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JISTE Vol 11.

No, t 2()07


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Journal of the International Society for Teacher Educatioll





Volume 11, Issue I 2007


Colin Mably, Englund

Editoriul Board

Lam Siu Yuk (Rebecca), Hong Kong. Chinn

Majda Ccncic, Slovenia Anna Hugo, South Africa Rujecv Swami. USA

Wally Moroz. Aust

Janet Powney, Scotland Helen Woodward. Aust Jane McMillan. USA Catherine Sinclair. Australia

Officers/Steering Committee Janet Powney. UK,

Secretary General

Lotte Schou. Denmark Secretary General Elect

Johan Borup

Treasurer. Denmark

Sybil Wilson. Canada

Editor- JISTE

Anna Hugo. South Africa Associate Editor -JISTE Bill Driscoll. Australia Editor Newsletter

John Maurer, Australia Directory & Membership

.JISTE I ill II. Nil. I. J{)(li

Colin Mably. England

Past Secretary General Warren Halloway, Australia Past Secretary General

Hans Vorbach, Netherlands Past Secretary General Cornel DuCosta, England

Alex Fung, Hong Kong. China Convener 2003

Craig Kissock & Judy Kuechlc USA. Co-Conveners 2004

Ken Gai, Taiwan

Convener 2005

Anna Hugo & Fannie Prctorius Conveners 2006

It is with much appreciation that JISTE thanks the following ISTE members for their reviews of the articles submitted for this issue: Vic Cicci (Canada). Forest Crawford (USA), Judy Kucchle (USA), Warren Holloway (Australia), Bob O'Brien (New Zealand), Donna Patterson (Canada), Karlhcinz Rebel (Germany), Merle Richards (Canada), Rosemary Hunter (Canada), Lotte Schou (Denmark), Alan Wheeler (Canada). Their tireless efforts and the feedback they provided to potential contributors have enriched the papers published. If you wish to become a reviewer please contact the Editor. Sybil Wilson


is published as a service to those concerned with global teacher education. It serves as a forum for the exchange of information and ideas related to the improvement of teacher education. Articles focus upon concepts and research that have practical dimensions or implications and applicability for practitioners in teacher education. The Journal limits its articles to those in which ideas arc applicable in multiple social settings.

JISTE is an official, refereed publication of ISTE. The goal of ISTE is to publish six to eight articles in each issue. Using the Seminar theme, articles in the first issue of each volume arc based 011 papers presented at the previous seminar. Articles in the second issue are non-thematic. Points of view and opinions arc those of the individual authors and lire not necessarily those of ISTE. Published manuscripts are the property of JISTE. Permission to reproduce must be requested from the editor .

. IISTE is issued twice yearly by the International Society for Teacher Education. The subscription price of $US25.00 is included in the annual membership Icc. Additional copies of the journal may be purchased for SUS 15.00. Institutional subscription to .I1ST£ is SUS50.00 per year. To obtain additional or institutional copies email Johan Borup at johan.borup(Cl'

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JIST!: /;,1 I I. So I. !1!IJ7


Volume 11. Number I. 2007

Changing Demands of Teachers and Teacher Education

From the Secretary General

Janet Powney.. 4

From the Editor

Sybil Wilson 5


The Journal of the International Society lor Teacher Education: A Retrospective and Prospective

George A. Churukian and Catherine Sinclair 7

Some Critical Challenges for the Teaching Profession in Botswana

Michael Bamidele Adeyemi II

Placing Teachers' Demands and Roles in Context: Concerns of Physical Education Student Teachers in Botswana

Martin Mokgwathi and Jimoh Shehu........................................................................................................... 20

Pupils with Learning Difficulties Learn with ICT: An Intervention Project on Special Education in Danish Public Schools

Ina K. Borup and Johan R. Borup................................................................................................................ 26

infant Schooling as a condition for inclusive education

Ana Maria Albertin and Benjamin Zuliaurre............................................................................................... 34

Dispositions lor Social Responsibility: Teaching and Assessing for Democratic Practice and Social Justice in Diverse Contexts

Tanya Huber-Warring and Douglas F. Warring 43

Teacher Education in Scotland

Janet Powney 49

Book Reviews and Recent Publications by ISTE Members 57

Publication Guidclines................................................................................................................................. 59

Future SUblllissions................................ 60

Submission Requirements 61

Copyright (. 2007

by the International Society for Teacher Education ISSN J029-596g

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JISTE iu n. No. 1.2007

From the Secretary General

Under the editorship of Catherine Sinclair (Australia) with help from Associate Editor, Joyce Castle (Canada), JISTE has progressed from the modest version that George Churukian (USA) carefully nurtured from the 1980s until 2002. The content has expanded substantially and thanks to Johan Borup (Denmark) the re-organised format allows lor more text in the double columns. The band of international reviewers has been sharpening up their constructive criticism so we can be confident of the quality of each J ISTE article. As ISTE conducts all of its business in English. some contributors are at a disadvantage but there arc many members who have English as their first language and are happy to advise on presentation.

As this is the last issue in my period as Secretary-General. I look to how JISTE might develop. This is the responsibility of our new Editor. Sybil Wilson (Canada) with the support of the incoming Secretary-General. Lotte Rahbek Schou (Denmark), However I cannot resist this last opportunity for a comment on the future JISTE starting from where we nrc now.

I lind it intriguing that over the years, articles submitted lor publication I(JCUS more on teachers and schools than on teacher education. There is no doubt that what goes on in schools. teacher attitudes and skills arc of direct relevance to teacher educators. Such articles will, I am sure, be welcomed by the editor. However why is there a reluctance to address the philosophies, policies and practices of teacher education itself'! And why is 'teacherresearcher' so often confined to describing teachers in schools rather than exploring how teachers in higher education examine their own theories and practices? The Journal is one of the important ways teacher educators can share and open up for comment the issues and good news arising in their own work.

The best contributors think why teacher educators in other countries might be interested in what they have to say. Articles should go beyond description of personal, wonderful programmes organised at home, and consider the intemational implications of their work. The convenors of the 2007 Annual Conference in Stirling, Scotland have insisted on using international relevance as one of the criteria in reviewing proposals lor the conference. Similarly, JISTE publication guidelines refer to significance to the field of teacher education from a global perspective. Let's explore the major assets of our organisation: opportunities to benefit from, and contribute to teacher education across the world.

For some. JISTE has provided their first publication and in this sense reflects the supportive role that is part of ISTE's mission. Every continent has been represented over the years indicating that ISTE is truly international, "'There have been lew joint papers despite the many areas of collaboration between ISTE members. It would be good to sec more such articles as well as reflections on the benefits and hazards or collaboration,

I look forward to the next period of JISTE that furthers our understanding or teacher education across the world and in different settings - training nurse educators, university teachers. teachers of social workers, youth lenders - anywhere where people want to learn to teach more effectively.

Finally. I hope that contributors and readers will provide feedback that will support our new editor and enable the JISTE to flourish.

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JISTE f(,J II. SII, I. JO()i

From the Editor

I returned from the ISTE seminar in Stellenbosch, wondering what had I done - saying "yes" to the invitation. request. recommendation to be the Editor of JISTE. A long flight home over two oceans. with a weekend stop in Amsterdam to take in the carnival atmosphere of the Queen's birthday celebrations. did nothing to moderate my ambiguous response to my self-questioning. In any event I soon shelved the question and there I left it for several months. secure in the realization that the next issue or JISTE was in the capable hands or Catherine Sinclair. our outgoing editor. By the time I returned to the question, months later. it had been answered with other questions, What am I supposed to be doing? With whom am I working'? What arc the tirnelincs fix doing what? What do I do if I do not get enough articles tor an issue'! What do I do when my computer crashes in the midst of a production cycle? Many questions or logistics were answered by Catharine. and here I want to thank her lor the materials and tips that she has passed on to me. I also thank Janet Powney (outgoing General Secretary) and Johan Borup (publisher) for helping with my initiation. As I continue to reel my way. so does Anna Hugo (South Africa), the new Associate Editor.

Anna and Fannie Pretorius hosted the semi nul' in Stellenbosch, the theme of which was "Changing demands and changing roles of teachers: How should teacher education respond'?" The keynote presentations and the discussions in the paper groups left no lingering doubt with the participants that the demands on teachers and there lore teacher education are increasingly numerous and complex; responding in some situations might even be dangerous. As I write this I am mindful of the escalating violence that is taking place in educational institutions at all levels - primary. secondary and tertiary. The one on the minds and in the hearts of everyone right now is the incredible. shocking. unspeakable shooting or 32 young people at Virginia Tech University in the U. S.A. In the midst of the fear, anxiety and helplessness there was a teacher piling desks against the door of the classroom to keep the gunman out and so offer some protection to her frightened self and the equally terri lied students. When did teaching become such a dangerous occupation'? Is the time upon us when teachers take guns to school lor protection? The teacher has always been seen as a protector and nurturer, In those roles teachers arc seen as strong and curing: not themselves frightened lind vulnerable to the same dangers from which they arc expected to protect their protegees. How does teacher education prepare teachers for situations of violence?

In his article, Michael Adeyemi tells us of another type of violence - passion killing- that, coupled with mV/AIDS, is decimating the teacher and student

populations of Botswana. During the Stellcnbosch seminar, several speakers focussed our attention on the challenges of the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa and elsewhere and how the education system is responding by infusing relevant topics and issues in the curriculum. For Adeycmi, an essential response is to centre health and moral issues in the curriculum of teacher education, As well as modelling socially responsible behaviours teachers need to have the knowledge and pedagogical skills for teaching tor such behavioural outcomes.

In their article, Huber-Warring lind Warring go behind and beyond behaviours to dispositions and suggest, supported by evidence from their work with teacher candidates. that teacher education can provide experiences appropriate for teachers and students to develop dispositions lor social responsibility. It can be said that such dispositions motivate behaviours that demonstrate how much justice and inclusivity as dimensions of social responsibility are valued. As societies become more diverse. accelerated by immigration and technology. there is a degree of dislocation and some groups experience social disintegration. A Ibertin and Zufiaurre recommend that an effective response to increasing diversity is educational programmes that honour inclusivity. Such programmes should begin with infants: so professionals lor infant schools should have the socially responsible dispositions of which HuberWarring and Warring speak and be committed to values of inclusive education. Such education would embrace the special needs children who arc the subjects of Borup's and Borup's study. They found that leT-based programmes were effective in improving these children's communicative competency and therefore concluded that the technology should be integrated into classes for special education students. The response of teacher education is to ensure that teachers are confident with the technology.

While the last article by Janet Powney amicipates the ISTE seminar in Scotland. it also identities some existing challenges for teacher education that arc not peculiar to Scotland: inadequate supply of appropriately qualified teachers. improving access lor the disadvantaged. and addressing gender imbalance in the profession among others. Mokgwathi and Shehu add to this list the need for competent physical education teachers especially at a time when obesity is identified as an incipient social problem.

Examining the changing demands of teachers and how teacher education responds is a continuing responsibility of JISTE. Janet makes this clear in her message. Doing this faithfully. critically and helpfully by exchanging information of what works and why, is

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one way that is both scholarly and professional, of engaging with the demands of teacher education as well as the challenges for JISTE; these challenges Catherine Sinclair has articulated clearly in the retrospective and prospective piece co-authored with George Churukian, FI'OIll her years of experience as editor of the journal, she offers some suggestions for addressing these challenges. Through sharing the

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brief history of the journal and its profound impact on them. both Cathy, immediate past editor and George, the founding editor, point to the potential of the journal to grow. We arc grateful to George and others who worked with him in setting the vision for and mission of JISTE and turning the vision into the reality that we can proudly support today. It is now up to LIS!


.I1STF. 1i,1 II. No. I. :!1II)i

The Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education: A Retrospective and Prospective

George A. Churukian and Catherine Sinclair

While many members of ISTE have been instrumental in the establishment of the organization's journal (1ISTE). the two main editors over the life of the journal. to date, give us some insight into its conception, creation, development and maintenance and invite us to sec its possibilities and participate in their realisation.

George speaks

It was in the year 1980. Two men. Colin Mably and Cornel DaCosta, were returning home from attending a conference of teacher educators. Their discussion centred on how unsatisfactory the conference was and led to their musing that, surely, they could do better. Out of this discussion ISTE was born when the First International Seminar for Teacher Education was held at the Danbury Park Conference Centre in Chelmsford, Essex. England, April \0-16, 1981. Colin and Cornel were sure that these meetings would continue, tor at least a decade, and hoped lor even two, hence the seminar was named TE 80/90 good for the eighties and nineties, one each year. This year we meet tor the n'h annual seminar in Scotland.

The Seminar was conceived as an informal group of teacher educators, independent of any political influence, meeting annually to discuss issues concerning teacher education, hence an emphasis on "seminar", not a "conference". This focus determined many characteristics of these meetings, significant markers which still prevail today: a unique '0I111at with the paper group as the heart of the seminar; limited group size to maximize opportunities for conversation and personal and professional friendships; a residential environment to encourage participants to become better acquainted and to establish collaborative relationships; recognition and celebration of expertise and experience in the group: opportunities for learning from and about the educational and social culture of the locales, wherever in the world the group met.

It was probably too utopian to expect a group to endure for long without structure and organization, even where like minded people share common purposes and dreams for education, particularly teacher education. So early in the eighties. there was an officer (Secretary General) and a constitution and by-laws: there was an organization and it needed a name, hence The International Society Il>T Teacher Education (ISTE).

The Creation of J ISTE

In the same 1980 decade the first informal discussions about creating a journal began at the 6th Seminar in

Regina. Saskatchewan, Canada (1986) as "a need to have selected papers and collaborative research published" (Cordis, Kilchcr & Taylor. 1986). That the idea was not wholly supported by seminar participants was evidence of how well qualities of the seminar ~ informality, collegiality, support network, inclusivity- had been adopted and absorbed. The main opposition to the idea was summarized in the perceived tension between collaboration and compcnuon. "A concern that a publication will replace our collaborative working Seminar with a highly competitive nature surfaced ... Michael van del' Dussen and George Churukian are exploring journal possibilities and will report at TE '89. The Seminar participants will have an opportunity to move toward a resolution of this problem in Maastricht" (Ibid, 1(86). Ten years later. at the Seminar in Brazil ( 19(6). participants approved the creation of a journal and adopted our (George and Michael) proposal that it be a refereed publication giving voice to an international group of professionals who deliberate and research issues of teacher education across the world. As with I STE. so with the journal. there would be some distinctive features:

• The logo would be a projection of the world.

• Articles pertaining to a particular country or world area must be authored by a person(s) from that country or world area.

• There would be two issues per year and the first issue's theme would be that of the Seminar and the second issue would be non-thematic.

• While the journal would be published in English. especial care would be taken to encourage and support contributors whose first language was not English.

• The copyright would be held by ISTE.

• There would be a publication committee that

reflects the international membership of ISTE.

The usual features of a professional. scholarly and refereed journal completed the parameters for the development, management, financing and publication of the journal: manuscript guidelines, editor selection, subscription cost, publication committee, etc. Members of the tirst publication committee were from: Australia, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Scotland and South Africa.

When I accepted the responsibility of editor in 1996. thus becoming the Founding Editor. I knew I was taking 011 a huge: responsibility and was prepared to commit a lew years to it. (George was editor lor 'our years and worked closely with Corey Locke when he was editor for a brief time later). In creating the

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journal I had the support of ISTE and more directly. the assistance of Corey Locke and Craig Kissock as associate editors. Colin Mably as designer. Warren Halloway as General Secretary. and a Publication Committee reflective of ISTE"s international membership. I also managed the finances and distribution of the journal. in conjunction with being treasurer of ISTE. and later facilitated the transition to my successors. Corey Locke followed by Catharine Sinclair.

The creation of JISTE was an enjoyable challenge. I spent many hours working to create a publication that reflected and complemented ISTE. and over the period of six years many details were refined. As editor. I endeavored to present a publication in which the authors would be successful in communicating the results of research and ideas to others whose first language was not English.

ISTE has come a long way from being a loose group of teacher educators from around the world to a more formal organization with an international journal that publishes papers from its world wide membership roll. JISTE. in turn. is developing into a respected journal in teacher education. May this positive growth continue for many years!

Catharine speaks

When I first attended an ISTE seminar in 1993 (Germany) on the invitation of my colleague and friend Helen Woodward from the University of Western Sydney (UWS). I did not know what to expect. it being my first international conference and my Ph.D. recently completed. The professional and personal enjoyment and satisfaction of that very first conference brought me back again to ISTE: to The Netherlands (1994). Cameroon (1995). Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998). USA (2000 & 2004). Taiwan (2005) and. all being well to. Scotland (2007). Over this time I have researched. and improved my own knowledge and practice as a teacher educator. I have also enhanced the teacher education policies and practices at my university. especially in the areas of reflective journal writing, professional teacher portfolios, mentoring, school experience (pructicurn), teacher professional development. school-university partnerships. motivation to teach. and facilitating quality teaching through co-research. In addition. many of the papers I presented at ISTE have been published in international refereed journals and proceedings. such as .JIST/:.: (of course), Reflect (Australia), Educacao (Brazil. paper in English with an abstract in Portuguese). Action in Teacher Education (USA) and Teacher Education Theoretical requirements and professional reality (Germany). Through ISTE (and JISTE) I have had the opportunity to enhance my knowledge about teaching and teacher education. to be part of the camaraderie of the ISTE family. hone my academic writing skills

.IISn:: iu t). No. f. !11II7

through wntmg conference papers and reviewing articles lor JISTE. challenge my thinking through paper group discussions. visit some wonderful parts of the world and meet the most amazing educators. be promoted twice and develop leadership skills as editor of JISTE.

George Churukian, Corey Locke and Craig Kissock as foundation editors began JISTE (the Journal of the International Society lor Teacher Education) with its first publication in 1997 and obtained its ISSN. In doing so, they provided ISTE members with an opportunity for publication in .111 international, refereed journal, and created a truly international forurn lor the exchange of information, ideas. research. policy and practice related to the improvement of teacher education. I was invited to become editor-elect in 2002. and then take over the editor's mantic in 2003. As editor I sought to encourage others in the same way that I had been encouraged through ISTE: to write and be published: to learn about teacher education in other countries and hone academic writing skills as a reviewer: and develop leadership skills as members of the JISTE Editorial Board. Over the lour years from 2003 to 2006. and with support and assistance from Secretaries-General Warren Halloway (Australia) and Janet Powney (UK), past Editor George Churukian (USA) (who also continued to print JISTE until 2006), Associate Editor Joyce Castle (Canada). editorial assistants Vicki Fox (UWS) and Frank Thomson (Australia). JISTE expanded and developed.

JISTE's Editorial Board now has ISTE members from nine countries and 32 reviewers from 15 countries. In addition. from 2003 to 2006. submissions for publications increased by 100%, manuscripts were accepted from more than 20 countries, and the number of reviewers increased by 79%. By 2006 JISTE also had a new look! It is now being printed and distributed by Johan Borup (Denmark). As editor. I have tried to enhance the quality of articles published by mentoring and couching authors. especially those for whom English is not their first language. Thus through lour volumes and eight issues in 2003 to 2006 articles were published from almost all continents. Articles from Australia, Austria. Bahrain, Bhutan. Botswana. Brazil, Brunei. Bulgaria. Canada, China. Germany, Hong Kong. India, Jordan. Kuwait, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea. Slovenia. South Africa, Taiwan. UK. United Arab Emirates. and USA were published. Now. that is what I call a truly international journal!

Following the custom introduced by George Churukian, conference organisers were invited to contribute the lead article lor the first issue in a year to whet our appetites for the ISTE seminar and to teach us about education and teacher education in the host country. As such articles were published about

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Hong Kong, the United States and Taiwan. Also published were important keynote addresses from individual seminars. For example. Janet Powney's address, originally presented in Minneapolis, was published. It described how injustices contribute to violence between individuals. groups. tribes and countries throughout the world. and outlined the importance of teacher educators and the teaching profession in promoting social justice to enable societies to live more peaceably. Thus through JISTE. members who cannot attend every seminar still have an opportunity to enjoy some of the papers and key note addresses presented. Book reviews and recent publications by ISTE members have also been published. For example, reviews of Despite Broken Promises by Douglas Smith and Learning for Teaching: Teachingfor Learning by Whitton, Sinclair et al were published. In addition, from the 2003 to 2006, articles were published across a wide variety of areas.Topics included:

• National educational reforms. globalisation and the broader perspective of education and teacher education in the 21 st century.

• The professional lives of teachers and teacher educators: their expectations, beliefs. knowledge. teaching practices, performance appraisal (cg teacher testing and inspection) and universal characteristics.

• Teacher education policy and practice. including reflection. cooperative learning. professional experience (practicum), internships and apprenticeships.

• Induction and teacher continuous professional learning.

• Teacher professionalism.

• Curriculum, including literacy. numeracy.

science education. history and English as a foreign language. all with implications III I' teacher education.

• Information and Communication technologies (leTs). e-lcaming and the role of technology in the education of students and teachers.

• The professional lives of students and student teachers. including assessment, student engagement. and the difficulties experienced by international students, girls. and those from different ethnic backgrounds.

Through J1STE, voices from right across the world are heard and listened to: local policies and practices are celebrated, challenged and changed: and, the professional growth and careers of authors, reviewers and editors facilitated. For example. for some authors it is their first publication; lor others it is the final requirement for promotion. even to full professor! It is incredible just how much the writing. editing. reviewing. relining and rcsubmission process enhances one's content knowledge and communication skills. JISTE can also change one's

.lIST" /i,III. ;Vo_ I. :!1I1I7

practices as a teacher educator through undertaking research which is then published in an article. or by reading the articles of others. For example, reading May-hung Cheng. Wing-mui So and Yuu-yucn Yeung's report (Hong Kong) on a website created to support student teachers in the development of teaching competence during field experiences motivated me to establish a similar website tor the University of Western Sydney's elementary student teachers. At other times the influence can be more widely spread. For example, the article. by Kczang Sherab (Bhutan) and Warren Halloway (Australia) about a teacher apprenticeship program in Bhutan influenced education in that country.

Just as we, as individuals and teacher educators. arc continually learning. changing and growing. so too is JISTE. I am confident that Sybil Wilson (Canada) and Anna Hugo (South Africa) with Lotte Rahbek Schou (Denmark) as the new Secretary-General. the reviewers. authors and Editorial Board will take the journal to new heights. During this proCI.!SS there will be some challenges to be faced. From my experience as editor I see these challenges to be:

1. How to expand the influence and readership JISTE.

Should JISTE remain a paper-based journal or should it become more accessible to more readers as an electronic journal? While it is perhaps more easily read as a paper-based journal. more and more educators are accessing information through their computers and over the internet rather than from paper-based journals in libraries. Indeed. 'virtual' libraries with 'virtual' collections are increasing. Will JISTE remaining us a paper-based journal limit its potential to influence world-wide research. policy and practice'! It is also quicker and cheaper to distribute a journal to members electronically than by 'snail' mail.

2. How to increase submissions and enhance the quality of articles.

Should non-ISTE members (or educators from non-subscribing ISTE institutions) be permitted to submit papers for publication'! Broadening the submissions base has the potential to enhance article quality and add to the breadth and depth of topics published. How can submissions be increased and quality enhanced while continuing to provide to ISTE members the professional opportunities of publication in an international. refereed journal like JISTE'!

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3. How to continue the financial viability of JISTE.

A paper-based journal mailed to members around the world is an expensive and time-consuming undertaking. Electronic publishing is quicker and cheaper; however, it might disadvantage some ISTE members with limited or unreliable access to the internet. Some journals arc available in both paper and electronic formats. Some offer one free 'downloadable' article each issue. They then sell membership to the journal and individual articles on the internet. Is something like this approach possible lor JISTE'? How can the needs of all members be met while expediting and expanding the journal's audience and impact'?

4. How to continue to produce JISTE in an expedient manner.

Failure by some authors to follow to JISTE's published manuscript guidelines (published in the journal and on the ISTE website) delays publication by months at a time and creates a lot


.JISTE Ii)/ II. No, I, !IJIF

of additional. and unnecessary, work on the part of authors. reviewers. assistant editors and the editor. How can authors be encouraged to ensure that their articles adhere strictly to the guidelines and so JISTE can be published quickly. efficiently and expeditiously?

These challenges also bring to JISTE and to all those involved with its publication new possibilities and potentialities. I know through my work as reviewer, editor elect and then editor just how my knowledge of teacher education across a wide range of areas has grown. It has also led me to new understandings of the contexts in which ISTE members work. I hope that the comments and support I gave to authors, as well as those given to them by reviewers, have helped authors clarify their ideas and hone their academic writing skills. It has been my privilege to serve ISTE in this way, and to ensure that the 'voices' of ISTE members across all continents are heard. It is in this way that together we can make a difference to our own lives, the lives of our students. education and society.

Cordis, L., Kilcher, A .• and Taylor. M. (1986. June 13-19). Seminar evaluation and issues. Proceedings ofthe 6'h International Seminar/or Teacher Education in the 80'05 & 90 's. Regina. Saskatchewan, Canada: University of Regina, p. 71.

Steering Committee Minutes. (1996, April 20). 161h International Seminar for Teacher Education. Brazil, Whitton, D., Sinclair, c., Barker, K .• Nanlohy, P. & Nosworthy, M. (2004). Learningfor Teaching. Teaching for Learning. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Social Sciences Press.

Churukian, G. A. (1987. April). Proposal for the establishment of a journal. Paper presented at the 7th International Seminar lor Teacher Education in the 1980's and '90's. Maastricht. The Netherlands. Churukian, G. A. (1996. April). Proposal lor the establishment of a journal. Paper presented at the 16th International Seminar lor Teacher Education. Gramado. RS. Brazil.

George A. Churukian, Founding editor of JISTE, has been an active member of ISTE since 1982. He begun his teaching career as a teacher of general science at the junior high school level. He became involved with Teacher Education while pursuing his Ph.D. at Syracuse University. where he became a faculty member. The next live years he was Director of Teacher Education at Virginia Wesleyan College. He ended his 40-year teaching career as a Teacher Educator at Illinois Wesleyan University, having served at Director of Teacher Education and Education Department Chair. In 1992 he was a Fulbright Scholar at Kuwait University working with the faculty one year after Desert Storm. lIe retired in 1993 and is researching his family history having published a book based on his father's memoir. lie is currently researching his mother's side of the family.

Catharine Sinclair is an Associate Pro lessor at the University of Western Sydney. Australia. Her research focuses on teacher professional learning, student engagement and the practicum. She has just completed four years as editor of JISTE.

For correspondence:

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JISTE 1i}1 II. No. I. J007

Some Critical Challenges for the Teaching Profession in Botswana

Michael Bamidelc Adeyemi

III {//~I' educational environment, there are bound to he some challenges facing the teaching profession. Botswana is not an exception. This paper hriepl' examines some challenges that are critical to the teaching profession in Botswana. These include: the p(l/lci~I' offemale students in mathematics. the sciences and related subjects; language issue: teacher commitment: the III VIAIf)S scourge: passion killing: the mode of instructional delivery: and the problem oflarge class si:e. The proposal is rhel1 many ofthese challenges can be addressed, though not exclusively. through renewal ofthe curriculum ofteacher education programmes in the Colleges ofEducation ami at the University ofBotswana.


As in other nations across the globe. Botswana. a country on thc African continent. is trying to provide quality education to its citizens. Since its independence in 1966. government has made serious efforts to train the country's citizens in 4111 aspects of education and particularly in general literacy. This being so. there has been a locus on training teachers who would be able to teach at all levels of education and so contribute to building a strong and self reliant nation. Teacher training institutions were almost non-existent at the time of independence but today. there exists four primary and two secondary teacher training institutions in addition to a Faculty of Education at the University of Botswana which prepares teachers lor the schools of Botswana. While Botswana has recorded tremendous success in the area of teacher education, some challenges arc still evident in the teaching profession. These challenges arc identified in below.

Background to Botswana and Teacher Education in Botswana

Botswana, a landlocked country in Southern Africa and formerly known as the Hcchuanaland Protectorate became independent in 1966. It is situated between latitude I Rand 26 degrees south of the equator and longitude 20 and 30 degrees cast of the Greenwich meridian (/(/i"ica Today, 19(1) and has a population of 1.7 million people according to the 2003 census. It has a lund area of 5R2. 000 square kilometres in the centre of the African plateau and shares boundaries with Zimbabwe. South Africa. Namibia and Zambia, Before independence. it was mainly an agrarian society. It was one of the poorest countries in the world but has today metamorphosed into a shining example of democracy, political stability and sustained economic growth through livestock husbandry. tourism and especially mining of diamonds. Botswana is rated by the Transparency International as the 32n<l least corrupt country in the world and the least corrupt country in Africa, Weeks (2002) comments that sustained development in Botswana has been facilitated by freedom from corruption as growth. fuelled by government

spending. has occurred in most sectors. including education. He adds that in 1966. there were 1.531 students in secondary schools and by 2002. the country had an enrolment of 153.593 students in Forms One to Five at the secondary level. During this period. thc population grew from about 600. 000 to 1.4 million people. It must be noted that while Botswana's population expanded 3.8 times. secondary school enrolment increased 100 times over the same period. To educate the increasing numbers of students attending school at all levels. an expanded teacher education programme was put in place.

As of today. there arc four colleges of education lor the training of primary school teachers and they arc located at Scrowe, Lobatse, Tlokweng and Franscistown (all upgraded from Primary Teacher Training Colleges) while two, located at Tonota and Molcpolclo, arc for the training of junior secondary school teachers. These colleges award the diploma in primary education (DPE changed from primary teacher certificate, PTe) and the diploma in secondary education (DSE) lor junior secondary school teachers. The University of Botswana is the only university in the country awarding the bachelor, master and doctorate degrees in education, The graduates of these institutions are in the teaching profession at all levels of education in Botswana.

The Critical Challenges

There arc many societal challenges lor education in Botswana: some more critical than others. Here [ briefly examine eight of them and address their practical implications lor the teaching profession:

• paucity of female students in mathematics and

science and related subjects:

• language issues:

• teacher commitment:

• the HIV/AIDS scourge:

• passion killing:

• instructional delivery: and

• teacher/student ratio.

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Pallcity of Women Teachers ill Mathematics and the Sciences

Generally, in developing countries such as Botswana. access to education privileges boys and men while girls and women arc usually disadvantaged. In the past. the education of girls and women in Africa and indeed in Botswana seemed to limit them to training in domestic science. general housewifery and household management. including child management. Taking the Mochudi Homecraft Centre in Botswana as an example. Mafcla and Mgandla (2000) explain how the institution leaned heavily on handicrafts. and training of the mind and eye as appropriate preparation of future wives for welltrained African men.

Today. the educational status of girls and women has changed positively. but much has yet to be done. In

.1I.'iTf /i,1 II . .\'0. I. :lOO!

terms of teacher training. data for 2001 (Table I) show that the percentage of female (57%) III programmes at the six Colleges of Education in Botswana is significantly higher than that for men (43(%). The table is also relevant in showing enrolment comparison by gender for programmes at the University of Botswana. During the same year. the total enrolment of women in the certificate. diploma. BED and PGDE programmes at the Faculty of Education was 56% in comparison to 44% of men. In education courses. the percentages of women surpassed those of men in all the Colleges of Education and in the Faculty of Education of the University of Botswana. This may be expected supporting the belief that teaching is a main occupation for women.

Table 1: Year 2001 Enrolment by Sex at the Colleges of Education and the University of Botswana by Faculties (Extracted from Republic of Botswana: Education Statistics, 2001).

Institution/Sex Male ~/o Female % Total
Colleges of Education 601 43 803 57 1404
University of Botswana
(Certificates, Diplomas, 1000 44 1255 56 2555
Other UB Faculties
Social Sciences 880 49 922 51 1802
Business 419 51 400 49 819
Humanities 881 41 1266 59 2147
Science 1031 74 353 26 1384
Engineering and Technology 1125 90 147 10 1272 However, certain findings nrc glaring when the percentage enrolment in other faculties of the university are considered. In the Faculty of Social Sciences, 51 % of women against 49% of men were enrolled in 2001. In the Faculty of Social Sciences. the percentage of men to women was 49% against 51 %. The case was reversed in Business as 51 % men against 49% of women. In the Faculty of Science. the situation was 74% men as against 26% women. In the Faculty of Engineering and Technology. the percentage was 90% men compared to 10% women. A simple deduction here is that in education, social sciences, business and humanities, there is less difference in enrolment according to gender. The huge disparity is in the sciences (74% men and 26% women) and in engineering and technology (90% men and 10% women). This is the crux of the matter. This enrolment pattern has signi licant implications for teacher education in Botswana and for the society in general.

In order to increase enrolment of female students in the sciences and related disciplines our teacher

education programmes should enable more girls and women to study courses like design and technology, mathematics and science education, and various aspects of sciences and technology-related disciplines. It is envisaged that the proposed University of Science and Technology will address the imbalance of male and female candidates. While the lowering of admission requirements is not recommended. other avenues for incentives must be put in place 0 encourage female candidates to study mathematics, the sciences and technology through the junior, senior and tertiary levels of education in Botswana. Such incentives might be in the form of special scholarship awards and financial allowances 10 deserving female candidates.

While investigating the possible factors that could influence gender differences in the study of mathematics in Botswana junior secondary schools. Kaino (2006) found thai more boys than girls were interested in mathematics. What was even more significant was that the classroom was an uncomfortable working environment fix females as

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males dominated in the class. This factor, linked to the notion that mathematics is a difficult subject. seemed to lessen the interaction of girls with boys in science and mathematics classes. Schools need to exhibit a positive attitude towards the teaching and learning of mathematics and science related subjects for everyone. and with particular emphasis on the female student. Depending on the background of the school (co-educational or single sex). normal interaction between male and female students should be encouraged to avoid gender segregation in the classroom. In addition to the special scholarships recommended earlier. there should be additional support lor female students in the so-called difficult subjects. as a way to encourage girls to enroll in mathematics. science. engineering. technology and medicine. and in courses where the enrolment of girls and women is low. Secondary and tertiary institutions could be required to reserve a number of admission places for female applicants until such a time when there is no significant gender disparity in enrolment in those programmes and courses. Some such form of affirmative action may be necessary in order to ensure that there continues to be a supply of female permanent secretaries. doctors. cabinet ministers. "icc-chancellors. heads of departments. deans of schools. and directors in Botswana. The teacher education programmes in the country should include courses which examine the contributions of women to the society.

Language 1 ss ue

English is a powerful language in Anglophone African countries. English permeates the entire curriculum and. is in tact. closely linked to the achievement of all the fifteen aims of the Basic Education programme in Botswana (Adcycmi, 20(14). Botswana is a multilingual country with the recognition of English as the official language and an indigenous language. Sctswana, as the national language. While Sctswana is the medium of instruction at the lower level of primary education. English is the medium of instruction at the subsequent levels of schooling. There arc approximately fourteen minority languages in Botswana. each clamouring tor recognition. development and inclusion in the school curriculum. Some arc: Seyeyi, lkalanga, Scsarwa, Sckgalagadi, Scsubiya, Sehcrero, Sembukushu and Sezczuru,

The study of these indigenous languages along with Setswana, the dominant Tswana language. has been debated throughout the country several times. While government policies recognize the freedom 10 learn and speak all languages. Setswana remains the national language. As such. it is seen as a common language that is capable of uniting the country. At the same time. speakers of other minority languages sec this policy as devaluing and endangering their own languages. A national language is regarded as a vital

JISTE Ibili. No. I. 1()07

and major symbol for unity and identity within the nation. and speaking a common language offers opportunities lor the vast majority of the population. As lndede (2002. p. 100) puts it.

the issue of national language is fundamental to the policies of a nation. As

such a language provides opportunities: there would be less discrimination on

the basis of ethnic and social class differences. Through this language.

members of the society participate and contribute freely to the development

of the nation. This binding instrument opens avenues for societal members

to discover common values and customs and to develop traditions and communication habits.

The above statement is true of Botswana where minorities also want their indigenous languages recognized and used in schools. It is paradoxical that while the usc of Sctswana in schools and in the public serves to unite the country it brings about competition between ethnic and national identities. Even with its recognition as the national language. the usc of English language. particularly by the intelligentsia is common across the country. Now the government is concerned that there arc children in primary school and junior secondary schools who are excelling in their final year English language examinations but failing woefully in Setswana (Ministry of Education: 200 1.20(5). While it is very important to be skilled in the usc of the English language in order to participate effectively in a global society. it is time that our teacher education programmes address a balance in the knowledge and usc of both languages. and perhaps add an indigenous language to the curriculum as a third language

Teacher Commitment

There have been arguments about inadequacies in the working conditions. resources. and support afforded to school teachers in Botswana. The view is rile that teachers are underpaid; have little say in the operations of the school because directives arc from the top down: have little opportunities to improve their teaching skills: wait for many years before having an opportunity 1(11' in-service education; are not promoted over a long period of time: and suffer from lack of recognition in comparison with their counterparts in other professional sectors as banking. government ministries and the armed forces. The extent to which these inadequacies exist is not empirically established. However. newspapers report frequently on these issues and labour strikes by teachers tor a redress of these shortcomings arc common.

The keys to quality education tor students and to the smooth running of the schools arc the upgrading of

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the status and trammg of teachers and general improvement in their working conditions. Positive motivation enhances commitment of teachers and improves their performance, Darling-Hammond (2000) argues that the degree of teacher commitment is one of the most important aspects of the performance and quality of u school staff In the US, the National Center for Education Statistics (1997) defines teacher commitment as the degree of positive, effective bond between the teacher and the school, which reflects the degree of internal motivation, enthusiasm, and job satisfaction teachers derive from teaching and the degree of efficacy and effectiveness they achieve in their job.

Jones and Haughty (2001) discovered that when teachers experience low feelings of efficacy and low feelings of community, their commitments shill or decline. In a related study, Reyes and Fuller ( 1(95) suggest that low levels of commitment may result in decreased student performance on tests, higher teacher absenteeism, and increased staff turnover. Literature on teacher commitment in Botswana is scanty but evidence suggests that the incidence of teacher commitment in the country is similar to other countries of the world. This being so, it is important to generally improve the working condition of teachers in the continuing efforts to improve the quality of education in the country.

In a welcome address at the third biennial conference on teacher education in Botswana, Swart ( 1997, p.24) called for the empowerment of teachers:

To 'empower' means to enable and 10 authorize someone to do something. I I' we want to empower teachers to cope with change and innovation. we need to equip them with the skills. knowledge and attitudes to do so. We need to provide them with the environment to grow, to develop, to achieve and to be successful. If we equip them thus, in turn they will be able to empower their learners.

Empowering in this sense encompasses equipping the teacher with certain skills and rights from the onset as a trainee to practicing as a qualified teacher in the school. In addition to the skills. attitudes and values acquired at the training institutions, the teacher should be given the opportunity to keep abreast of current

JI571:: 10/ II. ,Vo. t. 2()()7

innovations in the teaching profession. The teacher should attend regular conferences and workshops in his or her area of specialization in an attempt at improving the standard of teaching from time to time. This high standard can occur when there is decent working condition in the teaching profession which may include reduction of class size, improved remuneration and the provision of infrastructure, and particularly in the rural areas. Commitment is increased if teachers have satisfaction on the job.

Recognition for teachers by way of effective professional development may raise the morale of teachers. For example in a survey study, Adeyinka and Adeyemi (2000), documented that a majority of junior secondary students aspired to become doctors, engineers, lawyers, Hollywood stars and business gurus while a negligible few wished to become teachers. This finding, by implication, indicates the low rating accorded to the teaching profession, even by students, apart from the low status attached to the teaching profession by the general public. Since teachers have produced high ranking professionals in the country, it becomes necessary to accord them a high status by way of improved working conditions, in addition to other attractions.

rile HIVIAIDS Scourge

A critical challenge that demands a focus in the teacher education programme in Botswana IS the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This pandemic is a global phenomenon for it respects no national boundary. no religion and no status. Its effects are felt all over the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO). about 45 million people were HIV positive in the year 2005. Millions of children are orphaned while many of them have become heads of families. To worsen the situation, sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 83% of all AIDS deaths and 71% or HIV infections, a situation described by Esack (2003) as "Ground Zero".

The situation is not different in Botswana where 37% or adults in what should be their most productive years were infected «UNAIDS, 2004). The Botswana AIDS Impact Survey II Report of 2004 as shown in Table 2 and published in 2005, provided the summary data below.

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Table 2: HIV/AIDS Statistics

usn: iu n . .\'0. I. zoo:

Rute Percentage
Overall National Prevalence Rate 17.1%
Overall Prevalence Rate for Female 19.8%
Overall Prevalence Rate for Male 13.9% I
Estimate of People aged 15-49 Years 25.3%
Estimate of Pregnant Women aged 15-49 Years 32.4% Source: Republic ofBotswana: Botswana AIDS Impact

Survey II.' Popular Report, March ](}{)5

While it is difficult to obtain datu lor various institutions. it may be assumed that the situation in schools may not be very different since institutions nrc microcosms of the larger society. However. knowledge of the pandemic through increased literacy and education may help to lessen the rate in schools and eventually in the adult population.

In an attempt at reducing the rate of infection. the uovernmcnt of Botswana is working throuuh its ~Iinistry of Education to infuse IIIV/AIDS-;eluted topics throughout the curriculum. Adeycmi (2003) did an investigation on the knowledge of H[V/AIDS possessed by junior secondary school students and found that there was a high level of awareness among the students in terms of causes. effects and other associated phenomena of the disease; however. disappointedly. he discovered a somewhat 'we don't care' attitude concerning the dangers inherent in unprotected sex. This nonchalant attitude suggests the need lor an intensification of moral and health issues in the curriculum of school and teacher education. Moral education. us directed by government. for infusion in the school curriculum. could be effectively taught through the examination of moral dilemmas. Instruction in gender awareness. male and female responsibilities and a woman's right to say 'no' to unprotected sex may significantly reduce thc escalating rate of the infection. These facets of education are already in existence. but they have to be further intensified for the development of a strong and productive country. It is further suggested that elders, religious leaders. parents and relatives in the society visit schools us part of the teacher education programme to talk to youth about moral aspects of HIV/AIDS. The value system of the society as including self-discipline. ability to make reasoned decision. and responsible behaviour should form part of the teacher education programme.

Passion Killing

Related to the problem of H [V / A I DS. a recent development - the propensity for youth to commit what is now referred to as passion killing and which is becoming a fashion in Botswana. It is the killing of loved ones when a relationship goes sour. Of particular focus in this section is violence. through

killing. against the female in a relationship. [n literature. the killing of women by intimate partners is known us femicide or intimate feminine homicide. Alao (2006). in quoting Dahlberg and Krug (2002), highlights that the murder of women by an intimate partner accounts for between 40% and 7()'Yo of all female homicides. This is said to be linked to a history of domestic violence with the risk increasing at the threat of separation or actual separation (Campbell. Webster, Kozoil-Mclain, Block and Campbell 20(3). Alao (2006. p.3 [5) refers to the study conducted by Mathews, Abrahams. Martin. Velten. Van der Merwe and Jewkes (2004) in neighbouring South Africa, which documented that:

• 8.8 pCI' 100,000 women 14 years and older were killed by an intimate partner in 1999;

• The above statistics amount to 4 women killed per day by an intimate partner; or

• I woman killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner; and

• I in every 2 women killed by a known perpetrator is killed by an intimate partner.

Statistics regarding intimate femicide. popularly known as passion killing in Botswana arc scanty. more particularly on a school basis. There is no doubt that there has been an increase in cases involving violence against women in Botswana. The work of Maundcni. (2001) and a by men in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF. 1995) listed the names of 46 women killed by their husbands or lovers between 1985 and 1991 while in January to October of 2005.69 women were victims of passion killing as against 56 cases reported in 2004 (Alao. 2006). Sensing the future implications of this act 011 the citizenry as reported by Alao (2006). the President of Botswana. His Excellency, Mr. Festus Mogae, had to appeal on television for a stop to this form of violence. As a result of pressures. the Vice Chancellor of the University of Botswana has requested a research study on 'passion killing' in the country.

Efforts have been made by the various Guidance and Counselling units of institutions to give appropriate help where necessary. ln our teacher education institutions. topics on 'passion killing' and other related topics concerning the evil effects of violence and murder. not only on the female. but also on both

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sexes should form part of our teacher education programme. The role of the teacher is said to be multifarious. Sihe is seen in the society as a parent. a counsellor. a first aid giver. a role model. and generally an embodiment of piety. among others qualities. Therefore. teacher education programmes at all levels in Botswana should include themes and topics on the immorality of violence in general. and passion killing in particular.

Instructional Delivery

Although it was published many years ago. I remain fascinated by a selection on the front and back tlaps of Educating the Reflective Practitioner (1987). by Donald Schon. It reads:

However. most professional schools only teach students standard scientific theories and how to apply them to straightforward cases and problems - and so fail to equip future professionals with the skills they need to deal with the difficult problems of the real world .... Schon argues that professional education should be centered on enhancing the practitioner's ability for "reflection-in-action" - that is. learning by doing and developing the ability for continued learning and problem solving throughout the professional's career. He describes in detail an approach that involves active coaching by a master teacher giving students practice facing real problems. testing solutions. making mistakes. seeking help. and refining approaches - and suggests how professional schools can use such coaching to produce practitioners with solid problem-solving skills.

In line with the practice suggested above. policies on education, the National Plans and syllabus of subjects at various levels of education in Botswana point to thc fact that the teaching learning process should adopt a progressive approach. For instance. two of the overall objectives of Botswana's national education arc: (a) raising educational standards at all levels; and (b). providing life-long education to all sections of the population; while the corresponding specific aims at the school level are (a) improving quality of education and (b) implementing broader and balanced curricula geared towards developing qualities and skills needed for the world of work (Republic of Botswana. 1994:5- 6). Further to these. a pertinent aim of the Ten- rear Basic Education Programme is the development of critical thinking. problem solving ability. individual mrnauvc and interpersonal and inquiry skills (Republic of' Botswana. 19(6). I I' this is the case. then the methods of teaching should be such that will enable the students to be actively engaged in the teaching-learning process. In other words, there should be an emphasis on a learner-centred approach to teaching.

.IIST/;· 'iii II. SII. I. :!1J()7

This approach to teaching and learning must be seen as a way of encouraging students to be active rather than passive learners. and should also support democratic practices in the classroom. For this to be so. teacher education in Botswana should be preparing the reflective teacher who facilitates student learning. helping students to figure out what they ought to feci, believe and do; also how they usc data to create knowledge and not stop at information. An aspect of the Vision 20/6 (Presidential Task Force for Long T erm Vision. 1(97) is the building of an educated and informed nation. Botswana is geared towards having citizens who arc skilled in the art of inquiry and who make decisions based on a rational and systematic examination of information as theorized by Dewey ( 1933). Schon (19H7) and York-Barr. Sommers, Ghere and Montie (2001) agree that people learn to be reflective by using ideas to plan and conduct enterprises and deal methodically with any problems that arise in the process.

Despite how much the professional literature and various education and government documents may promote learner-centred pedagogical practices as ideal. evidence indicates that the prevailing mode of teaching at all levels of education in Botswana is the transmission of information through passive methods such as lecturing. There is therefore a gap between theory and practice in the teaching approaches used by teachers. This is a critical challenge for teacher education in Botswana. More often than not, the teacher assumes all authority in the classroom and uses such strategies as memorization, recitation and regurgitation of facts and figures. This is a teacher situation in Botswana which Yoder and Evans (199 I) refer to as the error-free source of knowledge; in other words. a know-it-all method. According to Scabclo and Mosa (I (97), some of the innovations to help with problem solving activities at the primary school level in Botswana such as the project method. continuous assessment. criterion referenced testing and the Botswana competency instruments have not totally worked effectively. Progressive ways of motivating students to learn, which are often talked about at seminars, workshops and conferences, remain elusive.

An implication of the dominant usc of the passive method of delivery of content to anxious learners is the need for teacher training institutions to revisit the modes of delivery of instruction in class. Methods that may enable teacher trainees to acquire the skills of innovation, inquiry and reflection and be able to apply them in different teaching situations and which also discourage memorization and regurgitation of facts should be part of teacher education curricula in Botswana. Furthermore. examination questions should test high order thinking.

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Large Class Size

The educational literature tends to support small class size for instruction because there will be high level of interaction between teacher and learners. Studies by Barrington (1995). Mosteller (1995). and Stumpf ( 19(5) highlight how reduced class sizes improved students' achievements. Large class size reduces the frequency and quality of the interaction between students and teacher. Finn and Achilles (1990) found that significant benefit accrued to students in reducedsize classes according to the results of both standardized and curriculum-based tests in reading and mathematics. They also found that minority students in particular benefited from a small class environment. But Hoxby (2000) found no significance in terms of bene lit as to whether a class is small or large. The investigation by Jurges, Schneiders. and Buche! (2005) tend to support the stance that students learn better in small classes than in large ones. So the research evidence for which is better at improving student achievement seems to still tentative.

Responses from a questionnaire which was completed by junior secondary school teachers in a workshop (Adeycmi, 1(98) indicated that teachers viewed large classes in Botswana as a problem. While government policy recommends a teacher-student ratio of between 1:22 and I :30 it is not uncommon to find up to 45 students in many classes at the primary and secondary levels of education. The situation is worse at the tertiary level where classes of 200 students are common in some courses. particularly in courses of the Post Graduate Diploma in Education programme at the University of Botswana. Large class size is a huge concern for the teaching profession. How can teachers face this challenge? One way is to reduce class size; but this is a large budget item and so is not immediately feasible. Another way is for the teacher to usc teaching strategies, other than the lecture. that arc appropriate to teaching many students. The Centre 1(lr Academic Development of the University of Botswana has. on many occasions. offered seminars on how to solve the problems that arise from teaching large classes. All teacher education prograrmncs in Botswana should include a course that specifically deals with theory and practice (strategies. techniques and results) of teaching large groups of students.

usn: 1i,I II. So, I. ]()()7

Some Implications for Teacher Education

From the discussion of the challenges to teacher education presented above. some pertinent implications and conclusions can be drawn. A few of them are summarised below. There is a need to revisit the programmes of the teacher training institutions in Botswana so that they better address needs and aspirations of the society. lor teachers are central change agents in the society. It is important to keep re-examining the curriculum so that it docs not become a static document. Changes continue to occur every day and therefore our teacher education curriculum should be responsive to changes locally and globally.

In examining the programmes. our teacher education institutions can begin to address the critical challenges discussed above in a number of ways.

• They can include topics and themes dealing with IIIV/AIDS and passion killing in the curriculum. The drastic impact of these phenomena on the society has to be minimized.

• They can devise a curriculum that is relevant to the problems of the society and the vision of education for the country.

• They can include in the curriculum content and pedagogical strategies that enable their graduates to become reflective teachers who are equipped to help students develop the capacity and skills to make reasoned decisions when confronted with problems.

• They can instill in teachers an appreciation of their responsibility to be responsible and useful citizens of their country and in turn. motivate and lead their students into the same kind of thinking about themselves as young citizens.

• Finally, government, educational agencies. researchers and other practitioners in education should work together to find enduring solutions to the problem of large class sizes and to the enrolment pattern in mathematics and science related courses in schools so as to narrow the gap in enrolment between males and females in these critical areas.

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.IISTE Ivl I I . .\'u. I. !1If17


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Seabelo and N. C. and Mosa, A. (1997). The extent to which primary school teachers incorporate innovations in teaching. In Yandilu, C. 0 .. Moanakwena. P. O'rnara. F. R, Kakanda, A. M. and Mensah. J. (eds.), Improving Education Quality for Effective Learning. Papers Presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference on T eacher Education, Gaborone: ministry of Education

Stumpf. T. (1995). A Colorado school's unrocky road to trimesters. Educational Leadership. 53 (3). 20-22. Swart, P. (1997). Teacher Education: The Key to continuous school improvement. In Yandila, C. D .• Moanakwena, P. O'mara. F. R, Kakanda, A. M. and Mensah. J. (eds.). Improving Education QUlIlity for Effective Learning, Paper Presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference on Teacher Education, Gaborone: Ministry of Education

UNAIDS (2004). Global HIV/AIDS and STD Surveillance: Epidemiological Fact Sheets by Country,

Weeks, S. G. (2002). Vocalization of the Secondary Education in Botswana: An Historical and Comparative Perspective. Paper Presented at the Annual Conference of the International Society of Comparative and History of Education. Paris: Sorbonne University, 10-13 July.

WILDAF (Women in Law and Development in Africa). (1995). Intimate Femicide ill Botswana. Gaborone.

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Yoder. J. H .• md Evans. M. W. (1991). Introduction. In Evans. M. W. and Yoder, J. H. (cds.). Patterns or Reform ill Primary Education: The Case ofBotswana. Gaborone: Macmillan,

York_Barr. J .• Sommers. W. A., Gherc, G. S. and Montie. J. (200 I). Reflective Practice

to Improve Schools. Thousand Oaks: California.

Michael Bamidclc Adeyemi is Professor of Education in the Department of Languages & Social Sciences Education at the University of Botswana. He has published many books and journal articles in internationally refereed journals.

Correspondence: ADE YEM I

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JISTE ',,111. No. I. ]()()7

Placing Teachers' Demands and Roles in Context: Concerns of Physical Education Student Teachers in Botswana

\lnrtin Mokgwathl and Jimoh Shehu

This study highlights the concerns (d' physical education student teachers ill Botswana. A modified Teacher Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) \l'as administered to //4 University ofBotswana physical education students before and after the winter 2005 teaching practice (TP). Contrary 10 the findings of Fuller and Brown (I 91J) and Calderhead (1987) suggesting that teachers' concerns occur linearly. discretely and progressively, 0111' respondents expressed simultaneous concern abO/II lash. self. and impact on student learning. The six items causing the most concern for the prospective physical educators before and after their first TP were. in rank order: gaining the respect of my students. rigid syllabus and scheme ofwork, having too many students ill a class, obtaining afavourable evaluation of teaching. increasing academic learning time, and gelling students 10 app~I' what they have learnt. These concerns and their implications are discussed.


Studies into stages of teacher development suggest that it is important to factor the concerns of prcscrvice and in-service teachers into policy and pedagogical efforts to improve teacher education. enhance teacher retention and combat teacher attrition (Huberman, 1989; Bullough and Knowles, 1991; Maynard, 200 I). Concerns of teachers take many forms, including overwhelming workload. inadequate resources, discmpowerment, work safety, pay structure, lesson planning. testing and grading. working with parents. making sure students meet academic standards. working under inflexible and hectic schedules. overcoming anxieties, meeting the needs of HIV infected learners and so on (Emerick. Hirsch and Berry. 2005; Grant. 2006). Strategically. it is necessary to understand these concerns. since they underscore contemporary aspects of teaching with real consequences for teachers' self-efficacy, job satisfaction, mental health and overall wellbeing (Zeichner, and Tabachnick, 1981; Borich, 1996; Mawcr, 1995; Capel. 1997).

Fuller's (1969) seminal work posited that changes in professional growth and development of teachers manifest in three kinds of concern: self (adequacy and survival). task (coping with challenges) and impact (making a positive difference in student learning). corresponding to transition from being a prospective to a seasoned professional (Rogan, Borich and Taylor. 1992; Cicchelli, 1990; Fuller and Borich, 1995; Borich, 1996; Buhcndwa, 1996; Caldcrhead, 1987).

In recent years, the subject of teachers' concerns has been examined by physical education teacher educators in their continuing efforts to appreciate and respond to the challenges that teachers lace in the changed and changing world of physical education pedagogy. A study conducted on physical education student teachers in Great Britain reported that the items causing them the most concern were: doing well

when the supervisor is present; "getting a favourable evaluation of my teaching"; challenging unmotivated students; meeting the needs of different kinds of students; and whether each student is getting what he/she needs (Capel. 1997). In comparison, data from Belgium revealed that prospective physical educators were significantly concerned about: meeting the needs of different kinds of students; diagnosing students' learning problems; feeling more adequate as a teacher; and whether each student is getting what he/she needs (Behets, 1990). While for an American sample. the live most frequent beginning concerns. in rank order. were: doing well when a supervisor is present; maintaining the appropriate degree of class control; whether each pupil is getting what he/she needs; "getting a favourable evaluation of my teaching" and being accepted and respected by professional persons (Hynes-Dusel. 1999). Clearly, teachers' concerns cannot be understood monolithically and neither do they permit fixed solutions.

To the best of our knowledge. there has been no research on the concerns of neophyte physical education teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus there is a dearth of information on how prospective physical education teachers in the continent perceive and give meaning to the challenges they face. The objective of this study therefore was to explore the concerns of prcscrvice physical education student teachers in the context of Botswana.


Sample and procedure

The population for this study consisted of one hundred and twenty-eight second-year undergraduate physical education students enrolled at the University of Botswana. Data were collected from 114 students (89%) who agreed to participate in the survey, Of the respondents. 52% were nudes while 48% were females. Their mean age was 23.04 (SO = 2.94). None

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of the respondents had been exposed to peer-teaching. micro-teaching or peer observation before their first teaching practice (TP) in winter 2005. A modified Teacher Concerns Questionnaire was administered to the respondents twice: a week before the TP and a week alter the students' return to the University. On each occasion. respondents were briefed on the purpose of the study and asked to complete the questionnaires individually and anonymously.

JleaslIre ...

The measure used to tap the respondents' concerns was a 24-item Teacher Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) (see Table I) adapted from Rogan. Borich and Taylor. (1992) and George (197~). Respondents were asked to reflect on each of the 24 items and to ask themselves: When I think of teaching physical education. am I concerned about this? The items were scored on a 5-point scale ranging from not concerned (I) to extremely concerned (5). Since the instrument was deemed as comprising underlying dimensions. reliability estimates for each of the three sub-scales were calculated with the SPSS programme. Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were 0.84. 0.75 and

JISIE vu t). So. I. ;lOll!

0.85 for impact, self and task dimensions respectively. The instrument was structured to resonate with the study sample. considering that the original TCQ has been re-conccptualized and modified over time to improve its validity. reliability and amenability to usc in different contexts (George. 197~; Hall et al., 1979; Cicchelli, 1990; Rogan et al., 1992; Buhendwa, 1996).

Data Analysis

To develop a general understanding of the measure. three descriptive areas were examined: the mean scores. standard deviation and ranking of items. All the analyses were performed with the SPSS 12.0.1 for Windows.


The means. standard deviation and ranking arc shown in Table I. As elm be seen. the student teachers were moderately concerned about most of the items. with the total concern means of 3.40 (S[) = 1.12) and 3.19 (SO = 1.20) for pre- and post-Tl' data respectively. On both occasions. the top six concerns. in rank order. were items

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.IISTE /ill II . .\'0. I. JIJIJ 7

Table 1. Combined Means, Standard Deviations and Ranks of concern scores before
and after teaching practice (TP)
Pre-TP Post-TP
Item no. Mean SD Rank Mean SD Rank
1. Having too many students in a class 4.30 1.02 2 3.86 1.29 3
2. Having lots of non-teachinq responsibilities 3.15 1.13 19 2.44 1.18 23
3. Having too many instructional duties 2.75 1.18 23 2.53 1.11 21
4. Lack of instructional materials 3.43 1.26 11 2.93 1.26 18
5. Rigid syllabus and scheme of work 3.86 0.95 3 3.88 1.06 2
6. Too many policies and regulations 2.98 1.23 22 2.79 1.23 19
7. Testing and grading students 3.35 1.34 13 3.19 1.35 13
8. Working under much pressure 3.31 1.06 14 3.25 1.19 12
9. Maintaining the appropriate degree of class control 3.45 1.29 9 3.35 1.24 9
10. Doing well when the supervisor is present 3.36 1.24 12 2.48 1.27 22
11. Obtaining a favorable evaluation of my teaching 3.75 1.07 5 3.74 1.13 4
12. Gaining the respect of my students 4.51 0.99 4.36 1.07 1
13. Whether to remain in teaching 3.04 1.06 21 3.12 1.19 14
14. Feeling more competent as a teacher. 3.29 1.09 15 2.95 1.17 17
15. Having opportunity for professional growth 3.45 0.89 8 3.39 1.04 8
16. Being respected and accepted by cooperating teachers 3.17 1.06 18 2.79 1.08 19
17. Increasing academic learning time 3.81 1.12 4 3.61 1.22 6
18. Ensuring each student experience success 3.45 1.15 9 3.56 1.30 7
19. Meeting the needs of different kinds of students 2.37 1.15 24 2.20 1.22 24
20. Helping students grow intellectually 3.52 1.37 7 3.00 1.36 15
21. Diagnosing student learning problems 3.26 1.03 16 2.98 1.15 16
22. Challenging unmotivated students 3.26 1.03 16 3.26 1.17 11
23. Guiding students to apply what they have learnt 3.74 1.04 6 3.62 1.16 5
24. Contributing to students' emotional and social growth 3.14 1.28 20 3.35 1.28 9
Total Concern Score 3.40 1.12 3.19 1.20 ·Items were assigned to Fuller's subscales as follows: Task= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; Self= 9, 10,11,12,13, 14, 15,


Impact=17, 18,19,20,21,22,23,24

Note: Items were scrambled in the questionnaire

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Overlying the theory of teacher development is the importance of viewing TP as a process, not simply about auditing student teachers' performance during school placement. but also about seeking to understand the feelings. anxieties. tensions and stresses encountered by these beginning teachers as they negotiate the relations and dynamics between multiple roles in schools (George. 1978; Mucllride, 19X4; Boggess. MacBride. and Griffey. 1986:

Faucette. 1987: Behcts, 1990: Capel. 1997: Meek & Bchets, 1999: Hynes-Dusel, 1999: Wendt and Bain. 19X9). When the means of the 24 TCQ items were rank ordered. we identified the following top six concerns: gaining the respect of my students: rigid syllabus and scheme of work: having too many students in a class: obtaining a favourable evaluation of my teaching: increasing academic learning time and guiding students to apply what they have learnt. These top concerns arc discussed below.

Gaining the respect of my students

The most critical concern to the physical education student teachers is gaining the respect of their students. Distinctively, this concern was uppermost before and after the TP. implying that the respondents regard the development of skills and competencies in effecting respect as a key to teaching physical education effectively. This topmost concern can be put in the context of social and emotional development of beginning teachers. akin to the process by which adolescents move towards sociocentric view of the self. seeing people around them as either admiring. accepting and responsive audience. or a disdainful one (Wavering. 19(5). By constructing their professional image around the esteem of their students. these preservice teachers' self esteem and self-efficacy are most likely to be depressed in situations in which they arc judged incompetent or boring by their students (Bandura, 1982: Covinton, 19X4). This concern shows up the necessity of emphasizing to the preservice student teachers the paradoxical strategy by which teachers cam respect by fostering their students' self-esteem, sci 1'confidence and self-respect through a positive class climate. affirmative teaching strategies. demonstrable competence and meaningful learning activity (Highet. 1963: Mawcr, 1995: Rink 2002).

Ri!:itI syllablls alii/ scheme of work

The second highest ranked concern of the respondents was the rigidity of the physical education syllabus and scheme of work. implying a desire to have some control over the scope, sequence and pace of teaching. In other words. the student teachers were concerned about the lack of opportunity to define instructional outline inion their own terms - a situation likely to prevent their prudent response to the diverse needs of different kinds of learners. To be sure. content and performance standards are needed to provide direction

JISTE liJIII. No. I. 20m

to curriculum implementation. However, a rigid. autocratic teaching structure that precludes adjustment of content to suit the context can alienate and discourage novice teachers. Given that the ability to exercise professional discretion and judgement regarding what is taught. and when and how it is taught. is an implied promise of' teacher education. it is imperative to provide learning opportunities for student teachers to reflect on, and transform predetermined content outlines in school setting as a step toward fostering critical pedagogy (Ruiz and Fernandez-Balboa. 2005).

Having IlIlI mall)' students ill a class

Both before and after teaching practice. respondents were concerned about having too many students in a class. These concerns must be put in the context of the status of physical education in Botswana junior secondary schools. The Botswana National Policy on Education requires that in addition to a set of' core subjects like Maths, English. and Science. students should be offered a number of optional subjects to choose from. The subjects defined as optional include

home economics. commerce, principles of

accounts/bookkeeping. office skills, religious

education. third language. art. music and physical education. From these a student may select a minimum of two and a maximum of three. Due to the dominant internal efficiency discourse which emphasizes managing with reduced resources. a typical elective class in Botswana Junior secondary schools often comprise students from several streams. While. this arrangement has enabled Botswana Secondary schools to maximize available temporal, spatial and human resources. it has led in many cases to overcrowded classes or gyms. putting on the shoulders of teachers the unfair burden of planning. teaching. grading, guiding, accommodating. and providing specific feedback to over 100 students without the help of peer-instructors. teaching assistants or special educators. similar to the situation reported by Corcoran. Walker and White (1998).

Oblaining a favourable evaluation (If my lea chint; The item that came fourth in the list of concerns was. obtaining a favourable evaluation of my teaching. As previous studies have indicated. physical education student teachers are concerned about the relative merits of their performance in the eyes of significant others (Hynes-Dusel. 1999; Capel, 1997). Indeed. favourable evaluation is the ultimate indicator of a successful TP experience. It defines how effective the student teacher appears to the assessor and C:1I1 be a source of pride and self-confidence, Besides. the evaluation grade is a critical variable in teacher certification. While student teachers' concern about evaluation is not new. the question still remains regarding how best to diminish it and help beginning teachers see evaluation as part of a comprehensive and holistic process in which both favourable and

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unfavourable judgements of mentors and/or peers are critical to personal and professional development.

Increasing academic learning time

The fifth placed concern was, increasing academic learning time. Underlying this concern is the implicit awareness of how a period of 40-80 minutes can run out quickly as the physical educator tries to juggle many features of instruction that include warm-up. equipment distribution, explanation. demonstration. practice. feedback. mini-games. performance. review and cool-down. Research on Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) has perennially provided evidence that many beginning physical education teachers fritter instructional time due to poor class management and failure to engage students with the content at an appropriate level of difficulty (Rink. 2002; Metzler, 1989). The recurrence of this concern makes it imperative for physical education teacher educators to reiterate the principles involved in ensuring that the amount of time allotted to physical education lessons is actually spent on meaningful and powerful learning experiences.

GlIidill!: students to apply what the)' have learnt

The sixth concem was. guiding students to apply what they have learnt. The student teachers were not only interested in ensuring that their students learn the content. but also use the knowledge and skills that they have acquired on their own to achieve the compelling goals of life-long engagement with physical activity and sport. Evidently, this is a


.IISTE /(,/ II . .\'0. /. :011 i

laudable concern and any pre- and post- TP pedagogical orientation must equip physical education student teachers with the competencies that are important to making learning authentic and empowering; such that learners can assume more responsibility to apply their skills and knowledge independently (Goldberger and Howarth. 1993; Mosston and Ashworth. 1986)


The concerns of physical education student teachers reported here are interrelated, simultaneously cutting across survival. instructional and contextual issues. A study like this is critical in enlarging the formative space available for rnentoring preservice teachers as well as in developing a more nuanced understanding of their changing needs. Indeed. the category of "concerns" may be viewed as a metaphor, signalling teachers' perception of working conditions, shifting demands, changing roles and dizzying circumstances. Accordingly, there is a need to continually rethink and revise prcservice teacher mentoring and the care that goes with it to minimize disillusionment and engender teacher empowerment and enthusiasm. There is also a need for renewed international exchange of views on preservice teachers' concerns between researchers in the global North and South. This becomes increasingly important as teacher educators around the world seck ways to enhance curricular validity and chart more relevant courses that target the changing demands and roles of teachers in a contemporary school setting.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self- Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist. 37 (2).122-147. Behets, D. (1990). Concerns of Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education.IO, 66-75.

Boggess T.E .• McBride. R.E .. and Griffey, D.C. (1985). The Concerns of Physical Education Teachers: A Developmental View. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 4,202-211.

Borich, G.D. (1996). Effective Teaching Methods. New York: Merrill/Allyn & Bacon.

Buhcndwa, F. M. (1996) Stages of Concerns in Pre-service Teacher Development: Instrument Reliability and Validity in a small Private Liberal Art College. Paper presented at the Conference of the National Centre on Postsecondary Learning Teaching and Assessment, June 21-23. The Pennsylvania State University. PA.

Bullough. R. and Knowles, G. (1991). Teaching and Nurturing: Changing Conceptions of Self as Teacher in a Case Study of Becoming a Teacher. Qualitative Studies in Education. 4(2),121-140.

Calderhcad, J. (1987). The Quality of Reflection in Student Teachers' Professional learning. European Journal of Teacher Education. 10(3),269-278.

Campbell. P. and Wheatley. a.H. (1983). A Model for Helping Student Teachers. Mathematics Teacher, 76( I). 60 - 63.

Capel. S.A. (1997). Changes in Students' Anxieties and Concerns after their First and Second Teaching Practices. Educational Research. 39( 2). 211 - 228.

Capel. S. (1997). Learning to Teach Physical Education in the Secondary School. London: Routledge.

Cicchelli, T. (1990). Concerns Theory in Liberia Arts Related to Pre-Service Education of Undergraduate and Graduate Students. Educational Research Quarterly. 14,41 - 47.

Corcoran. T. 8., Walker, L. J. and White, J. L. () 9(8). Working in Urban Schools. Washington, DC: Institute tor Educational Leadership.

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usn: li,/ II . .\'11. /. ~(J()7

Covinton, M. V. (1984). The Self-Worth Theory of Achievement Motivation: Findings and Implications. The Elementary School Journal. 85. 5-)9.

Emerick, S .. Hirsch. E. and Berry. B. (2005). Teacher Working Conditions as Catalysts for Student Learning.

ASCD lnfobricf, 43. 1-8.

Faucette. N. (1987). Teachers' Concerns and Participation Styles during In-service Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 6. 425-440.

Fuller. F.F. & Borich, G.D (1995) Teacher Concerns Checklist. In Borich, G.D & Tornbari, M. L. Educational Psychology: A Contemporary Approach. New York: Harper/Collins. 18-20.

Fuller, F.F. (1969). Concerns about Teachers: A Developmental Conceptualization. American Educational Research Journal. 62, 207 - 226.

Fuller. F. F. (1970). Personalized Education for Teachers: An Introduction tor Teacher Education. Austin.

Texas: University of Texas, Research and Development Centre tor Teacher Education.

George, A. A. (1978). Measuring Self. Task. and Impact Concerns: A Manual for Usc of the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire. Austin. Texas: University of Texas Research and Development Centre for Teacher Education.

Goldberger. M. and Howarth, K. (1993). The National Curriculum in Physical Education and the Spectrum of Teaching Styles. British Journal of Physical Education, 24( 1 I, 23-28.

Grant. T. S. (2006). Teachers Tired of Off-the-Clock 'Donning' and 'Dolling'. Baltimore Sun, March 27. 2006.

Retrieved March 31. 2006. from hup://

Guillaume. A. M. and Rudney, G. L. (1993). Student Teachers' Growth towards Independence:

An Analysis of their Changing Concerns. Teaching and Teacher Education. 9( I). 65-!W.

Hull. G. E .. George, A. A. and Rutherford. W.L. (1979). Measuring stages of concern about the innovation: A manual for use of the SoC questionnaire. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Research and Development Centre for Teacher Education.

Highet, G. (1963). The Art of Teaching. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd.

Huberman. M. (1989). Professional Growth among Pre-Service and Beginning Teachers. Teachers College Record. 9( \ ). 32-56.

Hynes-Dusel, J.M. (1999). Physical Education Teacher Concerns. The Physical Educator. 56( 1).33-48. Maynard. T. (200 I). The Student Teacher and the School Community pf Practice: A Consideration of' Learning us Participation'. Cambridge Journal of Education. 31 ( I ). 39-52.

Mawer, M. (\995). The Effective Teaching of Physical Education. London: Longman.

McBride, R. (1993). The TCQ-PE: An Adaptation of the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire to a Physical Education Setting. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 12. 188-196.

Mcbride, R.E.. Boggers. T.E .. and Griffey, D.C. ( 1(86). Concerns of In-Service Physical Education Teachers as Compared with Fuller's Concern Model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 5, 157-165.

Meek, G. A. and Bchcts, D. (1999). Physical Education Teachers' Concerns Towards Teaching, Teaching and Teacher Education. 15.497 - 505.

Metzler, M. (1989). A Review of Research on Time in Sport Pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 8, 87-103.

Mosston, M. and Ashworth. S. (1986). Teaching Physical Education. Columbus. OH: Merrill Publishing.

Muroz Ruiz, B. M. and Fernandez-Balboa. J. M. (2005). Physical Education Teacher Educators' Personal Perspectives Regarding their Practice of Critical Pedagogy. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24. 243-264.

Rink. J. E. (2002). Teaching Physical Education for Learning. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Rogan. J.M .. Borich, G.D. and Taylor, H.P. (1992). Validation of the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. Action

in Teacher Education. 14,43 - 49.

ROWley. J. (1999). The Good Mentor. Educational Leadership. 56(8). 20-22.

Wavering. M. J. (1995). Educating Young Adolescents: Life in the Middle. New York: Garland Publishing. Inc. Wendt, J. and Bain, L. L. (1989). Concerns of Pre-Service and In-Service Physical Educators. Journal of

Teaching in Physical Education, 8. 177-180.

Zeichner, K. and Tabachnick, B. (1981). Arc the Effects of University Teacher Education 'washed out' by School Experiences? Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3). 7 - II.

Martln Mokgwathl and Jimoh Shehu lire Senior Lecturers in the Department or Physical Education at the University of Botswana. Both arc researchers in the areas of teacher education <111(\ sport pedagogy. Correspondence: mokgwamm((

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JIST!:" Jhl I I, Nil, I. J007

Pupils with Learning Difficulties Learn with leT: An Interventlon Project on Special Education in Danish Public Schools

Ina K. Borup and Johan R. Borup

The development ollCT-based learning programmes demands changes in teacher education generally (I/!d specifically for tea~hers dealing with pupils with learning difficulttes. This research :'iholl'ed tha~ these p~/fn's gained communication competencies jar beyond e.\'p~clecl ~heretore .. teacher educ~ll.,on. sh~"I~/.~OC1~S mo: c .011 comprehensive thinking in curriculum development for special e("~cat/~ll. The co~ull1/(Jm fot teacher edU«(f(I011 should therefore . focus consciously 011 ICT as all integrated tool o.t special education.


Internationally. research on ICT (Information Communication Technology) and pupils with learning difficulties is limited (Clark 2002: Florian & Hegarty. 2004) and mostly focused on pupils with minor learning difficulties (Brown & Miller, 2002) or in the use of technology in classrooms (Hasselbring & Glaser, 2000). Steingold & Hadley's (1990) classroom research shows qualified changes in learning among all pupils, including pupils with learning difficulties. Regarding ICT, Steingold and Hadley- highlight that ICT supports important development of competencies. also among pupils with learning difficulties. According to Petersson's and Brooks' (2006). research on virtual and physical toys in play and education. internal motives to learn are essential when one wants to reach a goal together with others. This is a central issue in all play and learning activities as long as it offers the pupils direct feed-back on the activities (Petersson and Brooks. 2006). Stoll (1999) on the contrary. has a critical attitude to ICT in education, but does not focus especially on children's education.

In countries in the European Union (EU) such as the United Kingdom (UK) and Denmark information and communication technology (ICT) is part of educational systems. The UK curriculum for ICT programme does not focus on pupils ~\'ith le~rnin,g difficulties, but mentions that usmg IC r IS motivational particularly for the less able (Livingstone & Bovill 200 I). According to SaaviiJii (2004) EU wants to focus on so-called new basic skills that include extended usc of ICT in all education and there is a particular focus on less advantaged groups. those with special needs. school drop-outs and adult learners.

In Denmark, a governmental project was launched in 2002 to upgrade primary schools to integrate ICT into the educational framework (IT-media & folkeskole, 2002). The didactic innovation regarding the Danish ITMF project was to measure how ICT was used in education and focus was on strengths rather than barriers for the development of ICT competencies among pupils. The overall purpose of the ITMF project had three main themes concerning IC'l':

• to get an overview of the competencies and knowledge of every pupil prior to the intervention;

• to gain insight into the expectations that pupils, teachers and parents had for the pupils' developmental potential during the intervention period;

• to investigate the pupils' ICT competencies at the end of the intervention period, with the purpose of creating new knowledge to be used in education incorporating ICT among pupils with special needs,

The intervention consisted of computer access and use in the classroom in all lessons and all subjects (except for physical activities) within the usual curriculum. Three didactic steps were central: I) training of basic procedures with computers and ICT programmes: ~) training to use web based programmes such as e-mail systems, chat, sound and picture programmes as well as digital cameras and the Internet to seck information; 3) training on reading. writing and communication such as working with a logbook and working with projects.

The objective of this paper is to describe and share some findings of our study of the effect of the ITMF intervention project on pupils with learning difficulties in developing competencies in specific computer and ICT-progr.ullmes within a learning context. In this paper, we consider pupils to have normal intelligence for their age, but to have learning difficulties due to different social and behavioural problems. Usually, there was no medical diagnos~s concerning their mental state. A competency IS defined as a newly obtained skill. Learning with leT is considered being able to use the technology 10 add 10 one's knowledge in a learning context.

Theoretical Background

Experiential learning theory proposes a learning strategy that supports our understanding of purils with learning difficulties and their right to learning, This is highlighted by Kolb's definition of learning ( 19X4). "Learning by experience is the process

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whereby the human development arises". The experiential learning theory involves a cyclical process including four stages: I) concrete experience (CE), which emphasizes personal involvement with individuals in daily activities/situations, 2) reflective observation (RO), which involves learning by watching and listening, 3) abstract conceptualisation (AC), where the learner learns by thinking and 4) active experimentation (AE), where learning takes an active form and the learner learns by doing. According to Kolb's (1984) learning theory, effective learning must involve all four stages, but not in a specific sequence and the learner will often have to pass through the cycle several times in order to learn successfully. Since the learner can fluctuate between the stages it becomes very important for the teacher in the educational process to be aware of which learning position a pupil is in. Basic competencies involved pupils' experience, perception, knowledge and behaviour. Further, communication theory by Bateson (1972. 1979). including ICT in a learning perspective with specific l{lCUS on basic competencies, l{lCUSeS on didactic questions of goals and organisation in education.

The Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNICEF 1990), was launched by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and highlights in article 12 the child's right to express her/himself freely in all matters concerning the child. Article 13 concerns the child's right to freedom to seck, receive and impart information using any media of the child's choice. This specifically underscores the need of training pupils in a range of communication tools including ICT so they have a real choice. Article 23 focuses on mentally and physically disabled children and their right to a decent life and active participation in the

.IISTE 10/ II. VI!. I. 2()()7

community. To meet this goal communicative competencies arc necessary. Article 24 focuses on the child's right to health and facilities for treatment of illness and rehabilitation. This right places a great demand on society and education lor providing the environment for a healthy school life where pupils can communicate and learn.


This ITMF project regarding pupils with learning di tficultics lasted 18 months from August 2002 to January 2004 and included live municipal schools with special classes which were invited to participate in the project. Four schools accepted to participate in the project and in an internal computer network of teaching and dialogue with K'T.

Forty-one pupils were selected by the headmaster of the participating lour schools in order to secure representation of pupils with different learning difficulties. It was not the intention to secure national representation. We did not ask about the exact age of the pupils, but pupils in primary schools arc between seven and fifteen years old and, therefore, we assume that the participating pupils were in this age range, but different ages are usually found in classes for pupils with learning difficulties. Among the forty-one pupils enrolled. some pupils leli during the intervention period either because they moved to another school or graduated from school. Four pupils had graduated and by the end of the intervention period. all pupils from one school had graduated and therefore, only three schools were left lor the posttest.

Table I. Number of participating schools lind enrolled pupils at baseline, mid-test and post-test.

Baseline Mid-test Post-test J
Number of schools 4 4 3 J
Number of pupils 41 37 25 I Measllres

A quasi-experimental method \\',1S used using time series and repented measures with the same group of pupils and their teachers (Robson 2(02). The measure consisted of the same questionnaire (Appendix I) given at baseline and at the end of the 18 month study period and to be completed as part of the teachers' daily work. Together with their pupils the teachers tilled out the questionnaire. Due to their physical limitations some pupils could not have completed the questionnaire themselves. The response rate for the enrolled pupils was 100%,.

In total. 123 questionnaires were distributed to teachers in the participating classes. The questionnaires had 41 questions divided into three themes: basic competencies: key competencies and learningto-learn competencies (Appendix I). The lirst theme contained three questions labelled 'basic competencies'. The second theme contained 33 practical usc-related questions labelled . key competencies'. The third theme contained three questions regarding the pupils' communication and learning with ICT, labelled 'Icarning-to-learn' competencies.

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Validity and reliability

Baseline data were collected in August 2002, mid-test data in March-April 2003 and post-test data in January 2004. No control group was included. The pupils did not participate in other projects during this 18-month period, but maturation due to growth and contact with peers, family and others may have also influenced their competency development with ICT. The same teachers answered together with the same pupils in all three tests. All teachers who participated in the project were highly skilled in computer usc and ICT programmes.

During the 18 months that the intervention lasted, teachers, project managers and one of the researchers held monthly meetings to ensure the validity of the teacher responses. Cases of unforeseen uncertainties about the teachers completing the items identically were discussed until clarified. The teachers were also responsible for individual ICT action plans (Nordal & Overland 2001) for every individual pupil. The ICT action plans consisted of a written agreement between the pupil, the teacher and the parent about what the pupil actually could manage and what he or she wanted to work with, when he or she should reach his or her goal and how it should be reached. The action plans and questionnaire supported each other, which indicate that the questions were understood. The intervention could be repeated in schools and classes with pupils and conditions similar to the participating group.

JIST!: IiJIII. No. I. ]()()7


The investigation was based on the assumption that teachers answered the questions honestly together with the pupils, because some of the pupils had physical limitations and could not write. The pupils involved in the project had all agreed to participate. All parents were invited to information meetings prior to the project and all parents accepted the project plans. All parents gave written consent for each picture of their child to be visible on the internal network between the participating schools. Parents were also offered ICT courses in relation to the project. The investigation had no questions about race, sex. age, and types of learning difficulty or school class. Due to anonymity, no analysis of the non-response was possible.


The questionnaires were analysed using bi-variate statistical techniques and NSDstat pro. The overall result was that positive changes occurred for most pupils within all competencies. More pupils could use a computer after the intervention than before. Summary results (rather than individual items) arc presented within the three themes: basic competencies. key competencies, learning-to-learn competencies. Examples of individual items (Appendix I) in each theme are also reported here.

Table 2. Percentage of pupils with basic, key and learning-to-Iearn competencies at baseline and post-test

Basic competencies Key competencies Learning-to-learn
Yes With No Yes With No Yes With 1\0
help help help
I Baseline 49.43 41.34 9.17 4.41 16.08 79.63 10.00 46.00 44.00
I Post-test 97.33 2.66 0.00 51.69 38.88 9.43 49.00 49.00 2.00 Basic Competencies

Table 2 shows that the proportion of pupils who demonstrated basic competencies in the usc of the computer without any help had increased by the posttest. The proportion of pupils who did not have any basic competencies at baseline had decreased to zero by the post-test. The three questions included in basic competencies arc not shown in the table. The proportion of pupils (86.7%) who were always able to tum a computer on and off at baseline increased to 100% during the intervention period. Also by the post-test one third of the pupils (34.5%) were able to start up a programme and about half of the pupils (51.7%) were able to do it with help, compared to 13.8% of the pupils who were not able to do it at the baseline. By the post-test, all pupils (100%) had

increased their skills and competencies concerning turning a computer on and 011'. All pupils learned to work with a programme during the intervention. An increase from 24.1 % at baseline to 92% at the posttest was shown among the pupils who were able to work with a programme without help. An increase among pupils who could work with some help also occurred: 65.5% needed help at baseline and 8% needed help at the post-test.

Key Competencies

Key competencies regarded the pupils' ability to manage various processes with the computer and ICT. Table 2 shows that very few pupils (4.4%) could perform ICT key competencies alone at baseline. 16% could with help and 80% could not perform the

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activities. During the intervention period. nearly half of the pupils (47.3%) learned these ICT key competencies without help and 22.8% learned with help. 9.4% did not learn these skills within the 18- month-intervention. The proportion of pupils who could open an e-rnailbox increased 100%. from baseline to post-test. The number of pupils who could not open an e-mailbox at all at baseline was correspondingly reduced to zero (69% to Ot~,,,). by the post-test. The same tendency was seen in all 33 questions related to key competencies. The key questions related to e-mail showed that the proportion of pupils who could handle the e-mail alone increased from I 0% at baseline to 82% at the post-test. Regarding the key questions related to pictures. sound and chat. 94% of the pupils were not able to perform the activities at baseline. but by the post-test more than half of the pupils (57%) had learned to perform them. Forty percent needed help by the post-test.

Regarding key questions related to digital camera and pictures. a decrease occurred from baseline to posttest among pupils who were not able to use them (from 70% to 52%). At baseline. one litlh of the pupils (19%) needed help. At the post-test. nearly half of the pupils (47%) performed without help. Less than I % did not learn this skill.

According to the key questions about music and sounds hardly any (99%) were able to do this alone or with help at baseline. By the post-test 12t% had learned to use the functions without help and 41 ty,) of the pupils needed help. Nearly half of the pupils (47%) did not learn this skill. Regarding the key questions related to the Internet, nearly 8% could use the Internet at baseline. and 74% learned to use it without help during the intervention period. All pupils (100%) were able to handle the Internet with help or without help by the post-test.

Learning-to-Learn Competencies

The third theme considered pupils' communication skills and learning with leT and included using the key competencies about e-mail. the Internet and digital cameras. including taking pictures and prmtmg. As with the other two themes. the lindings here (Table 2) show that pupils increased their competencies during the time of the project. Regarding specific key competencies (Appendix I): 84% of the pupils could not work with a logbook on the computer at baseline. By the post-test 36% of the pupils had learned to work with a logbook without help and 24% needed help. The biggest increase (48%) was seen among pupils who. at baseline could not make descriptions 01: lor example. a school camp. During the intervention period, all pupils learned to make descriptions either alone (55%) or with help (44%). The same pattern was seen regarding learningto-learn questions on projects at the computer. At baseline. only 3.4% of the pupils were able to perform learning-to-learn functions without help. but by the

usn: 'i,lll . .\'0, I. :!O(}7

post-test 56%) could do so without help and 40% needed help.

Discussion of results

The locus in this investigation was the process from static to dynamic learning and from a passive to an active pupil role. Experiential learning theory according to Kolb ( 1984) olTers such a perspective on learning through the combination of experience. perception. knowledge and behaviour where transactions take place between person and environment.

Basic Competencies

In all areas. an increase in the pupils' basic competencies was demonstrated.

"The term 'basic' refers to something that depends on the requirements of the situation and the circumstances: mastering a skill well enough to solve a problem in one situation might not be enough in another situation" (Siiiiviilii 2004. p. 4) in a constantly changing society. According to Petersson and Brooks (2006) an adjusted support to reach a level of mastery is necessary. Further. Petersson and Brooks (2006) argue that rehabilitation and education offer an opportunity for children to substantially expand their skills.

In this project. the requirement was the ICT and the circumstances and support were the easy computer access and assistance from highly experienced teachers within daily classroom activities. All pupils had basic competencies and their learning ability was dependent on these competencies. They had concrete experiences (CE) about how to enter the computer desk and how to choose among programmes. When they focused on the screen. they learned by watching and listening. writing and reading. these being the reflective observations (RO). The abstract conceptualisation (AC) may be in a more limited form, but we believe that these pupils reflected, thus they increased their competencies by active experimentation (AE).

Key Competencie s

From a learning perspective. the most important result was the huge increase among the pupils who learned key competencies with or without help. This was a result of conscious teaching processes and engagement by the pupils which was in line with Petersson and Brooks (2006) who argue that a learning perspective demands engagement and active participation from teachers. pupils and others. Also Livingstone and Bovill (2001) argue that children associate use of the internet with "doing things" - finding out things. communicating with people and having fun.

The European Commission proposes a definition of key competencies: "Key competencies represent a transferable. multifunctional package of knowledge. skills and attitudes that all individuals need for

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personal fulfilment and development" (Siiilvillii 2004. p 6).

We cannot, in this study. distinguish between the value of ICT equipment used and the impact of the highly experienced teachers. The important question was for which purpose the pupil consciously could use herihis acquired competencies? This question was highlighted during the pupils' usc of ICT programmes. the Internet and digital cameras. According to Livingstone and Bovill (2001) children only become engaged when they find something on the Internet which touches on an already established interest, or when they can usc it to keep in touch with people they already know. Being an active user and not a passive receiver of information or communication was crucial in this study. In this context, educational programmes. scanning functions. ICT-based text reading and work with pictures were of great importance.

According to Bateson (1972. 1979). structure and process influence one another; structure can determine processes and processes can determine structure. What the pupils learned by using ICT in education depended on the social organisation of the educational context in which ICT was used. Education always takes place in a social and organisational context. which is very important for the development of the pupils' learning potential. The study suggested that the locus on ICT in the classroom inspired and stimulated the learning and communicution processes for pupils with learning difficulties,

To be able to handle key competencies, these representations must be transformed partly through reflection (RO) and active experimentation (AE). According to Kolb ( 1984). it is not possible to do both simultaneously; the pupils could not act practically and rellect at the same time. They had to make choices.

Learning-to-Learn Competencies

To what extent the pupil could use his or her acquired competencies depended on additional factors such as the type and degree of learning difficulties, the pupil's interests and motivation and the access to computer facilities. Livingstone and Bovill (20() I) argue that the importance of informal learning should not be underestimated. Although the ITMF intervention programme aimed to assist competencies in school it also aimed to increase communicative competencies between home and school. among pupils within a school, and between schools as part of the overall programme ( IT-media & folkeskole 2002). 'Learning-to-learn' comprises the disposition and ability to organise and regulate one's own learning, both individually and in groups. It includes the ability to manage one's time effectively, to solve problems. to acquire, process, evaluate and assimilate new knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts - at home. at work. in education and training" (Siiiivillii 2004, p 8). According to Bryderup (2004). within

JISTE '"III. No. I. 2007

special education one can argue lor two different views of educational thinking. namely a compensatory thinking, meaning to compensate lor troubled backgrounds and inadequate learning conditions and a comprehensive thinking referring to a unification of social education and special education based on possibilities rather than barriers.

To work with logbooks, camps and projects was a huge challenge for many pupils. This demanded complex skills which were provided within the project. In this intervention, it was relevant for the pupils to use the Internet for in order to find the information needed for their projects. In so doing they were improving their literacy skills. Also. the Internet was used to increase the pupils' communication skills either through text, pictures or sound as a link between home and school. This demands good reading skills and systematic competencies that they did not have when the intervention started. but which they developed during the intervention period. The pupils in our project were inclined to use the ICT facilities for leisure as well as school work in order to stimulate their development of competencies in various ways, Searching the Internet was a difficult process that all pupils learned to manage. A digital camera contains a number of possibilities to capture situations from daily life at school and home and communicate it visually. It helps the families to communicate with the school by using pictures and it gives the pupil a possibility to inlluence what they communi cute to other schools, friends, grandparents and others.

"Communication is the ability to express and interpret thoughts, feelings and facts in both oral and written form (listening, speaking and writing). and to interact linguistically in an appropriate way in the full range of social and cultural contexts - education and training. work, home and leisure" (Saavalu, 2004, p 7). This is in line with the Convention of the Rights of the Child (1990) in which articles 12 and 13 highlight the child's right to express him or herself in ways he or she chooses. The increased computer skills gained within the project should add to pupils' mastery of learning and communication strategies; then they can perceive having more fun and success than failure in communicating and learning.

Basically ICT competencies comprise the usc of multi-media technology to retrieve. assess, store, produce. present and exchange information and to communicate and participate in society. Many pupils learned to handle the computer in a learning-to-Iearn situation. The pupil must, therefore, have understood the connection between activating a keyboard and what happens on the screen. This could be a result of Iluctuation between concrete experience (CE) and reflective observation (RO).

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1'\'10st pupils could usc or did learn to usc programmes consciously. Many pupils became less dependent on the teacher during the intervention period. Learning is the active transformation of processes in which the pupils try to make meaning in their thoughts thus creating a world outside themselves. This "outside world" represented their world in two ways. One way was by concrete experience through feeling. smelling. sound and sight. The other way was through abstract conceptualisation of opinions and meanings.

In the learning-to-learn process. the pupils moved between being active and being observers and from being involved to being analytic. This process continues as long as pupils learn. They must create concepts integrating the observations in their mind and they must be able to make decisions and solve concrete problems. The structural basis in a learning process concerns transformation between the four stages. Schools' and teachers' intensive work with the digital camera must have gone though the same process as Kolb described given the increased learning results. Searching on the Internet seemed to be a successful process for the pupils. The questions concerning learning-to-learn and communication competencies all focused on the relation between the concrete and the abstract and between the reflective and the active seen in relation to learning goals. learning conditions and pupils' basic competencies. To learn with leT adds to making learning meaningful for pupils with learning difficulties who discover the world in their own way.

Strengths and weaknesses

The strengths of the study were that the questionnaires were used repeatedly for the same group of pupils. This study revealed changes in the pupils' skills and competencies to work with the computer program Illes and to learn from them. Surveys do not provide explanations, but associations: however. the study gave each school a possibility to follow their pupils' development.

We assume it is difficult to assess progress among pupils with learning difficulties. The usc of a quasi method where the teachers assist the pupils to till out the questionnaire added to these di fficuhics. but nonetheless. this was the most acceptable method to obtain the information needed, as many of the pupils were not able to write.

JISTF. IiJIII. No. I. ]1J1J7

The weakness of the study was that the pupils themselves did not answer the questionnaire independently. There was a risk for recall bias that teachers would influence positively if they perceived that the pupils' development appeared less than expected. To get more in-depth answers another kind of research. perhaps observation studies would be more suitable.


This intervention project revealed unexpected learning and communication potential among pupils with learning difficulties. By using leT communication between pupils in the classroom increased as well as communication on the internal network between the participating schools. The project inspired the pupils to create networks. Photos. especially. became a key tool and strengthened the pupils' communication. It even supported their writing and reading skills for they had to read in order to understand the instruction on the computer. It became interesting to learn and they started to search information on the Internet. Learning with leT even supports the children's right to education and a dignified life and development.

Changing demands and changing roles of teachers: how should teacher education respond'!

In order to improve teaching pupils with learning difficulties. teachers face new demands such as replacing compensatory education with comprehendsive education. From the findings or this small study we can offer the proposition, that it is central that teachers consciously rethink education to incorporate leT as natural in this technology age, and as a priority which supports teaching rather than as a remedy that competes with other teaching tools. This way of thinking also suggests that the role of the teachers be more supportive in learning processes in order to create conditions for the pupils to develop their independence and competencies in making conscious choices.

The development of leT technology has changed and expanded the possibilities of ways of teaching. This ought to influence how teacher education view curricula and pedagogy. Teacher education should focus consciously on leT as a valuable and necessary vehicle in teaching and learning.

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./ISTE '01 II. No. I. ~()tJ7


Bateson. G. (1972). Steps to ecology ofmind. New York: Bertram Books.

Bateson, G. (1979). ,'v lind and Nature. A necessary unity. New York: Bertram Books. Brown. A. & Miller D. (2002). Classroom Teachers Working with Software Designers: The

Wazzu Widgets Project. hllp:llconfreg.uoregon.cdu/nccc2002/.

Bryderup I. M. (2004). The educational principles of social education and special education for children and youngsters in care. Young. vol 12 (4): 337-356.

Clark. K. B (2002). Research. Students with Disabilities. and Technology: Guidelines for Teacher Educators. hllp://

Convention on the Rights of the Child. (1990). UNICEF.

Florian L. and Hegarty J. (cds.) (2004) ICT and special educational needs. A tool for inclusion. Maidenhead Open University Press.

Hasselbring. T. S .• Glaser. C. H. W. (2000). Usc of Computer Technology To Help Students with Special Needs. FUI/Ire ofChildren, 10(2). 102-22.

IT. media & folkeskolen (2002) Notat 30.05.2002. (Danish). (ICT. Media & Folk-school)

(note 30.05.2002) O:\itmf\Forskningstemaer 1.2.3.

Runde\Ldvalgte_IOlinjer_udennr._123R_LD _160902.doc

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experimental Learning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Inc.

Livingstone S, Bovill M. (2001) Families, schools and the Internet. Issue 1.0, 12/09/ Mathiasen, H. (ed) (2003). IT og keringsperspektiver (Dal/is/I). (lCT and perspectives 01/

learning). Copenhagen: Larings Arcnaer, Alinea.

Nordal, T. & T. Overland (2001). lndividuelle Opkeringsplaner (Danishttlndividual Learning plans). Copenhagen: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Peters son E & Brooks A. (2006) Virtual and Physical Toys: Open-ended Features for Non-Formal Learning. CyberPsychology & Behaviour. Vol 9 (2): 196-199.

Robson C. (2002). Real World Research: a resource for social scientists and practitionerresearchers. Oxford: Blackwell.

Steingold K., Hadley M. (1990) Accomplished Teachers - Integrating Computers into

Classroom Practice. Centre for Technology in Education. Bank Street College of Education.

Sllllviilii T. (2004). Implementation of"Education and Training 2010" Work Programme.

Key Competencies for Lifelong Learning. A European Reference Framework. European Commission.

Stoll. C. ( 1999). High Tech Heretic. New York, Doubleday, Random House.

Ina K_ Borup (DrPH) is associate professor at the Nordic School of Public Health in Gothenburg in Sweden. Her research is mainly on schoolchildren's health and health behaviour and contact to the school health nurse within a learning and health promoting context. Focus is on the children's perspective. She has presented and published a number of articles in international journals as well as chapters in textbooks. Quantitative as well as qualitative research methods arc used in her research especially Grounded Theory.

Correspondence: Ina Borup, Nordic School of Public Health. Box 12133. SE-402 42 Gothenburg Sweden. Phone 0046 31 693941: Fax 0046 31 691777: e-mail: ina(

Johan R. Borup is associate professor at the University College South. Department of Postgraduate and Further Education. Development and Research in Vordingborg, Denmark His research is mainly on special education. Focus is on the pupils' perspective. He has presented and published at national as well as international conferences. He has chapters in a number of textbooks on educational development strategies.

Correspondence: Johan R. Borup. University College South. Naestvedvej 2. DK-4760 Vordingborg, Denmark. Phone 0045 3 553 I 3~35: Fax 0045 355313899: e-mail: johan.bnrup(

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JISTE 1,,1 II. So. I. ]/11)7

Appendix 1. Items in the questionnaire at baseline and post-test

The questionnaires had 41 questions divided into three themes: basic competencies: key competencies and learning-to-learn competencies.

Learning-to-learn competencies contained three questions regarding the pupils' communication and learning with ICT:

Basic competencies contained three questions:

Can the pupil turn the computer on and off? Can the pupil start a programme up?

Can the pupil work with a programme?

Key competencies contained 33 practical use-related questions:

Can the pupil open an e-rnailbox? Can the pupil read e-mails?

Can the pupil answer and send c-mails? Can the pupil attach files to e-rnails? Can the pupil attach pictures?

Can the pupil insen sounds'?

Can the pupil chat with pupils from his/her own school'? Can the pupil chat with a network group'?

Can the pupil chat with his/her home'?

Can the pupil handle a digital camera?

Can the pupil take photographs with a camera? Can the pupil open a browser programme'? Can the pupil copy pictures to a folder?

Can the pupil handle different photograph formats?

Can the pupil work with a picture programme and open the pictures? Can the pupil insert pictures in <I text programme'?

Can the pupil edit a picture? Can the pupil print <I picture? Can the pupil cut in <I picture programme'?

Can the pupil paint in a picture programme'?

Can the pupil insen text in a picture programme'! Can the pupil edit pictures in picture programmes'!

Can the pupil insert text and frames in a picture programme'? Can the pupil double-expose and save in a picture programme? Can the pupil insen pictures in c-rnails and chat?

Can the pupil use the PC as a music tool?

Can the pupil copy sound from a cd-rom?

Can the pupil copy sound from the Internet'?

Can the pupil connect sound and picture'?

Can the pupil make sound into text?

Can the pupil enter the Internet'?

em the pupil seek information on the Internet'?

Can the pupil download information on timetables for busses and trains. etc.'?

Can the pupil work with a logbook on the computer'?

Can the pupil make descriptions of, for example. school camps on the computer'? Can the pupil work with projects or related subiects on the computer'?

The response key for all the questions was: Yes: with little help: WIth some help: with much help: no. In this paper these five response keys were compiled into three: Yes: with help: no.

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JISlE li)1 II. No" I. 10m

Infant Schooling as a condition for inclusive education

Ana Maria Albertin and Benjamin Zufiaurre

In this paper the authors reflect Oil the social history ofinfant schooling. the current trends of first generation immigration in Spain and the challenges of immigration for the country. One challenge that is discussed is social disintegration resulting from a failure to integrate immigrants successfully into the society. It is proposed that inclusive education has the potential to ameliorate this situation byfostering social cohesion and that such education is most likelv to succeed by starling at the beginning with infant schooling. Suggestions are offered jill' programs for inclusive infant education and the type of" professional required for infant schools where such education would lake place.

Infant schooling: Where we came from

There is no reliable record of early childhood education and care patterns before the nineteenth century. What exists arc prescriptive writings on child rearing. which arc unlikely to have had much impact on the population as a whole, since such writings were beyond the reach of the majority. who merely repeated the practices handed down from generation to generation. These accounts and treatises suggest a sad history of early childhood, marked by such atrocuies as infanticide. abandonment, neglect. immobilisation, corporal punishment. starvation. exploitation, exorcism, etc. It can be said that, geographical and historical considerations aside, the social image of childhood in every culture and every past era has been one of bareness. neediness, helplessness, with no recognised autonomy or identity.

Since child rearing had always been considered the task of parents, it was not until the advent of the industrial society of the twentieth century. which brought with it several social changes including absent adults from home, smaller households. and women's entry to the workforce. that there was any clear decision to make early childhood care and education the joint responsibility of State and family. It was in this context that the first early childhood care facilities were introduced. conceived on the same lines as the orphanages and children's hospitals that had preceded them, that is. as charitable welfare institutions, intended for the custody of children who had been orphaned or left without adult supervision because both parents had to work. Thus a contradictory function of infant education developed: on the one hand. attending to the educative needs during the earliest and most crucial stage of children's development. while. on the other. being primarily custodial by caring and protecting young children. and, at most. keeping them entertained (Bowlby. 1952).

Early educationalists such as Froebcl, Montessori. Decroli, and the Agazzi sisters argued effectively in favour of the educative function of the lnfant School and thanks to their efforts and foresight. there arc

numerous examples of thoroughly valid experiments of schooling that have led to successful learning and development outcomes in children. Yet the contradiction lingers on. But the view of the child as having her/his own identity and not interwoven with adult identity is gaining credence. Children are no longer seen as just adults in the making. needy of guidance and protection, but as individuals with rights. Children's needs and rights have become the locus of attention and provide a foundation to underpin a rationale for providing inclusive infant schooling for all children.

A Rationale for inclusive infant schooling

The model of inclusive education that we present in this paper. is based on the assumption of education for community development. which has developed widely and has come to be known as "cities for children" in the experiments conducted in Reggio Emilia (VV.AA. 1990 a. 1995). Torino (Alfieri, 1990), and Bologna (Frubboni, 1984). It also follows the guidelines of the international network lor "cities for education", and "educational resources in cities" (VV.AA. 1990 b). The International Conference on this concept that was held in Barcelona and hosted by the municipality. the Ministry of Education. the Council of Europe, UNESCO. and others, was supported by 46 cities in 20 countries. This network has since grown and hosted a second conference in Goteborg, Sweden, in 1992. followed by others. The driving force of these networks and conferences is belief in the transforming power of infant education. An equally strong belief is the usc of cities as laboratories for learning to live together. and as spaces open to conviviality, dialogue and tolerance. spaces where we can teach and learn in order to shape children's and grown-up's images, and in order to promote democratic knowledge and social cohesion. As L. Malaguzzi, in Hoyuelos (2001) maintains. "schools in harmony with culture and the new forms of scientific questioning. have great options to contribute to the development of human wisdom once we leave aside the old world of programmes of study and repeating knowledge" (145- 147): and "teachers arc to guarantee method, how to

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proceed in discussions, how to deal with interest. motivation. ideas. participation" (563-564).

Behind these beliefs in children and in schools and cities as learning spaces arc notions about children and the nature of knowledge as explained by Lipman ( 1997) and Tonucci (1990):

• Children know and adults arc to help them to reach the highest level of integrated cognitive. social. emotional. and motor knowing.

• Children are to build their knowledge through enquiry, reflection. reasoning. participation and constructive judgement.

• Knowledge about the world is ambiguous. divergent, and mysterious. Knowledge IS juxtaposed, and is there lore hard to structure into subject matters. It is ever changing: it multiplies and is built up over time: at the same time that it is universal it is also particular to groups and their cultures.

A changing society requires incluslve education

As a consequence of globalization and the intemationalisation of economic development. immigration - from south to north. east to west. from less developed countries to more highly developed ones. from underdeveloped regions to more developed areas - is delining a new post-colonial move (McCarthy. 1996. 2004) which influences the configuration of growth patterns while calling lor a new definition of world-wide citizenship. According to a recent Report (UNPD. 2004). between 1980 and 2000. migration from Asia. Africa and South America to developed countries. grew by about 75%. Meanwhile. about 900 million of the world's population sutTer religious. ethnic. racial and other forms of discrimination. in a context where there arc about 5.000 different ethnic groups in about 200 countries. The recommendations of the United Nations (U.N.) arc to double the admission of immigrants to Europe by the year 2050 in order to onset the ageing of the European population and the low birth rate. But it will be necessary to protect the diversity or cultural identities. promote the political representation of ethnic and religious minorities. open borders to new cultures. ideas and people. and also prepare a response to linguistic. religious. cultural and ethnic conflicts. In this sense. cultural freedom is considered an instrument to support democracy and

usn: lid ff. ,VII. f. !1I1I7

political stability. essential for human development. while the construction of a multicultural society represents a condition for economic development. and a pre-requisite to keep the basic social services under control.

For the U.N.. the policies for cultural freedom. developed formerly in Canada and the USA with the aim to integrate waves of migration with economic development plans. arc considered successful. However, while European Community Resolutions are giving way to restrictive policies to deal with the wave of migration that began with the economic crisis of the I 970s, in the countries of Europe the immigration issue is being viewed with leur (Fernandez. 2002). Therefore schools, where boys and girls acquire the basic knowledge and social skills to enable them to develop properly in the social settings in which they have chosen to live and grow. represent the most important space in which to achieve the social and cultural integration of immigrants (Siguan. 1992). That is why we arc obliged to think about how to plan school actions in order to provide a way towards an "inclusive education" for cultural minorities: in other words. construct an inclusive school system in which to integrate them. There is room for this in Infant schooling. as long as attention is paid to respect for the different cultural backgrounds. languages. ways of Ii lc and social attitudes. which arc linked to the skills and abilities that immigrants are able to develop. if allowed.

Immigration- a major issue for Spain

The arrival of other groups. cultures. and peoples in .1 country requires and leads to changes in that countrv's social reality. These changes require seri{;us attention This is now taking place in Spain. a country that used to be an exporter of migrants to other European countries and to North and South America. Since the late 1990s. however. for various economic and political reasons. the country has been experiencing a wave of first generation immigration that started about 1995. and is growing at such rate as to increase the population by about I 'Yo every year (Escudero. 2004). In 2002. the immigrant population amounted to 2.672.596 (6.26% or the total population). This represents an increase of ncarlv 40%,

over 2001 (Table I). .

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JISTt: !i)1 I I. No, I. :!1I07

Table I. Average percentage increase of' immigrants in Spain in 2002

Central and South America 38.61% 40%
Africa 19.56% 23.5%
Eastern European countries outside 13.05% 65.07%
the E.U.
various E.U. countries 21.98%,
Asia 4.83% 30.34%
North America 1.55%.
rest of the world 0.44%. The average number of "legal" immigrants (an estimated 50% to 60% of the total) grew in Spain from 800 thousand in 1999. to almost one and half million in 2002 (lNE, 2004). Overall, however, the immigrant population is estimated to be growing by about 1 % of the total population every year. currently standing at about 4.4 million (December 2005). which is roughly 10% or more of the total population. Spain receives more immigrants than any other country in Europe (Nogueira, 2004), and is, together with Ireland, the most dynamic in Europe when it comes to introducing changes due to economic development.

Immigration in Spain is creating a need for a wide variety of educational and social measures, while exhibiting some of the same characteristics observed previously in various European countries. The country receives three main types of immigrants who. while sharing some characteristics, are also very diverse. First, the South-Americans, who have for ages shared the same language. politics and social relations; secondly, the East-Europeans who share a new project, which is Europe; thirdly, the North-Africans who share a common neighbourhood. The space that Spain can provide for these three main groups and others is based on a framework that is influenced by different approaches to multiculturalism. while contemplating different European tendencies. namely those of the French, the British, or the German models (Aparicio, 2000).

The "French way" is to integrate immigrants in a context of equal citizenship in the public sphere but not in the private one. The "British way" is to employ a kind of social unity approach, which allows differences to be integrated into a historic and socially pluralistic and liberal empire. The "German way" appears more restrictive in a sense. and is based on the idea of citizenship and the German family background. A more inclusive model. followed to some extent by Scandinavian countries. though now in decline in Europe. is to integrate school actions and activities through the language and culture of the immigrants; that is. using the student's home language as the first language at school. and that of the host country as the second language. According to our experience working for many years in Infant

schooling. as teachers and teacher-trainers, this is the option we consider should be used to drive early childhood education. and the one which frames and gives meaning to this paper as weIl as some previous ones (Zufiaurre, Penal va 2002; Penalva, Zuliaurre 2006 a.b: Zufiaurre, Albertin, Pefialva 2006; Zufiaurre,2006).

However, the different kind of social and educational measures currently offered fit into a kind of "colonial model". which matched the situation in the 1950s in France or Great Britain (Abad, 2002) during the postwar consensus (Jones, 1983), while the social and economic perspectives envisage a kind of "foreign workers" model in which immigrants are considered necessary only to respond to the demands of economic development. Consequently, working and living conditions for "foreigners" are becoming harder and more precarious. Immigration is seen mainly as a problem that developed countries suffer as a result of the adverse economic situation in some Third world countries. The situation is an exploitative one for immigrants who are manipulated by mafias and shameless lobbies. and who are victims of growing racism and xenophobia while their human rights are undermined in the name of security, and to protect the welfare of Europeans (Kyrnlica, 1995; (Zufiaurre, Albertin and Baquero. 2005). We think the moment has come to create an integrative intercultural model based on democratic principles and a participatory dynamic of socialisation and school inclusion. In the present situation, we strongly believe that there is an urgent need to address the consequences of immigration in a positive way.

Infant schooling and social change

In addition to immigration there are other social changes that are the result of scientific and technological innovations, and that have some implications for how we think about and construct inclusive infant schooling for the twenty first century. \V e have to look anew at how we understand knowledge and also look at what theories are emerging from research in brain functioning and the developmental sciences.

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Knowledge and understanding

With respect to knowledge and understanding. we come up against the trend that a widespread transdisciplinary movement is pushing us towards an ecological conception of knowledge and therefore of education. This current thinking rejects any attempt to encase reality in a simplified framework. or split it into disciplines using a partialised approach to knowledge; it embraces multiformity and complexity and honours the coexistence or scientific and cultural developments (Bronfcnbrcner, 1987). So we should approach childhood not in a parcel-specific way. not in isolated compartments. but through a reformulation of the human image as holistic and ecological. This position would lead us to understand the wholeness of environmental adaptation or interaction and requires us to consider the environment as a mobile pattern of links in which the human being participates. not dominate.

Tile nature of bra;" functions

Brain research no longer considers the brain as a static. genetically programmed structure. but as a mobile structure within a system of nerve cells. in constant evolution or involution, depending on environmental factors (Zeki, 1995). This means that human development should be considered in its interdependence with environmental and educational conditions. It will be through interaction with adults. peers. and via active participation, that different roles tor child and adult will evolve in a broad and varied range or situations in which gradual development takes place. The organisation of the brain shapes education and the emotional environment and modi ties the way that information is processed. A general theory of the brain is envisaged. even when the complexity of our brain exceeds our capacity to predict how it works (Gardner 200 I); whatever emerges from such theorising will have an impact on how we think about knowledge and how we construct infant schooling.

Tile developmental sciences

The developmental sciences lead us to take the plasticity of the human being in the early years of life as our most compelling argument for inclusive education; for the successful development of language, cognition, control and balance of the emotions. psychomotor skills and socialisation requires an environment rich in valid stimuli (Mora. 2(01). The increasing diversity of our societies and communities is part of those rich stimuli. This is the kind of educational environment that will allow children. through interaction with their peers. their teachers and other adults, and through participation in different lite experiences and situations. to develop their capacities and acquire knowledge. skills. abilities and values while also recognising what conditions will enhance their later learning. development (Maturana and Varela, 1999) and socialisation. For a

.lIST/-; li,1 II. ;\'0. I. !/II17

child to be socialised into membership of a cultural group in a human community requires assistance: it is not something tor which the individual is genetically programmed. Inclusive Infant schooling can contribute to the socialisation process in culturally. ethnically and religiously diverse communities.

How to deal with inclusion in Infant schooling

In defending an inclusive model for Infant schooling. we arc taking into account that. since 2004. changes have been taking place in the political agenda (Blanco and Gispcrt, 2(04) in Spain. A better em has begun for the integration of immigrants in a socially pluralistic setting, and this is an improvement on earlier assimilative approaches. I Here again. it is in the Infant School that we can find the path that leads towards social integration. since it is in Infant schools where children can learn to interact early in their lives. and where families are able to meet each other and get involved in collaborative and participatory endeavours and activities. It is in the first grades of schooling that we find increasing ethnically mixed student populations; immigrants number 50% or more of a class. Immigrants are increasing the country's birth rate significantly.

Until now. the Spanish educational system's response to the problematic surrounding immigration has been limited. The only current educational initiatives. which arc seen by some as an adequate political solution to the issue of cultural diversity (Munoz. 1997). are based on a model of compensatory education that takes the form of Spanish language courses, special language and cultural programmes, and the provision of extra educational resources tor immigrants. In this context. the development of a common approach of cultural diversity lor all. in the wider sense. has simply been forgotten. Immigrants arc viewed from a "special needs" perspective in which the answer is to attend to individual needs (Warnock. 1999) in compulsory schooling and create streaming mechanisms for socially disadvantaged pupils.' This being the case. the available options arc to provide measures of school guidance. supervision and mcntorship. By following this approach. teachers (where they are prepared to work on this. which is optional) can assist students not only in their academic progress but also in other social. personal and moral dimensions of their development. We have argued elsewhere (Zufiaurre, Albertin, and Pcnalva, 20(6) that the use of stich measures creates a positive attitude among the students when changes occur and when teachers are ready to work openly towards intercultural comprehension. cultural interaction. understanding one another's position and developing intercultural and communicative competence.

Obviously, to develop optimal educational provision for cultural minorities. we have to go further. We need to adapt school structures. curriculum content.

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teaching methods, school organisation, people's attitudes, working strategies. educational priorities. and institutional policies. We need to introduce major changes in areas such as basic and continuing teacher training, democratic school participation. community development. research in action, etc. This can be envisaged from early childhood education, following the option we defend here. that of inclusive infant education. This means an integrative school system that is committed to building solidarity, co-operation and social consensus among citizens. It involves measures of political participation, religious freedom. flexibility, pluralism, equity and openness (VV.AA. 1990 - 1995, talking about Reggio Emilia's experience ).

The implementation of an intercultural inclusive school project requires a good school atmosphere in which team-work and development of the group are valued. It also demands research strategies to develop a political project for education. As we understand it, inclusive schooling can potentially overcome the historic subordination of excluded minorities that persists in modem times, while defending social justice and equal rights for all. together with participatory democratic development (Pefialva and Zufiaurre, 2006 b). It calls for a type of school that is open to collaboration and co-operation: the kind of school that considers freedom. diversity, empathy and trust, as requisite values tor sharing social rules, social habits. and social behaviour. These conditions provide a favourable environment lor teaching and learning. They fit with democratic school experiences and with the Infant School model we refer to above as including community participation experiences, or other experiences that have arisen around the movement of "cities lor education" (VV.AA. 1990 a, b).

The notions of community, integration, social cohesion, participation and development that we have explored above lead us to present the following list of ideas as key perspectives for viewing Infant education in an open and inclusive way:

• As a deliberate process to assist the individuation and socialisation of children in all facets of their development:

• As a constant self-building process. open to change and self-controllable:

• As an interactive. cooperative, group process:

• As a creative. flexible, dynamic. reflexive and optimising process (Albertin and Zutiaurrc, 2006).

Inclusive infant schooling as an educational community

The Infant School, lor children from birth and up to six years of age, should take the form of a broad-

.IJSTE /il/ II. No. I. ]007

based educational community where children and adults learn and arc educated in an uninterrupted succession of exchanges that facilitate the evolution of practices and interpretive theories of knowledge. C. Rinaldi (1998) describes it as a school in which children recognise and build their rights. where they can be respected and valued for their own identity, uniqueness and difference. This means catering for the subjectiveness, uniqueness and irrcpcatability of each person, and highlights the need to permit the self-generation of spaces, where those who share that space can creatively develop and deploy their multiple capacities.

The Infant School will therefore have to provide an answer to the social changes that demand, from men and women alike, a relevant set of knowledge, skills and values that work well in a diverse society. At the same time, it must allow children, whatever their sex, race, class or creed, to integrate into the community as responsible, active, critical, thoughtful and supportive individuals, capable of interacting in a societal context that is now characterised by discord, homogeneity and resistance 10 change.

This is where the words of L. Molina (1988, 31) apply, when she talks of the Infant school as "a broadbased educational community with its own means and resources, equipped not to contradict or supplant the educational roles of other members or institutions within the community (family, friends. neighbours, social services, municipal authorities, health departments, etc), but rather to collaborate with them in guaranteeing an education for all the children of the community". This is consistent with the Reggio proposals for Infant education as community development. (VV.AA. 1990, 1995).

The Infant School should therefore possess the following features:

• It should take jomt responsibility for early education with other agencies in the field.

• It should help to build a stock of scientific and cultural knowledge to meet the needs of a complex society.

• It should pave the way for educative intervention that will provide the necessary living conditions to safeguard the physical and mental health of young children while guaranteeing their participation in the learning and development process.

• It should equip itself to deal with diversity. value and respect lor differences, while acting as a vehicle to promote awareness of the needs and characteristics of young children.

• It should help to instil trust and confidence in children, focusing on affective, emotional, cultural and moral points of reference.

The program for this inclusive Infant School is a complex and ambitious proposal that comes from 30

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years experience working with infants and ganung national and international expertise in the field (Zufiaurre and Pellejero, 2000), (Albcrtin and Zufiaurre 2005. 2006), (Zufiaurre and Albertin, 2006). We determine that. along with knowledge acquisition. a good program should include. as important. the following features:

• Opportunities for learning by discovery and experimentation in all areas of the program;

• The use of custom-made programs for both functional and communicative language acquisition.

• Widespread use of cooperative teaching strategies by the teaching staff and the pupils:

• Adoption of the equal dialogue approach. rather than imposition. as a means to resolve conflict and controversy.

• A restructuring of support services and stalling in order to foment and ensure the inclusion and participation of the most disadvantaged children in all school activities.

• Promotion of the value of diversity in the classroom by creating interactive learning groups:

• Involvement of pupils' families in school life and in educational planning and development processes.

• Opportunities for parents to attend informational workshops covering any topics deemed necessary to enhance the supporting role of the family in their children's education:

• Emphasis on the community as a whole and families in particular. thereby stimulating interest in and awareness of being in harmony with their children's learning process; also enriehing the capacities of families and community;

• Promotion of collective management strategies and a participative and collaborative approach to the running of schools.

The conception of Infant education in all of this accepts that early childhood has its own identity and that the Infant School exists to provide a high quality educational service. Implementing these notions depends on availability of resources. Implementation will require some system change. the realignment of curricular components. change in organisational norms and guidelines. availability of school spaces. a time frame lor the planning of a range of activities. good relations with the families. team meetings. trauung, good relations with the community, professionals with relevant theoretical and practical training. etc. Implementation will demand commitment on the part of the entire educational community and this includes the teaching team. the educational system administration and the families in the community.

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The professinnal for Infant schools

The school described above should be staffed by professionals who. through their own theoretical and practical knowledge as well as discussion with the children and their families. can come to understand their actions and respond to their work with empathy. fairness. and professional integrity. They should be able to value. criticise. self-build and evaluate their own work in harmony with different groups of children and in consideration of their widely varying characteristics and backgrounds. Their educational approach would be based on an understanding and acceptance of change; knowledge of research and innovation. especially as such impact their work: acceptance and promotion of team work and whole school involvement and engagement in and with the community. The successful professional who works in an Infant School can be immersed in one context while remaining aware of its links with many others.

Concluding comments: Infant schooling - is it a path towards inclusion?

"Throughout the ages, human societies have known conflict of sufficient degree in extreme cases as to endanger their cohesion. Nowadays. however, it is impossible to ignore a series of phenomena that suggest that the social tic in most countries in the world is in a period of deep crisis. It is not merely a question of cross-country or inter-regional disparities. but of a deeper chasm between social groups, both in the developed and the less developed worlds. The uprooting caused by migration. the rural exodus. family dispersion. unplanned urbanisation. and the breakdown of traditional support networks based on proximity all combine to isolate and exclude many groups and individuals. The social crisis sweeping today's world is combined. moreover, with a moral crisis and accompanied by growing violence and delinquency. The breaking of the ties of proximity can be seen in the dramatic rise in the number of interethnic conflicts. which appear to be characteristic of the late twentieth century" (UN ESCO 1996: 56- 57). In overall terms what we are seeing in various forms. is the effect of disintegrating values and an increase in the phenomenon of social exclusion. In 1990 the Dolors Report said such increase was alarming; today it still is. This issue concerns us. What is the response?

Others have said it and we concur. that the simplest and most direct answer is to create a more inclusive education system (Echeita, 20(6) to try to slow down and redirect the processes of community disintegration and social exclusion that are taking place in many societies and in Spain. Social exclusion is torcing ever-larger numbers of citizens to live at substandard levels of dignity and inequality, thereby degrading them as citizens.

Infant education recognises all people from the earliest age as individuals with rights to an education

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that will enable them to achieve the full deployment of their capacities. In infant education there are points at which different problem areas converge: class, gender relations, ethnic relations, institutional constraints. etc. Each child comes into the school with her/his own unique, unrepeatable history. It is through interaction. exchange. comprehension of the child's moods and actions. and the possibility for children and adults to communicate on equal terms. that the child's way of life. physical. nutritional and hygienic needs. emotions, deprivations. beliefs. fears and sorrows can be recognised and addressed in an environment of hope, promise and mutuality. This mutual understanding and recognition of the specific nature of each individual opens up a wide range of avenues and possibilities of intervention with the children and their families and with the community as a whole.

./IS7E iu n. ;VII. I. !O()7

It is not easy to achieve the kind of integration in which different aspects of diverse cultures are balanced, the unfamiliar is accepted on equal tenns with the familiar, and each member can find an opportunity to construct her/his own identity in harmony with the rest. But it must be done, i I' society is to function for the good of all its members. There is a current demand for schools to contribute in the effort to redress and mitigate the strong social tendency towards classification and exclusion (Arnaiz, 2003) and so help to ameliorate disparities. With high quality inclusive infant schooling it is possible to prepare the ground for the prevention of the social situations described above.


1 On 1'1 January, 2005, the socialist Government implemented a plan for the regulation of immigrants under the initiative of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, starting with work inspection. The aim was to push forward a plan to legalise the situation of illegal immigrants. The process of Regulation included all Autonomous Communities. At that time. 2.357.056 immigrants aged 16 to 64 were registered with the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Of these. 1.197.383 were legally employed. while 1.159.671 were assumed to be illegally employed. From these figures. it was estimated that no less than 70%. that is. 811.771 were of working age. When the regulation process began, 690,676 applications were presented (58.76% men and 41.24% women). The only requirement was confirmation by an employer. As a result. 607.898 were admitted, 61, III were sti II in need of new certificates, 21.670 were rejected for one reason or another, and 121.092 were declared ineligible. (Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Immigration Report, 2005). The result is that over 8.7% of those enrolled in the social security system. arc immigrants.

~ In Spain. school organisation and practices with respect to immigrant students are similar to those used with disabled students. This means that students needing special help are not involved in a framework of multilateral school strategies to deal with minorities. The consequence is that the success of' the integration of immigrant students depends on the school atmosphere and the school's style of teamwork. The only specific educational provision made for them, if any. is in the form of' Spanish language courses. compensatory resources and support teachers for disciplinary subjects.

School strategies are based on models of' cultural assimilation for the whole immigrant population, whatever their origin. This is the case in all Autonomous Communities. School provision and decision-making and policies with regard to textbooks (Penalva and Zufiaurre, 2006 a b), are defined by Central State regulations, at least until the new Statutes of Autonomy bring about some changes.

Diversity is a problem, and it is viewed as the inability to create standard class levels. The ability of school teams to assist immigrant students, their families and improve their social environment depends on school size, numbers of ordinary and support teachers. and measures of school guidance and supervision. Referring to this, we have argued elsewhere that the use of such measures creates a positive attitude among the students (Zufiaurrc, Albertin and Pefialva, 20(6), (Zufiaurre. et al, 20(5).

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Ana Maria Albertin is part - time Associate Profesor at the Department of Psychology and Pedagogics at the Public University of Navarra, Spain, and school teacher in Pamplona (Spain). Her main fields of work are Infant schooling. Gender and multicultural perspectives in Education, democratic and cooperative evaluation, School guidance and supervision. She has presented many papers at national and international conferences. and published frequently in these area. mainly in Spanish.

Correspondence: Ana Maria Albcrtin .Dcpartment of Psychology and Pedagogics. Public University of Navarra. Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.

Phone 0034 948 169484; Fax 0034 948 169981; E mail:

Benjamin Zufiaurre is Professor of Education at the public University of Navarra (Spain), and Head oftrhe Department of Psychology and Pedagogics. His main fields of work are curriculums studies, teacher professionalism, educational evaluation and gender and multicultural perspectives in education. He has presented more than 60 papers in national and international conferenes around the world and published more than 50 articles in recognised journals, both in Spanish and in English.

Correspondence: Benjamin Zufiaurre. Department of Psychology and Education. Public University of Navarra Campus De Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra. Spain.

Phone 0034 948 169484; Fax 0034 948 169981; E-mail:

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JISlE /i.III. XII I. :!O(J7

Dispositions for Social Responsibility: Teaching and Assessing for Democratic Practice and Social Justice in Diverse Contexts

Tanya Huber-Warring lind Douglas F. Warring

The popular phrase "teaching for democracy" often appears ill the literature about education and is often accepted as all accomplished reality. 8111 el'ell in nations founded on democratic principles such as the United SIMes of America, social justice issues continue 10 he contested. 111 this paper, lI'e propose that a deeper consideration ofthe meaning of" democracy, particularly in relation 10 issues of" diversity and social justice ill education. is of paramount importance 10 teacher educators and the students and teachers with whom they engage in critical reflection on these topics. Through examples from courses in varied programs in the United States, Europe, and South America, with educators ill diverse settings. I\'e suggest a focus on core dispositions and specific rubric components to engage students in (Ill on-going, shared. self-assessment process appropriate for teachers and students committed to developing dispositions for social responsibility, promoting democratic practice. all" embracing socialjustice and global diversity.

Defining dispositions

To develop a framework for this exploration, a working definition of dispositions is important. Stanovich (1999) defines dispositions as "relatively stable mechanisms and strategies that tend to generate characteristic behavioral tendencies and tactics" (p. 157), Dispositions can then be understood as tendencies to exhibit patterns of behavior and serve as a reminder of the behaviors to which students may aspire. They can be identified as desirable outcomes of an individual's education. Therefore, it is useful to link these directly to the mission or conceptual framework of a university. school. or department. This also squarely places democracy, social justice, and diversity within the context of education for the students and not as a peripheral subset that can be easily dismissed.

Research on the relationship between educators' beliefs and practices indicates that beliefs assist educators in determining what is and what is not important in their practice (Charlesworth et al.. 1990:

Collinson. 1996). Beliefs "act as a filter through which a host of instructional judgments and decisions are made" (Fang, 1996, p. 51).

The incorporation of disposition analysis in teacher education empowers students to engage in Freire's (1973) consciemizacao (conscicntization) and advocacy through engagement in critical selfawareness of the role of the individual in a democratic community of learners, locally. nationally. and even globally.

To every understanding, sooner or later an action corresponds. Once man [or woman] perceives a challenge. understands it. and recognizes the possibilities of response. he [or she) acts. The nature of that action corresponds to the nature of his [or her] understanding. Critical understanding leads to critical action. (Freire, 1973/1989, p. 44).

Conscientization refers to the type of learning, which is focused on perceiving and learning the

contradictions of social and political realities. where the oppressed learn to comprehend the cause of their oppression and then proceed to change it.

As Bell (1997) contends. social justice is a process and a goal. which is "the full and equal participation of all groups in a society that is mutually shaped to meet their needs" (p. 3). Cochran-Smith (2004) has identified six principles of teaching for social justice. as follows: enable significant work within communities of learners: build on what students bring to school with them-knowledge and interests. cultural and linguistic resources: teach skills. bridge gaps: work with (not against) individuals. families, and communities; diversify forms of assessment: and make inequity, power, and activism explicit parts of the curriculum (pp, 66-77).

Transferring Definitions into Action

How are students encouraged to examine dispositions for democracy. and embrace social justice and diversity? As educators we are concerned with assisting our students to better understand and become more aware of their own and others' cultures. We strive to assist them in examining their social realities and working for democracy, social justice. and equity. In conjunction with the proposals by Davidman and Davidman (2001) and Nieto (2001) that learning occurs when based on the real-life experiences of the students. we make the case lor reflection on beliefs and on content knowledge in the development of actions for promoting democratic practice. and embracing social justice and diversity. Specifically, the continual approximation of culturally responsible pedagogy requires deeper levels of reflection and more culturally sensitive awareness and language usage. Preservice and inservice pedagogues need to transfer the knowledge base about social justice and global interdependence into actions. inclusive of language, behaviors. and practices (Huber & Warring, 2(04).

Learning to teach for social justice is a difficult journey that begins with self-awareness. In order to

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engage in self-awareness one must examine one's own culture. It is essential to provide experiential learning and critical reflection activities for students to be able to understand and begin to apply concepts of social justice. As Hamilton and Pinnegar (1998) point out, a central component of self-study is "a commitment to examining one's own practice to bring into action the values that underlie their practice" (pp. 1-2). Democracy is a significant concept and practice in this process.

The term democracy is defined according to John Dewey (1916) as: "a mode of associated living. of conjoint communicated experience" (p. 87). This usc and understanding of democracy is related to how we regard others. ~ake choices, and share decisionmaking and diminishing inequalities of power and inlluence. Democracy can also be understood as relating to Barber's (1984) notion of participatory democracy rather than as a protectionist view. Participation and a sense of the common good arc necessarv in this view of democracy (Beyer. 1996). The focus on dispositions provides the opportunity to teach students the ideals of democracy. equity. and social justice and gives students the opportunities to practice and reflect upon those ideals.

Katz and Raths ( 1985) concur that dispositions should be included in teacher education programs. A first step in this process is the identification of initial assumptions, which are often stumbling blocks to the learning process. Next, experiences must be examined in the light of their assumptions with an understanding of the role of democracy, equity. and social justice. New experiences and awareness that are more global often result. Lastly, the guided reflection should occur in writing and/or in discussion in a trusted community-ideally one that brings diverse perspectives. Reflection that is focused intentionally toward encouraging specific competencies is most successful (Fox, 2003).

How Courses Influence Dispositions Regarding Democracy, Equity, and Social Justice

The original disposition rubric piloted in the first block of a teacher education program in the College of Education at Wichita State University, Kansas, has evolved through multiple permutations to address specific program goals and mission statements. The rubric's flexibility is evident as the co-authors have employed it in teaching the following courses:

• foundations of education, human relations/multicultural education. introduction to research. psychology of teaching and learning. social foundations of Catholic education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. the Department of Teacher Education, and the Murray Program at the University of SI. Thomas. Minneapolis. Minnesota;

.IISTE 'ill II. v« I. :!1/(}7

• advanced trends and general seminar in the Global Programs at the College of New Jersey, with international educators in Caracas, Venezuela:

• curriculum theory and practice at the College of New Jersey. with international educators in Mallorca, Spain; and

• human relations and race in the Department of Human Relations and Multicultural Education at SI. Cloud State University. SI. Cloud. Minnesota.

Requirements Regarding Dispositions- Tonya's Courses

"Starting with myself" (Wiesel. 1982) is foundational to the disposition self-analysis process. The criteria are provided on a disposition rubric used for sc1fassessment and professor feedback regarding live disposition categories of action (see Appendix I):

• Consciousness in Communication

• Justification

• Participation and Commitment

• Promotion of Social Justice

• Global Reconciliation

Paulo Freire admonished and challenged us to become more critically reflective and conscious of our interactions and their contribution to liberation or oppression of others. Freire (1970) reminded us in Pedagogy of the Oppressed that "conscientizacao is the deepening of the attitude of awareness characteristic of all emergence" and that "all authentic education investigates thinking." His life-long work challenges us to become fully conscious of our situations and then intervene and come forward-> emerge as trans formative leaders-an emergence that is necessarily constant. ongoing, lifelong. Disposition evaluation and self-evaluation is based on commitment to developing knowledgeable. collaborative. ethical. reflective pracnnoners as transformative leaders guided by a commitment to social justice. diversity. and the promotion of democratic learning communities. Entries should include awarcncsses. affirmations and. most importantly, actions.

Typically, each student is required to maintain a disposition log and make at least one entry for each class meeting. Students also self grade based on five points possible for each of the five disposition categories. totaling a possible 25 points. The instructor also provides a score of up to 25 possible points. This is the only project/assignment for which no spelling and no grammar points are counted. The exception in usage is the consideration of problem~tic or biased language. Given that the first reading assignment in each class is the American Psychological Association (APA. 2001) "Guidelines for Unbiased Language" (pp. 70-76), students immediately IllCUS on thinking about the power and privilege of language. Students also find imme.diate. relevancy in Nancy Huppertz' (2002) analysis 01

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gender bias in sports language. Students consciously work to self-correct during class discussions and to assist others to "hear" what they are saying and to use language more socially just and critically conscious. The requirement that students sell-assess at midcourse and again at the final and share the selfassessment with the instructor helps them focus on the process. But the disposition rubric does not stand apart from other course activities.

Other written analyses include (a) Steps to Critical Consciousness for which students are required to attend and analyze speakers and events and identify steps for social justice they will take as a result; and (b) Clips and Captions on Culture for which students are required to analyze two personal cultural elements (e.g .. family ties. heroes .... ) and then topics of broader social significance (e.g., treatment of Indigenous Peoples. slavery-historical and current, genocide. immigration. HIV/AIDS, ... ). By midcourse. students evidence the ability to analyze their own culture, examine historical and current injustices, and take actions for social justice. weaving dispositions into their Clips and Steps (for Clips examples see Huber-Warring & Warring. lOIl5).

Requirements Regarding Dispositions--Doug's Courses

Disposition statements are a required component in the course "Human Relations/Multicultural Education", which is located in the Department of Teacher Education. School of Education (SOE) at the University of St. Thomas. This course has multicultural education as a primary focus and is required for undergraduate and graduate students who arc seeking initial licensure in teacher education and/or initial licensure 111 special education. Dispositions are a component of professional behaviors. which students are expected to display in courses. and with faculty. staff, students, and the K-12 community. As the dispositions evolve from missions interpreted through institutions and systems. they arc shaped by individual beliefs.

As a part of the course requirements. the students give short presentations and write in-depth papers to explore their own cultural background. They also complete community-based interviews with individuals. who ditTer from themselves racially and ethnically. to better understand perspectives pertaining to school and society. All assignments use a self- and instructor-scored rubric for analysis and evaluation. with a comprehensive disposition rubric (Appendix I). Near the end of the course. students arc asked to reflect upon their actions during the semester and respond to specific aspects that arc taken from the mission of the unit. In this case. the SOE is "committed to develop knowledgeable. collaborative. ethical. reflective practitioners as translormative leaders guided by a commitment to social justice.

JISTt: /i,III . .\'0. I. ~U07

diversity, and the promotion of democratic learning communities" (UST/SOE. 20(6). The students are asked to reflect on the previous term's work and what they had done in class or as a result of this specific course in relation to the disposition rubric. Dinkehnan (2003) discusses reflection and self-study as powerful tools lor usc in the preparation of teachers. In this process of reflection. it is essential to determine which techniques work best and why we strive to create the ability to reflect on unit or department dispositions. The context becomes a signilicant point for analysis in this process. When we understand this need as well as the context and process lor accomplishing it, we will be better equipped to train teachers to develop the ability to meet the stated dispositions.

Usc of the mission (or conceptual framework) as a guiding principle for the rubric indicates an agreement and focus on the collective preparation of students (candidates) in the program. The usc of a critical theory perspective is important and assists in the realization that. "given the interrelationships of educational and social theories and practices. it is clear that no substantive changes will take place through exclusively individual initiatives and isolated events" (Beyer & Liston. 1996. p. 154). The mission of an institution or unit should be used to develop the crucial dispositions to be assessed directly in the respective programs.

I mplicatiens

The processes of selecting curriculum and teaching strategies should include at the very least considerations of how desirable dispositions can be strengthened and undesirable dispositions can be weakened (Katz. 19(3). The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (1999) relics on reflection as one of the components which teachers need to evaluate as they scrutinize their practice to improve their teaching. Therefore, reflection upon dispositions embedded within the curriculum and teaching strategies should demonstrate an understanding of desired outcomes and facilitate the development of these dispositions. The process demands what Warring and Huber (2004) have identified as critical culturally conscious reflection:

... questioning that which is otherwise taken for granted and [involves) looking for unarticulated assumptions and seeing from new perspectives. With these new perspectives comes the empowerment to understand our identities and actions with the context of complex global issues. The new perspectives assist in the development of global understandings and relevant and necessary applications in the teaching-learning process.

Activities and readings must be reflected upon with intentionality (Fox. 20(3). Culturally conscious lind

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responsible critical reflection facilitates an understanding of the process necessary for teachers to understand and engage students so both parties are better able to develop the significant elements of the desired dispositions. This new understanding applies to all facets of learning inside and outside the classroom.

As we develop and examine courses that arc designed to promote democracy. equity. and social justice. we must determine the outcomes of what we do through research. The research must give serious attention to questions and methods that will help us create knowledge to inform our practice and hopefully the practice of others. Reaching critical understanding is a social process mediated by dialogue. which is a useful

JIST!:" iu n. So_ I. :101J7

component. When we learn to act, think. and respond differently based on new realities gained through culturally responsive and critically constructive reflection. we arc all more engaged. We can then connect with our students and they with us. We work in concert for democracy. equity. and social justice. Metaphorically speaking. we become the authors of our own lives when we take the responsibility for our own beliefs. identity. relationships. and worldview (Magolda, 2004). Whether we write a life story of democracy, social justice, and equity; and whether our students gain the skills. dispositions. and worldvicws to write their own social justice stories may depend on whether we can assist them in developing and utilizing culturally conscious critical reflection on dispositions and resulting actions.


American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.

Washington. DC: Author.

Barber. B. (1984). Strong democracy. Berkeley, CA: University of Cal iforni a Press.

Bell. L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams. L. Bell. & P. Griffin (Eds.) Teaching lor diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 3- I 5). New York: Routledge.

Beyer. L. (1996). Teachers' reflections on the struggle for democratic classrooms. Teaching Education 8, 91- 102.

Beyer. L., & Liston. D. (1996). Curriculum in conflict: Social visions. educational agendas, and progressive school reform. New York: Teachers College Press.

Charlesworth. R .• Hart, C.H., Burts, D.C.. & Hernandez, S. (1990, April). Kindergarten teachers' beliefs and practices. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston. MA.

Cochran-Smith, M. (2004). Walking the road: Race, diversity. and social justice in teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Collinson, V. (1996. February). Staff development through inquiry: Opening a Pandora's box of teacher beliefs.

Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, SI. Louis, MO.

Davidman, D., & Duvidman, P. (2001). Teaching with a multicultural perspective: A practical guide (3,d ed.).

New York: Longman.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York: Free Press.

Dinkclman, T. (2003). Self-study in teacher education: A means and ends tool lor promoting reflective teaching.

Journal of Teacher Education, 54( 1),6-18.

Fang. Z. ( 1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38( I ). 47-65.

Fox. F.F. (2003). Reducing intercultural friction through fiction: virtual cultural learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 27. 99-123.

Freire, Paulo. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. [Translated from the original Portuguese manuscript in 1968)

Freire, Paulo. (1973/1989). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Seabury.

Hamilton. M. L.. & Pinnegar, S. (1998). Rcconccptuulizing teaching practice. In M. L. Hamilton (Ed.).

Reconceptualizing teaching practice: Self study in teacher education (pp. I -4). London: Falmer Press.

Huber, T., & Warring. D. (2004, July 5-9). Assessing culturally responsible pedagogy in student work reflections, rubrics, and writing: A global worldvicw in the teaching-learning process. A paper presented at the Illh Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCC!). Wollongong. Australia.

Huber-Warring, Too & Warring. D. (2005). Assessing culturally responsible pedagogy in student work:

Reflections, rubrics. and writing. Journal of Thought, 40(3).63-90.

Huppertz. Nancy. (2002. March 13). The importance of language. Retrieved May 7. 2005, from

Katz, L. (1993). Dispositions: Definitions and implications tor early childhood practices. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Catalog #211.

Katz. L., & Raths, J. ( 1(85). Dispositions as goals for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education I (4). 301-307.

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.I/.'"!"/: li1111 . .\"0. I. :!1I1I7

Magolda, M. (2004). Evolution of a constructivist conceptualization of epistemological reflection. Educational Psychologist. 39( ) ). 3) -42.

National Hoard for Professional Teaching Standards. ( ) 999). What teachers should know and be able to do.

Washington, DC: Author.

Nieto. S. (200). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education. New York:


Stanovich, K. (1999). Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: LEA. University of St. Thomas School of Education Mission Statement. Retrieved April 1.2006. from

Warring. D .. & Huber, T. (2004. July 5-9). The usc of culturally conscious critical reflection in intercultural understanding. A paper presented at the II'" Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI). Wollongong, Australia.

Wiesel. Elie. () 982). Souls on lire. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Tonya Huber-Warring. PhD. was professor of education at Wichita State University. when her research on disposition assessment began. She currently teaches in the Department of Human Relations and Multicultural Education at SI. Cloud State University. Minnesota. where she is Co-Director of the Social Responsibility graduate studies program.

For correspondence: thuber(cl'

Doug Warring, PhD. is a Professor in the School of Education and Director of Continuing Education at the University of SI. Thomas. Minneapolis, MN. where he teaches courses in human relations and multicultural education.

Correspondence: dfwarring(

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J1STE 10/ I I . .\'0. I. JOIJi

Appendix 1. Disposition Analysis Rubric

1';1111" Freire admonished and chalknl!ed us til become more critically reflective ;md conscious of our interactions and their contdbution to libemtion or opprcssiun III' others, Freire reminded us in I'edagllgy .. I' the Oppressed that "conscielllil<\~;\" is the deepening of the attitude III' awareness chaructetlstle 111';111 emergence" and th;1I "all amhentic education inwstigales thinking.,,1 I lis Hie-long work challenges us to become fully conscious of our situations and then intervene and come forwardemerge :IS unnsformarive le;lIlers-;m emergence that is necessarily eUllstalll. unglling. lifelong, Disposition ev;lIu;ltion ;md sclf-cvalaation is based on cummitment In dc' eloping knowledgeable, collaborative, ethical. reflective pmetiliullers .IS uansformativc leaders guided by :I eU111111iunentIU social justice. diversity. and the promotion of democratic le:tllling communities. Entries should include lw.m:ne"cs ... ffirmauons and, most imponamly, aetiuns "The purpose of evaluation is II' aid in tf.lnning. strengthening, and sll~taining democratic cnmmunities thai are educative ~itc:s of moral discourses and actions."?



s l'OI="1'S


1 J'(U:-"I'



C{))I:'IU~ICA 1'IO=" (' ullsistcntly displays a positive professional

.. \lilUde toward and mtcraction with peers ami universitwschool I1lcuhy: dlildren. ;ul,,'csc'~lt s, and their f,unili,,,,: and leamiag experiences, in verbal and nonverbal communication

JIJSl'IFICATIO=" Supports integrated interpretations through knnwlcdgcahle. rctlectiv c inquiry inclusive of multiple cultural and global pcrsnccuvcs

1',\lnICII',\T10=" ~1l11 CO:'J:.IIDIl:="T l'anicip3tcs in activiues and discussions as a democratic. transformative leader

\\ ho ,alue> the learning process. rhe information garnered in the I'TllC,'S'. and the transformative nut u re of the process

1'lm:'IOTIO=" OF SOC"'!- JlJS"l'In:

I'romotcs global social ju,tice and libcratory'. democratic learning cernmunities

(a.nnA!. IlECOXCII.I,\ TIO=" Evaluates European dominance and thc resultinl\ svstemic injustie~s. 'panieullirly specific to education

Conslsiently communicates with a respectful, Ilrnblcm.sulving attitude, challenging assumptions, asking for clariflcnrious, und checking understanding <If our own and other pusitiollS hclilrc stating and providing jllstilie'llioll tor all alternative position

Cu"sistcrllly. activdy resists oppress;' e practices and i",til1l1ions. including ,'ri'ilcge at tho.' expense u I' others

Consistently seeks, implcmcnts. and s)nthesi/es multiple cultural and global perspective», professionul knowledge bases, cst;lblished theories. research literature, lield·b;tscd observations. ;1IIt! eoursci"rngr:lI11 content to support illler)1ret.llimb and conclusions rather than st.uilll! opinions/iudgments

Consistentlv arrives on time to class and ic:an1inl=- experiences. attentive, engaged, prepared

Consistently comribntcs in WJ~'S thai SUPI,urt gruul' mcmh.:r~ and extend the group·!'io work

Consistently dcmnn!\trJlc.."!'. all eagerness 'lbuUlthe learning experiences through active engagement in critical reflection, inquiry. and culturally responsible ped.ll!ngy

Consistently employs un-biased IJngu;tge. actively promotes respcctfut buman relations. and engages in actions promoting economic empowerment and liberatery. dcmocrauc learning: communuics

Consistently deconstructs and counters white privilege and social dominance pamdigms in iltmlysis nfindigenous rights. genucid:s. forced removals and bonrding schools, apartheid, slavery and humun rights vietmions

\\'hen communicating disagreement/disapproval of others" statements, challenges 0\\ n assumptions, st:ltes alternutive positio,,( s], ;11111 provides jusutlcation for flilsition

Sill'" s a\\:lr~ne" of individual and in,titutiun.t! oppression of others

Bases inleq,rcl'Uinns on multiple cultural and gluhal perspectives. l,wlession:lI knowledge bases, cst:llliished theories. research liter.lInre.licl,J·llased observations, and spccilic course/prugram contcm

,'rril es on time to class and h:anling cxpcnences, attentive and prepared

Olicn cuntribnt,." in ways that ,ul'pon group members and-or evtend the group's work

Value- I.:arning expcnences and active engugcment in cruical retlcetiun, inlluiry. and culturally responsible I,cdagogy

Emph.y, un-biased language. suppons respectful human relmiuns, mid engages. in actions PU\Ilu'\tng economic empowerment and lihemtory. democratic learning couunumues

I>econ,tnlcts white privilege and social dominance paradigms in amlly.i. of indigenous rights. genocides, forced removals and boarding schools, apartheid, shu-cry and IlIn11:111 rights violations

Connuunicates dis;l~rct:nu:ntl di';"PPII"'" of mhcrs lind/or their snuements witluuu cllnsidering multiple perspectives andlllr institutional oppressions

Prov ides lil1lit,"" justificatien or support, relying en pl!r!'otm~t1 judgl1l~nt' and ignuring l1Iultil,le cultural and globulperspectlves

Not consistently present and/or prepared lilr ;111 learning experiences

Seldom contributes in \\ay' th.1I ,ul'I'I,n group member» am"' .. c.\tcnd Ihc gr4,lup·s work

Sill"" neither a positive nUT negative attitude toward informutiun and leamiug experiences

Emptoys un-biased language, S"I'pUrlS tolerance ofdiversity, and cn~agl:~ in actions promoting democratic l:anling cunununitie,

Iteeogni/cs \\ hite privilege and ".cial domin.mee 1);lrJdigllls in anulysis of indigenous right», genocides, forced relllllv,II, aml buarding >ehool,. apartheid, ,Ia"ery aml human rights \·iuhniun~

Communicates disaurcement/ dis:lpproval of others andlor their suuements mdelyan.1/or disrespectfully :mdior relics on a position of privilege (e.g .. race. gender, class, education) to 110 so

States personal opinion or males judgments without citing justiflcntion or support

:--:01 punctual ~nd,'ur prepared for all learning experiences

Rarely/Never participates in activities; inaucnnvc, disengaged, or unprepared

Exprcsses disd .. in lilr information prcsemed. course content. andior learning exneriences

Inconsistently employs un-biased language, or cmplu)'s biased laneuaee and-or di,;."'p., .... " liberatory, democratic learnina communities

Fails to n.'couni/e white privilege and social dominance paradigms in analysis of indigenous rights. genocides, forced removals, and boarding schools apartheid, slavery and human rights violations

'Freire. Paulo. (1970).I'cda~ogy of the "1'IITes,cd. ~eW York: Continuulll.(TrJlhl.IICd from the onglnal Pcnugucse manuscrip; in 1965_1

.' IIc~cr. L E_. & Pagano. J. A. (I')'J-I). !lclI1ocr.ttic cvaleation: Acsthetie. ethical stories in schools. In Beyer. L. E .• &. Allple. ~1. W. (Eds.). The currieulum:

Problems, politics. and po,,;bilitie, (~'" ed .. I'. 38 t ). ~ew York: Stat. Uni, .r,ily ,,( ~.w York l'n.'Ss.

I Shor. 1m (Ed.). (19ST). Freire I',r the ChlsMoom: A sourcebook lor liberntory Ic,"chinJ;:. Ponsmouth, ~II: \lO>l1hlll,("",k. ,\ Ili\isi,," of Heinemann, 1'llOFICIE="C\': Score of 3 lIT hi[!her in each area with a minimum nt'S I':tmgmphs documenting accomplishmem in each area,

Stlldent's Name Instructor Revised I\!;IY

2. 20m,

TlllalllIsllDsilioll Sclr-F.v:llu:tllull 111111 __ /25 finnl __ /25 hl$lrllclor's J)j'llC"UiclII 1·:mIULllilllllllid __ /25

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JISIE li,l II. So. I. l(JW'

Teacher Education in Scotland .lanet Powney

This descriptive account ofteacher education in Scotland Oil/lines the regulations (Itfccting academic standards and qualifications and opportunities for continuing professional development. Fire issues arisingfront current policies OI/(l practice ill teacher education are bricflv discussed: supp~\" or appropriately qualified teachers. widening lI(H'SS to teaching, gender imbalances, partnership arrcmgements and keeping pace with policy changes ill schools.


Scotland's distinct educational system dates back to the time when it was an independent country with its own Parliament, before the Act of Union with England in 1707. Along with England. Wales and Northern Ireland. Scotland is now part of the United Kingdom. governed by the UK (United Kingdom) Parliament strung in Westminster. However. following a referendum in 1997. in which nearly three quarters of votes cast in Scotland were in favour of the establishment of a devolved government. a separate Scottish Parliament was reinstated in 1999. This can legislate on matters devolved to it by the Westminster Parliament. These include health. housing. social work. most aspects of criminal and civil justice - and education. There is a Scottish Minister for Education and Children and a Scottish Executive Education Department (SEEDr The compulsory age to attend school is 5-16 years. Secondary education begins at 12 years and some students who wish to proceed to higher education stay on at school till 17/1 R years or transfer to a further education college to complete their pre-higher education studies.

Background and historical context

Scotland is a small country with a population of just over live mill ion. The overall numbers of students ill higher education is just over a quarter of a million ill colleges and universities and a further 15.000 involved in distance learning through the Open University. These include students from elsewhere in the UK. the rest of Europe and other countries. About seven and a half thousand students are currently studying to be teachers. Teacher education in Scotland is the responsibility of the devolved Scottish Parliament which controls the numbers of students in teacher training. Provision follows a broadly similar pattern to that in the rest of the UK with accountability in Scotland to the Scottish Funding Council (SI:C)~ tor academic standards and to the General Teaching Council Scotland (GTeS)l tor required professional registration of all quali lied teachers working in Local Authority schools. These three stakeholders (SEED, GTeS and SFC) work in close collaboration with each other and with the providers and other stakeholders in initial education. induction and in-service teacher education. (Further

details of the controls over Scottish teacher education arc appended)

Although the first teacher training college was built in 1837 by the Glasgow Education Society, which was a lay body. it was not until 1905 that the Scottish Education Department rationalised the situation that had developed progressively during the remainder of the 191h century. The principle that then applied for the next 60 years was that all teachers in primary and secondary schools should be certificated by a teacher training establishment that had provided the training.

From the early 1920s onwards a National Committee ensured a uniform system of training throughout the country. By the 1930s nil non-graduate teachers received a training of at least three years and the proportion of graduates entering teaching with a oneyear professional qualification was very high.

In the 1950s and 1960s difficulties arose over the supply of teachers for the greatly increased pupil numbers at the time. In 1965 concern about the standards of the profession brought about the establishment of the General Teaching Council Scotland (CiTeS), the Teaching Council (Scotland) Act of that year and a gradual move towards a graduate qualification for all teachers. with the introduction of the Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree offered by the colleges of education. as the training institutions had come to be called. It was nOI. however. until the 19ROs that courses and programmes leading to school teaching were finally given degree status. The most recent structural development. following the Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act of 1991. has been the merger of the colleges of education with universities. most of which were already validating the college courses.

Current framework for initial teacher education in Scotland

The 1990s was a decade of change lor Scottish teacher education. The situation now is that there arc seven departments of education in Scottish universities" offering initial teacher education and various kinds of in-service education to meet the Continuing Professional Development (CPO) needs of teachers. At the same time. initial teacher education in Scotland was already undergoing major changes with

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definitions of levels of competencies expected of a newly qualified teacher, i.e. as the first stage in a teacher's professional development (SOED, 1992). These competencies were refined, updated and included in the Guidelines for Initial Teacher Education Courses in Scotland (SOEID, 1998). They provided a systematic check-list of what was already expected of student teachers by the end of their initial training programme.

Route ... to qualified teacher status

There are three basic routes in Scotland to becoming a qualified teacher:

• a four year course leading to a Bachelor of Education (BEd) degree at one of seven teacher education institutions to become a primary teacher or a secondary teacher of technology, physical education or music;

• a one-year university course for a Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) leading either to a Teaching Qualification (Primary) or a Teaching Qualification (Secondary) for those who already hold a university degree and wish to teach in either a primary or a secondary school;

• in some higher education institutions (e.g.

University of Stirling) a combined degree which includes concurrent subject study, study 0 education and school experience to become a secondary teacher in certain subjects.

Although there is no legal requirement for them to do so, teachers in colleges may undertake training leading to a Teaching Qualification (Further Education). No national training is offered for teachers in higher education; training is a matter for individual institutions.

Programmes 0/ initial teacher education

The Guidelines referred to above set out general and specific conditions for all courses that involve the training of school teachers. They deal with safeguards for academic standards, acceptability to the General Teaching Council for Scotland, the professional orientation of the course, the importance of experience in schools, and the need for joint planning of such experience with school staff and the time to be spent on school experience in each type of course. They describe the general competencies prerequisite for entry to the teaching profession: subject knowledge; competence in communication, classroom

methodology, classroom management and

assessment; knowledge about schools; and

professional awareness. Also included is a list of desirable attitudes in a teacher which each course should encourage.

The Guidelines encourage teacher education institutions to ensure that their courses use practical experience in schools as a context for consideration of the theoretical aspects of education. They are

JISTE 'hI I I. Nil. I. :!007

expected to design courses that develop the specified competencies, encourage students to study independently and enable them to reflect on their classroom work. This implies an active role for the student in learning and variety in teaching approaches.

Standard/or Initia! Teacher Education

The Standard for Initial Teacher Education (lTE) in Scotland is a document prepared within the framework of the national procedures for quality assurance in ITE in Scotland. The document offers those who have a direct or indirect interest in ITE an opportunity to identify those key issues which ought to inspire and influence programmes in this area. It suggests benchmark information designed to encourage and enhance development and change (and as the document states 'not to inhibit it'). An example is in Appendix I. The framework for the benchmark information indicates the main aspects to be considered in developing ITE programmes, "namely, professional skills and abilities, professional knowledge and understanding, and professional values and personal commitment. Transferable skills have also been identified". Attention has been paid to the national requirements for ITE and the document incorporates the competencies in the Guidelines for Initial Teacher Education Courses in Scotland (SOEID, 1998). It is intended that this benchmark document will provide the basis for planning the future professional development of teachers and it should be revised as and when appropriate.

Scotland now has reciprocal recogrnnon of professional qualification with other EEA countries', Until this came into force the GTCS dealt on a caseby-case basis with applications to teach in Scotland from teachers who had qualified elsewhere, including other areas of the UK.

rhe General Teaching Coullcil for Scotland (GTCS) The General Teaching Council was set up under the Teaching Council (Scotland) Act of 1965. All qualified teachers employed in publicly funded, local authority schools are required to register with the GTCS. Other qualified teachers employed in Independent schools, higher education and in further education are encouraged, but not required, to register. Newly qualified teachers are provisionally registered until they complete their probationary period. Scottish educationalists are proud that the GTCS was the first such body for teachers in the United Kingdom and in the world.

The principal aims of the Council arc to:

• contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning;

• maintain and enhance professional standards in schools and colleges in collaboration with partners including teachers, employing authorities, teacher

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education institutions, parents and the Scottish Executive Department:

• be recognised as a voice and advocate for the teaching profession:

• contribute to the development of a world-class educational system in Scotland.

ln September 2000, a similar body. the General Teaching Council for England (GTC). was launched as the independent professional body for teaching in England.

Partnership s

ln [992-3 the Scottish Executive funded a feasibility study at the Moray House Institute of Education of a more school-based initial teacher education (ITE) that gave teachers in schools a major role in mentoring and assessing student teachers on placement (Powney et aI, [993). This was the first Scottish venture to this approach although there were already established school based programmes in England. the most notable at that time being at the University of Oxford (Mcintyre et al, 1993). Schools already had some input into ITE especially in relation to students' assessment on practice teaching placement. but the pilot extended the length of school experience and gave much more responsibility to schools.

From the students' point of view the experiment was a great success. School staff was enthusiastic. but mentors wanted better preparation and training as well as sufficient time free of other teaching responsibilities to fulfil their new roles. Major longer term issues included maintaining consistency and safeguarding quality across different school-college partnerships and the deployment of resources as funding for teacher education then went to the training institutions and not to the schools or individual teachers. (In contrast. schools in Oxford were remunerated). Another major factor was that partnerships had to be three way: the higher education institution. the school and also the local authority that funded the school. What emerged was the important implication of such partnerships lor cultural changes in the schools and for the career development of individual teachers.

Scottish Teachers for a New Era

Progress has been made since that pilot scheme. One of the most complex partnership schemes is the Scottish Teachers tor a New Era model", The emphasis in this new model of initial teacher education is lor agencies and stakeholders to work in collaboration. It involves teacher educators. studentteachers. teachers in schools. pupils. parents. professionals from local authorities and national agencies.

This ambitious scheme. at an early stage of development and just tor the primary teaching sector. is exploring an extended and more robust period of

JISTE li,1 II. So. I. ;:111/7

induction lor graduate teachers that will continue in lifelong learning throughout these teachers' careers. Thus. i I' successful, the initial training programme would be followed by induction and then by CPD support making up a six-year continuous package .

Tire Teacher Induction Scheme

New graduates wanting to teach in schools are not fully qualified until they have successfully completed a period of probation. In the 1990s, problems arose through the lack of full time posts available to these new teachers. This prevented them from gaining full qualified teacher status and registration with the GTCS. In a few instances. new teachers spent the whole of their first year on part-time contracts or even in supply teaching to cover teacher absences in different schools. This was not a desirable entry into the profession. Now, closer watch is being kept on the numbers entering initial training courses and matched against predicted numbers of teachers leaving the profession and the numbers of pupils for the foreseeable future.

Additionally. since 2002. probationary teachers from Scottish universities arc guaranteed a one year school training placement. For this year they have a maximum 0.7 teaching with the remaining 0.3 of their time available for professional development. While this scheme is not compulsory. it allows probationary teachers to be considered for 11I1I registration within one school year (190 teaching days). rather than an alternative route which normally requires at least 270 teaching days.

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Continuity in teachers' professional development is one key to a sustained high quality profession. In the past in-service education tended to be either personal study for a higher qualification or an isolated inservice course usually taken by an individual teacher working in isolation. This model has not always been effective especially in changing school-wide policies and practices. 'Cascading' the benefits of new learning to other members of stan: did not always take place especially when it was a relatively junior teacher leading the initiative. To increase the likelihood of more staff being able to affect their school. some initiatives - such as that by Scotland against Drugs (Lowden and Powney. 200 I) made it conditional for participation that a teacher and the head teacher or deputy together should attend fully funded trauung, School improvement, school development planning and the general move to sci!" .. evaluating schools, have engaged more teachers to work in collaboration in order to embed change throughout the school.

Scotland now has a more comprehensive. consistent and flexible approach to professional development covering most subjects and many aspects of school

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life. It is codified in the document. A Teaching Profession for the 21 st Century: Agreement reached following recommendations made in the McCrone Report (2001). All the major stakeholders - Scottish Executive. GTCS, local authority employers. teacher education organisations and teachers' unions - were involved in hammering out a comprehensive framework for a teaching structure. This career structure links supports for teachers' learning from Initial Teacher Education (ITE) right through various kinds of CPO to headship. to enhance their professional competence and maximise their potential. Teachers arc entitled to a contractual minimum of 35 hours of personal CPO each year. agreed with their line manager in a formal process of professional review and development. This provision of CPD time is additional to the five days each year that teachers spend in school without pupils, time usually devoted to school CPO activities.

In a comparison of teacher education provision in European countries. Eurydice (2006) highlights Scotland as one of two models in which the aims of teacher education are:

welded into a single consistent strategy for skills development. From this standpoint. their development has a direct or indirect bearing on current concepts of in-service training.

The other European country mentioned in the Eurydice report is Romania, where in 200\. the Ministry of Education and Research established general aims regarding initial education and in-service training, which arc intended as a basis for reform.

Individual CPD

Opportunities for individual qualified teachers to enhance their professional qualifications as part or their CPO plan arc offered by the GTCS including:

• Chartered Teacher - a qualification-based Chartered Teacher grade aimed at experienced teachers (There have been few takers fix this scheme). Although gaining the quali fication allows starr to be on an annual salary of up to £3S,OOO while remaining within the classroom, the main criticism from teachers is that the qualification is too academic and unlikely to make them better teachers.

• The Standard for Headship - a framework for a training programme for headship aimed at aspiring headteachers.

There arc also advanced courses offered at universities to master and doctoral level candidates and many of these courses include school based research.

JISTF.liIJ II. /Vo. I. J007

CPD ill partners .. hip

There arc partnership opportumnes with teachers working in collaboration with higher education staff and colleagues in other schools. An important example is the project run jointly at the Universities or Stirling (Scotland) and Manchester Metropolitan (England). This project, Enhanced CompetenceBased Learning in Early Professional Development,' aims to improve the learning of new teachers and other new professionals by developing, evaluating and disseminating a research-based, practical model of early professional learning (EPL). Six teacherresearchers and an extended team of professionals working with thc higher education staff will demonstrate that the research-based model of EPL can be embedded in practice in such a way as to enhance professional learning, performance and mcntoring. In this way a range of professionals is contributing to policy on early professional development at the same time as improving their own knowledge and skills.


There arc many unresolved issues related to teacher education. This paper outlines five of them:

• ensuring there is a sufficient supply of appropriately qualified teachers;

• widening access to teacher education;

• problems associated with gender imbalances 111 education:

• dilliculties emerging in partnership arrangements especially in initial teacher education:

• the need for initial teacher education to keep pacc with policy changes in schools.

Ensuring . sufficient slipply of teachers

It has not proved possible to leave recruitment to initial training courses to normal competitive market forces. This would result in overwhelming numbers of applicants in popular areas and severe underrecruitment in others. Consequently the Scottish Executive has set targets for initial training entrants to primary and secondary ITE including the specific subject areas. The Scottish Funding Council mediates the funding to higher education institutions consistent with these targets. Thus a provider is only funded up to a specified number, for example, in English or History in the secondary sector. However there are difficulties in recruiting to some subjects such as Physics and Modem Languages. The situation is compounded by few secondary school students following these subjects at school and into university thus perpetuating the cycle of low take-up of subjects deemed necessary for a rounded education.

Widening acce ss

Throughout the UK. policy makers and providers have been attempting to broaden the participation rate in higher education among the more disadvantaged members of the communities. This has proved difficult. On the plus side. there has been an increase

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in the proportion of people entering higher education from the more socio-economically deprived areas of Scotland since 1996-97. Nevertheless in 2003-04. people from the least deprived areas were still about twice as likely to be participating in higher education as people from the most deprived areas", Teachers working in deprived areas arc likely to come from outside the district and consequently are unlikely to be familiar with the local sub-culture or to be examples to their pupils of the benefits of progressing to higher education from a disadvantaged starting point. The minority ethnic population in Scot lund is small (just over 6%.) but they arc under-represented in the teaching profession and this is an issue that needs to be addressed.

Gender imbalance

Teaching is a gcndercd profession.

The gender imbalance in teaching. is a longstanding feature of primary teaching. and is also becoming apparent in most secondary subjects as well (in Scotland). Scottish Executive (2006)

The gender balance of teachers in the Scottish primary sector had been constant at 93% female and 7 % male since 199X. but there was a rise to II % in the proportion of male probationer primary teachers who started teaching in 2006. The percentage of men in primary teaching is higher in Englund though with a decline to 14% noted by Gamer (2002).

In the Scottish secondary sector the percentage of female teachers has risen steadily over the last decade

JISTE 10111. No. I. ~1/1J7

from 51 per cent in 1996 to 59 per cent in 2005 and 61 per cent of probationers in 2006. In England (DIES. 2(03) 46% of secondary teachers were male but only 32% of special school teachers were male, Scotland is not exceptional in this gender imbalance. One explanation is offered by Zufiaurre (2006):

Education us a profession has become increasingly dependent on women. once global society is providing new spaces where women can combine professional and domestic tasks while becoming more active consumers.

As an example. Robinson et al (1992), in a telephone survey of over 500 qualified ex-teachers, found that half the women but none of the men left teaching because of childcarc or other domestic commitments. Another important factor is that. in seeking promotion, men may not sec teaching as a sufficiently rewarding profession: they put more emphasis on salary compared with women who are more attracted to the social aspects of the job (Spear et al. 200 I).

Gendering applies to subject areas: males outnumber females in teacher training only in physics and there arc no males currently taking home economics. About the same number of men and women take mathematics - a disproportionate balance given the overall gender imbalance. Current ligures show that female student teachers at university outnumber males.

Table I below shows there has been a signi ficant increase in the numbers of teachers being trained since 1999- 200n, with a slight increase in the proportion of females."

Tuble 1. Total numbers in teacher training in Scotland by gcndcr
1999-2000.2004-05,2005-06 (Raw data Scottish Executive, 2007).
I I 1999-2000 2004-2005 2005-2006
All I 5,735 6,645 7.590
Female 177.0% 7X.2c~o 78.1%
Mulc 123.0% 21.X% 21.9% Table 2 indicates that in the secondary sector. the absolute increase in numbers has been accompanied by an increase in the proportion of females and a corresponding decrease in the proportion of males.

Table 2. Total numbers of secondary teachers in teacher trainlnj; in Scotland by gender
1999-2000,2005-05,2005-06 (Raw data Scottish Execlltivc20(7).
I 1999-2000 2004-2005 2005-2006
All 5,735 6,645 7.590
Female 57.0% 61.X%. 62.3%
Mulc 43.0% 3X.2%, 37.7% - 53 -

JISTE tu t! . .\"0. f. ]0117

Table 3 shows that in the primary sector, the proportion of males remains low at about I in 10 but nevertheless there has been a small and perceptible increase.

Table 3. Total numbers of primary teachers in teacher training in Scotland by gender
1999-2000, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Raw data Scottish Executive2007).
I 1999-2000 2004-2005 2005-2006
All 3.350 3.890 4335
Female 91.2% 90.7% 89.6%
Male 8.8% 9.3% 10.4% Looking to the future. it is clear that teaching will remain a gendcrcd profession in Scotland given the imbalance of males/females in training.

Structural issues jar partnerships

Without doubt there has been an increase in partnership working in different combinations of teacher education departments. schools. local authorities, individual lecturers. teachers and teacher researchers. parents and other stakeholders. This is laudable in principle, but can be expensive in time for each of the partners and each has its own priorities. Moreover, different organisations operate different structures. For example. school and college terms/semesters may not coincide; CPD partnerships may involve crossing local authority boundaries each with its own administration and priorities. Scotland has a substantial and dispersed rural population with many small schools with only one or two teachers. Designing CPD that is accessible and supportable is difficult although ICT developments have made this somewhat easier where the equipment is available and appropriate professional networks established. Teachers may access local authority, Scottish and UK wide websites offering advice and CPD opportunities.

Responding to changes in school

Two significant challenges of change arc discussed here; pupil exclusion from school and centralisation direction in governance with its attendant impact on curriculum and loss of institutions' autonomy. The number of pupils excluded from local authority schools in Scot lund has increased by 18% in the last lour years (Scottish Executive, 2007). Thirteen per cent of these arc from primary schools - equivalent to 15 per 1000 primary pupils. Exclusions usually comprise being sent home lor the day or a few days. but in a minority of cases (I %) pupils are permanently excluded from a particular school. About a quarter of the pupils arc excluded for violent behaviour such as physical assault on teachers or fellow pupils. or lighting. (The ligures include repeat offenders.) Other reasons include persistent disobedience and verbal abuse. This increase in exclusions challenges teachers and teacher educators to lind appropriate ways of dealing with these problems largely raised by

adolescent boys (78% of exclusions), young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and in the upper primary and early secondary years. Some schools in disadvantaged areas do not have high rates of exclusion. This suggests that attending to the school culture and training for head teachers and stair can avoid this sad state of pupils losing their education.

In a joint keynote presentation at the annual ISTE seminar in 1983, Jacki Proctor and I foresaw scenarios of increased centralisation affecting all aspects of education. This has occurred not only in the UK but also in other European countries, e.g. Denmark. The Netherlands. England has a National Curriculum defining what subjects should be taught in schools and tor how long. In Scot lund, this is presented as 'Guidelines .. .' but schools rarely waiver from these. Teachers in Scotland have been inundated with initiatives from SEED many of them connected with personal and social education (PSE) and citizenship and accountability. Teacher educators need to keep pace with these changes and make appropriate adjustments in their work. Individual institutions have lost much of their autonomy and are constrained by national requirements but us the Eurydice report (2006) points out. there remains considerable flexibility about how they enable students to gain their qualifications, especially in relation to post-graduate studies.


Scotland is responding energetically to the needs of the 21 st century lor its teachers' education. Provision is flexible enough to cope with different levels of entry and part-time/full time study. Quality assurance mechanisms are in place to ensure provision is satisfactory. There is a coherent strategy in place for teachers' professional development and increasing propensity to recognise that progress can only happen by involving all the stakeholders in development and in appropriate partnerships. Every generation or pupils brings new challenges so there is no room for complacency and Scottish teacher education has to continue to experiment and evaluate its provisions.

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JISTE 10111. So. I. JII1I7


I Note that the Executive Department itself has gone through various re-organisations and consequent name changes (e.g. SED. SOED. SOEID and currently SEED) but under each identity has had the responsibility for teacher education.

~ Scottish Funding Council http.z/ lGeneral Teaching Council Scotland:

4 Universities of Aberdeen. Dundee. Edinburgh. Glasgow. Paisley. Stirling and Strathclyde , European Directive (89/48/EEC as amended by 2001119/EC)

/, Funded by the Scottish Executive Education Department. the Hunter Foundation and the University of Aberdeen .

. Sec project details at:

x Page 31 Scottish Funding Council. Higher Education in Scotland Baseline report. 2nd update. Nov 2005 p.31) 'I Source Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)


Artikcl I.Dcpartmcnt for Education and Skills. (2003). School Workforce in Englnnd 2002. London: Stationery Office.

Eurydice (2006). Key topics in education in Europe. Volume 3. The teaching profession in Europe: Profile, trends and concerns. Report IV 2005/6: European Commission.

Garner. R. (2002). Male primary teacher may no longer be endangered. The Independent.


General Teaching Council Scotland. Annual Statistics Digest. April 2005. Edinburgh. 2006.

Mcintyre. D .. Haggar. H and Wilkin. M. (Eds.), (1993). Mentoring: Perspectives on School-based Teacher Education. Kogan Page.

Powney. J .. Edward. S .. Holroyd. C and Martin. S. ( 1993). Monitoring the Pilot. Edinburgh:

Scottish Council lor Research in Education.

Lowden. K and Powney. J. (2001). Evaluation of the Scotland against Drugs Primary School Initiative Training. Edinburgh: The Scottish Council tor Research in Education.

Scottish Executive. (2006). Scottish Initial Teacher Education and Change Progress report

Stage 2. and at Scottish Executive: Victoria Quay.

Scottish Executive. (Updated December. 2006). Benchmark: Quality Assurance in Initial

Teacher Education: The Standard for Initial Teacher Education in Scotland Benchmark

In format ion. October .2000. I /02/8388/Fi Ie-I

Scottish Executive. (2007).

Scottish Office Education Department (SOED). (1992). Guidelines It)!' Teacher Training Courses. Edinburgh:


Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID I (98).Ciuidelines for Initial Teacher Education Courses in Scotland Edinburgh: HMSO.

Spear, M .. Gould. K and Lee. B. (2001). Who would be a teacher'! A review of factors motivating and dcmotivating prospective and practising teachers. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.

Zufiaurre, B. (2006). Education and Schooling: Facing changes in a global world. Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education. 10 (2). 6-12.

Appendix I. Decision-making Bodies in Initial Teacher Education in Scotland

Scottish Ministers. through SEED. control the training of teachers in Scotland in a number of ways. The approval of Scottish Ministers is required lor courses of training for teachers in schools. Guidelines nrc published by SEED which specify conditions under which that approval is given. Minimum entry requirements to teacher training arc nationally prescribed and published annually in the Memorandum on Entry Requirements to Courses of Teacher Education in Scotland, which has the force of regulation. The equivalent measures for lecturers in colleges are effected through the Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department (SEETLLD). Annually. SEED undertakes a teacher workforce planning exercise which results in guidance to the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) on the minimum requirements for newly qualified teachers. The SFC is responsible for setting intakes to the different types of teacher training courses and for ensuring. through its funding allocations and in other ways. that these minimum requirements are not exceeded.

Scottish Ministers receive advice on teacher education from the General Teaching Council lor Scotland (UTCS). a statutory body of which the majority of members arc elected by the teaching profession. The GTCS

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maintains a register of teachers in Scotland who arc permitted to teach in publicly funded schools and no teacher may leach in such a school without registration. (The GTCS also registers teachers in further education, but registration is not a prerequisite of teaching in a college.) Teachers who have achieved the Teaching Qualification (TQ) nrc provisionally registered with the General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS). Full registration then follows a period of probation and assessment.

Janet Powney, Ph.D., is an independent consultant in educational research and evaluation. Her previous lives include primary school teacher, Principal lecturer and Head of Department in higher education and Senior Programme Manager at the Scottish Council for Research in Education. Much of her work has focused on quality assurance in higher education, equality and social justice, and research methods in education. Dr. Powney has been the Secretary-General of ISTE 2002-2007.

Correspondence: 19 Eglintou Crescent, Edinburgh. Ell 12 5BY <jancl.powncy@virgin.nct>

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Book Reviews and Recent Publications by ISTE Members

Beck. Clive and Clare Kosnik. (2006). Innovations ill Teacher Education: II Social Constructivist Approach. Albany NY: State University of New York Press. (lSBN-IO: 0791467171

1III1OI'£1tions in Teacher Education presents examples of best constructivist practices from a variety of international contexts and embeds these in theoretical ideas which can enhance future directions in teacher education.

The authors see social constructivism us a strategy for addressing such educational problems us the gap between university culture and the classroom, the differences between academic knowledge and popular culture. the attrition rate of teachers, the drain of resources by universities, and the enhancement of the profession. This is a tall order but the authors have provided theoretical, as well us practical, ways in which this focus can make a significant contribution to these areas.

The book consists of an introduction and seven chapters. It is well structured, clearly written and provides ample concrete examples drawn from eight successful programs. in Australia, Canada. and the United States. Theoretically it links early constructivists such as Dewey. Piaget and Vygotsky with more recent theorists such as Hanhcs. Derrida, and Rorty among others. These connections arc sound but not overwhelming for thc reader who is interested in practical solutions. The examples from actual programs in a variety of contexts illustrate the main concepts of integration. inquiry and community which arc "at the heart of constructivism" and which arc the topics of chapters two to fi.HII'. Chapters live and six (JCUS on an inclusive approach and support beyond the program. Chapter Seven illustrates research Ht the institutional and global level.

What makes this book worth reading is its philosophical stance, its organization. its consistency of method and its practical dimension. The process of the book matches its constructivist philosophy: it persuades rather than indoctrinates. This book is valuable because it comes at a time whcn many forces arc converging on pre-service education and solutions that aim to provide theoretical and practical directions arc very much needed.

Reviewed by Alice Schutz. Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies. Brock University. Ontario. Canada.

Landsberg. E. Kruger. D. & NcJ. N.M. (Eds.). (2005). Addressing Barriers to Learning. Pretoria: Van Schalk. (ISBN 0 627 025XX 9) http://

With the publication of thc Education White Paper 6 in 200 I. South A frica has proclaimed its policy of inclusive education: the goal being the advancement of human rights as wcll as social and environmental justice. The new national curriculum takes an inclusive approach in which the diversity of all learners should be accommodated. With the publication of this book it is hoped that both inservice and pre-service teachers will be equipped to teach all learners in their classrooms.

In developing countries such as South Africa both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to learning have to be addressed. It is therefore welcomed that one of the nine sections of the book deals specifically with socio-economic barriers. This section could help teachers to become aware of the circumstances in South Africa that may prevent learners from achieving their potential. Barriers that may arise in the education system arc discussed in a separate section.

The language of learning and teaching often causes a failure in learning in South Africa and therefore first and second language problems are addressed. The section on literacy also includes mathematical literacy. A wide variety of impairments are discussed and the relevance of medical knowledge as opposed to the medical deficit model is explained. Reference is made to learners with impairments and a holistic approach to support learners with impairments is discussed. Health problems arc addressed and a variety of chronic diseases and their educational implications. It is welcomed that in the last section of the book giftedness is addressed.

Reviewed by Marietha M. Nieman, Department of Educational Studies. University of South Africa. Pretoria. South Africa.

Nieman. M.M. & Monyai, R.B. «Eds.). 2006. ThL' Educator as Mediator ofLearning, Pretoria: Van Schaik. (ISBN 0627 02602 8) http:// WW\\·. vansc ha i k net. com

The publication of the Norms ami Standards for Educators by the National Department of Education introduced a new era in teacher training in South Africa. According to this document the educator must fulfil the following roles: mediator of learning; interpreter and designer of learning programmes and materials: leader. administrator and manager; scholar. researcher and lifelong learner: a community. citizenship and pastoral role: subject specialist and assessor.

The book is divided into seven chapters, each dealing with a specific aspect of the practical. foundational

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and reflexive competencies of learning mediation. as set out in the Norms and Standards for Educators. Chapter one explains what learning mediation entails and locates the learning mediation role in the South African context. Considerable effort is made to explain Feuerstein's notion of the mediated learning experience and the role of constructivist theory in learning mediation. However. little mention is made of Vygotsky, which could be regarded as a shortcoming in this chapter.

In a multicultural country such as South Africa. one would expect clear guidelines on how to accommodate diverse learners with various levels of language proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LoL T). The book lives up to this expectation. Chapter two explains not only the link between language and learning, but also gives practical suggestions for supporting learners whose home language is not the LoL T.

Chapter three explores the implications of the policy of inclusion on learning mediation. Inclusive education requires that educators be equipped with strategies to support learners with learning impairments and special needs in the mainstream in such a way that their various needs arc met. The proposals for supporting learners with barriers to learning that arc suggested are practical and would be of great help to teachers.

In the fourth chapter that deals with the role of the learning process as well as learning styles and learner

JI5fE iu ». So, I, !1I(Ji

differences in the mediation of learning. the challenges of accommodating a diverse groups of learners arc discussed. Whereas other chapters offer many valuable suggestions and ideas lor classroom practice. this chapter merely presents the facts but oilers no useful strategies or ideas 1(11' handling learner differences.

Chapters live and six discuss teaching strategies and the effective mediation of learning through the use of media and everyday resources. Seeing that South Africa recently changed to an outcomes-based approach to teaching. one would have expected more on this topic in chapter five. The suggestions for using everyday resources as teaching material in the classroom (chapter six) arc valuable lor South African educators who do not always have the luxury of expensive equipment.

The book concludes with a chapter on creating a learning environment conducive to the effective mediation of learning. It touches on issues such as classroom climate. discipline as a precondition for an effective classroom environment. motivation and creating a learning environment conducive to critical and creative thinking and one in which stereotyping is examined and queried.

Reviewed by Anna J. Hugo. Department of Teacher Education. University of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa.

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JISlE /i,1 I I. So I. :!/1IJ7

Publication Guidelines

Articles submitted to .IISTE must be written in English. following manuscript guidelines (see below) and will be anonymously reviewed by referees. Each article must pass the review process to be accepted for publication. The editors will notify the senior author of the manuscript if it does not meet submission requirements.

Articles arc judged for (a) significance to thc field of teacher education from a global perspective. (b) comprehensiveness of the literature review. (c) clarity of presentation. and (d) adequacy of evidence for conclusions. Research manuscripts are also evaluated for adequacy of the rationale and appropriateness of the design and analysis. Scholarly relevance is crucial. Be sure to evaluate your information.

Articles pertaining to a particular country or world area should be authored by a teacher educator from that country or world area.

If English is the author's second or third language. manuscripts accepted for publication will be edited to improve clarity. to conform to style, to correct grammar. and to lit available space. Submission of the article is considered permission to edit the article.

Published manuscripts become the property of the Society. Permission to reproduce articles must be requested from the editors. The submission and subsequent acceptance of a manuscript tor publication serves as the copyright waiver from the author(s).

Manuscript Guidelines

• Manuscript length. including all references. tables. charts or ligures should be 1.000 to 3.000 words.

• All text should be double-spaced. with margins I inch all around (2.5 em). left justified only.

• Paragraphs should be indented five spaces and separated by a space.

• Tables. Figures. and Charts should be kept to a minimum. sized to lit on a page 8.5 x 5.5 inches (20 x 14 em),

• Abstract should be limited to 100 - 150 words.

• The cover page shall include the following information: Title of the manuscript: name of author or authors. institution. complete mailing address. business and home phone numbers. FAX number, and e-mail address:

Brief biographical sketch. background and areas of specialisation not to exceed 30 words per author.

• Writing and editorial style shall follow directions in the Publication Manual ofthe American Psychological Association (5th cd .. 2001.). References MUST follow the APA style Manual. information on the use of APA style may be obtained through the ISTE web site at

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.IISTE iu u. Xo, I, :!II07

Future Submissions

December (Volume II. Number 2) Deadline lor Submission: July 15, 2007

Non-thematic - A special issue to provide opportunities lor graduate students, Members of ISTE arc invited to work with and encourage their graduate students to make submissions,

January 2008 (Volume 12. Number I)

Theme: The Future of Teacher Education and Professional Development Deadline for Submission: August I. 2007

May 2007 (Volume 12. Number 2)

Non-thematic, Members of ISTE may contribute manuscripts related to any important topic in teacher education,

Book and Other l\ledia Review Submissions

Interested members of ISTE may submit reviews of books or other media created by ISTE members, Reviews may be no longer that one journal page,

Recent Publications Submissions

ISTE members may submit an annotated reference to any book which they have had been published during the past three years. Annotations should bc no longer than 150 words.

Submission Requirements

It is preferred that articles be submitted by email directly to thceditor(swilsonrabrocku,ca). To submit an article by email. send it as an attachment: use Windows Word. ifat all possible,

You may also scnd articles by fax to 905-984-4842

To submit an article by mail, send the manuscript and a computer disk, Due to the high cost of postage. manuscripts and computer disks will not be returned.

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ustt: li,l J I. Nil, I. Jom

Manuscrlpts and edltorlal correspondence should be directed to:

Sybil Wilson. Editor J1STE

Centre lor Adult Education and Community Outreach Faculty or Education

Brock University

St. Catharincs, Ontario. ClIJ1l1du L2S 3AI

Telephone: 905-688-5550 Ext. 5547 Fax: 905-984-4842

E-Illai I address:

Publishing. address changes. membership lind payment information should be directed to:

Johan Borup. Treasurer University Collage South Damhusdalen 15 C

Roedovrc, Copenhagen. 2610 DENMARK

Telephone: +453670-8799

E-Illai I address:

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JI.\TE Jill J I. So. 1.1007

Future Submissions

December (Volume II, Number 2) Deadline for Submission: July 15.2007

Non-thematic - A special issue to provide opportunities lor graduate students. Members of ISTE arc invited to work with and encourage their graduate students to make submissions.

January 2008 (Volume 12, Number I)

Theme: The FI/II/re of Teacher &/I/CCI/;Ol/ and Professional Development Deadline for Submission: August I. 2007

May 2007 (Volume 12, Number 2)

Non-thematic. Members of ISTE may contribute manuscripts related to any importunt topic in teacher education.

Book and Other Media Review Submissions

Interested members of ISTE may submit reviews of books 01' other media created by ISTE members. Reviews may be no longer that one journal page.

Recent Publlcatlons Submissions

ISTE members may submit an annotated reference to any book which they have had been published during the past three years. Annotations should be no longer than 150 words.

- 62 -

.IISTE ';,111. Xo. I. ;:OOi

Submission Requirements

It is preferred that articles be submitted by email directly to the editor (swilslln( To submit an article by email. send it us an attachment: usc Windows Word. if a! till possible.

Y ou may also send articles by fax to 905-984-4842

To submit an article by mail. send the manuscript and a computer disk. Due to the high cost of postage. manuscripts and computer disks will not be returned.

Manuscripts and editorlal correspondence should be directed to:

Sybil Wilson. Editor llSTE

Centre lor Adult Education and Community Outreach Faculty of Education

Brock University

St. Catharines, Ontario. Canada L2S 3AI

Telephone: 905-688-5550 Ext. 5547 Fax: 905-984-4842

E-mail address: swilso!l(llbrocklu:a

Publishing, address changes, membership and payment Infnrmatien should be directed to:

Johan Borup. Treasurer University Collage South Damhusdalcn 15 C

Roedovre, Copenhagen. 2610 DENMARK

Telephone: +453670-8799


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