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J1STE VoIla, No.

I, January ]006

JISTE

Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education

Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2006

Editor

Catherine Sinclair, Australia

Associate Editor Joyce Castle, Canada Designer

Colin Mably, England Past Secretary General Editorial Board

Lam Siu Yuk (Rebecca), Hong Kong, China Majda Cencic, Slovenia Anna Hugo, South Africa Rajeev Swami, USA Wally Moroz, Aust

Janet Powney, Scotland Helen Woodward, Aust Jane McMillan, USA

Colin Mably Designer (ex officio), U.S.A

Janet Powney Secretary General (ex officio), UK

Catherine Sincliar, Editor (ex officio) Australia

Joyce Castle Associate Editor (ex officio), Canada Offlcers/Steering Committee

Janel Powney. United

Kingdom. Secretary General Johan R. Borup. Denmark

Treasurer & Records Catherine Sinclair, Australia, Eclitor- JISTE Joyce Castle. Canada Assistant Editor JISTE Bill. Driscoll, Australia Editor Newsletter

John Maurer, Australia Directory & Membership Colin Mably, England

JISTE \lor to. No. t . January 2006 Past Secretary General Warren Halloway, Australia

Past Secretary General Hans Voorbach,

Netherlands

Past Secretary General Cornel DaCosta, England Ahmed Al-Bustan, Kuwait Convener 200 I

Lotte Schou and J ohan R. Borup, Denmark Convener 2002

Alex Fung, Hong Kong, China Convener 2003 Craig Kissock & Judy Kuechle Co-Conveners 2004

Ken Gai, Taiwan Convener 2005

It is with much appreciation that JISTE wishes to thank Frank Thomson as editorial assistant, and the following ISTEmernbers for their reviews ofthe articles submitted for this volume. Their tireless efforts and the feedback they provided to potential contributors have enriched the papers published. If YOLl wish to become a reviewer please contact the editor, Catherine Sinclair (c.sinclair@uws.edu.au).

Rich Berlach, Australia Majda Cencic, Slovenia Vic Cicci, Canada Forrest Crawford USA Cornel DeCosta, UK David Dai, Taiwan David Daniels. Australia Neil Dempster, Australia Gordon Fulcher, UK Alastair Glegg, Canada

James D. Greenberg, USA Warren Halloway, Australia Goru Hane-Nou, Papua New Guinea

Anthony Hopkin, Malaysia Roy KilIan, Australia

Judy Kuechle, USA

John Maurer, Australia Roque Moraes, Brazil Wally Moroz, Austrulia Bob O'Brien, New Zealand

Benjamin Zufiaurre, Spain Donna Patterson, Canada Janet Powney, UK

Karlheinz Rebel, Germany Merle Richards, Canada Marion Sanders, New Zealand Cathy Sillman, USA

Peter Smith, UK

Bill Stringer, Australia Sybil Wilson, Canada

Helen Woodward, Australia

The .JOUr?NAL OF THE; lll/TERNATIONAL SOC/E1T FOR TEACHER EDUCATION (.II,,)T£) is published as a service to those concerned with global teacher education. It serves as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas related to the improvement of teacher education. Articles focus upon concepts and research that have practical dimensions or implications and applicability for practitioners in teacher education. The Journal limits its articles to those in which ideas are

appl icable in multiple social settings.

J181'£ is all official, refereed publication of [STE. The goal of [STE is to publish six to eight articles in each issue. Using the Seminar theme, articles in tile first issue of each volume are based on papers presented at the previous seminar. Articles in the second issue are non-thematic. Points of view and opinions are those of the individual authors and are not necessarily those of 1ST£. Published manuscripts are the property of JlSTE. Permission to reproduce must be requested horn the editor .

.JlSTE is issued twice yearly by the International Society for Teacher Education. The subscription price of $US25.00 is included in the annual membership fee. Additional copies of the journal may be purchased for $US 15.00. Institutional subscription to JI8TE is $US50.00 per year. To obtain additional or institutional copies email .lennyChan<ltisteached@hotmail.col1l

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JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TEACHER EDUCATION

Volume 10, Number I, January 2006

Glocalization of Teacher Education

Me. sage from the Secretary General 3

J anet Powney , , . , , , . , .. , , , , . , , , .

Mes age from the Editor 4

Catherine Sinclair , , .. ,., , , .. ,., .. , , .

Articles

Enhanci ng student-teachers' learning and teachi ng through gu ided reflection

Rebecca S.Y. Lam and Atara Sivan ..

5

The teacher apprenticeship program in Bhutan: An evaluation

Kezang Sherab and Warren Halloway , , " .. , ..

11

Some strategies of teachers' professional development

Majda Cencic .. "",,,',., ,,,',, .. , , " ..

21

Globalization and higher education in Bahrain: Issues and concerns

Layla Dowaigher .. , , " .. ,,, ,", .. , , .

30

Perceptions of college science facility about teaching science , .. , .. ,.

Rajeev Swami

36

Book reviews and recent publications by ISTE members

Whitton, D., Sinclair, c., Barker, K., Nanlohy P., & Nosworthy, M. (2004). Learning for Teaching, Teaching for Learning. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Social Science Press

43

Index to VOIUll1e 9 44

Publication Guidelines, .. , , .. , ,', , , .. ". 46

Manuscript Guidelines, .. , .. , ,.,.,., , .. ,.......... 46

Submission Requirements , .. ,...... 47

Copyright © 2006

by the International Society for Teacher Education

1SSN 1029-5968

2

From the Secretary General

In looking at articles in this and previous issues, I am reminded just how well JISTE can facilitate comparative studies in education and enable each of us to draw on the experience of colleagues in other countries and continents. As our annual seminar demonstrates, each of us has a unique educational story. By telling our stories and reflecting on our teaching we make our thinking and what we have learned explicit Perhaps, as Francis Bacon suggested centuries ago, we only learn from our mistakes. However, such a view diminishes the power of human communication and our ability to learn from what other people tell us as well as from our own experience.

Not everyone is able to attend each ISTE seminar, but this issue of .J1STE presents the honed versions of participants' original presentations to share with you.

Our editor, Catherine Sinclair, has done an excellent job over the last four years. Her editorial leadership has resulted in substantial increases in the number of manuscripts submitted from more than 20 countries for possible publication and she has published articles from every continent. She has also increased the number of lSTE members who are engaged in reviewing articles. This has proved a useful exercise for people embarking on their own first publications. These activities have in various ways assisted colleagues III attaining tenure and/or promotion. Now Catherine feels that someone else should have the opportunity to take the lead with JISTE. If you are tempted or want to know more about what is involved, please indicate your interest to Catherine or myself. We await your email.

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JISTE \/0/ 10. No. J, J(/11110l',v 2006

From the Editor

Welcome to the first issue of JISTE Volume 10 for the year. Thank you to all those who submitted papers and to the reviewers who give their time and expertise so freely to enhance the quality of the papers published. This issue reflects the papers submitted based upon their presentations at [STE 2005 in Taipei. Hence the theme of Glocalization, the brining together of often competing tensions of globalisation and local identity.

This year's first article by Rebecca Lam and Atara Sivan reminds us all of the importance of carefully planned and implemented avenues for student-teacher reflection to help them overcome their personal and professional concerns about teaching in order to enhance their development as quality teachers.

The next article, by Kezang Sherab and Warren Halloway, op ns for us a window into Bhutan and shares with us their experience of a teacher apprenticeship program to provide teachers in areas of staff shortages while at the same time providing a strong basis for the development of competent and dedicated t.eachers.

Majda Cencic reports on the findings of her research all the common forms of "professiontalk" development undertaken by teachers in Slovenia, and again reminds us of the importance of ongoing professional learning right throughout a teacher's career.

The next article, by Layla Dowaigher, outlines the issues and concerns related to globalisation and its effect 011 local higher education in Bahrain. inally, Rajeev Swami reaffirms the importance of model! ing pedagogical content knowledge for our own teacher education students in the preparation of science teachers in the United States of America.

So sit back and enjoy a look at education and teacher education across the globe.

Catherine Sinclair

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.I J STE \10/ J 0. No. J, Ianuarv 2006

Enhancing Student-Teachers' Learning and Teaching through Guided Reflection

Rebecca S. Y. Lam & Atara Sivan

This paper examines the effectiveness of guided reflection on developing the teaching and learning abilities ofstudent-teachers in Hong Kong, based 011 a project report. Student-teachers participated in a series of group meetings to share their feelings, thoughts and emerging concerns from their initial involvement in teaching. The meetings were held during their six-week practical component of the Course and continued during the [nst fCIV months (4' their teaching. The sessions were observed and recorded using a participant observation technique .. ln between meetings. the student-teachers H'ere visited in their schools and interviewed to solicit their main concerns and thoughts. Their main themes served as a basis for reflection in the meetings. Follow-up interviews highlighted the contribution ofthe sessions to their abilities to reflect and to learn through guided reflection. They obtained direct feedback 011 their reflection process and assumed a more active role in evaluating their OlVI1 reaching practice.

Introduction

It is crucial and challenging for teacher educators to evaluate the knowledge, skills, and attributes necessary for students' professional growth and responsibilities. Recent studies reveal the significance of promoting reflection and self-assessment techniques in teacher preparation programs (Poole & Wessner, 2003). Studies which explore the relationship between professional practice and research, particularly action research (e.g., Dadds, J995; Mcl-Iiff, 1993; Parker, 1997), strongly support that reflective teaching is worth practising.

The present paper investigates the nature of reflective teaching, discusses its strengths and suggests ways Cor promoting reflective practice in reacher education, illustrated by a team report on a Teaching Development Grants' (TDG) project conducted in Hong Kong Baptist University, The project aimed at developing in student-teachers the practical knowledge of reflection: providing a platform and forum for collaborative reflection on their initial teaching experience; facilitating their application of reflection in their initial teaching experience; and providing support for their personal and professional growth into the teaching profession.

Reflective teaching

The notion of reflection in teacher education emerges from the blueprint of John Dewey (1933), where reflective thinking is defined as the "hallmark of intelligent action" as it frees us from "mere impulsive and routine activity' guided by tradition and authority (p, 3). Ex plicitl y, Pollard (2002) states that reflect! ve teachi l1g is applied in "a cyclical process", in which teachers "monitor, evaluate, and revise their own practice continuously" (p, 12). According to Pollard (2002), reflective teaching requires "attitudes of open-mindedness, responsibility and wholehcartedness' and is based on teacher judgment informed by evidence-based enquiry and insights from other research (p. 13). In

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.lfSTE lio/ 10, No. I, January 2006 other words, reflective teaching involves reasoning, critical thinking, analysis, planning, and evaluating. Schon (1983) stresses the importance of reflection-in-action, encouraging its "broader, deeper and more rigorous use" (p. 69). For instance, when a teacher reflectsin-action, he/she becomes "a researcher in the practice context", who does not rely on established theories and techniques, bur constructs a new theory of the unique case based on existing phenomena and previous knowledge (Schon, 1983,. pp. 68-69). Moreover, teachers may thoughtfully go through "craft reflection", that is, engaging in recurring cycles of instructional study, application, observation and reflection (Henderson, 2001, pp. 16-17).

Developing reflective teaching practice

Nowadays, many ways have been employed to make teaching reflective and effective. Specifically, Langer (2002) suggests using learning journals to encourage critical reflection among non-traditional students in higher and continuing education. Sinclair and Woodward (1999) promote writing reflective journals in teacher education; their study indicates differences between first and third year students on the focus of their journal writing, suggesting that varied maturation leads to selection of different topics and reasoning with different depths of reflection, Lim and associates (2003) make LIse of semantic mapping strategies to help kindergarten teachers and principals develop reflective and thinking skills regarding subject matter content and teaching curriculum. Griffin (2003) recommends the use of writing critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in pre-service teachers. Posner (2000) emphasizes the importance of student-teachers' field experience, claiming that they do not actually learn from experience as much as they learn from reflecting on experience. There are also suggestions for reflective teaching in specific subjects, for example, in English language teaching (Bailey, 1997), geography teaching (Kent, 2000), and primary science teaching (Ovens, 1999). Moreover, some college faculty have formed reflective practice groups (RPGs), conducting seminars and brown-bag lunch discussions (Distad & Brownstein, 2004). Currently, a lot of experts, for example, Hall and Fox (1998), have been promoting reflective teaching practice on the web.

Overall, reflection is an essenti al process for student-teachers, and is best undertaken if done in a collaborative manner where participants share their experiences and thoughts in a dialogical manner. In such a manner, we can ensure that "the audience serves to validate, extend, modify, support, or reject what we think through by interacting with us and providing feedback that can happen only in a collaborative process" (McAllister & Neubert, 1998, p. 6). Furthermore, collective thinking on experiences and ways to improve practices is a significant process for reachers (KwQ, 1998; Osterman & Kottkamp, 1993; Pollard, 2002). To best facilitate such a process, the use of guided reflection is highly recommended, especially for pre-service student-teachers and novice teachers who lack such knowledge and practical experience. Therefore, it. is crucial to include teacher's modelling and questioning in the classroom setting.with models of reality being explicitly analysed before and during field opportunities (McAllister & Neubert, 1998).

The project design and implementation

The present project was designed by the team along the same lines of the aforementioned theoretical constructs and practical implications. It tried to develop the reflective skills of teachers by directly involving them in enquiry activities while teaching, and by monitoring their learning through reflection sessions. Involvement of students in enquiry activities has

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been implemented in the elective subject entitled "Classroom Research", which was taught by the principal investigator of the project. A list of 120 concerns was raised by students as part of their initial reflection exercise. These concerns were related to personal and professional issues which teachers have to face in their practices .. It was hoped that during the component entitled "Supervised Teaching Practice" (STP), studentswollid be generating questions and subject their everyday professional experience to ongoing critical reflection, action and observation, a process which is of high value for teachers since it facilitates their understanding of their teaching practice, helps them to gain a better understanding of their role, and improves their teaching and their students' learning.

The project was implemented with students who attended the subject "Classroom Research" during their initial reflection stages in class. Consent was sought from students and all of them (i.e., a total of 16) agreed to participate. The methodology employed in the project comprised four guided reflection sessions undertaken in a group setting and two individual interviews with students. The t\VO interviews were conducted with rhe students to solicit their generated concerns and questions about their teaching and learning. The first interview was held during students' six-weeks of STP while they were still students of the PgD in Ed Course .. The second interview was held during their actual teaching in schools after they had completed the Course. Data solicited through the interviews were analysed using the NueDIST Qualitative Package to arrive at the main themes of student-teachers' general concerns and specific questions related to their teaching and learning experiences during their initial teaching.

The project results

Sharing sessions. During the first two sessions, students reflected on their areas of concerns, and their common concern happened to be related to job hunting. Being fresh graduates, only a few of them were invited for interviews or being successful in obtaining teaching positions. Following the guidance of the project investigators, those who did have the chance to attend job interviews reflected on their experience related to the interview process and content.

Within a group of friends, the reflective sharing naturally led to an interactive discussion on interviewing techniques. As Schon (1983) puts it, reflection-in-action enhances the development of insightful ideas, placing "technical problem solving within 0 broader context of reflective inquiry" (p. 69) In this project, the participants were from different disciplines, so the sharing was useful in widening their practical knowledge and understanding about other subjects beyond their own. Furthermore, they had a better understanding of the local job market in the teaching profession, for example, the running out of teaching positions for History. On the whole, the process undertaken during the above sessions illustrates the usefulness of guided reflection employed by the project investigators.

Two more sharing sessions took place after the participants had attained their secondary school teacher qualification. Most of" them managed to get a teaching position. The focus of the sharing sessions shifted from issues related to job hunting to feelings and thoughts related to job competencies and satisfaction. While some participants indicated that they got an acceptable position, others showed lower satisfaction attributed to a mismatch between their expertise and their present jobs as primary school teachers or teaching assistants They

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also raised several issues related to their socialization into the new school and heavy workload, which apparently affected their quality of life.

Interviews. Two interviews were held with the student-teachers. The first was conducted during their participation in the STP as part of the PgD in Ed Course. The second was held after their graduation from the Course and during their first year of teaching. The main themes raised during the first interview related mainly to the STP. Student-teachers described the main duties they understood as well as the things they learned and their related feelings and concerns. Student-teachers' duties were related to their subject teaching and their involvement in extra-curricular activities. During their STP they learned communication skills, new teaching methods, issues related to time and classroom management, as well as school structure and administration. The student-teachers felt fairly happyabout the STP, asserting that this mechanism was practical and helpful. Some students mentioned that they were being a bit loaded during this practicum. Studentswere mainly concerned about classroom discipline. A few of them mentioned the problem of not having enough school resources.

Student-teachers also suggested that the period for STP could be extended so that they can have more practical experience. At the same time they suggested shortening the School Experience (SE) period. It seems that students were really keen to embark on the teaching duties earlier in the Course.

Their main concerns were in their relationships with their students and at times there were some conflicts among their colleagues. They also shared their difficulties in teaching their subjects and with issues related to pressure and workload at school. When facing such problems, the student-teachers would either solve the problems by themselves or consult colleagues and friends. Ideally, student-teachers expected to solicit support from their school in terms of getting some background information, useful teaching materials, assistance from their colleagues, adequate rnentoring support and less pressure from school. In reality, the support they obtained from their school met their expectations. When comparing their current teaching to their STP experience, student-teachers indicated some similarities and differences, with the latter related to heavier responsibilities and higher stress level s.

Discussion

The present project results indicate pronusmg outcomes and provide insights to nurture reflection. The most crucial criteria are the availabilities of an effective facilitator and an appropriate context so as to ensure a climate of trust, confidentiality, effective interpersonal communication, and collaboration (Osterman & Kottkarnp, 1993).

Overall, the project has enhanced teaching and learning and contributed to the professional development of the student-teachers. Both the interviews and the sharing sessions were very helpful in facilitating student-teachers' reflection all their experience both as students and initial teachers. The student-teachers kept emphasizing the usefulness and contribution of the informal sharing sessions in enabling them to talk about their difficulties, making them aware of their peers' problems, and facilitating them to obtain support as well as advice from the lecturers or investigators. These results support the integration of the reflective theories and teaching practice,

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J!STEVoIIO,No. !,Jarwccn'2006 Regarding the limitations of the project, the team faced some constraints which affected the smooth running of the project. The major ones include the outbreak of SARS and the student-teachers' heavy workload at schools. The first constraint led to the need for extending the project duration. It is unfortunate that SARS spread in Hong Kong and all activities with student-teacherswere stopped for three months (i.e., the interviews and sharing sessions), Students were approached in late June for the final sharing session. The second constraint caused a reduction in the number of interviews conducted with students as well as in the number of sharing sessions. Despite these constraints, the investigators managed to achieve the stated objectives.

As a form of reflective practice, the team was eager to put forth three practical recommendations for future implementation of activities similar in nature to the project. First, with student-teachers' workload being a constraint for finding the appropriate time for their participation in sharing sessions, it would be useful to use the Internet at times to fulfil the purpose of the sessions .. With the iauncb of the Virtual Integrated Teaching and Learning Environment (VlTLE plus) system (for user guide, see the HKBU homepage, httpIlwww.hkbu.edu.hlcy, the investigators could still hold the guided reflection while using this channel as a platform for synchronous collaborative learning. Second, to enrich the sharing sessions, it could be useful to combine them with a series of lectures on relevant topics for teachers. By doing so, not only may teachers have the opportunity to reflect on their experience, they may also widen their horizons with regard to the different techniques they may use in their day-to-day work. Third, the use of informal settings is of great significance (a the success of the sessions. Therefore, it would be useful to combine the sessions with some activities which are more purposeful and explicit in nature.

Conclusion

The systematic reflective sharing practice is worth pursuing in teacher education programs, supported by contemporary action research and the present project. By reflective practice, novice reflecti ve teachers may increase sel f-consciousness, strengthen confidence, and improve practical teaching skills, whereas competent or experienced teachers may foster higher efficacy and satisfaction for continuing professional development. On the other hand, some teachers do not practice reflective teaching regularly. Generally, these teachers may be overloaded, lacking in a suitable facilitator or a secure context, or they may not be properly trained to practice reflective teaching. As teachers or teacher educators, we keep striving for innovation and career development. It is time that \I,,Ie reached a consensus and practice what we believe. The adoption of the "whole-of-school" approach to facilitate reflective teaching practice, and genuine collaboration, is most feasible now.

References

Bailey, K.M. (1997). Reflective teaching: Situating our stories. Journal of English Language Teaching, 7, 1-19.

Dadds, M. (1995). Passionate enquiry Cine! school development, London: Falmer.

Dewey, .1. (J 933). Howwe think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking 10 the education process. Boston: D.C. Heath.

Distad, L.S., & Brownstein, J.e. (2004). An exemplary reflective practice session. In L.S.

Distad & J.c. Brownstein (Eels), Talking teaching: Implementing reflection practice in groups (27-32). Toronto: Scarecrow Education.

Griffin, M.L. (2003). Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in pre-service teachers. Reflective Practice, 4(2),207-220.

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1-1a11, S., & Fox, R. (1998). Reflective teaching practice on the web Retrieved .June [5, 2005, from hu-p:/Ilsn.curtin.edu.au/tljjll f1998/hall.html

Henderson, J.G. (2001). Reflective teaching: Professional artistry through inquiry (3rd ed.).

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall,

Hong Kong Baptist University Hornepage. (2003), The Virtual Integrated Teaching and Learning Environment (\IITLE Plus). Retrieved .June 15, 2005, from http://www.hkbu.edu.bk

Kent, A. (Eel .. ) (2000). Reflective practice in geography teaching. London: Paul Chapman, Kwo, O. (1998) Professional learning in the context of change. In O. Kwo (Ed.), Professional/earning together: Building a collaborative culture in teaching practicum supervision (9-20). Hong Kong: Instep, University of Hong Kong.

Langer, A.M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: Using learning journals in higher and continuing education, Teaching in Higher Education, 7(3),337-351.

Lim, S.E., Chari-Cheng, P.W., Lam, M.S., & Ngan, S.F. (2003). Developing reflective and thinking skills by means of semantic mapping strategies in kindergarten teacher education. Early Child Development & Care, 173(1),55-72.

McAllister, E. A., & Neubert, G, A. (1998). NeB' teachers helping nell' teachers: Preservice peer coaching. Indiana: Edinfo Press, Indiana University.

McNiff, 1.. (1993). Teaching as learning an action research approach. London: Routledge. Osterman, K.F., & Kottkamp, R.B. (1993). Reflective practice for educators. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin.

Ovens, P. (1999). Reflective teacher development in primary science. London: Routledge Falrner.

Parker, S. (1997), Reflective teaching in the postmodern world. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Pollard, A. (2002). Reflective teaching. Effective and evidence-informed professional practice. New York: Continuum.

Poole, J., & Wessner, T, (2003), The transition from student to teacher: Developing a seljassessment culture for professionalism in teacher preparation programs. Paper presented at the 32ml Annual Meeting of the PAC-TE Teacher Education Assembly, Grantville, Pennsylvania, October 29-31,2003.

Posner, GJ. (2000). Field experience: A guide to reflective teaching (511l ed.). New York:

Longman.

Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. London: Temple Smith.

Sinclair, C; & Woodward, H. (1999). A journey into journaling. Journal ofInternational Society for Teacher Education, 3(2), 45-56,

Rebecca Lam, a specialist in educational psychology, is Associate Professor at the Department of Education Studies of Hong Kong Baptist University, teaching in M.Ed, and PgD in Ed. Courses, Her teaching and research interests include problem behaviours 111 children and adolescents, classroom communication, school guidance, and parenting ..

Atara Sivan, a specialist in curriculum. and assessment, action research in education and Leisure education, is Professor at the Department of Education Studies of Hong Kong Baptist University. She teaches various subjects in M,Ed and PgD in Ed. courses and undertakes research on teaching, learning, assessment and youth leisure.

An earlier version of this manuscript was presented at the 25111 Annual ISTE on Apri I 12, 2005. Correspondence regarding this manuscript should be sent to the first author at the Department of Education Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, RL 2- I 07, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong .. Business Phone: (852) 34 [I 5691. Fax: (852) 34] [ 7894 E-mail: syrlam@hkbu.edu.hk

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.JISTE I/of 10, No, 1, Januar» 2006 The Teacher Apprenticeship Program in Bhutan: An Evaluation

Kezang Sherab and Warren Halloway

The Teacher Apprenticeship Program was introduced in 20()O to meet a severe shortage of teachers in Bhutan and to relieve pressure on the teacher education institutes as they extended the period of pre-service training, This studyfocused 011 the effectiveness of the program and employed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires ill order to capture the experiences and problems of the apprentice teachers.

The study found that teacher apprentices reponed remarkable experiences that contributed to a sound foundation for becoming competent and dedicated teachers. Several changes werc recommended to recruitment criteria, school placements, the induction program, apprenticeship guidelines and mentoring. The research also discovered that the stakeholders needed to have a common vision about the program in order to establish GI more collaborative atmosphere.

Introduction - the context

Bhutan IS a small country with about three quarters of a million people located on the south-eastern flank of the Himalayan Mountains between India and China. It is a landlocked country of extreme contrasts in topography and climate, from some of the world's highest peaks, through ridge and ravine foothills to tropical southern plains. The monsoon season and seasonal snow-melts pose environmental difficulties for transport, communications and efforts to build modern infrastructure, There is a diversity of language and communal groups although the country is united undera popular king who is encouraging democratisation i t1 all aspect of life, Modern secular school s were established in the 1960s although monastic Buddhist schools have existed for centuries. There has been a concerted effort to provide schooling for Bhutanese children with elementary education now reaching over 80 percent of the population. The vast majority or the parents are neither literate nor numerate although they are generally strong supporters of school education Ior their children, Bhutan has depended on India for teachers, materials and ideas in establishing modern schools, however, these links are being reduced with the development of national syllabuses, examination systems and more Bhutanese teachers and administrators staffing the system.

The Bhutanese Teacher Apprenticeship Program - the background

The Bhutanese Teacher Apprenticeship Program (TAP) was introduced in 2000 to meet a severe shortage of teachersancl to relieve pressure on the teacher education institutes that were extending the period of pre-service training to four years. As a result, the concept of an eight month 'apprenticeship' in the schools came into existence in order to allow the students opting for reaching to lest their aptitude and suitability 1'01' teaching: to allow them to experience practical. aspects of teaching before entering the formal degree

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.IISTE \10110. No. I. January 2006 program; to make the trainmg program as realistic as possible; and to familiarise the student teachers with the teaching profession (Dorji, Personal Communication email J LIne 2004).

Greydragon (2000, p.1) indicates that an apprenticeship entails beginners trying their hand in the profession of their choice. Writers indicate that such programs are common in vocational education (Conford & Athanasou,1995, cited in Conford & Gunn, 1994, p.5). They also argue that attachment is necessary to a master practitioner in the same domain of profession and should not be considered as a source of cheap Jabour.

There is a dearth of literature in the field of teaching apprenticeships and the Bhutanese TAP appears to have unique features. However, the literature indicates th at the philosophy of apprenticeship has similar characteristics, such as the guidance of a master, mentorship, teaching, encouragement and honest feedback on the path to becoming a more skilful and knowledgeable practitioner (Conford & Gunn, 1998; Greydragon, 2000; Shady Hill School, 1997). The TAP is seen as an opportunity to 'tryout' teaching as a career with advantages for the student teacher as well as the system. The students are allowed to withdraw their candidature without penalty while the system avoids investment in unsuitable candidates.

Learning to teach is a complicated process involving the acquisrtion of relevant knowledge, understanding how children learn and developing interpersonal skills. It also incorporates an affective aspect. It is vital thai: the student teachers are attached to capable mentor teachers (Buckley & Zimmerman, 2003, p.l; Murray & Owen, 1991, p.(45). An effective mentor helps the apprentice through role modeling of classroom teaching, sponsoring, encouragement, counseling and debriefing (Sinclair, Woodward & ThisletonMartin, 2001). Research has demonstrated the benefits of mentoring on a beginner's personal and professional development (Boreen, Johnson, Niday & Pots; 2000; Sinclair, Woodward & Thisleton-Martin, 2001; Uakeia, 1998). A committed relationship between the beginner and the mentor is necessary with a clear focus on goals, otherwise time and resources are likely to be wasted. Furthermore, mentors can derive many benefits from the relationship as they constantly examine teaching practice, interpret and articulate new ideas and collaborate with the rnentee in the process of professional development (Shady Hill School, 1997, p. 3).

There ,ue other teaching apprenticeship schemes similar to that in Bhutan, such as the University of Toronto B Ed program in Canada, Shady Hill School (On-line, http;//ww\'o/.cf.synergylearning.org/) and the New Canaan County School (On-line, http:Uwww.countryschool.net!nccs!about!apprentice.html. p.1). There are significant differences in these schemes, particularly the opportunity to attend university courses concurrently 'with the school attachments, a situation that is not possible in Bhutan. The TAP has been operating for five years. The present research was intended to examine the types of opportunities and problems faced by participants and to make recommendations for improvements.

The study methodology

The study was designed to benefit from the use of qualitative and quantitative methodologies (Bryman, 1988; Mannen, 1984; Neuman, 2003; Punch, 2001). To gather

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.IISTE vuio. No.1, Januar» 2006 data, two different types of research tools were employed, namely, questionnaires and indepth semi-structured interviews. The population for the survey was scattered geographically and consequently, in terms of cost and effectiveness, a self-administered postal questionnaire was used (Burns, 2000). A large amount of information was collected from the 2004 cohort of apprentice teachers. A random selection of 239 apprentice teachers (159 from NIE Paro and 80 from N1E Samtse) was sent questionnaires .. The response rate was impressive with 222 (93%) completed questionnaires. For greater depth in understanding the process of apprenticeship, a sample of 12 apprentice teachers (seven from NIE Para and five from NlE Sarntse) was selected for semi-structured interviews in English or Drongkha as the subjects preferred. Letters written by the apprentice teachers to their NIE were also read and yielded useful information for this research .. The criteria used in the selection of the sample apprentice teachers for interview were: different level of school (middle and lower secondary, primary and community schools), location (urban, semi-urban and rural), district and gender. Information was also gathered by interviewing District Education Officers (DEOs), head teachers, and mentors.

Gaining access to the research settings and establishing good rapport was regarded as necessary for a successful investigation, Consent was obtained from the appropriate authorities and participants. and all aspects of the research were conducted in compliance with ethical issues likely to arise in this ethnographic study, The researchers were especialJy alert to the possibil ity of distortion or bias in dealing with the information gathered and the nuances of Bhutanese culture and environment inherent in this investigation. This form of research provided an opportunity for triangulation (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000; Maanen, 1984). Therefore the 'within-method' triangulation enhanced reliability and 'between-method' triangulation tested the degree of external validity thereby making it possible to reach more accurate and reliable conclusions ..

Out of 222 respondents, 133 (59.9%) were male and 89 (40.1 %) were female. The school location of the apprentice teachers was: urban, 19 (8.5%); semi-urban, 61 (27.5%); and rural, [42 (64.0). Examination of the gender/location distribution indicates an expected tendency towards placement of' males in rural schools and females in urban and semiurban schools.

ResuJts and interpretations

Placement of apprentice teachers. The sole criterion used in the placement of apprentice teachers in schools was the shortage of teachers. The human resource officers at the ministry of education determine the number of apprentice teachers to be recruited for primary and secondary schools all the basis of requirements submitted by each DEO. The apprentice teachers are recent high school graduates who are given an opportunity to negotiate changes within districts for their placements that are generally determined on the needs of schools for subject teachers and numbers. Difficulty is experienced in convincing apprentice teachers to go LO remote schools and in staffing positions with particular subject requirements. Some apprentice teachers indicated difficulties arising from their placements when they did not get the school they chose, especially those sent to urban areas where living expenses are relatively high:

Yes sir. in the beginning I faced some problems because I did not get the placement at my choice. So if II'C/S dijjicult [or me to deal with the /101'

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JISTE \I()! 10, No. J, January 2006 surroundings. I had a difficult time looking for a house to rent and it is very expensive here. Other teachers were nor very helpful, (Interview 25/9/04)

It was considered that if the living arrangements of the apprentice teachers were unsatisfactory, the quality of their teaching would be adversely affected, as a head teacher stated: "Apprentices should he placed based on their choice. Ifth« interest and welfare of the apprentices are not considered, it would ult imately hamper the quality 0.( teaching" . (Interview' 29/9/04)

Workload. The research discovered that apprentice teachers were carrying a full teaching load, i.e, more than 25 periods of independent, classroom teaching per week, with 40 to 50 students in each class .. This situation was attributed to the shortage of teachers faced in Bhutan. Many apprentice teachers reported taking independent classes without guidance and support, negating the very concept of apprenticeship (Conford & Gunn, 1998, p. II).

It would be very difficult for an apprentice teacher to develop a high level of teaching skills if they are not guided by senior teachers who, while "working alongside a talented mentor ... discover what teaching is all about, through observation, supervised teaching, workshops, seminars and continuous involvement in {he hfe ofthe school" (Shady Hill School, 1997, p. 1). It was also found that many apprentice teachers were required to teach in subject areas beyond their cornpetence because of teacher shortages. It is important that apprentice teachers in Bhutan cue provided with strong foundations for their career jf a high quality of education is to be available.

Head teachers gave enthusiastic credit to the apprentice teachers for their contributions 1.0 co-curricular activities such as coordinating clubs, serving as committee members, house masters, sports coordinators, cultural coordinators and as "in-charge" librarians. A comment by a head teacher was typical: "COIning fresh out of the school system I have observed that apprentices arc energetic and enthusiastic They IWIIe more interaction and dealing with students than regular teachers". (Interview 1/1 0/04).

Some DEOs praised apprentice teachers for the new ideas they produced and the extent to which they were willing and able to shoulder responsibility. One respondent related his experience:

In the month ofJune my head reacher had gone to a multigrade teaching program in Australia for three months. Thereafter I had to rake the responsibility qj' managing the school hath in terms ofofficiat work and teaching (classes PP to 11 comprising of three sections) for three months. Nevertheless in the month of Jul» 1 had my apprentice Fiend from the other school (within the same district) 1'1.'/10 had been sent by the DEO to help me. Without experience and help from the experienced reacher we had a tough time looking after the school. (Communication from monitoring letter, 30/ I 0/04)

Choice of profession. Ten out of the twelve apprentice teachers interviewed indicated that they had personally chosen teaching as their profession. Further in the survey, 'selfmotivation' scored highest among the factors likely to infl Lienee apprentice teachers' choice, well ahead of parents, siblings, friends, teachers 'attractive job' and 'last option.'. Of 250 apprentice teachers in the 2003 cohort only four decided to take Lip another

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JIST£ Vol 10. No. 1. Ionuar» 2006 profession. The findings indicate that the overwhelming majority of apprentice teachers are genuinely interested and motivated to take up teaching.

Benefit of TAP. Almost all of those surveyed and interviewed in this study considered that TAP was an excellent program:

I personally feel that YAP is a very good program because ... I (gained) experiences in classroom teaching. planning lessons, dealing with students, etc. With such experiences J feel 1 can do well during the training period. (Interview 27/9/04)

They also mentioned improvement in classroom management, extending vocabulary and seeking further knowledge through library research. Responses indicated that participants felt it was useful to understand the 'real life' of a teacher before making a final commitment and commencing formal professional study. A head teacher commented:

"TAP is not only helpful for the school but even for apprentices themselves. They learn the practical aspects of the school which would be very help/it! for them while at training". (Interview 8/10/04)

The survey indicated that 94. J % of responding apprentice teachers gained positive improvement in self-esteem and confidence. An apprentice reported: "in the beginning I vvas not able toface a large crowd bur now (TAP experiences) have helped me gain some confidence". (Interview 20/9/04) Two-thirds of the respondents to the survey indicated that they thought the TAP should be continued.

The induction program to TAP. Many apprentices, head teachers, mentors, and DEOs considered the induction program to be useful and relevant. However, some considered that it should be of longer duration and cover more topics, such as lesson preparation, preparing test items based on Bloom's Taxonomy, lise of manuals and texts, multigrade teaching, teaching lower grade classes and deeper treatment of child psychology. Nearly a third of apprentice respondents said they were not confident in teaching skills covered during the induction program.

Some concern was expressed about the lack of communication between the Institutes and DEOs and it was suggested that aspects of the induction program might be carried out at district level, for example: "the briefing that the Institutes give to the apprentices during induction should also he sent to the DEOs for uniform application of rules and other decisions". (Interview 29/9/04)

The guidelines for apprentices. Some mentors and head teachers believed that they were unable to give adequate support to apprentices because there was no clear directive about how to monitor. One mentor commented: "Briefing about observation and other details should be given to mentorts), so that there is common understanding among the mentors and that there is uniform application ofrules": (Interview 13/10/04)

Head teachers emphasised the importance of attaching an apprentice to a suitable mentor. To ensure that this happened they urged early communication and clear guidance between the institutes and themselves. Furthermore, clear channels of communication should be known in the event of problems occurring:

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.fISTE Vul /0. N(). I . January 2006 There is 110 clear-em directive eitherfrom NIEs 01'j;'0111 Education Division as To how and what to do 'with apprentices. So we really get confused when it comes to making important decisions sometimes. For example, (thou! their leave, what happens if they get married, etc? (Interview IS/ 10/04)

Mentoring, Some of the apprentices received sound mentoring that contributed to their professional and personal growth:

The best way o] growing professionally is the mentoriug process. Working with the mentor I can see I am growing intellectually. I can improve and learn a lot worki ng on the negati lie comments (~f the mentor. (Interview 81l 0/04)

Some mentors considered menloring was a valuable two-way learning process. However this research has discovered that most of the apprentices were left without much guidance and support in teaching. Out of the twelve apprentices interviewed only five had some form of mentoring and even this was not done on a regular basis. Tile survey showed that at least (8.5% of apprentices w .re without a mentor or any help. Quite surprisingly some apprentices were not even aware that they should be attached to a mentor for support and guidance. In most cases le.-son observation occurred only once a month, mainly because of the shortage of teachers but also because or a lack of knowledge about mentoring and teaching skills. One mentor said: "I [ouud it very difficult To lise the skillforms due to lack of experience and exposure. Most of the skill forms are changed and modified while compared fa theforms that werc used during our time". (lnterview, 20/9/04)

Concern was expressed that regular teachers had limited knowledge and lacked proper guidelines about how to mentor apprentices:

Briefil1g and observation and of her details should be given To mentors so that there is uniform application of apprentice rules. Moreover to provide maximum help and guidance! mentor and apprentice should take some classes together. (Interv iew 13/1 0104)

The mentoring process has apparently been subservient to the teacher shortage problem.

Institute visits. There was also some frustration at the lack of communication v .. /ith the institutes. A visit by a representative of the institutes to the apprentices in their schools was strongly supported (92.291). I-I a I teachers, mentors and DEOs favoured such visits and thought this would strengthen the TAP.

Supportfrom. head teachers, colleagues, students and parents. A majority of apprentices interviewed reported that they were satisfied with the support provided by their head teacher, senior teachers, students and parents. An apprentice commented: "Besides m» mentor ... whenever I have all)' problem ... I go to her (a senior science teacher) and she is vcrv heipful", (Interview 27/9/04)

However, this study has discovered that owing to a shortage of teachers, some apprentices did not receive much help in academic matters. They acknowledged the personal, generous assistance of colleagues, particularly head teachers and mentors: "' ... the head teacher has sacrificed a roomfor "'1'0 or us ill his quarters and he is very helpful. He even

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.IlSTE \10110. No.1. Jonuarv 2006 helps us to get food items roo; otherwise it fakes days to go to the neare. f town for shopping" . (Interview 28/9/04)

B. Ed interviews. Many head teachers and DEOs expressed concern about the criteria used during the B. Ed selection interviews. A strong view was expressed by a OEO: "In the past we haw! come across one or nvo apprentices who are not fit to become teachers in terms of their character and behaviour. We feel there should be other criteria for selection interview no! just based all (academic) merit" . (Interview 24/9/04)

Disadvantages of TAP. Although most of the participants in this research considered TAP to be productive and relevant for the apprentices and the system, a few expressed their reservations. A OEO observed:

We tend to depend 011 the supply of apprentice teachers every year to be posted to schools where there are shortages of teachers. As a result Hie seem to neglect working out the possibility ojtransjerring regular teachersfrom one school to the other within the Dzongkhag (District) ... some teachers who have been working ill the same schools, espe cia II}' in urban areas, for more than five vears ... in the future we should try to solve the teacher shortage problem by sending these teachers to the remote schools rather than waiting for the apprentice replacement. (Interview 20/9/04)

The usual method a DEO uses to fill a positionjf they are not able to solve the problem within the district. is to requisition the personnel division at the national level. The problem is often solved by placing an apprentice teacher to the vacant position. Conversely, OEOs do not accept apprentices if they have enough teachers. However, many apprentice teachers are not able to handle lower primary classes or manage 'heavy' classes as a regular teacher does. A dilemma therefore emerge , whether to give priority to filling shortages with apprentice teachers or to transfer regular teachers and, in the process, to ensure the integrity of the TAP.

Recommendations

1 Placements.

Apprentice teachers should be appointed to schools according to the philosophy of the TAP. Currently, apprentices are used for short-term benefits, such as overcoming teacher shortages. The main purpose of being an apprentice is to receive guidance, mentoring, teaching experience under supervision, encouragement and hone, t, informed feedback as a preliminary step towards formal teacher education in an institute. In the long term the Bhutanese education system needs competent, dedicated teachers, therefore all stakeholders should support a successful TAP that will facilitate, not frustrate, quality teacher education.

2 Induction program

The TAP Induction program should be reviewed and strengthened. It may be of longer duration and include additional topics such as multigrade leaching, use of texts and manuals and deeper coverage of child psychology. Involvement in the Induction program may also benefit DEOs, mentors and head teachers.

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JISTE VollO, No. I, January 2006

3 Apprenticeship guidelines

A major difficulty in the TAP has been the lack of communication between stakeholders. Guidelines should be developed to better inform and guide aLI participants.

4 Mentoring

This research demonstrates that it is vital to put a sound rnentoring system in place. Preparation of mentor. must be undertaken with appropriate recognition of the role undertaken, Other research has clearly indicated the positive effects of mentoring all a beginner's personal and professional development

5 B. Ed interviews

The selection criteria used in the B. Ed interview should be reviewed with a view to incorporating indicators of suitability for teaching. Besides academic merit, it is likely that aspects of character, interests and motivation will be relevant to recruitment to the teaching profession.

6 Consultation and Cooperation

This study has revealed a. consistent. deficiency in consultation and cooperation between . takeholders. Figures I and 2 illustrate this tendency and the recommended strategy for improving TAP.

Figure 1 TAP - At present

TAP

(l

Figure I shows that TAP is being pulled in different directions by the stakeholders thereby preventing the development of linkages that are necessary for effecti ve action.

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JlSTE Vol it), No .. / . l anuarv 2006

Figure 2 TAP ~ Common vision

Figure 2 places the TAP at the centre, surrounded by all stakeholders. In this circumstance all stakeholders share a common vision about the program. The more focused they are, the more likely that linkages will flourish and the program will be successful.

Conclusion

Those centrally concerned in the TAP are the Ministry of Education, the National Institutes of Education, the Royal University of Bhutan, District Education Officers, head teachers and mentors. Succinctly, the findings of this research indicate that the present TAP in Bhutan lacks a common vision among the stakeholders. Existing linkages have been inadequate for effective action with stakeholders holding different notions and priorities and sometimes pulling in different directions. As a result, misunderstanding and confusion have arisen. With a clear common vision shared by all stakeholders, TAP could provide more meaningful and efficacious experiences for apprentice teachers.

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JIST£ \io/IO. No. I . January 2006

References

Boreen, J, Johnson, M. K, Niday, D & Pots, J (2000). Mentoring Beginning Teachers.

Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.

Bryrnan, A (1988). Quantity and Quality in Social Research. London: Unwin Hyman. Buckley, M. A, & Zimmermann, S. H. (2003). Mentoring Children and Adolescents. A Guide to the Issues. Westport, Praeger Publications.

Burns, R.B (2000). Introduction to Research Methods. London: Sage Publications.

Conford, I & Gunn, D (1998). Work-Based Learning of Commercial Cookery Apprentices in the New South Wales Hospitalities Industry. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, vol. 50, 110. 4, Retrieved 16 June 2004 from http://www.triangle.co.uk/pdf.

Denzin, K. N & Lincoln, S. Y (2000). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Greydragon, R.T (online). Apprentices. Retrieved 16 June 2004 from

http://www.greydragon.org/library/apprentices.pdf

Maanen, J.V (ed.) (1984). Qualitative Methodology. Beverly I-Iills, California: Sage Publications Inc.

Murray, M & Owen, M. A (1991). Beyond the Myths and Magic of Mentoring. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Neuman, W. L (2003). Social Research Methods; Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

New Canaan Country School (online). Apprentice Programme. Retrieved 16 June 2004 from http://www.countryschool.net/nccs/abou t/apprentice.html

Punch, K.F (2001). Introduction to Social Research. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Shady Hill School (1997). Connect: A Magazine ofTeachers' Innovations ill K-8 Science and Math. Vol. 10, 110.3, Synergy Learning International, Inc. Retrieved 16 June 2004 from hnp;//www.cfsynergylearning.org/

Sinclair, C, Woodward, H & Thisleton-Martin, J (2001). Mentoring Schools Mentoring Students. Journal ofLnternationol Society for Teacher Education. Vol. 5, No. I.

Uakeia, T (1998). The role of Mentoring In the Induction of Teacher Educators: A Kiribati case study. Journal oflnternational Societvfor Teacher Education. Vol. 2, No.2.

Kezang Sherab is a lecturer in Health an I physical education at the Royal University of Bhutan, Instituten of Education at Paro, Bhutan. T-Ie has a M Ed from St. Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia, Canada. He has recently completed research into the Teacher Apprenticeship Program while at the University of New England. Armidale, Australia, and in Bhutan. He is currently course leader for the B Eel primary and Coordi nator of the Teacher Apprentiseship Program Committee at Paro NIE. <keznang_sherab@nieparo.edu.bt>

Warren Halloway is an Han. Fellow at the University of New England, Arrnidale, Australia, and formerly an Associate Professor at UNE. He has a special interest in international teacher education and professional development programs. whallowa@une.edu.au

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.lISTE Vol /0. No. f. JCIII/(a}".\' ]006

Some Strategies of Teachers' Professional Development

Majda Cencic

111 their professional development, teachers can lise dff/erent forms or strategies. Some 0/ them are more formal, others less informal. Formal strategies are designed in Slovenia by the Ministry (?/ Education and Sport. BUi teachers also use other, less formal strategies for their professional development. In our research we wanted to establish which strategies ofprofessional development are predominant among Sloven ian teachers. For this purpose. a non-random sample 0/ 16/ teachers from primary and secondary schools was chosen. In January 2005, these teachers were asked to jill ill a questionnaire. AI! teachers included in the research survey chose reading professional literature as the most important strategy of professional development 'whereas supervision and formal university studies were assessed as the feast popular strategies. The comparison between primm)' and secondary schoof reachers showed that the former tend to apply different strategies ofprofessional development more than the latter.

Introduction

Nowadays we are witnessing some radical changes in society, for example, in digital technology, biotechnology, etc. which influence society as well as the individual, demanding constant adjustment, advanced knowledge and additional responsibility. Children entering our primary schools also possess more comprehensive knowledge. Thus, on the one hand, the teacher may be torn between general knowledge and, on the other, detailed knowledge in his/her particular field of work. The knowledge he/she bas acquired for performing his/her profession soon becomes obsolete and needs constant improvement. Therefore, it is not surprising that in 2000 the Commission of The European Communities published "A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning", which presents different kinds of knowledge and different ways of acquiring it.

This article deals with professional strategies (professional forms or learning activities) which a teacher can use for his/her professional development For this purpose we present some of the strategies which Slovenian teachers consider important lor their professional development.

Professional development

In this article, the term "professional development" is used although other terms are applied to denote the same or similar things. The term 'develoj ment' is used when we want to stress "change" and "improvement:" in one s practice over a period of time. Central to this concept lies the notion that changing one's teaching is a learning process which involves, in pan, building upon and changing prior belief's and actions about teaching." (Wideen, Mayer-Smith & Moon, 1996, p. 188)

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}ISrE \lol 10. No, I. JWW(lI'Y 2006

In connection with lifelong learning we tend to Lise the term "professional learning". The result of learning is knowledge which teachers can acquire by being involved in different learning activities (A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning, 2002, p. 8). Day (1999, p. I) uses the term "continuing professional development". He states (1999, p. I):

"The nature of teaching demands That reachers engage in continuing careerlong professional development, but their particular needs and the ways in which they may be met will vary according (0 circumstance, personal and professional histories and current dispositions. Growth involves learning which is sometimes natura! and evolutionary, sometimes opportunistic and sometimes the result a/planning",

As we can notice, all these terms are interconnected and show a teacher's interest and need for education in his/her field of work. Therefore, in the text the term "professional development" is appl ted instead of other ex pressions,

Professional development is a continuous and on-going process (Wallace, 1998, p. 4). According to the author (Wallace, 1998), there is more than one way into reflective practice since the process of professional development varies from one person to another. In this process we can use different strategies which can help LIS to turn problems we face in our professional careers into positive rather than negative experiences (p. 5). Most of us use a wide variety of strategies for our professional development, of which some are formal, for example in-service study or training, attending conferences etc., and others informal such as discussions with colleagues about classroom experiences, reading professional literature for ideas and suggestions etc, According to the Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (2000), we can also talk about informal learning such as talking to colleagues, visiting schools, travelling abroad etc.

This article establishes the preferred strategies of professional development of Slovenian teachers.

Professional development in Slovenia

In Slovenia, it is the Ministry of Education and Sport that ensures professional development of teachers and other school staff. In 2004 it issued new 'Rules 011 Further Education and Training of Professionals in Education': On the basis of the new regulation it provides two groups of programs: those for upgrading one's education, which are carried out by faculties, and professional training programs. Next to the above, study groups, school networks, computer literacy and other accredited programs are also being developed. How teachers in primary and secondary schools in Slovenia apply various strategies of professional learning can be seen from our study, carried out in some of the Slovenian schools in the beginning of 2005.

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.1IST£ Vol J O. No. I . ./aI1HUJ"V 2006

Some Strategies of Professional Development of Slovenian Teachers

Method. The purpose of the survey-based research was to find out which strategies were most frequently applied by the Slovenian teachers and which were the least popular ones, as well as to find out the differences between primary and secondary school teachers. The results could aJso serve our Ministry to determine which programs it ought to improve. The study was part of a larger research called "Partnership between the Faculty and Schools' , carried out at the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, in school year 2004/05.

Sample. For this purpose we included a non-random sample of 161 teachers, 85 (52.8%) from primary schools and 76 (47.2%) from secondary schools. The sample involved a network of partnership schools in school year 2004/05. 111 the sample there were 136 (84.5%) women and only 25 (15.5%) men, which is similar to the ratio within the teacher population in general. Most of them (105 or 65%) had a BA degree (university education); some (52 or 32.5%) had a higher degree (higher education); and only 4 or 2.5% had a master's degree or higher. One did not indicate her/his d .gree of education.

Instrument and procedure. In January and February 2005, teachers filled in a questionnaire which was a combination of a numerical rating scale from 0 (not important) to 5 (the most important) and some open ended and closed questions that could be answered by addressing their problems, needs, etc. The reachers were also asked to indicate their sex, age. institution of work and years of work in education. The reliability coefficient alpha for a numerical rating scale was 0.74.

The data were processed by applying the mean (M) and standard deviations (SD). The ttest for independent samples was used to present the differences between teachers in primary and those in secondary schools.

Results. As we can see in Table I, teachers consider reading professional literature to be the most important among the appl ied strategies, followed by others in order of importance, where supervision and in-service formal education, undergraduate or postgraduate studies at the faculty were assessed as the least important strategies.

Reading is the most popular strategy with both groups of teachers and consequently equally highly valued. We can slim up that among teachers in Slovenia non-formal learning is widely spread. A similar conclusion was reached by Kirsch and Guthrie (1984, cited in Cornmeyras & DeGroff, 1998, p, 441), who established that the majority of teachers tended to read in order to solve their momentary problems. Another reason for the popularity of reading could be the small amount of time necessary to acquire general knowledge. 1.11 addition, this form is also a very convenient one as it is possible to read in many places, for example, in the presence of other family members, during one's leisure rime, in different places and at different limes. Yet. the question arises as to what the reachers reae!, which reviews and/or books, and consequenrly,if they read, whether this reading activity influences any changes in their judgment and practical work (Commeyras & DeGroff, 1998, p. 441).

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.fISTE Vol I(), No. I, January 200n
Table 1.
T -test for comparing answers of' teachers from primary schools (PS) and secondary
schools (88)
Number of teachers (n), mean (M)** and standard deviations (SO) for teachers' strategies
Levene's
Strategy Overall School n M SD Test for r-resr
M Equality of
Variances
F P df 2P
Reading 3,95 PS 85 3.96 0.88 0.93 0.34 0.21 157 0.84
SS 74 3.93 1.09
Team work 3.4) PS 83 3.73 1.11 1.76 0.19 3.66 153 0,00
SS 72 3.03 1.30
Programs for 3.40 PS 85 3.66 0.93 0.52 0.47 3.54 157 0.00
professional SS 74 3.09 1.08
training
Seminars 111 3.33 PS 83 3.55 0.95 0.00 0.97 2.89 154 0,00
institutions SS 73 3.08 1,09
Attendance at 3.28 PS 82 3.41 1.11 2.40 0.12 1.45 153 0, IS
can ferences SS 73 3.12 1.38
Study groups 3.13 PS 85 3.31 1.12 0.55 0.46 1.94 157 0.05
SS 74 2.93 1.31
Programs for 2.18 PS 79 2.67 1.72 1.27 0.26 3.86 149 0.00
upgrading SS 72 1.64 1,53
reaching
qua I ification
Research 2.12 PS 80 2.10 1.90 1.33 0.25 -0.12 lSI 0,90
work SS 73 2.14 1.77
Supervision 1.50 PS 85 1.82 1.72 6,69 0.01 2.72* 158.88'1' 0.00'"
SS 76 1.13 1.5)
In-service 1.44 PS 70 1.67 2.02 4.14 0.04 1.43* 130,94';' 0,16*
study SS 63 1.19 1.86 Note:

** Scale is 0 1:0 5, where 0 is not important and 5 is the 1110st important. "Tvresulr where equal variance is not assumed,

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.lISTE Vol to.n« I. January 2006 Taking into account the total number of teachers, the average score for team work is relatively high (m=3.41). As shown in Table I, this strategy was assessed higher by primary school teachers, and we can see statistically significant differences between primary and secondary school teachers. It is a common belief among teachers that they can work and learn successfully on their own; the importance of teamwork and learning is only slowly gaining ground. This non-formal strategy requires learning as wen, a fact which is also recognised by the teachers: "in my opinion the development o] rea! ream work is stilt paid too little attention to. 1 think this form should be systematically learnt by all teachers." This does not mean learning within a team but learning for teamwork, and a change of attitude or viewpoint towards teamwork.

In primary schools, the school policy is focused more on teamwork than in secondary schools because in year one of the nine-year primary school program, the primary school teacher and the early years' teacher teach together. Therefore, more seminars or programs dealing with team work are being organised for primary than for secondary teachers.

Programs for professional training ranked quite high among all the teachers surveyed (M=3.40). Here, statistically significant differences emerged because in the opinion of primary teachers, it was much more prevalent. Some of these programs, partly funded by the Ministry, are usually well-attended, while others do not take place at all because of insufficient interest. Financial costs seem to be one of the main obstacles, and one of the teachers made the following remark: "In previous years I acquired a lot of knowledge at seminars which I chose on the basis of' the participation fee and not so much on the basis of my preferences." Thus, it would prove useful if the offered seminars were made available to more participants, whereby financial limitations, as well as time limitations, are reduced as much as possible. Teachers find it difficult to get a substitute teacher to make up for their absence from work. For these reasons teachers also suggest that semmars should be organised during vacations when they can concentrate more on learning.

Seminars or workshops within institutions are a new form of professional development organised by the Ministry of Education and Sport. We can see from Table 1 that there are statistically significant differences between primary and secondary school teachers in regard to this strategy. This particular form of professional development is quite common in primary schools. Some schools organise their own forms of education, for example, they invite individual experts for specific topics. Some schools even have special coordinators for permanent professional courses.

Programs for professional training differ from school to school since planning is based on the preferential goals and visions of individual schools, as well as on teachers' individual needs. Thus, schools organise at least one educational course per year for all their teachers .. Teachers included in the research survey also shared the view that this strategy should be utilised more as it would meet their needs and requirements. This is a cheaper strategy since it is carried out at the work place and within a convenient time framework. Some of the statements favouring this strategyincl ude: "The institutions themselves should encourage and create opportunities for additional education of their professional workers." And also: "More educational courses and seminars should be implemented directly in school, for example, as a follow-up of teacher meetings and the like,' However, some criticism was expressed regarding the contents which do not bear much practical relevance and do not include all the teachers. This strategy is more suitable for

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.IISTE Vol I(), No. J . January 2006 educational issues in genera] and less for specific subjects and for new findings connected with a specific school subject. But there are common issue' in primary and secondary schools as well, such as discipline problems, rhetoric work with I arents etc.

There are no statistically significant differences regarding attendance at conferences and other professional meetings, though conferences are slightly less attended by secondary teachers than by primary teachers. Attending conferences, symposia and the like, as well as organised professional and scientific meetings are considered to be very important strategies for professional development by several authors (e.g. Wallace, ] 998; Wilkins, 1997). Likewise, they were assessed as an important way of learning by our teachers, despite some limitations, such as insufficient funds and a lack of time.

Study groups or school networks were assessed poorly and with statistically significant differences between primary and secondary school teachers (see Table 1). One would expect greater importance to be allocated to study groups because teachers are quite comfortable with this informal kind of learning. Besides, it is relatively cheap and brings together teachers of the same professional field .. However, the opinions were not very favourable. On the contrary. the majority of the teachers strongly criticised this strategy, stating that study group leaders brought new information too late; that the issues discussed

lid not originate from their work; members did not meet frequently enough; that the topics to be discussed should be defined and chosen by the study group participants and not by the leaders; and that the issues for discussion should be relevant for the whole country. On the ba 'is of the expressed criticism, this strategy should be thoroughly evaluated and complemented.

Programs for upgrading teaching qualifications were assessed higher among primary than secondary teachers. It is a strategy of formal permanent professional education. With the support of this strategy, candidates from other profession: can acquire teaching qualifications and gain the opportunity to teach in schools. Senior teachers in Slovenia have to upgrade their knowledge for teaching the first grades or a new subject of the new nine-year primary school program. Keeping in mind the primary but not secondary school reform, one should not: be surprised that this strategy is applied to a greater extent by primary than by secondary teachers. Since it is generally provided by faculties, teachers contend that they only review the undergraduate study content and clo not: learn anything new; that the topics are too comprehensive; and that some of them just don't apply.

Although the idea of a teacher-researcher, as it was introduced in England by Stenhouse, then developed by Elliot as well as others (for example Lewin, Kemrnis & Mc'Taggart) is not a new one, and is considered by many experts (for example Edwards & Talbot, 1994, p. 3) as the strategy strongly influencing the professional lives of teachers, even moti vating them for their profession (Brown & Dowling, 1998, p. 162), the total average score is only 2.12. This is due mainly to the assessments by secondary teachers and, as we found, mostly by men. Certainly not everybody is suitable to rake up the scientific approach. It demands a great deal of rime and a more objective and impartial way of gathering data about practical work than is usually the case (Wallace, 1998, p. 1). In conclusion, the author expresses the firm belief that provi led there is enough time and energy at our disposal and if we adopt a reasonable scientific approach, there can be substantial benefits to our professional development. We can also use Schon's words (1983) that when a practitioner becomes a researcher ole his/her own practice, he/she engages in a continuous process of self-education.

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.lISTE \10/10, iVu, 1, jOI1U(.II"\' 2006

As scientific research is a demanding form of learning, teachers would need stronger support in this field, which could be made possible by action research for example, with research teams of teachers and researchers working together. Wallace (.1998, p, 1) adds that reflecting on our professional practice through action research is one of the most effective ways not only for solving professional problems but also for continuing to improve and develop as teachers,

Supervision as a form of non-formal learning was ranked as one of the least important. strategies by both groups of teachers surveyed (M:::: I ,50). Nevertheless, this f0l111 of professional development is more popular with and well-known by primary school teachers, which is also expressed by statistically important differences (Table 1). One teacher wrote: "I miss supervision because I find it necessary fur successful implementation of my work." And another teacher: "Supervision is not practiced:" A pJausible reason for the latter comment might be that because there is such great interest for this strategy, the providers simply cannot satisfy demand. On the other hand, many teachers are, surprisingly, not even familiar with the term itself, although there is some literature about this topic available in the Slovene language which, however, does not seem 10 "reach" the teachers. Some experience with supervision was also established in an extensive American study, where the examinees considered collaboration of this kind to be important in terms of positive influence on the teacher's development (Cornmeyras & DeGroff, 1998, p. 445).

Formal in-service education for primary teachers is provided at the facul ry-of education. They can also study at other faculties and get an academic degree (BA or MA), which is a formal conclusion to undergraduate and postgraduate studies. It is interesting that mainly younger teachers take LIp postgraduate studies (Cencic, 2004) (the average age group was 28,89 years), whereas undergraduate studies are undertaken by students more than ten years older on average (the average age group was 41.78 years). (Cencic, 2004). Both study programs are mainly attended by women who are predominant in the teaching force.

The teachers also mentioned other less important strategies, such as: co-operation in projects, round table discussions, voluntary work in different societies, and consulting other experts, Others mentioned collaboration with colleagues outside the institution who "share similar views on professional development"; further collaboration with experts from other fields or "sharing experience and 'recipes' already proven to be effective", Co-operation among colleagues is emphasised by other authors as well (e.g. Svinicki, 1996). Maybe greater importance should be placed on the role of "a critical friend" (Day, 1999, p. 10 I-I 02), a strategy which our teachers do not pay much attention to in spite of being very convenient and representing an important form of reflective learning. They also mention co-operation in different national and international projects, visits to various fairs, advice of the board of education, etc,

Among the mentioned strategies were "own reflections", "learning through 011'/1 experiences", "learning 011 one's OH'11 initiative - what one needs". "a complex and detailed lesson plan", which could be classified as strategies of informal learning indicating reflective learning on the part of some teachers.

However, the members of our group did nor mention mentorship as a form of learning, which is surprising since it has already far surpassed a mere relationship between a more

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.IfSTE Vol 10, No, I, January 2006 experienced teacher and a Jess experienced practitioner. As a mentor, the teacher takes on the responsibility for his own professional learning, Not only does the candidate benefit fr0111 the knowledge of his/her mentor but so does the mentor by upgrading his/her knowledge through the work with the candidate (Mentorship Program, 1999), The relationship can thus be characterised as a dynamic, mutual process that accelerates professional learning of both parties, Our teachers could also be included in literary clubs (Cornmeyras & DeGroff, 1998), and make use of' portfolios and other forms of learning in their work, which were not mentioned.

Conclusion

Regarding the possibilities for professional development, teachers make Lise of different strategies of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Among the stated strategies of nonformal learning, reading professional literature prevails. Formal ill-service studies are considered to be the least popular of the strategies surveyed, The reasons cited for this include insufficient financial support, lack of time and uninteresting topics that are also too theoretical. Paradoxically, these problems open up the possibilities of greater development of non-formal and informal learning. Although the achievement of results, as expressed by recognised qualifications and certificates, are important, we should also focus on the results of learning indicated by the changes of professional activities, behaviour, relations, values, beliefs and viewpoints of teachers,

We also found that teachers learned most on their own, partly in collaboration with other colleagues (for example teamwork, supervision, research work) and least in groups (seminars and special programs), which are also the most expensive learning forms, Let us, therefore, give teachers more opportunity to develop their professional knowledge through reading by improving their access to professional brochures, books, articles, enews etc.

But we also have to develop and change the mindset of people learning about the importance of learning, informal and/or non-formal. In my opinion, the possibilities of development can increase with greater support of teachers' incentives, by forming clubs 01' non-formal discussion groups within schools that would promote the implementation of new ideas in practice, and by adopting the notion that learning is a vital part of the work of teachers.

References

A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (2000), http.//ww\-v.mszs,si/slo/solstvo/vsezivljenjsko,asp (15,10.2002),

Brown, A, & Dowling, P. (1998). Doing research/reading research. London, Washington D.C.: The Falmer Press,

Cencic, M. (2004). Poklicno ucenje razrednih uciteljev. Pedagoska obzorja, 2,15-24, Commeyras, M. & DeGroff, L. (1998), Literacy professionals' perspectives 011 professional development and pedagogy, Reading Research Quaterlv, 4, 434-472.

Day, C. (1999), Developing teachers. London, Philadelphia: Falmer Press, Taylor & Francis Group,

Edwards, A, & Talbot, R, (1994). The hard-presses researcher. London, New York:

Addison Wesley Longman.

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JISTE \lor /0. No.1, January 2006

Mentorship program: A model project (1999). Edmonton: The Alberta Teachers' Association.

Osterman, K. & Kottkamp, R. (1994). Rethinking professional development. In N.

Bennett, R. Glatter & R. Levacic (Eds.). Improving Educational Management through Research and Consultancy. London: The Open University, Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd., 46-57.

Schon, D..A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.

Svinicki, M.D. (1996). When teachers become learners.

hnp:llwwvv .ntlf.com:80/htmlipi/9603/artlcle I.htm (31.5.200 1).

Wallace, M.J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wideen, M.P., Mayer-Smith, .LA. & Moon, B..I. (1996). Knowledge, teacher development <mel change. In J.F. Goodson & A. Hargreaves (Eds.). Teachers' Professional Lives. London, Washington: Falmer Press, 187-204.

Wilkins, P. (1997). Personal and professional development for counsellors. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

Majda Cencic is currently an assistant professor at the University of Prirnorska, Faculty of Education, Koper, Slovenia. Her recent research interests include professional development of teachers, research methods and teachers' use of information and communications' technology. Correspondence to Maida Cencic should be addressed to:

Univerza na Primorskern, Pedagoska Fakulteta Koper (University of Primorska, Faculty of Education Koper), Cankarjeva 5, 6000 Koper, Slovenija

Ph: +386 6 663 1260; Fax: +3865 663 1268

E-mail:majda.cencic@2:uest.arnes.si

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J 151'£ Vol j 0, No, I, Januarv 2006

Globalization and Higher Education in Bahrain: Issues and Concerns

Layla Dowaigher

The theme of globolization has gained importance in recent years, The term has attracted great interest and generated much controversy among scholars and researchers. This paper briejl» describes the development of public and private higher education in Bahrain, and elaborates 011 The various issues and concerns related to globalization and irs effect 011 higher education in Bahrain. Finally, certain measures are suggested in order fa maintain the [unction and characteristic oja university against the wave of globalization.

Introduction

Universities are, by their very nature, international in their outlook and those in the developing countries have always considered themselves as part of a global structure. In fact, one of the main characteristics of the rapidly evolving higher education in the Gulf is the adoption of international university models. The programs, the faculty, cooperation in research, the comings and goings of faculty and students and even campus structure are all international, so one might think that Gulf universities already follow global trends (Coffman, 2003).

However, the above are aspects of internationalization of higher education, not globalization. Globalization has resulted in higher education being regarded as a commercial product governed by market forces, and has brought in the concept of competitiveness. It affects each country in a different way due to each nation's individual history. traditions. culture, and priorities (Knight & de Wit, 1997). This means that globalization is a multi-faceted process that can impact countries in different ways. The results of commercialization and competitiveness concepts can be the opposite of those of internationalization, There i now the proposal by the World Trade Organization (WTO) to liberalize trade in education services (including higher education) through the General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS). While no doubt globalization may have some positive effects from the point of view of increasing access in higher education and reducing the knowledge gap in developing countries, it equally has negative aspects which can seriously threaten universities in those countries (Altbach, 2001).

The increased interest in knowledge, and the new developments in information and communication technology, the growth of market economies and new international and regional trade agreements, all 0[: th se fa tors have left a great impact on higher education. New types of private and public providers such as private institutions, corporate universitie: and multinational companies have come on the scene. The role of universities in research and knowledge production IS also changing and becoming more commercialized (Wachter, 2003).

Because of the great impact of globalization on higher education worldwide, and the challenges it imposes internationally, educationists are calling for an international, dialogue on the various issues of globalization (Alibach, 20(2). Although the issues facing

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JISTE Vo! 10, No.1, .IC/1w((r,Y 2006 different countries are similar, it is also the case that each country is distinctive in its own experience in higher education.

This leads us to conclude that globalization cannot be completely avoided .. A well known fact in higher education is that universities cannot shut themselves off from economic and societal trends, otherwise they risk becoming moribund and irrelevant, On the other hand, institutions possess flexibi lity in dealing with globalization. Thus, those of us who argue that there is just one type for higher education in the 21 st century are wrong (Ben-David & Zloczower, 1962).

Public higher education

The history of higher education in Bahrain is recent:. The first institution of higher education in Bahrain was established in ] 968 as a technical college. In 1979 the national university was founded, offering bachelors and masters of arts and science degrees. Other colleges for health science and hospitality came into existence later.

To equalize access, the government's policy stressed the importance of providing higher education opportunities for all those who aspired to it. To meet this commitment, facilities have been massively expanded, and fees have been kept low. Although facilities have been increased phenomenally, they still fall short of demand. Currently, with a student body of more than 22,000 students, facilities are constantly stretched beyond capacity. As a result, the quality of education at this institution may suffer. For example, when classes were small, the faculties were able to encourage questions and stimulate interaction, in spite of teaching by the lecture method extensively used in the university.

Quality is also affected by the fact that few students are academically motivated. Most pursue a degree for the status it carries and because it is a required qualification for employment.

Privatization of higher education

Like many Arab countries, Bahrain has started to consider the authorization and expansion of private higher education institutions. In 2002, the government of Bahrain licensed several private colleges and universities. In addition to for-profit institutions, many universities hard-cashed and pressed for increasing enrolments, 'have seized the opportunity to capture the Bahraini market.

In return, the number of private and branch universities has increased. There are currently thirteen institutions and the number is likely to further increase in the years to come. These private inst.itutions are branches of European, American and Asian universities, as well as many other countries.

They provide mainly undergraduate degrees in specializations such as btls~ness administration, computer information, finance and marketing, Few of these institutions provide masters' programs.

Private institutions are also viewed in the community as healthy competition and being in tune with the needs of the private sector. Perhaps more importantly for the students who

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.IISTE \/0110, No. I, January 2006 graduate from these private institutions, they will earn a credential from an international university to help them with their future career.

Most of these international institutions mainly offer courses that fall into professional areas such as management, accountancy, finance and information technology which do not require the establishment of expensive infrastructure.

Issues and concerns

The developing countries have yet [Q come to grips with the notion of globalization. People in these countries are aware of the many challenges they face, mainly the issue of how to strike a balance between maintaining their life style and value systems on the one hand, and absorbing changes associated with a globalized world on the other.

It is true that globalization has opened our world to new markets and promoted our relationships with other countries. Similarly, a globalized university system could benefit everyone by bringing more university education I places where it is needed. But the chance for greater gain is matched by the chance of higher rio k.

The concerns are endless. Many developing countries protest that globalization has increased the dominance of the English language. Today, even though English seems to be the international language, especially in science, it is not the language of instruction in the Arab world.

In terms of the internet, accessing the system and the flood of information on it does require the use of English, However, it should be noted that in many Arab countries some effort is being devoted to translate some of its content from English into Arabic. This might seem a time and energy consuming [ask, but the real purpose behind it is to protect their national language.

While the short-term goal, to promote the study of English, may be a legitimate one, many countries are wrestling with the more serious question of how to maintain their national identity (Seabrook, 2004).

It must be acknowledged that foreign universities have helped in increasing access to higher education in Bahrain, as the government i' finding it difficult to provide additional resources for the national university to meet the growing demand for university study. But the negative impact of globalization on the national. university and the country cannot be underestimated, Globalization undermines the very purpose for which university education in Bahrain was created, and that is to assist in the economical, social, and cultural development of the country. According to Mohamedbhai (2002), foreign universities do nor share the same national values and priorities. The purpose of these institutions is mainly to provide education in the most cost effective way.

It is known that universities are not places solely for education, They are institutions where the young meet to learn, reflect and debate on their society, thus helping them to develop intellectually, culturally, and physically. Campus-based higher education provides a personal experience to students which help them to become better citizens in the future (Ben-David & Zloczower, 1962).

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JJSTE Vol 10. No. J, January 2006 National universities also undertake research relevant to local needs. They interact with other social institutions and provide valuable services to their community. They also make their resources available and provide advice and consultancy. All these valuable functions cannot be effectively given by foreign institutions (Mohamedbhai, 2002).

In addition, globalization raises the important issue of national planning of higher education. Although the national university in Bahrain needs to have autonomy over its academic activities, and its facu 1ty must enjoy academic freedom, it also needs to be accountable to the government and thus must respond to the overall national educational plan. But the real danger is that once higher education has been privatized, it is the rules of GATS, and the WTO, that will regulate the market (Altbach, 20(1).

Bahrain is already flooded with foreign universities and colleges which are providing attractive programs. As a result, they are competingwith the only one institution, and that might have an effect in the long run.

The issue that receives the most attention today in Bahrain is that of strengthening the link. between university studies and the needs of the job market. It is recognized everywhere that the university has not been producing graduates with the skills needed by the economy and this led to the growing problem of educated unemployment. To a certain degree, the Bahraini government is seeking to replace foreign personnel with local manpower, but it has rarely conducted serious studies into exactly what these needs will be in the future. Thus in the absence of such studies, the national and private institutions of higher education are not meeting the growing demands of the job market.

Another major concern is that many foreign universities provide courses of dubious quality and function as "diploma mills", meaning that students studying in such institutions are not getting "real" education. In some cases, even courses delivered by well-known universities in America and Europe, have been found to be of lower quality (Ishengoma, 2003). Currently, the Ministry of Education is the official education licensing authority. However, what transpires once the licence has been granted in regard to monitoring the work of these private universities is not very clear. Questions are raised by academics and the community on the urgent need for standards and measures that control the quality of teaching and learning in these institutions, This could be achieved through the establishment of an independent professional body 'whose task is to ensure a balance between the consumer's needs and the courses provided.

So far, any attempt to address these issues in Bahrain is bound to generate heated debate. No one is advocating direct government interference in the way these institutions operate, but as with any vital service provided to the community, it should be subject: to some form of public scrutiny.

There is an additional concern which is related to hiring faculty. Foreign providers usually draw most of their faculty from the host country. They are in a position to offer high salaries and thus attract the poorly paid faculty away from local universities. To avoid that, the University of Bahrain passed a law which prohibits its faculty from teaching part time in these private institutions.

Finally, the presence of foreign universities might further increase the country' 5 social divide. Students from the middle and higher classes prefer to enrol in private foreign universities leaving the national university to cater for poorer students.

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JISTE \lor 10. No. I. January 2000 Considering the job market in Bahrain, which i no different to any other country, it would appear preference is given to graduates with foreign qualifications. This in return will widen the social gap.

Needed measures

Since globalization of higher education is a trend that is expected to continue and develop, the question often asked is: what steps should we take to minimize its negative effects?

Like other countrie: , Bahrain needs to develop legi lation on higher educari n to ensure the qual ir y of education provided by foreign providers. The academic qual ity and standards of programs at these transnational institutions should be at least comparable to those of the home institution. These institutions need to publish their policy and mission statements in a transparent, reliable way, The staff members of these foreign universities should be qualified in teaching, research, and other related professional experience.

The above responsibilities should be canted out by a council comprising government, academics, scientists, bankers and business. This higher education watchdog has to protect the interest of students from bogus universities.

Establishing such a council would a complex task, but in spite of that, some countries such as Hong Kong and Malaysia have succeeded in laying dOVVl1 regulations for transnational education.

Furthermore, there should be collaboration between the national university and the foreign universitie . Such collaboration could be beneficial to both institutions and the country concerned. They could pool their resourc s and run courses leading to joint awards by the two i nsti tution .

Serious work on the 1999 UNESCO initiative to establish a regional accreditation agency should begin. This initiative includes six states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Although officials in these states expressed interest in such an initiative, it is clear that several years will pass before such an agency begins to function.

The Bahraini experience in public higher education clearly indicates that the traditional organization of higher education into disciplines, particularly ill the facultie of the arts, business and science, has become largely irrelevant to the knowledge and skills needs of society. The national university needs to bein close touch with the world of work and to interact with it in a meaningful way, because much of the advancement of knowledge and technology is happening outside the institution.

In order to tackle the problem of unemployment of its graduates, the University of Bahrain must ensure that its degree programs have the potential to get: graduates employed. This requires reviewing the programs and methods of teaching and making them responsive to market demands. Students should also be encouraged to equip themselves with the necessary ski lis. To ach ieve that, we need to restructure higher education, tak i ng into consideration the reform of secondary education, and the needs and demands of society.

Lastly, research is needed to find out the views of students on the quality of courses and instruction of the foreign universities. and the type of local resources used by them.

In addition, research must be directed towards studying the views of local employers on the graduates of these foreign providers compared to those of the national university.

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.lISTE Vol 10. No. I . l auuat» 2006

Conc1usion

The globalization of higher education has a significant influence on the social, economic, and political structures in Bahrain. As Vagas (1996) observed, globalization does not only affect developing countries, it also has an impact on developed countries in terms of social exclusion, regional imbalances, and deterioration of basic services. No doubt, globalization is a reality, and for a developing country like Bahrain it will increase access to higher education. But the important issue is to ensure the quality of education given by foreign providers. The peop! of Bahrain have expressed their concern over rh lack of legislation to regulat standards, and the absence of a council to advise the government on required measures to ensure that such institutions continue to offer quality programs, in accordance with specified standards. Bahrain needs to see the development of high standard vocational courses. Currently, most of the expansion in the national university has been in the Bachelor of Arts and Science degrees, which may not be desirable as far as the job market is concerned. It is considered that more attention should be given to the provision of courses thai address both current and future workforce skill requirements. This should be our priority if we want to avoid the usual complaints of employers that degrees are not what they used to be.

References

Altbach, P.G. (2001) .. Higher education and the WTO: Globalization run amok. international Higher Education. 23,4-5.

Altbach, P. (2002). Knowledge and Education as International Commodities: The collapse of the common good. International Higher Education, 28, 2-5.

Ben-David, J & A. Zloczower. (J 962). Universities and Academic system.' in Modern Societies. European Journal of Sociology 3, ( I ), 45-84.

Coffman, J. (2003). Higher Education in the Gulf: Privatization and Americanization.

International Higher Education, 33, Retrieved December 29, 2004 from http://www.bc.edLl/bcorg/avp/soe/cihe/newsletrer/News33/text009.htm

Ishengoma, 1. (2003). The Myths and Realities of Higher Education Globalization: A View from the Southern Hemisphere. Focus Journal, Open Forum, Retrieved J anuary 22, 200S from http :Uwww.escotet.on!iinfoclls/forum/ishengoma.hlm Knight, J. & De-Wit 1:-1.. (eds) (1997). Internationalization of Higher Education in Asia Pacific Countries. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education.

Mohamedbhai, G. (2002). Globalization and irs Implications on Universities in

Developing C ountries. Retrieved January 21 2005 from

http://www.ulaval.ca/BIIG lobalisation-uni versi ties/pages/actes/Febohomoja.pdf.

Seabrook. J. (2004). Localizing Cultures. Retrieved January 3, 2006 from www.globalpoIicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2004/0113ierernvseabrook.htm

Vagas, E. (1996). Globalization. Retrieved December 15, 2004 from

http.r/csf.colorado.edu/mai l/ipe/96/feb96/00 17 hotml

Wachter, B. (2003). An Introduction: Internationalization at Home in Context. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7, (I). pp. 5-1 I.

Layla Dowaigher is Associate Professor in the College of Curriculum and Instruction at [he University of Bahrain, She is the first Bahraini woman to obtain a P.H.D in education. She assisted in establishing the College of Education in her university. Her research interests are mainly in teacher education and educational supervision.

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.lISTE 1101 to. No. J. Januarv 20Q6

Perceptions of College Science Faculty about Teaching Science

Rajeev Swami

This study explored the perceptions of the colleges of arts' and sciences' faculty in research and 11011- research universities regarding teaching practices in the areas of chemistry and physics. Specifically, the study focused on comparing the perceptions of research level I university and non-research colleges and university faculty regarding reaching using subject matter know/edge, pedagogical know/edge and pedagogical content knowledge in their own classes. One hundred and seventyfive College of Arts and Sciences faculty from forty-four colleges and universities in Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Michigan completed a College Science Faculty Perception Survey (CSFPS) with an alpha reliability factor q{ 0.72. Results from the multivariate analysis of variance reveal a significant difference for college science [aculty from research level! and non-research colleges and universities.

Introduction

There is a teacher shortage in the United States of America, especially in the area of science. Some experts in the field agree that beginning teachers leave the profession due to a lack of expertise in science resulting from "substandard training" which fails to prepare them for the demands of the classroom" (Merrow Report, 1999). According to the Glen Commission Report (2000): "More than one in four high school mathematics reachers and nearly one in five high school science teachers lack even a minor in their main teachingfield .. ,

There is also a problem of declining student performance in science education. Test scores from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) suggest that US students are not performing as well as their peers in other countries. Some blame teacher education programs for i11- prepared teachers. According to Shyrnansky et al. (I 991), and Stolflett & Stoddart (1991), these furure reachers have serious deficiencies In the conceptual understanding of science conlent:.Most of these beginning teachers have a tunnel view of their own teaching, and therefore, unexpected responses from students that need clarification generally go unnoticed or are ignored (Hairston, 1999).

Rationale

To address the poor quality of teaching in science classrooms, the National Research Council, in 1996, released the National Science Standards which encourage the LIse of inquiry science in K-12 programs to help students construct their knowledge. Researchers have also been studying the ways in which science teaching can be improved. Similar to the recommendations made by the National Research Council. (1997) to implement the inquiry approach 1:0 teaching SCIence, Shulman's (1986, 1987) studies proposed three

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.I ISTE Vol I (). No, 1, Januarv 2006 types of knowledge when preparing teachers: Subject Maller Knowledge (SMK); Pedagogical Knowledge (PK); and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK).

Shulman describes SMK as content knowledge in terms of the quantity, quality and organization of information. Teachers practicing SMK must organize their content knowledge to provide students with the ability to apply learned concepts to the widest range of data. Shulman (1987) states that content knowledge requires going beyond knowledge of the facts or concepts of a domain.

PK is organizing and managing the classroom; presenting clear explanations; assigning and checking work, as well as interacting effectively with students through questions and probes, answers and reactions, praise and criticism. PCK is the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems or issues are organized, represented and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and hO\\I these are presented for instruction.

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of the colleges of arts and sciences faculty in research and non-research universities regarding teaching practices in the areas of chemistry and physics .. The following research question guided the research:

What perceptions do physical science faculty hold about teaching science in their own courses?

Research hypotheses

Hypothesis J. Science faculty in research level I universities exhibit no significant difference in their perceptions about teaching subject matter knowledge compared with their counterpart faculty in non-research colleges and universities,

Hypothesis 2. Science faculty in research level I universities exhibit no significant difference in their perceptions about teaching pedagogical knowledge compared with their counterpart faculty in non-research colleges and universities.

Hypothesis 3. Science faculty in research level 1 universities exhibit no significant difference in their perceptions about teaching pedagogical content knowledge compared with their counterpart faculty in non-research colleges and universities.

Relevance of SMK, PK and peK to Teacher" Education

From the research, it is evident that a teacher's subject matter knowledge may be a necessary but insufficient condition for the transfer of central ideas, precepts, tenets and the [ike for a given discipline to be accessible to his-her students to make it effective. Students should be able to understand the subject matter knowledge and be able to apply it in their lives. Zeidler (l999) argues that PK (good generic classroom management tools, questioning techniques, etc.) ensures that the core ideas (SMK) can be presented efficiently, but the act of exemplary teaching requires the orchestration of these two with PCK. The absence of the last component (PCK) helps a teacher to present. students with rate information.

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.lISTE liol 10, No. I, Jannary 2006

Methodology

The subjects in this study included physics and chemistry faculty from the Colleges of Arts and Sciences of forty-four colleges and universities in Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Michigan that offered a pre-service teacher education program. Also, the institutions were selected to represent two types of institutions with only a four-year program (nonresearch) and research I level institutions [hat offer undergraduate and graduate programs leading to Masters' and Doctoral degrees.

A 24-item "College Science Faculty Perception Survey" (CSFPS) was developed from Fisher et a!. (1995) and the KCETP (1997), With an overall Alpha value of 0.7225, 225 surveys were mai led to research un iversi ties, and 212 surveys to colleges and non-research universities' physics and chemistry faculty who taught freshman, sophomore and junior level classes. The CSFPS comprised eight items on subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge respectively (Appendix A). The return rate of 40.1 % for this Likert scale survey included eighty-eight surveys from research universities and eighty-seven surveys from non-research universities and four year colleges. Research i nstitu tions were identified from non-research (incl ud i.ng four year colleges) institutions by a numerical. code on the return envelope,

Data analysis

Descriptive statistical data for hypothesis I presented (Table 1) and ANOYA results (Table 2) exhibit a significant difference in the perceptions of teaching subject matter knowledge by college science faculty from research I level universities with their counterpart faculty from non-research colleges and universities,

Table 1: Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)

Type of University Number Mean Std.
Knowledge Deviation
SMK Research 88 3.94 .6623
Non-research 87 3.37 ,5513
PK Research 88 3.61 .8364
Non-research 87 4.28 .3811
PCK Research 88 3.11 .6843
Non-research 87 3.73 .5465
N= 175 ANOY A results in Table 2 show a significant difference of 0.000 at 0.0 1 alpha level between these two groups for subject matter knowledge. Means of 3.94 for research I level university faculty and means of 3.37 for non-research colleges and universities' faculty indicate that research I level university faculty consider subject matter knowledge to be more important. Results show that the faculty members have greater concern about teaching the content to students or disseminating content knowledge without giving much attention to ensuring that students learn the content. Base I on these findings, the null hypothesis I is rejected.

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.JISTE \101 10, No. I, Iauuai» 2006 Table 2: Analysis of Variance Difference in the Perceptions of College Physical Science Faculty Teaching of SMK, PK, and PCK

Source Variable

Dependent

S5

df

IvIS

F

Sig.

Research vs NonResearch University

SMK PK PCK

11,542 15.517 15.973

I 1.542 15.517 15.973

32.915 36.345 41.640

.000 .000 .000

1

Corrected Model

SMK PK PCK

74.037 174 92.635 174

83.258 174

Note. SS == Type III Sum of Squared df = Degree of Freedom

MS == Mean Square

p < 0.01

ANOV A results in Table 2 show a significant difference of .000 at .0 I alpha level between research I level university faculty compared with non-research college and university faculty for pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. The lower mean score for research I level university faculty compared with the mean score of non-research college and university faculty in Table 1 indicates that research 1 level faculty do not consider student involvement through interaction. Similarly, they are not concerned about using different teaching strategies or an inquiry approach to teaching as opposed to simply teaching the content to students or disseminating content knowledge without any student input. In comparison, non-research university faculty consider student involvement in the lesson through interaction and using students' prior knowledge (PK) important to make lessons meaningful. Non-research university faculty's higher perceptions about using pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge indicate that these faculty members blend subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge in their teaching. Using the results of the statistical analysis, the null hypothesis 2 and 3 are rejected.

Discussion and implications

Results from this study show that research I level university science faculty have higher perceptions of subject matter knowledge. A majority of research .I level university faculty members in the colleges of arts and sciences teach primarily through lectures. Appleton & Kindt (] 999) believed that this type of teaching, dwelling on more content without much interaction, is of limited help to prospective science teachers.

The findings also support the argument that in the non-research universities, the primary responsibility of faculty is teaching, while in the research I level universities, the primary responsibility of science faculty is research (Ambers, 2002). On the one hand, research I level universities expect their faculties to excel in teaching. On the other hand, promotion and tenure decisions of faculty in these (Research) universities are based Oil faculty research activities (Magner, 1994). Another reason for the eli lferences in teaching between

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.IfSTE IInl 10, No. J . Januurv 2006

the research 1 level and non-research universities is due to large class sizes in the freshman and sophomore level courses which do not allow an opportunity for faculty to interact with students and engage them in discussions, As a result, research J level college faculty do not have time to reflect on their own teaching and lor fOCLlS 011 pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge in their own teaching.

The results support the argument that education students need to develop their pedagogical content knowledge while enrolled in pre-service education and not after graduating from college. Subject matter knowledge (college of arts and science) and pedagogical content knowledge (college of education) should not be taught in isolation. These (i.e. SlV.1K, PK, and PCK) should be taught together in the college of arts and science and the college of education so that students can experience how different teaching strategies can be used for teaching specific content.

Science faculty should be encouraged to consciously demonstrate their pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge while leaching the content matter. The college of education faculty and science content faculty should work together. By having a partnership in which the college or education and science faculty use similar exemplary teaching practices, supported by science education research, future physical science teachers will be better prepared. Teachers who are better prepared should find more success in the classroom, might stay in the teaching profession for a longer period of time, and produce students who are engaged and excited about science. Research must lead both the college of' arts and sciences and college of education faculty to new knowledge and new methods of teaching effectively in the university setting.

Recommendations for Future Studies

Comparative studies of collaborative teacher education programs between the colleges of arts and sciences and the colleges of education (teaching practices include a blending of SMK, PK, and peK in teaching) versus a traditional education program (where teaching SMK is generally the responsibility of college of arts and science faculty and PK and PCK are the responsibility of college of education faculty) could be conducted to determine the effectiveness of each program. This could be achieved by using (i) students currently enrolled in the programs and seeki ng (hei r views on teach ing of college Iacu I ty and (ii) teaching practices of education students who have graduated fr0111 a collaborative teacher education program and a traditional t acher education program.

The information from such res arch might provide valuable insight which could assist educators in improving teacher education programs and thus preparing better science teachers.

References

Ambers, R.K.R. (2002). Learning about teaching: A Graduate student's perspective.

Journal of College Science Teaching. 31,327-30.

Appleton, K., Kindt, I. (1999). Why teach primary science? Influences on Beginning teachers practices. InternationalJournal of Science Education, 21, 155- 68.

Fisher, D., Taylor, P., Fraser, B (1995). Using questionnaire to monitor social

constructivist reform in university teaching. Retrieved August 17, 2000

http:Uwww.cLlrtin.edu.au/learn/Qual it:yReports/papcrs/5. html

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.IISTE \/01 10. No.1, .IU1I/{({I'Y 2006 Glen Commission Report (2000). Before if's Too Late: A Report to the Nationfront the National

Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

Hairston, R. V. (1999). Bringing the reality of science teaching by using a field-based methods course. Research Report. 15 pages. (ERfC Document Reproduction Service No. ED441684).

The Kansas Collaboration for Excellence in Teacher Preparation (1997). An instrument for teacher evaluation. Retrieved August 17,2000. http://w\vv'''.kcetp.org

Magner, K. M. (1994). Report to focus on standards for assessing what professors do. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 40, A22.

Merrow Report (1999). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved November 10,2000. http://WWW·Rbs.org/inav/h1ml

NAEP (1998). The science report card: Elements (~t' risk and recovery. Princeton. NOl.

Educational Testing Service.

National Research Council. (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (1997). Science Teacher Preparation in all Era of StandardsBased Reform (1997): Vision Jl of Committee 011 Undergraduate Science Education, Washingt.on. D.C.: Author.

National Science Board (NSB). (1998). Science and Engineering indicators. Arlington VA: National Science Foundation.

Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15,4-14.

Shulman, L.S. (J 987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new' reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57. 1-22.

Shymansky, J .A., Woodworth, G., Liu, c.r. orrnan, 0., Dunkhase, J. & Manews, C. (1991). A study ojchanges in middle school teachers' understanding ofselected ideas in science as ajunction o] an in-service programfocusing on student preconceptions. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of [he National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Lake Geneva, WI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED340606).

Stofflett, R.T., & Sroddrt, T. (1991). The effects of content instruction on the implementation of science conceptual change strategies in elementary classrooms. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago. Il., March 21-15. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED279719).

TlMMS (1999). The Third International Math and Science Study: A report .fOI' the National Centerfor Education Statistics. Washington, D.C.

Zeidler, D.L. (1999). Dancing with Maggots and Saints: Past and future visions for subject matter, knowledge, pedagogical knowledge content knowledge in science teacher education reform. Tempa, FL: University of South Florida, College of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 434834).

Rajeev Swami is an Assistant Professor in the College of Education and Human Services at the Northern Kentucky University. He has been involved in teacher and science education in Ohio and Kentucky for more than 18 years. Correspondence [0 Rajeev Swami should be addressed to: College of Education and Human Services, orthern Kentucky University. Highland Heights. KY USA 41079. Ph: 513 477 9439; Fax: 859 572 5236 Email: Swamir@nku.edu

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JISTE \lor to. No. J, January 2006

Appendix A:

Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK)

3, It isimportanr that students in. my class know the facts and formulas to solve problems.

4. I see myself as a content expert whose main job is to ensure that: students learn the content first and foremost".

6. I consider acq uisition of scientific knowledge as rhe most critical part of becoming a scientifically literate citizen.

14. I use lectures as a primary mean to teach.

17 .. My class sessions are designed primarily to teach content. Recitation sessions (when required) are a Callow Lip for clarifying students' individual questions,

20. Students in my classes who want additional help with questions are advised to attend small group recitations.

21. Students who memorize the content are likely to pass my class.

23, I consider that successful students in my course should be able 10 sol ve mathematical problems or other similar material on a test.

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)

L I attempt to find out my students' prior knowledge before beginning a new topic in my course. 2. 1 expand course content with examples and information beyond the textbooks.

5, Students in my class have complete freedom to ask questions and I take time to answer 01' discuss the material as necessary.

9 .. Generally students ask questions while r am presenting new material.

J 1. Students in my class are encouraged to ask questions during my lecture to clarify confusion / misconceptions.

13. Effective science teaching requires students engaging in activities that require research and experiments.

16 .. When students do not understand the content, I generally repeat the presentation using

different examples and explanations,

22. 1 encourage students to tell me when they do nOI understand the material.

Pedagogical content Knowledse (peI<)

7. Hands-on activities are the most reliable way to acquire useful knowledge.

8. In my Class students frequently explore topics through experiments or di scussion before I clo a formal presentation.

J O. Inquiry-based methodology is a good way (0 leach science.

12.1 focus on students' understanding of main points on a given topic as opposed to demanding mastery of numerous facts on a given topic.

IS. In my class, students lise a variety of means (models, drawings, graphs, concrete materials, manipulatives, etc.) to represent their understanding of the content.

18 .. Graduate assistants who teach recitation classes are taught to provide more than one explanation for tbe material.

19. I encourage students in Illy class to participate by using brainstorming activities, small group "think-pair-share" exercises. whole class discussions, or in-class surveys/questionnaires to generate as many ideas as possible,

24. I. leach science to prepare my students to solve real-life problems.

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JlSTE lior roo No. J, .IW/l(((I\' 2()()6 Book Reviews and Recent Publications by ISTE Members

Whitton, D., Sinclair, c., Barker, K., Nanlohy, P., & Nosworthy, M. (2004). Learningfor Teaching, Teaching/or Learning. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Social Science Press (ISSN 0 17 012239 5)

Learningfor Teaching, Teaching for Learning is a comprehensive text written by experienced educators and researchers from Australia, including our JISTE editor. The book is particularly relevant for those wishing to become teachers. It is a practical exploration of teaching and learning which encourages student teachers (0 develop their own personal, professional 'personality' by developing their knowledge, skills, experiences and philosophy. It draws together five distinct areas of educational knowledge:

1. background to education - a look at the historical developments in education and the changes that classroom teachers now face

2. curriculum and pedagogy- focuses on the day-to-day responsibilities of being a teacher and provides a comprehensive teaching and learning cycle including teaching strategies and assessment techniques

3. classroom organisation and management- drawing upon student motivation and effective strategies to ensure students are active participants in constructing understanding and working cooperatively with their peers and teacher in a positive classroom context

4. professionalism in teaching- the legal and ethical aspects of being a teacher, and developing your own professional portfolio

5. reflection on learning- which encourages student teachers to reflect on their own development as a person to this point (autobiographies) and motivations to teach; and, undertake on going professional learning to become lifelong learners and continually improve their professional practice.

The book includes information and the results of research in each of the five distinct areas; activities for student teachers to complete; poems and stories; case studies of different schools and the experiences of students at different times in Australia's history (but with schools and lives common across a variety of different countries and contexts); practical acti vities for teaching, reflecting and constructing portfol ios: and proformas for lesson planning, daybooks, programs, reflective journals and student record keeping.

This book can be obtained from Thomson Social Science Press. Email highereducation@thomsonlearning.com.au or from their website http://'vv\,vw.thomsonlearning.com.au

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.lISTE Vol 10. No. I . January 2006 Index to Volume 9 (2005)

Subject Index

A Causa! Model ofSome Psycho-Social Factors as Determinants of Senior Secondary Students' ATtitudes towards History

Israel Osokoya, 4J -51, Issue I.

An Effective Marketing ofTeachers' Educational Service in Bulgaria Mariyana Srefanova, 23-32, [ sue 2.

An Effective Web-Based Approach 10 Support the Initial Training 0/ Science Teachers May-hung Cheng, Wing-rnui So and Yau-yuen Yeung, 13-22, Issue I.

Becoming 'Insiders' in the School Culture

Helen Woodward and Catherine Sinclair, 3-14, Issue 2.

Induction for Beginning Teachers

Sybil Wilson Jessica Craig, and Vic Cicci, 2.)-32, Issue l ,

Peace and Social Justice in Teacher Education Janet Powney, 1-12, Issue I.

Quality Pre-Service Teacher Internships in the United Arab Emirates: Development, Implement ition and Assessment

Elaine Jarchow and Deborah G. Wooldridge, 15-22. Issue 2.

Student Attitudes Towards The Subject OfScience 117 Kuwaiti lnterniediate Schools .. Nedaa Al-Khamees, 52-62, Issue 1.

Teachers and the Cultural Barriers Impeding Reflective Practice and Inquiry in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana and Nigeria

Michael Bamidele Adeyerni,42-54, Is ue 2.

Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computerizing Curricula In Jordan: Ma' an Schools As A Case Studv

AliI" Bin Tareef, 55-62, Issue 2.

Teachers' Computer Use in School Ali M. Al Kandari, 33-41, Issue 2.

The School Inspection System in England: Responding to Changing Circumstances and a New Accountability

Val Banks and Peter Smith, 33-40, Issue I.

·44 -

.1151'£ vot to. No. I . .JlIIll((//"V 2006

Author Index (by Principal Author)

Teachers' Computer Use in School Ali M. Al Kandari, 33-41, Issue 2.

Student Attitudes Towards The Subject OfScience In Kuwaiti Intermediate Schools .. Nedaa Al-Khamees, 52-62, Issuel ,

Teachers and the Cultural Barriers Impeding Reflective Practice and Inquiry in Junior Secondary Schools in Botswana and Nigeria

Michael Bamidele Adeyemi,42-S4, Is. LIe 2.

The School lnspection System in England: Responding 10 Changing Circumstances and a New Accountability

Val Banks and Peter Smith, 33-40, Issue I.

Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computerizing Curricula 111 Jordan: Maan Schools As A Case Study

Atif Bin Tareef, 55-62, Issue 2.

AI1 Effective Web-Based Approach to Support the Initial Training of Science Teachers May-hung Cheng, Wing-mui So and Yau-yuen Yeung, 13-22, Issue 1.

Quality Pre-Service Teacher Internships in the United Arab Emirates: Development, Implementation and Assessment

Elaine Jarchow and Deborah G. Wooldridge, 15-22, Issue 2.

A Causal Model of Some Psycho-Social Factors as Determinants of Senior Secondary Students' Attitudes towards History

Israel Osokoya, 41. - 5 I, Issue I.

Peace and Social Justice in Teacher Education Janet Powney, l-l2, Issuel.

An Effective Marketing of Teachers' Educational Service in Bulgaria Mariyana Stefanova, 23-32, Issue 2.

lnductionjor Beginning Teachers

Sybil Wilson, Jessica Craig, and Vic Cicci, 23-32, Issue 1.

Becoming 'Insiders' in the School Culture

Helen Woodward and Catherine Sinclair, 3-14, Issue 2.

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.J/STE Vol to. No. I . January 2006

Publication Guidelines

Articles submitted to J [STE must be written in English, following manuscript guidelines (see below) and will be anonymously reviewed by referees .. Each article must pass the review process to be accepted for publication. The editors will notify the senior author of the manuscript if it does not meet submission requirements.

Articles are judged for (a) significance to the field of reacher education from a global perspective, (b) comprehensiveness of the literature review, (c) clarity of presentation, and (d) adequacy of evidence for conclusions. Research manuscripts are also evaluated for adequacy of the rationale and appropriateness of the design and analysis. Scholarly relevance is crucial. Be sure 1:0 evaluate YOLlr information.

Articles pertaining to a particular country or world area should be authored by a teacher educator from that country or world area.

[1' English is the author's second or third language, manuscripts accepted for publication will be edited to improve clarity, to conform to style, to correct grammar, and to fit available space. Submission of the article is considered permission to edit the article.

Published manuscripts become the property of the Society. Permission to reproduce articles must be requested from the editors. The submission and subsequent acceptance of a manuscript for publication serves as the copyright waiver from the author(s).

Manuscript Guidelines

• Manuscript length, including all references, tables, charts or figures should be 1,000 to 3,000 words.

• All text should be double-spaced, with margins I. inch all around (2.5 em), left justified only.

• Paragraphs should be indented five spaces and separated by a space.

• Tables, Figures, and Charts should be kept: to a minimum, sized to fit: on a page 8.5 x 5.5 inches (20 x 14 ern).

• Abstract should be Iimi ted to 100 - 150 words.

• The cover page shall include the following information: Title of the manuscript; name of author or authors, institution, complete mailing address, business and home phone numbers, FAX number, and e-mail address; Brief biographical sketch, background and areas of specialization not to exceed 30 words per author.

• Starting with Volume 7 of' JISTE. writing and editorial style shall follow directions in the Publication Manual 0/ the American Psychological Association (2001, 5th ed.). References MUST follow the APA style. Manual. Information on the lise of APA style may be obtained through the ISTE web site at http.z/teachernet.hkbu.edu.hk

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.lISTE \i()1 10, No. /. JWU/(/)'y _OIJ6 Submission Requirements

It is preferred that articles be submitted by email directly to the editor (c.sinclair@uws.ec1u.au). To submit an article bye-mail, send it as an attachment and fax a copy of the manuscript.

To submit an article by mail, send the manuscript and a computer disk. Due to the high postage rates. manuscripts and computer disks will not be returned.

Manuscripts and editorial correspondence should be directed to:

Assoc. Prof. Catherine Sinclair, Editor JISTE School of Education and Early Childhood Studies, University of Western Sydney

Locked Bag 1797,

Penrith South DC NSW 1797

Australia

Telephone: +61 2 9772 6433 FAX: +61 2 9772 6738

E-mail address: c.sinclair@uv\,'s.eclLulu

Address changes and mem bership information should be directed to:

Johan Borup, Treasurer CVU-SYD Damhusdalen 15 C,

Rodoure, Copenhagen, 2610 DENMARK

Telephone: + 453670-8799

E-ll1ai I Address: johan.boruprgicvusyd.dk

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.I1ST£ Vol 10. No. I . ./(1111/(/1"\' 2006

Future Submissions

J anuary 2007 (Volume 1 1, Number 1) Deadline for Submission: August 1, 2006

Theme: Changing demands and changing roles of teachers: how should teacher education respond?

May 2007 (Volume 11, Number 2) Deadline for Submission: August 1, 2006

Theme: Non-thematic. Interested members of ISTE may contribute manuscripts related to any important topic in teacher education.

Book and Other Media Review Submissions

Interested members of [STE may submit reviews of books or other media created by ISTE members. Reviews may be no longer that one Journal page.

Recent Publications Submissions

.ISTE members may submit an annotated reference 1:0 any book which they have had been publ ished during the past three years. Annotations should be no longer than ISO words.

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