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SHORT INFORMATION ABOUT DUDUK

Duduk is a wide-spread instrument among the peoples of Trans-Caucasus, Dagestan and Middle Asia.

The main parts. of Duduk are the followings: a body" a reed, a regulator and a cap. Traditional duduks have nine fingerholes, eight of which are situated on the front of the cylinder, and one on the opposite-side.

The body of duduk (length is 350-450 mm) is mainly made of an apricot tree. The reed is put into the round hole of the 'body, the upper top of which is flattened forming a double reed of nat form. The regulator, or parda, is put on the middle of the reed. 'Tine movement of the regulator (parda) changes the pitch of the instrument The timbre of duduk is soft, drawling. It is more often used in duets as accompanying. with tne melodious sounds (dam).

The improved duduk has ~4 fingerholes along the full length of the instrument, eight of which are situated on the front of the CYlinder, and 6- on the opposite ~ side.

The range of the traditional duduk has been extended by the author and by the musical master Sergey A vanesov by the addition of levers and lengthening of the body. As a result, the following notes have been added: mi, fa, fa sharp, sol, sol sharp of the small octave" and re, re sharp and mi of the second octave.

The addition of the levers enables the player to play all of the scales.

Not only did the author and Mr. Avanesov improve the traditional duduk, but together created several new instruments: bass, tenor and baritone duduks. Using these instruments it is possible to perform pieces within a three octave range. These instruments can be used in quartets, as well as folk ensembles and orchestras.

METHODICAL INSTRUCTIONS

The studies with a beginner are a very responsible period, since the future of the pupil as a player musician depends on the correct primary base. It is recommended to begin playing duduk ~tt the age of 12-14 (though the age is not strictly fixed. It may vary to one or the other side, depending on the general physical development of the child).

While selecting the students it is very important to pay attention to their physical condition. The student should have a good ear for music, the feeling of rhythm and musical memory. The success of the student much depends also on the condition of the instrument used by the student. The instructor, who works with the beginners, must keep an eye on the technical condition of their instruments. The education of the student should follow a certain program. The student is supposed to master technical performance to develop musical thinking and artistic taste simultaneously. Therefore the instructor must watch all the elements of technical performance and expressiveness of the student while, working on an exercise or any piece of music.

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Further development of the student greatly depends on the correct organization of the beginning (first) level of study.

The instructor must make cut in details all the instructions given in this book and concerning the questions 'of aspiration, embouchure, position of body, head, hands, fingers and then to achieve steadily their mastering by the students, One of the most important elements of successful work of the students is their ability to work alone, which obliges the instructor to help the students organize both home and class-work, just from the beginning of the studies.

POSITION WHILE PLAYING DUDUK

While praying duduk, the student should keep a natural, free and easy posture. It is possible to study and play both sitting and standing. TIle body should be straight and relaxed. The instrument should be held at 40-500 to the body. The elbows should be raised a little for the breathing to he free. The head must be kept straight the hack shouldn't bend forward while playing. One must not cross the legs while playing sitting (liS it disturbs tho work of the abdominal press and diaphragm and hinders breathing, While playing standing the right foot is put forward a little,

BREATHING

It is necessary to develop breathing SKills born the very beginning. The 'in-breath

should be quick and deep, the out-breath slow and equal. There are three types of breathing.

a) chest or rib

b) abdominal or diaphragrnal

c) mixed or chest abdominal

The student should practice toe mixed type of breathing. This type profitably differs [rom the others as it allows one to breathe in more air and therefore gives the possibility to achieve better sound and free play. During the deep in-breath the chest widens in all directions and the diaphragm goes down. On calm out-breath the ribs of the chest and the diaphragm smoothly return into their original position. The depth of the breath should correspond to the value of the musical phrase. Frequent change in breath rhythm is not recommended as it tires breathing muscles.

HOW TO CONDUCT THE FIRST LESSONS

Before starting the primary exercises, it is necessary to get the instrument ready for playing, i.e.; to apply some water drops inside the reed and then empty it, to close the cap and 15-20 min. later to begin playing.

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Before playing the student must be shown where to place the reed on the lips; how to produce a sound and how to breathe in and out while playing. For this it is necessary to hold the reed with the lips, to 'Swell the cheeks a little so that the inner sides of the lips should separate from the gums and teeth forming a space.

Achieving a good sound you should begin the primary exercises. ~t must be men tioned that the dud uk has 2 fingerings.

The first fingering is simpler (without using the left small finger).

It is used at the beginner's level during the whole first form. The second fingering is more complicated.

It is put into usage from the second form because of the presence of multiciphered scales and pieces of music demanding the work of all fingers.

To develop artistic taste and maintain interest in studies, a frequent change of musical repertoire is desirable ideally. Within the first year of study the student should attain the methods of playing and develop primary playing skills.

MUS]C NOTATION

Musical sounds have "7 basic names: do (C), re (D), 111i (E), fa (F), sol (G), la (A) and si (I3). These sounds being repeated periodically form the basic steps of the musical gamut. There are special signs for writing the music down. They are called notes.

Notes, which are ellipse shaped, are written down on a five-line note system, which is called a stave. Notes are situated on and between the lines,

The lines are counted from down upwards. Notes, which don't find room on the stave, are written on extra lines, under and above it.

The sign, which defines the name and (accurate) value of the sounds, is called a clef.

For the duduk it is the treble clef ~ . It occurs at the beginning of the Stave and wraps the second line with its ringlet. Sol (G) is written on this line so this clef is sometimes called G clef. La (A) is written between the 2nd and 3d lines etc.

The section, which Includes the basic seven steps of the gamut, is caned an octave. This basic gamut with an added first note or the following octave IS called a diatonic gamut or scale. Sound range of the duduk includes the following octaves:

The small Octave

The first Octave

The second Octave

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The unit of counting is a quarter note. It is played as one beat. A sound twice as long as a quarter note is marked as a half-note and is played for two beats. A sound twice as long as a half note is a whole note (0) and is kept 4' times. An eighth note is half the length of a quarter note, and a sixteenth note is half the length of an eighth note etc.

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Intermissions. A pause in music is called an intermission. ~ntermissions are measured by the same values as the notes and are written down in the foldowing way:

Bars. The meter of the bar. For convenient reading, musical writing down is divided into equal parts called bars. They are separated by bar lines. At the beginning of a piece of music after the treble clef the meter is put. h is denoted by 2 numbers, one above the other. The upper one shows the number of beat per bar; the lower one shows the value of each of these beats. Some types 'Of meter are: 414 or C, 3/4,2/4" 3/8, 6/8 ...

SIGNS OF AL TERA TJON

_ To denote a change in sound by a sernitone up (higher) or down (lower) there exist signs of alteration. The signs of alteration within the bars are called accidentals. They keep their effect only within the bar in which they occur. Every sharp or flat put at the beginning or a piece of music is called the key signature and is functioning during the whole piece.

a) Sharp (#), put in front of a note, makes it a semi tone higher:

b) Flat (b), put in front of a note, makes it a semitone lower:

c) Natural negates the effect of a sharp or flat.

d) Sometimes the sounds become higher or lower for a whole tone (two Semitones).

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Uf'fll t;.Qfl APnE.!l'I01O ARPECClO

J

t;n.U~"t.:>5nt-"t. TPE3UY'IlfE TIUAD

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f

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II

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Andante

32 ~ B J j J J I J J j J 1 j j J j I J j J J I J F J J I j F F .. I

~r F F F IV

IFF r

j J ] IJ J j j

I

j



33

Andantino

~ B j, J J J I ill J J J I;

J J F IF J F j IJ J j J IF j J J I

I

IJ j



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I] J J J I;

II

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IJ j J j IJ j J J Ij

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IJJJJI

* llhllUWIDW t 4n~~nlU f.\ 4wu V GzwGo, npl! '1P~ntu t GnUlWJ]lg ~bpL. 4wu GbppL. L. u2wGw4mu t hULJntup (4wu ujumiqurjh) 4wuw~np bp4wpwgntu . 4wtu~wa uUlbflowqnpompJwG pGntwrg, 4WUlWpnl1P gwG4mpJntupg L 6W2w4pg:

<D(,p~IUToii IIU:II.mHt'TCJI ~llm; f.\ 11:111 v' 1W'IX)]ll>lii t"T'IIHIITCJI 111U 11:111 (H>;( IHYI'oii II o:IlIa'I:WT. 'I'm :l[(llIll,ri'l :\11\'1( (11.111 1Il!),IY) 1111.'10 IIl>li~Cp(j{1I1'1. IIccr;O:lhl\O i\O:lhrI!C, Il 3aIlIICII~iOCTIl 01' xapaxrcpu IlpoIl3I1e;~ellllJr, OT ;.ne:WIIII>I I IC II 0."111 IIrc.:r II.

Fr-rrnatu 1'7\ 01" V is H sign of free extension of the value or the note. This sign is put above 01' under th" nnlc and

means that the note (or pause) must be held a little longer depending on the churnclcr of piece 01' the wish of the performer.

v v

@F J j J IJ W IJ j J F IF r J j I,] j IJ W F r I

v v

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v 'v.."

@ J j J F I f' J .. 1.rJ J J TlJ J WI r .......... WI J J' J j I J j J J II

~ ,I ,J VI J 3 J r I J J J J I j J VI a s ~ ilJ J J jlu - II

Moderato V

34 ~ 9 J J j /J J J I J J j I j * ~ IJ j j I J J j IJ J J

v v

~ ~ ~ ~- 1 a J J U I J J J Ij J j I J f.. F.. 'I r ,$ I F r d

$3 j r IF f J nl' Ii IF J J I~ j j IF J J IJ ; * IJ J j I

v

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tS30i'-l}..

8TIO,JJ; ETUDE

Moderato V V V

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v v v ..

~J j J j iJ §J Ie J j IJ §J I~ 14i2tl

v v v v

~ J j 3 J I J J j J IJ J J ) IJ J j J IJ J J 0 I) J J ) I J J J J I

------~~~

v v

'J J J J 13 J J J It~~ IJ J J J 10 J J 0 1_ II

3TIO,II, ETUDE

J IL- V
1 I-~: J a I]; f
I v

J = IJ J J I J J jl

tSafll'-'1

3TIO,I( IETUDE'

AndantinQ

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v

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38

tlUPd-fii'-LO-3fii'-)" "'tiP 0'i'-f3-rt;POPi},.8)jU'b "t,t;Pfltl.

Ihphpnprpulpufi (inuuu ( }): lJh4 u1l1pn1l2 limrtl!UJP' t£h2 14m mp niphpnpl'}w4wli timnuu 4wztlit 1.Hi4 puijunuhu] litim 'hL hplpn huuhuuuip mphpnpl].l!Ul!J1.l!lafihp:

YflPAil\IIEHJJH III BOChMhlX HOTAX BOCbl\1aH 110m ( }). OAHa u,o.Jaf{ nora CO)~CpfjW'l' Boc:eMh [30Cbl\lblX. HiaJ O;IJ,HH YAap l!I'P<UOT )J,JJC pauen.ie JJOCLi\Ib1,C.

Moderato

38 !id !J

EXERCISES IN EIGHTH NOTES Eight note (}l). One whole note includes eight eight-notes. Two equal eight-notes arc played at one beat.

3 J I J

J3 V
La J--}
3 I I J J J

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J 3 I j J J
3 J I) II J J I-j J S -I ~.: * I 3
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J J I J

IJ 3 J 'I] J J 13

Moderato

39 !l 3 J 31 n J

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II

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13 J J

IJ

tsanf',I}..

3TIO)J, ETUDE

Allegro moderato

40 ~ ~ 1 3 J i]

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f J IJ J J J 13 J I
J V
J ) 13 J J J 13 J I 3f}

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nEPEnEJlKA QUAIL

fi.. UliIJtRl Wll

P.MC.'IlIKHII R.Mdikian

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41 !; i9 j 141 4@ I r -~ I g.

: ~ I: Fj l I JJ . J .. J J~3 .. Ir.J --

:11

:1·1

q.t!r),U),U3Jl),. (hu!Hnq~w)) BECEHHR.fl (OTpbIBOR) SPRINGTIME (extract}

fu.UtlumllUJUlu

X.AnCTiiC}\11 1{h~Avclisian

AHegro con spirito

42' . _~ ~ -nll:·~ g a!3 ;Eij: I e

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I ~ j J fJ fJ 1 It

:11

40

4!Ufi.fiP'l- vastn. '-Il;Sfl'l

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4ETBEPTHAH HOTA C TOl.IROM

qCTllCVfHaH HOTa C TO'IlWii (J.) paeua 110 ,!.l,'JIlTC:lbHOCTH Tj)CM UOCb~1h[M 11. = W

QUARTER NOTE WITH A DOT Quarter notc with a dolO·) is equal to lhrce eight-notes at duration J. = OJ

q.lul.mut nUUWl'CiJ Written

t.lwUlwlnl.lllu t Herrn,llllle'rell PhIYI,d

Moderato

43 ~c J j~ J

~ J J' J 1,1 J.

l' I l ] J J~ Ia. f' a. ] I A IJ. I, J b I
;
• •
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J' I I J h l' I J. T' jir'
• j~ fJ.

13-

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II

CfiPfiru uur.ue-

mOPOPA CAJIAT*

*

SHORORA SALAT

qnu~mwu I\ol'tllrrac Komilas

.Andante

44 ~ 2 J J J I J. I, J

~ j FJ J I J TJ m Ij.

~ j J~ l

IJ

Ji J I fJ Xl FJ I 1) rn I] 1] FE

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Il

-.

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fg j ) I J. Q

* IlCPCliO;J,l>1 IljlIWC;J,CIll>1 li COil,CplliaUIIII KIIJU'II.

The translations are in lhe contents of lhe hook.

-11

opnrnBU3fl.'b

KOJIbIEEJlbHAR LULLABY

Moderato

45 &; ~ B J J J § I £J [J A

~

Q... Ilptihfljuifi r .ApMCIl}l[[ G.A[·menynn

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13

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~n3 L,lli2UL, ..!,wJIJ. dnq, hpq Oft, IIA3AH ApM. W1p. I!C(~IIH HOY, NAZAN Arm. folk song

{f2Ul~.' @-.U[pntCiJUlfip 06p. T .AJiTYIIHII<l Adapl. T.AlIllnian

Vivo

46 ~ ~ 2 E! j

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J

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j !EJ~ J IJ U IJ U 10 13. IJ J

AH,lJ,AHTlIHO

U.rowz.UlmpJwG A.Xa·HnYIHlJI A. Khacfuatrian

ANDANTINO

. Andantino

47$L!l-i A .• rtE-~~6HB W_L t .. =- IJ J

I@ J J 10 i,1 f' 1(fFr r I@ J r i

f ::=:::::::0- :::::>- P cresco *

* Shu t2 215: c«. e.215. See p.215.

./.2
~~ V rit. *
0 I,J J 1[J£tJ J IJ J J &lJj
u a tempo

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tS30i'-'}.

3TIOJ' ETUDE

Allegro

48 ~ (t£i@!YJ I em I ~sJE JJ D I QW IITH!!D I

~ QEa I Ul22flJ I Ul!J I J J ED IJ j t£D' lB· J l!D I" 13 3 lID IJ 3 UJJ I~ I; - II

Uli'-UUSSpl(

CBETJHlqOI~

GLOW-WORM

Moderato

t/,r~' dnq, hpq rp~3, nap. IICCllH G.cor9iaf\ folk song

49

1\ --L -
u '--.J I - 1 '-J
f1 I""--. -
~ • 1\ - - -
t.J
f1
t.J u • • 4 ~ • OJ • • -& '" Sh'u t2 218: C~J. (:.221. Sec p.221.

..... St'ut284,21G: C». (' .. 84, 2W. See 1'.84,216.

w -».

~

,

I

97

(; ...... 0 .. -.- PUd-I- ....

BTOpoil PA3~EJI SECTION II

qUPll.U'bJl unr 0 tt1!e

CI{OPBb MATEPJI llAPTAIIA VARTAN'S MOTHERTS GRIEF

":'tuJ4. dnq, hpq Ap~I, Hap. rreeua

Andante AI'm, folk song

3

I ~~ Ii,~ ~ ItID glJ d ~ 1~3I{J:1

,& d iA 11,1 ~ ~ I~W @:..tggg) lii,1@I ;g W 1m ill j

30PctUlf

OPlliAM HORZHAM

lfzwlj.' If·t74umumur 06p. M.En~I8milla Adapt. M.Yckmalian

Andante __ 3 __

2 ,&i·mtD tdbJjD :t@@1iJ. J!l[JjnmJ :

,&h tt5JJJ?wtJ335tBJ@lQ 14!t~ :Ig[§) JPmW:

-uun. lJ1;Pfi3 <l>PlJ:fir-f(}l;U'b

-BACH lVIEPoii llPKYTEAH VASN MEROY PRKUTSEAN

AWliIrn::t. UI",pm~m~jl (VII 13.)

Moderato Anania Shirakatsi (Villi c.]

3 * ~ lMJ~~ ~ OJ D ~ e ®d J m J J J.

ft] j 1 '1

~ II

98

AII,Il,3I1HK I-IBI1PHJIK

ANDZINK NVIRYALI{

qnupmmu UlJ.9h9p (VII n.) I\oMHTac Axueun (VII B.) Komitas Aghtsetsi (VII c.]

Moderato

4 ~ b J J J @Q 42J j J ~J =f £J [9 J r J

$ ~ r 0 a t q j ~U hJ 1 J D j

[J}[] F lE]Jl]]

~H J a9 hE J f J 0 J j tlU

QJlPU eus (f}USl:{f;Pfl 4!fli'-lf

30 PC hI CT IlATREPI1 RYM

ZORS YST PATKERI KUM

<l-prqnp Ifuiqhumpnu (XI 11.) I'pnrop Marnerpoc (XI n.]

Moderato Grigol" Maglstros (XI c.)

5 $1 J d J M J, tID EEl) j D J J J

®IOJ J J tfD[JQJJ J J F rUfF f r

un.u-uis un-u na

APABOT nvcon ARAVOT LUSOY

"b-hpuhu CfinphUltP (XII q.) Hepcec Illnopanu (XII ll.) NCI"Ses Shnorali (XII c , ]

Moderato

6 4ho,l @) J I j B1li1mJ I J mJ J Q!!JJ I H ) tLJ ·

&~!l8AnJ n I~j ~ J Qjj 12 d leU @J J IJUI

'" ---- '-- ~ ~

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J

tRJ] \J raJ

J

JJJJI1J

II

99

~tfr.fll'-b,~ill'-fll'-b

ABYH,AB~1 HAVUN,HAVUN

Q..pllqnp l..UlphlJUlgll (X q.)

I'pnrop Hapercaun (X n. )

5 Grigar Narekalsi (X e.)

Grave

7 :$ ;» J d tm; II J RJj if£!) 2jifwl ~g

$ OJ' ¥ QYiBt Q WE] OJ J

jjJ. n

'-- "-

@!JillJ]

II

CEB MIT AMIIEP

SEV MtTT AMPER

8

UUtilIUL

MAqKAJI

MACHKAL

~UlJ4. dnq. hpq.

ApM. nap, nccnn Arm, folk song

Lento

96 Jd h@1J ejlJ Jw ~~ ltd JdHnu J ) g a I @ t1Jr!@m J I;' uJub18Jh:JgH]J N t&2D u I ~ J 1,0 J oJ J J 1 ill J j 11) J ] @ II

100

AX" 11M QAMITEC

AKH, 1M TCHAMPES

Andante

..t..LUJ4. dnq. hpq ApM. Hap. neCHR Arm. folk song,

OSUP UUU3Jl. tiUlf<t>'lrI!P tIJlU OTAP AMAH l.£AMnEI{lf BPA OTAR AMAI TCHAMPEKI VRA

Moderato

..t..LUJ4· dnq, hpq AplII. nap. necna AI'm. folk song

11

Dft£ll;Bp, 3 &1I sup-nit:,

CI1PEl(M, arc TAPAH SIRETSI, YARS TARAN

~mJ4. '@-Ull. hpq ApM. flap. necua AI"m, folk song

Andante

12 @~ ~@lWJNIJ~emJJ.*jj :11 §l-U Il$tt r SGEL J !WrO'@:!Jl!Yf;;J :@~ J J'~ algi @\M tJ I €B •. J J lJ II

101

QULP .Q1;BVUb

QOJIM )l}KEMPAR CROLL JEYRAN

4rntlmull, Annvu Havassi

BUBlUl[1lP suen

.flMJIABOP lIPC YA!ILAVOR YARS

":'mt{ulUp Anaen Havassi

Moderato

14~ Ly- '1[- 8

OM lAg JiH!@tj JJ D44w I 1¥J1@SQr thy 9 Bool

3

~~C0l1J lillmltt!HllD I,@i'j

~; tY~f11JJ!J]_L-= 12FR1J-M @ J lID Jr¥l 1 ~qE1J HaLl Ih' PD rl1tr GX B B ~~ I

t biI: - I L I 2.

ij ~ )?~ dd£J 1l82J t~ lJ LJ I J' 5 P Rp r :11], * * - II

102

3EIIIOP, RAPEB TAP

ZEPYUR, BAREV TAR

-4tutltuu~

A d . Anaca

n an tin 0 Huvassi

15 !b~2fl:H222tJlj mill d 0 IJ j j J j WIJ 0 §[j l I

-r 3 3

~ J, fE ~fR [J I j D ill J to I] j J J J ill I J tJ §] J II

ifJJJ JJ Wid OWl IJJ J e:IH] moo !Izw J DJjlj n tJ) I) J J J J Wid QtlJj

3

n 1 j J J 4J J J J I j tdi§iJ J :11

.5!UtlUIul7Bfl. Ufa.Pfll'-l, Uct5!fa.q

;:OKABAXEI1,I1 CMPYH AX1.JMR JAVAKHETSI SIRUN AKHCHIK

..!,IUllwup

Moderato

16 ~~tfB J J ?tWO EJ ill 2 lID 0 J J [j1@fflW l!

rit. a tempo

!W 0 tlljliJJ J]. 11m OJ In m ru

Al3aell Havassi

!B J @ 13 J 8 1. 1m QJ 13 =) ill ru ttm J Mia J OJ IE} M Gf11Ej Q tfSll ~etrt@d~%J0W IFJ=EMI3 aUl ~i9 @@)IDu£JQ) 1£3 f3ti9~I-R[? J@13 fJCJl 'II

I f-

.- .. ,-~~

103'

AX, MH AHrAM an 3M)))KEHP

AKH, MI ANGAM EL ZIJEIR

Anaeu

Allegro 'Vivo

11 ~§',§d~ffi I@ m 1m ill Igh] Iy tJc@

Havassi

~1'EiJm IJ D ~ J ~ Ifj 3J'; Iwm I) j ~ ~\ 111

~ - - '--'" ij,-----

tHlliE I@Qj 13'1) NJ~§ !13"UIJ4tiu§'~ I

~I' j ]J tJ I]] J Wig' tJ I'· frff IH~!~I ~1. F§pr IQ) Nfl I¥ a p rim ill 1m £!lJI8' i' ~·II

{~US etr l;Ptl-l;L

rnA T EM EPfEJI

SHAT EM: YERGEL

Anacu

Allegro vivo Havassi

18 , (q 8 ~ J I J P F e 1* D F g If· H! @ I

! J ~ F @ I,j 1 t u II D~· J j J~~ FIl'l

~* &}~. £rlr= p OB 1m UGiFffl,l~~- J~::-·I ~* fir QlfFr?O@if?=RJ o ItE:} 1 J

~ ~ tJ j j I J§j£ #1 JJ I ~ JJ ~ = I t2J i~ l J

, r r F 0 I F ~ B tJ I U4J J J I LJ J 311

104

HA3E-HA3

NAZE-NAZ

Anacu

Allegretto Havassi

19 @~ Mffl5irl@ 001@ tnlll If@] tm I

@ ~ Jill t1ll1 ~- ·ttJ . 14IJ1J -J~ jil'l' n- X,] I J. J :-~ J) J @& ~ J I, ~ j 13 jl Jq IOJ J 11 g JlJ I @H tJri IJ ;d lyuMW ~}fjJ @ m: tid nglUI" D fJ§1 11J3 J g tJI@ gU iii ti& tu J I, B pJ 1m p 1

"

KE3 ~:JJI lIM MHA

KHEZ EL CHI MNA

AnaCH

Moderato Havassi

20 lfi i t'fO I@nl iJ jfUIL7H 11~ MT I:

, ~ '---' ~

@~:;gg9 II ==t,j @I@ £EB 11 =C}p J 1@l!J 1

@L!!~) Ij W 11 tJ 3d It il@J 14itW ®tJ@J I', tJ J1J IL J1Jlg _@J Jdl[ J1)

@l N 8ll~iD Ii NlQ IJ/Half 4h 13 lito 3

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@I NlJlt@ Ii &~jlL2JJIJL!t) Ij II

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