lYwww.glreach.comlglebstatsl.

refs.pbp3.

Global Update. (2001). Web qficullure: w.here business, .cu/ture and~echnology, eonverge. Retrieved September 'l3, 2003 from tilq):lIivww .ewgate.comA press/press -'- WebOff::uIture _ 04200 Lhtml,

Housing" Family &' Social Services Division, Statistics :Canada. ftool),. Tlte daily .. Mondlly, March 126, ,2001:: Genera/lsDcial1 survtry: Internet use:

Retrieved September 8,,2003 from http:v.lwww.statcan.calDaiJy lBnglishA o 10326/dOI0326alhtm.

Ni:e; NJ & El!Iring" L., (12000). Internet 1 and I society: A preliminary repons retrieved Fcmuary 27, .20031 from bttpcllwww.stanford!edu/group/siqss/. press_release/press _ release.btlnl ..

No Author (2001 ).1 World catches "R witH U.S. sn web use: The. wo1ilti wide web ;s 1 at ftist stbl'ling, to 'earn I i'ts name. Retrieved I MarChi 121 2003 i from http://wwwicvbtv.comlindustty/news0601011-1.html.

No Author (No Date). Top three thingslllorth IAmerican businesses I17IUSiIAn()lt.! about I intemational markeling (Interview in Marketi1Jg SHerpa)\ Retrieved Septemberl13, ,2003ifi'om'http://Www.glreach.cGmlengfedl8rtlrep'' eur17 :html.

Office QfIntematiooallnformatioDllh'ograms"U.S. [)epartment IOf State. (2003)J Survey 'shows elIer-changilig pattems; in U.S. internet: use. Retrieved September 8J 2003 from http:t/usinfo.state.gov.

O'il!oole,. K. (~COO)I Study offers early J()ok at how. internet :is chtmging: daily, lifo. Retrieved september 8,.2003 from httpcllwww.stanfordJedulgroupA siqsslPJ!ess..:,Releaselpress_release.pdf. •

Shiiky" cc. 0'99) .. 1919, the yeQ¥ the: world wide web went world 'wide.' Retrieved March' 12, 2003 from http:/tWWWLs~com/lwritingsliiJ.tema~ tional.btmJ.i

Vaknin,~ S. (200 1). Internet: A medium or a messag~? Retrieved! March 12,.2003 i'om http://wwwJsamvak.tripod.comlintmnet.htmll

Wallraft;:B. ~2000~.; What g/d/jal/anguage? ll.etrieNed September 8,.2000: from llttp:llwwwJtbeatlantic:com/issuesl2000/m l/wallraffibtm.

Wells, HJ G. (1938); World Brain. Methuen & Co. Ltd.

WorldLingo.(No Dete): World language.statistical 'facts., Retrieved ISep~embel1

8" 2003i frorm ihttp.:/Iwww.woddlingo.com!resouroesllan-

guagej, statistics.html.

Ludwig Ganske is currently an Associate: Professor at University Brunei Darus ... salam. He holds .a Ph! D in Instructional Systems! Technology from Indiana University as well: as an Edl D from! Columbia !University. in Educational Computing.

Zahari Hamidon is.currently.a Lecturer-at University Brunei Darussalam. He' has an undergraduate educational backgroundiin Art and Design as well as an MI Ed in Computers in Education. He.is in the filial stages of'completing his.Ph D. in the design and development of a .Virtual Classroom llearning System from The University of Malay,B, Malaysia,

70

Ap~ndiI A: Surv~y Form An Ed Tecb and ICT Sunrey .

Please answer the folIowmg questions about your use of a PC and the. Internet:

Name: _

m Number:.:.,: _

PHone Nilmber: _

E-mail::....: _

Age: _

Numben of Children iin Famil>l _

Position in family (parentF#OJ eldest=st, second child:=#2, etc;):.....: __

Computi"ng

Do you have a computer at home? (Y or N)

If Yes (Y) then please; answ.er the following questlons;

Number ofcomputers.at home _

Do you have a la~op? (Y or iN) _

Is your-computer highl speed (above 1 GB processing speed?(Y or N) __

Do you have internet atrhome (Y'or N)_e,.!ipeed? Yor·N) _

Television

Do you have auelevisicn at hom? ('Vi or N) _

1fT Yes (Y) then please, answer the following iquestions: .

Number ofltelevisions at home _

Whatlsize is rhe screen of your biggest TV?_' _

Do you have satellite or cable subscription *y or N). _

Please rank the follow.ing genres: fjl for most popular, 6 for least tlopullll')

Movies Local Malaysian SPOrts_I _

News! Documentary (e.g, Discovery) (i)ther_

711

Internet Access

Indicate wbelle:You ~nd!your internet time (per averageiday) I

Total hours, =home +UBIDL +Gafe'--- +llIther_

J]"other", where, _

Your Average Day: .

Estiinate the average timeyou spendleacbdayldoing each ofthe:foUowing;·

Watching television\!..1 _

On Comguter __ =emall Internet, +nonemail Internet -ifothen_ In conversatlen __ =onrmobile +face-to-face __ +other __

DofugHom~mk. _

Internet Actlliity

How long (inl}Ie8IS)lhave !yOU· been spending time on !the Internet? __

Where do you spend less time because of youn time :on the .net? (Y or IN) TalkiDg witIJ family and friends?!

Spending time with family and friends? '

Reading newspaper?

Watching television?

Shopping? I

Fewer sociallevents?

Check 00 which ofithe fdlIowng internet activities you do?

Email

General' ibformatioDl __ Homework Entertaiiunentlgames __

Reading Dews Producttfuformation_1 __ Researching lobbies __ Trading! stocks

Reading

Other

lmalllilg travel arrangements chat rooms/message! boards :surfing

auctions

lbu}?ng productsr'services ; Ibanking

:stock quotes

job search I

Ipresentations

if"cother" where?

72

WbatlHappens When TeacberslBeeome Students!

David R. Boorer

This paper iexamines the implicatlonsl/orl leachers who enroll as in-service students ati the fllRiversity 6ft Goroka: In partitiular, . it looks at the potential for difliculties caused by the role reversal from teacher-to stuCknt and Its likely effect upon I academic performance. Responses from 'a lirlef Rilot BUMIe)' of firs~ !year in-service' B.Ed students are, used ao illustrate and st1rengfhen tRe view that when teachers 'Oec6me students such al role' revel/sal' is a majoll' .challimgq 110 both cogl'litivelOnd qffectwe performance.:

Introdliction

Since 199rT, when the University oflGoroka came into being, approximate))! 2,000 iD .. service students have passed through a variety IOf programmes; most bemg enrolled on IB.EdJ degree courses of two I years; duration.' In-serviee students are qualified teachers at either primary or secondary level; who have at least tw.o years teaching (or other -relevant) experience and have been selected from applicants who are ofl an appropriate academic standard. However • .it should be noted that these students are! often long-serving members (pi thea profession. holding senior positions such as school inspector or principal.. Of the ten I respondents in! the pilot study (see below).1 one' teacher had 27 years experience and another 25 years.

Once enrallet\ students' IProglltlss, and ultiinately their suceessor failUre, ~s judged using only! one criterion, that ofi them academic : grades. Both teachiIig staff and students focus on cognitiverperformanee, since it iis onl¥ that which will decide whether or not the student will gr:aduate: Whilst this is quite understand! able from ani administrative perspective, it iSI after! all a I global: practice;; such a focus fails tOI take into account significant factors that have the iPotentiallto be a majpr negative influence UPOD an m-sendee student's progress. It will be:argued that these factors .relatespecificallj' to the impact1 of 'the role reversall from teacher 'to student Iqpon the identity. selt+perception and general p.sychological well being oflin-eervice students. Whilst such ,an imp,act will V8l)' from person to person itl will be suggested that, in general, it is likely bit the impact of! these various ifactors will not enhance academic:perfonnance.

Potentlilll effects of/role-reversal

According to \lJ.efrancois (1990, p.SI3) "several theorists I suggest diat all

1-3

change ds stressful": It! is argpable. therefore; that I the : more changes that are experienced the more potential there is i fur stress to occur and for students to experienoe its negative impactJ TIle relationship between stressors and performance is now widely acknowledged and has been for almost a eentul')'l (Yerkes &l Dodson, 1908). m an I ideall situation arousap, motivation and positive stress would be stabilized I at aJlI optimal levelltbat Gould /vary mrom deamer to 1earnel1 andlfromltask to task. }Io.wev.er, once enrolled many! ofibe cues with which the individual is fiimiliar and/ which allow the student to know who and Iwhat Ihe ~11 she iis are suddenly 1110 longer there.: Thisl hasl the potential for ibeing extremel)i diSorienting.

Lenus, therefore, considentheicbanges that the incoming:iD-service student! is : likely Ito encounter when I he or' she enters the 'stud)! pregremme and the possible impact oft these changes, It should tie noted that! the: following discus .. sion will/be based on certain assumptiens relative Ito our p$YChologicallwelJbeing. Adjustment I will depend ~n a irange ofl factors based 11pIOn general concepts Isuch las tfficacy (Bandura, 19.7r7), competence and/ mastery (l)tuner. 1966), role and status identit)! (Sprinthhll and Sprinthall, 1987) and locus G)£ control (Ro~. 1966).

It is arguable dtat the biggest change relates to iroles; the teacher is now 18 student. Consider I whatithis may mean for, asian example, a·lieadinaster1or an ~ctorlwith more:than 20 y~ars experience; Formerly; theYiwere:sure oftheil1 position, the)'! were treated with respect, tHey exercised power and authority, and they knew their job: and what at involved. They were, to use Bandlu'a's iterm, 'efficacious'.. AnG inow, as 81 student, ,all of !those! factors that confirmed 8D indirndual's self-image and role have been removed. As a student,. the teacher .. learner ilDay !be faced with the challenges of a new field G)1f s~ (such as psycholbgy). He or she iSilikely toireceive critical comments 00 assiSnments; is unlikel)! to exercise authori~ will non be: the head .of an organization er administration I and whateverhis or' her I previous role if is now of little Dr no immediate relevance. SUch I chan~ can be. literally, shocking: since nhose factors diat !previQusly contritiuted to a-sense oflpersonal and p~ychQlogicaI security! have, beemremoved, Such conditions could well !act as a catalyst I for the onset of' stress. Perh~j im this .psper; a more :~ppropriate: term might be 'socio-cultural/shock' since much that is, .or was, familiiu'l to the teaehenturned student has been removed! or modified.

Wbil6t what the in-servlce students experience is arguab~not as-extreme as the .concept of 'culture shodkr, descritied by,Toftler ~198111P. 3]5) as "the proi>undl disorientatioolsuffered by! thel traveler", .the main eharaeteristies are similar .. Both students and travelers are, obliged tOI deal !with unfamiliar events, relationships and circumstances: in the ease oflthe:teacliers such circumstances are often diametrically opposed to what they are used to. ,

74

Other issues may strengthen this sense of Is hock orldisorientati60. Firstl¥l the: teacher will, fdr the I number oflyears in sehool,' almost celltainly have employedtthe. favoured IPappa- New Guinea (PNG) model aflauthoritariim pedagogy, THis matter. is dealt !With in considerable detaillin a recent paperl(Gutbrie~ 2003)Ithat addresses I various treasons wit)! a fOmlalistic approach to teaching islappropriate for PNG I8Ddl wh)! teachers are, iin general,! comfortable witIi such a model.. The: teacher is i the: centre ofilmoWledge and power and is vet'&' rarely cballenged 'y his: or henstudents, , Now, as: an lin-service: student, the former'teacher is likely tOI be challenged; expliciti)'! in class or implicitly when the staftl member I concerned I returns marked I assignments. .And'whanif the student isumcleer about something? Howrmueh of al hurdle is it mitis or her ego to go toia staff member for clarification er advice? IFor, years students I hav.e: gone to tlie teachen for advice, but now1l1 Could this be one: reason why SOl many in~service students whO! admin to their peers ,that 1hey are im difticul~~ do IDOt in fact come, to ask !for assistance hm the appropriate lecturer?

If it is accepted that most (in-service) teachers employ the'pedagog\c~ authori-, tarian teaching st)fle im school, they are: likely tOi feel I comfortable being on I the: receiving end of lectures .. This iis, after all, a st}Ile of communication theylknOW well1 andlwhich, fQrlbetter or worse.Js relatively easy since it may be cynicallY, &scn'bedl as: ~spoon-feeding; .. However, how win the student handle an approach wilicbl demands muclt more input, effort, resear,ch andlreadiog; an approachlthey rna)! welll have non even' heard of,; let alone experienced? 1fhis :approach is! the model of andragogy that1, whilst approppate for aduh learners, certainly isnonsuitable for.inon enjoyed' by, all mature ~iil-service ~students (Soorerj 1999a; 1999b). 1l'o quote a female in~service student whOt was tar from happy "Doctor, I don't like yOW' method of'teach:ing. I want to know wlUchlp.age; iii. which book i should read and you doa'n tell us".: Since increasing numbers Gfthe:UniversitylofGlbrokalstaffare adl1pting the: andtagogJc model.jhere.are likely to be more comP1aints! of this, nature lmthe future.. Perceptions of personal incompetence ean be :both Ichallenging and threatenmg - especially tOI a person who has, for th~: last 25 years,: been Itreated as .perfectly, competent endlhasiseen him or iherself accordingly ..

The notion oflcomp,etence; or lack oflit, is perhaps most olearly, reflected iIvthe. standard of academic writin~ produced Iby in-service students., Since asSignments I are requited to be writtenl in 1EngJisb~ it is essential that the standard is such that! the: reader knows what the assigQlllent's autltor is:tryfug torsay. How.ever,:Since it isl likely that English IWill be that student's third br fourth 1l1Qguag~ andtsince also it isl highly Jikely:that any written correspondence !whilst a sehoolteacher w.ent uncorrected, 1!he matter cflacademic writing faces some studentslwith hurdles diat they! are, simply unable to clear.

As is mentioned in die 'lIiine tOIGroW' educational vi(ieo(tape:no. Illlconcerning child !abuse) the difficultyl is not there ~s 'this factor onthis, factor or that factor' .. It is when there is fthis facton and tllis factor and that factor' .. The same !Considera-,

75

tien applies to in-service: students who perceive that, some or all otlthose factors that provided them with identity and psyehologica] security have, in effect, been removed, The situation lis similar to the sensory-deprivation studies that were undertaken attMcGill ttJiliversity (Spear; Penrod &; Baker, 1988, ,pA72)~ once familiar ipereeptuall cues' were removed I subjects became extremely confused, disoriented and stressed. Readers who are' interested I in the basics i of this disorientation I phenomenon may tare to' read a fietionalisedaccount of what happens to an tindividual when Ibis world: is literally perceived to be turned upside down, by referring to the novel 'Noble House', written b.y,Jame6 Clavell,'

Pilot Study Data I

Ten first year in-service students (two female, eight male) I out of a class of thirty-four voluntarily completed a questionnaire at: the end of their first semester. when they had finished one- quarter of their 'twOI yean programme. Their responses are.outlined in Table 1 and further.discussed below.

Table D:' Teacheraas Students: Their Perceptions '

Question 1: Years of Teaching Experience
Less than 5 5-91 10- 15:- 19 I 20+
14
01 3 1 4 2'
Question 2: _ Before you 'arrived at UJOG, how easy did you think being a stu-
dent would be?
Bxtremely tough 2 I Fairly easy 2
I
Not very easy 5 , Very Easy 1
!
Question 3: Now you are a student, , how is your new role?
Extremely tough 5 I Fairly easy 2
Not very easy 3 Very Easy 01 The: average teaching experience for the group was - 15 years. The' longest serving respondent lbad'27 years teaching experience and the-shortest only five. It-can be seen; when Question 2 is aompared!with Question 3~ that-the reality of being a student was tougher Ithan anticipated. However, one teacher- looked forward to life as an in-service student being.'very easyl, Unfortuaately; due to the: anonymity of tile respondents, the resear.cher was unable to follow: up that reported !perception\ although that teachen s opinion of reality was changed to the

76

'extremely tough' category once studies began .. From the! shift im responses from Question;2 to 1 it can be seen that the reality of in-service life: was tougher than anticipated. It 'is worth noting, Ihowever,:that not all students will consider being 'back at studies' a uniformly similar experience: Some clearly perceive their role reversal as less challenging than others. It would be interesting Ito trYr to identif}1 the factors than influence such' a perception.

The tresgonses Ito an open-ended question, 'Whatl are the most difficult challenges you are presently facing?' fall into itwo main categeries.: challenges thattare.academic and those that are.non-aeademic, A sample ef responses that fall I into each I categol'Yl is given below, although the· dichotomy is also arb oversimplification I since 'academic" problems : may well be caused, by social) domestic and/or psychological factors.

There is no doubt that the role! change, from teachen to student (and student life), cr.eated the most: challenges. AS! one: student commented, "The: most difficult challenge: IlIlIIll facing at this moment is adapting to ithe 'studies as .a student. It is a difficult I task to settle as a studenn aften the: (16)1 years as an employee 001 the staff of a school" (female 'teacher). This same teaches then raises two more factors that! overlap I both: categories (academic and I nonacademic), commenting. "Also, being away from my ifamily makes studying vel)\ difficult": This response: is also an example: of that which I is familiar and important being no longen available to the student,

This neacher also touched on the critical educational assue:ofthe bestiway to teaoh mature iin-service students. When she' observed I that "sometimes; it is forgotten.that I ami an adult learnenand not a school Deav.er". She has implicitlY! raised tine issue ofithe andragogic model's merits, as opposedtto the traditional,' formalistic, lecture model' so populan at uriiversities .worldwide,

Every respondent raised concerns about student life,.m one form or another.

Unique to the status of in-service students who enrol at the IUniversity of Goroka, is that they are, m the: vast! majority; of oases, obliged to t find I their. own accommodation outsidecampus. This resultsdn many students.being looated in local village communities that iare far from ideal for study purposes since they may lack! electricity, there may be 1110 specific study area, noise from closely situated-families can be highly, disruptive andlso can the house owners them .. selves. The following comments; from. a male teacher, with eighteen years experienoe, give a good picture:

The most difficult challenge I face at present is accommodation. I live with four fellow students in :a: veJo/I cro:wded space: sharing Cline room and a I dining room about three metres-square, with a ll.V. THis doesn't allow-for studies. The house owner. also contnbutes to our problems because! of his drinking habits when he . teams up with myfour 'colleagues, especially-at the weekends and

77

sometimes during !the week. I canlt gq Ito the library, ,whicblis about Itwent}i! minuteslwaiklawa)l, because otlsecurity 1!e8S0JlSl. I am tryiilg my veI1Y! best to g~tI ani accommodetion, where: I can be 1;y m~lf.

These problems are vel')'! real land intrusive, paeticularly for a mew student who knows, "11 have to seriously do my! studies, adapt tounyrlecturer's way (1)£ le<lturinglandlmeet the expectations of the University." It should be noted that seven oflthe: ten respondents mentioned I problems caused by: accommodation difficulties. It seems UDlieaiismc, at least according tOIMaslow's Needs Hierarcn)1 (Maslow ~ 1970). to expect academic excellence wtien the lhierarch)1' S base is so unstable..

The data shared b)1 the respondents reminds us i that . being, a student, especially an experiencedlfn-servlee student, involves much more than stud~ (i.e, academic work). It'inv .. lves aifundamental change in life-style and the need to adjust to a much differentlset of circumstances. ,

In response tOlanother open-ended question, 'What 8CCi) the thingslyou would most likeno chang~ nowlYpu are a student?', itiseems thatb'ecommg IlD in-service student has causedeighncfthe ten respondents to do some serious thinking about themselves, r~sultihg ini some !honest and pro-aetive observations.: What they wanted to change iitcluded:

"Learn to studylmuch harder ... ·

"Stop wasting !lime and improve; on my time management". '

"Become an independenlilearner and read more"

"Change:my mentality oflwanting tOI be spoon fed"

"Much less socializing with my friends"

However! whether-these resolutions .are :as easy to !keep. as diey are .to make is debatable.

Jfnothingjelse, the role-reversallexperience appears to functiomas a cataly,n for each student to examine a rangerof personal factors thanwereless of a pr.iorit}1 during their role of schoolteacher. 'Such'changes fit wellimto the broader, aim /!If education than this .writer, who employs the' andragogit model of teaching; describes' as "a personal 'Vome ofi discovery" when addressing his in-service classes :for the first! time. The two I respondents who did not indulge in self': examination both made: pleas !for improv.ed accommodation for the in-service cohort Qflstudents •.

78

For. the question, 'What advice would youjgive a mend, before theYljoined the in-semco programme; in erder to make their role IJ'eversal easier?' there is no doubt what the pJ:iori~ advice would be 'til) la ftiend'L Allten irespondents referred to the need to take study seriously. In fact die advice is analogousto aD athletics eventc before! the competition you meed' to train hard ana Waml u~ thorou~y. It Iwo sugg~sted ItfJat formal study at a IlDliversity centre, ,by Lahara, bYlcomspondence! or at ithe PNO Education Institute .would act as arwarm up fOil what the: student would I face ~ once in I Gorob. TWo quotes . are. )YcIrticularb1 interesting: the mend must "cbang~ their thinking and be more mature: before coming here. ~ 'This iis from annale.teacher witli 26 !yearsl service, Unfortunately ~ heldoesn'lt elaborateion 1he issue otlmaturity and what that implies forlbehBviour~ Yettfhis same teacher, \Wen compJeting the ':any other points' 'section asks fOl1 only one thing~ more handouts; After 26 years of'formalism and 'sppon feeding" old habits die hard, it would seem.

The second quote is offered in full I sinee it provides an I inslgbt into the 'voyage of discovery' element that tlducation anuniversity levei can involve:

"wen, universit;)r is where you icam prove: yourself, It is a place fcbl1 hard working •. committed and I dedicated lpeople. It's not a IRlace for lazy people:

Furthermore" it is:a place where you have to I produce 'high .qualitY, work and above all it is! where you need tOI discover many 'things i for ')1Ourself' .. (male teacher, seven years!ex~ence).

Another question asked, ,'Is bemg a university! student what you thought titi would he:like?~ SiX respondents answered "yes" andlfour "no'l.IEachlofthe fOUl1 respondents inl the: 'no' category offered different points of view; there did n01l appear a common thread to their pereepticns .. One was concerned about mack 01 photocopying facilides _uS' available iin her schaol). Another W8SI concerned about lack of Understanding lOr the Iparticular personalities and needs oft adult students.. The third wasisurprlsed b)l the!amount otltime needed fonlectures and assignments and was treating dUs as B personal challenge to justify the sactlifices he.had made in order to come to the UJniversit)! ofObroka. Lastly, a male teaehen suggested he. had I macieincottectl eourse choices I since' his ; studies were notl relatingjto hiS teachfug subjects.

A final qyestion asked for any! "other Romts~' 'respondents w.ould 'like to make, Surpriim~:as far as tliis researcher is icencemedl there Wasi one theme thanarose in nine ofithe ten replies to thiS question. .In-service students wanted a better qpality! of life. in terms lof educational resources and serVicesl available to them. Specificall)f. !they !Wanted fan more computers with which to type (wOJid process) assignments, They. wanted dedicated study space fOr iIi-serviCe (as opposed to pse-service) students andl they wanted more individual attention from lecmrers; It is templ'ing to read into Ihese:poiirts a sense:that role reversallhasia direct impact on the self~g~ andl sense of!status of in-service students once they become ~p,art of the larg~ student population at the University of Gorokai

79

They are; in one sense, no longer 'special'~

The issue of sponsorship

Maslow (l97(ijlSuggests in hisiHierarchy of Needs model diat our effectiveness depends I upon our basic needS being: met.. It has aIread}'1 been pointed out that! accommodatiQIll of a suitable quality is a problem. Another difficulty~ with implications fdr both the:student and his.or her family" was die Withdrawal Q)~ sponsorship by varioUS! provincial 'or central I authorities. Whilst I this ds an administrative .issue; it can bel imagined Ihow disruptive isuch Ian action could prove to be fon a student's academic ,performance. Basically, without! funds the~ could not! afford to survive and hence were faced with the option of leav.ing the course 011 somehow ge~ in touch !With their sponsor to attempt to resolve the crisis. It is bard It0 envisage: a more threatening: situation when I it comes to academic performance.

Implicationslof the IRore:Reversar Experience

Whilst tlIle information contained within! a pilot study involving oob' ten in-service students ;cannOti be considered as representative, the ,oints raisediserve as i confirmation that mDiving from die role ofl an experienced Iteach:er to Ithat GIl undergraduate student isla serious challenge. 111e conte~ that teachers know and value, with which tHey are fauiiliar and which giVe8itheDll physical land PSfcho .. logical security is no longer available. There ista likelihood that theinself-image wilU be significantJtyI altered, and not fon the l:ieUer,; and many I perceive they are lessrin control of their lives, less competent, less sure of their roles, genera1~ less comfortable, in almost elfery way.

Once seen lm this ; light, iit is surprising: that in-service students, are as successful 89 they! are., Perhaps their I years .as teachers, with alII the stress engendered (Otto, .1986) has prepared them fonothes challenges inoludinglthose created Iwhen 'they 'move to Ithe ather siae oil the desk" ~ However, it lis also arguable that the Universityt ~f Goroka I should not merely: acknowledge the potentialldifficulties for istudents contained within the role-reversalldiscussed in this 'pappr. This writer suggests thatl a proactive stance should be taken ib lorde., to ireduee the: impediments tol academic progress, Specifically,: students .should be, offered, and required to attend" some type. Gf bridging: induction course that willi sensitise:them to what ituneans to be a university in-servlce student. The effectiveness i of such a course wil1 be known if} during the: next! sur.vey (l)f potentia1lstudents"attitudes, no-one:predicts that lleing an in .. service student is going to be 'very easy',

From the ~sponses!Provided bylthe ten In-service students in tbe:pilotlstud}1 it is also clear that the' issues of1 suitable 'accommodation and I eduoational resources require urgent attention if !the quality, of their GarolCal experience is to

:80

bel iinproved.1 By attendiqg to these factors the impact oflthe role-reversal discussed in this ~per should be significantly reduced.

References

Bandura" A .. 01 9717}. Self-efficac)l: towardS a unifyil\g theory! of behavioural I change. Da,ychoir:Jgiaai Review 84, I91-2ISi

Boorer.,Il>. (1999a).1 In-Service university students" perceptions of the andragogic model ofteeching andilearning.: PNGJ.Ed!3S(I). '1-11 ..

Boorer.,!). (l!999b).1 Adqptingthe:andragogic model in !Papua New Guinea: some: practical and theoretical considerations. PNGJ Ed 35, (2) 75i-80.·

Bruner.,J'. (1966) .. f'owarm alTheory of1Jnstnlction. Oambridge, Mass: Harvard I University Press.

Clavell.!J1. (1982). Nob/erJIouse. Londom Hodder.and Stoughton.

Guthrie; G. 0003~ September). erallural continuity in,teaching styles .. Paper to Education Faculty Cenference, University of Goroka;

Lefrancois, G. (1990). Tfte Lifespan. Belmont, Cal: Wadsworth.

Maslo~ A. (970), Motivation andlPer8onality. New Yiork: Harpen and Row. .. Otto. R.. ~1986}. Teachers Under Stress.· Melbourne: HHI of Content.

Rotter, JJ (1966). Generalized e~ectam~ies! for internal versus external

control of' reinforcement Psychological'Monograph, 30 (1). 1-26.

S~ar. P .• Penrod, Sl., &'Bakerj T. (1988)1 Psychology: Perspecttves on Behavior:

New. York:: Wiley.

Sp)'inthall, N~, & Sprinthall, R..(198V). &1ucational!Psychology: A Developmenta/l Approacli. NewiYorla Random House.

Tomer,A (1981).1 Futurr! Shock. London: ~an Books ..

Yerkes"R., & .Dodson, JJ (1908). The relation oflstrength of stimulus to rapidity afIhabit formation. J. .of Cbmparative Neurology and Psychology, 18. 459482 ..

David Boorer is based attthe University of Goreka in Papua- New <GUinea.

81

Publication Guidelines

Articles submitted tOIJISTE must be written in-English, following manuscript guidelines (see below) and willlbe anonymously reviewed by referees. Each article must pass the.review process to be accepted for publication. The editors will notify the senior author of the manuscript if it does not meet submission requirements.

Artioles are judged for (a) significance to the field of teacher education from a global perspective; (b) ccmprehensiveness of the literature review, (c) clarity of presentation, and (d) adequacy of evidence for conclusions, Research manuscripts are also, evaluated for adequacy of ltIle rationale and appropriateness of the design and'analysis, Scholarly relevance is crucial. Be sure to evaluate your information.

Artioles pertaining tora particular country or world area should !be authored by a teacher educator fulm that country or world area.

If English is tile author's second or, third language, manuscriptsiacceptedtfor publication willi be: edited to -improve -clarity, to! conform to style, to correct grammar; and! to fit available space. Submission of the article is considered permission to edit the article,

Published! manuscripts become- the property of the Society. Permission to reproduce articles. must be requested frorm the editors, The submission and subsequent acceptance of a manuscript for publication, serves as, the copyright waiver from the authorts)'

Manuscrip, Guidelines

Manuscript length, including alllreferences, tables, charts or figures should be 1,000 to 0;000 words.

2 AWtext should be double-spaced, with margins I II inch all around (2.5 em), left justified only.

3 Paragraphs should be indented I five spaces and separated by! a space.

4 Tables, Jrigures\ andlCharts shouldlbe kept to a minimum, sized to fit on' a page.8.5iXl5.5Iinchesl(20!x 14 em),

5 Abstractshouldlbe limitedlto 100 - 150 words.

6 The cover page Shall include the following information: Title of the manuscript; name of author on authors, institution, complete mailing' address, business .and home .phone .numbers, FA» number, and e .. mail address; Brief biographical sketch; background and areas. of sp,ecialization not to exceed 30 words per .author.

7 Writing and editorial: style shall! follow directiens in the Publication Manual

82

directions 'in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological :4ssociation (2001,.5th edl), References MUST follow the APA style. Manual. Information on the use of AP AI style: may be obtained through the ISTE web' site at http,:llteachemet.hkbu.edu.hk .

Submission Requirements

It is preferred that articles be submitted by email' directly to-the editor (c:sinclair@uws.edu.au) .. "Fo submit ran artiele b}'1 e-mail, send it.as an attachmennandfax a copy! of the manuscript.

To submit' an article by mail, send the. manuscript and a computer disk. Due to the high postage rates, manuscripts and computer disks will hot be returned.

Manuscripts1and editorial correspondence should be directed to:

Catherine Sinclair, Editor, SEECS. University of Western. Sydney Locked Bag 1797,

Penrlth South IJ)C NSW 1197 Australia

Telephone: +61 2 917.2 6433 PAX: +612197726738

E-mail address: i c.smclair@uws.edu.'8U

Adtlress'dlanges and membership information should be directed to~

George A. Churukian, Treasurer

~ I 021Ellmwood Road I Bloomington, Illinois ,61701!-3317, UJS.A.

Telep,hone: +113098286437 FAX: +1 309155B34B

E-mail Address: :gchUruk@titanJwu.edu

83

Future Submissions

January. 20051 (iVoltune 9,INumber 1)

Deadline for Submission: :September. 1, 2004 Theme: Teacher Education and Policy Development

May 2005 (Volume 9, Number:2) Deadline:for Submission'September 1,2004

Theme: Non-thematic. Interested members of ISTEmay contribute manuscripts related to any importantroplc.in teacher education.

Book and Other Media Review Submissions

Interested members oflSTE may sub'mit reviews of books or other media created bY) ISTE members. Reviews may be no longer than one Journal page.

Recent 'PoublicBtioDs SutimissioDs I

ISTE members may submit an annotated reference to any book which they have hadlpublished during the pasn three years. Annotations should 'be no longer than fifty words.

Volume 8, Issue 2, May 2004

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