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You need to understand amperage in three different contexts: full load, locked rotor, and service factor. • Full load amps. Also known as "nameplate amps," it's the current you can expect under full load (torque). • Locked rotor amps. Also known as starting inrush current, it's the current you can expect under starting conditions when you apply full voltage. • Service factor amps. It's the current to expect when you subject the motor to a percentage of overload equal to the nameplate service factor. Many motors have a service factor of 1.15, meaning the motor can handle a 15% overload. The Code letter indicates the inrush current or locked rotor current a motor requires when you start it. The Design letter indicates the shape of the torque speed curve. The most common design letters are A, B, C, D, and E. • Design A motors are rare, specialized motors for injection molding applications. The most important characteristic of Design A is the high pull out torque. • Design B is the standard industrial duty motor. It has reasonable starting torque with moderate starting current and good overall performance for most industrial applications. • Design C is for hard to start loads, due to its high starting torque. • Design D, the "high slip" motor, has high starting torque. Its high slip rpm at full load torque means poor full-load efficiency. Design Ds are good for low-speed elevators, hoists, and punch presses. • Design E arrived with great fanfare, because of superior efficiency. However, improvements in Design B motors have made the Design E a much less attractive choice than it was originally. Design B efficiencies often match those of Design E, while Design E has lower locked rotor torque. Efficiency is the percentage of the input power the motor converts to work output. Most domestic motors carry an efficiency number on their nameplates.
Poles come in sets of two (a north and south). Examples include large centrifuges. regardless of motor speed. speed. • Constant horsepower. the pole quantity works in conjunction with the frequency to determine the synchronous speed of the motor. This applies to certain types of loads where the torque requirement is less as the speed increases and vice versa. B. Motors come in various sizes to match the requirements of the application. This refers to magnetic poles in an energized motor. For example. This multiplier indicates the amount of overload you can expect a motor to handle. Poles. Service factor. and enclosure combinations. • Variable torque loads have characteristics requiring low torque at low speeds and increasing values of torque required as the speed increases. Generally. and H. F. punch presses. But. you can expect a motor with a 1. High inertia loads are those with a high flywheel effect. you can't expect a motor with a 1. blowers. To promote standardization in the motor industry.15 service factor to handle intermittent loads up to 15% beyond its nameplate horsepower.0 service factor to handle more than its nameplate horsepower on a continuous basis. and industrial washers.Frame size. One of the most critical factors in motor longevity is matching motor to load type. in order of increasing thermal capability are A. Insulation class denotes the resistance of the insulating components to degradation from heat. fans. The four major classifications. . • Constant torque defines a load characteristic where the torque required to drive the machine is constant. In an AC motor. the frame size gets larger with increasing horsepowers or decreasing speeds. Power factor (in percent) is a measure of a particular motor's requirements for magnetizing amperage. Full load indicates the speed the motor will run when putting out full-rated output torque or horsepower. Load types. the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) prescribes standard frame sizes for certain horsepower.
Torque is the twisting force exerted by the shaft of a motor." Most standard motors run with a full load slip of 2% to 5%. a 4-pole motor running at 60 cycles would have a magnetic field speed of 1800 rpm. When expressing this slip rpm as a percentage of the synchronous speed. The difference between the synchronous speed and the full load speed is the slip rpm. is the maximum torque available when the motor operates at full voltage and full speed. Time rating. We all know heat is the number one cause of motor failure. Units for torque include inch pounds. Peak torque. and inch ounces. For example. The maximum torque requirement at any point is the peak torque requirement. which means they can operate at full load torque continuously without overheating. foot pounds. Full load torque is the rated continuous torque the motor can support without overheating within its time rating.Slip rpm is the difference between the motor's synchronous speed and the full load speed. within the winding . The full load speed of the same motor might be 1745 rpm. Many loads have cycling torques where the amount of torque required varies per the position of the machine. • Temperature rise is the temperature change you can expect. • Ambient temperature is the maximum safe room temperature if you are going to operate continuously at full load. In fact. the ambient temperature rating is 40DegrC (104DegrF). Temperature. The rating you find on most motors is for continuous duty. from non-operating (cool condition) to full load continuous operating condition. The no load speed of that motor shaft would be nearly 1800 rpm (probably 1798 rpm or 1799 rpm). consider these two factors. When thinking of motor temperature. Pull out (or breakdown) torque. . In most cases. It's also approximately the speed the motor will run under a no load condition. Synchronous speed is the speed at which the magnetic field within the motor is rotating. it's "percent slip" or just "slip. 70% of motor failures are from overheating.
As a result. Specifically.squirrel-cage induction motors . It's important to emphasize early on in your design process that special care be taken where PE motors are involved. 1997. and the type of motor to do the job. frequency. foot-mounted. Tframe. enclosures. You should be sure of the following items: . motor starting method. squirrel-cage induction motors are the focus of this report. A great many factors are involved when selecting a motor. efficiency. polyphase NEMA Design A and B. Not all induction motors are affected. Special concerns. Modern motor application designs have become more complex than ever before because of the emergence of premium efficiency (PE) motors. and numerous installation considerations such as environment. single-phase. and special motors are widely used. torque. single-speed. Some motor designs don't have a value of pull up torque because the lowest point may occur at the locked rotor point.Pull up torque is the lowest point on the torque speed curve for a motor while accelerating a load to full speed. 60 Hz motors in sizes from 1 to 200 hp. application. load variations. Although synchronous. operation. pull up torque equals locked rotor torque. these include horsepower. and mounting. and available voltage. the law applies to general-purpose. In this case. Effective selection. you must give a careful look to any application that calls for the use of such motors because their characteristics are different from those of standard induction motors. DC motors. Also important are the type of drive. speed. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) requires that the most frequently used motors . These motors are used in 70% to 80% of all motor applications. Motor application The primary concern when designing a motor circuit is the application at hand. Starting (or locked rotor) torque is the amount of torque available when you apply power to break the load away and accelerate up to speed. 230/460V.no longer be manufactured after October 24. wound-rotor. continuous rated. and maintenance of modern motors require a strong working knowledge of rotating-machine basics as well as an in-depth awareness of the latest technical developments.
In recent years. You should also check that the slightly higher speed of most PE motors will not affect the application. at least until standard motors are no longer available. In addition. breakdown torque. a minimum efficiency value may be determined and used in investment payback calculations to obtain a conservative estimate. Also. Efficiency considerations The operating efficiency of a motor has become a major factor because of ever-increasing energy costs. In . and starting current (which can be particularly high for the newest NEMA Design E motor) are double checked. laminations and insulations. called IEEE 112A-Method B. B. High-efficiency motors are available having substantially lower losses than standard lines. the appropriate NEMA design letter (A. If the motor runs continuously or at least 16 hrs per day or more. Revision 1. this extra cost is usually well justified and will be returned in one to two years. C.58. provides a consistent efficiency measurement standard for those who use it. Part 12. The test technique. These newer motors have improved steel. * The proper size and type of motor starter are used. D. more copper. * Locked-rotor. The resultant efficiency is stamped on the motor nameplate. and the load may be a pump or fan. depending upon the quality of its design. This is particularly important where adjustable frequency drives (AFDs) may be incorporated. and rotor fin designs that provide more cooling. This makes it essential that operating costs be considered versus initial costs when selecting a motor. this nameplate value is a nominal or average efficiency of the motor. The cost of a higher-efficiency motor is usually higher than a standard motor. Efficiency of a motor is determined by a standard test called for by NEMA in its standard MG-1-1993. CSA Standard C390 may be used. More than half of the typical industrial user's power costs is energy consumed by motors. * Depending on load. most major manufacturers have standardized on the term "premium efficiency" to define their most efficient motors.* The application warrants a PE motor. or E) is best for the job.
there are three other torque characteristics. the motor must have a rated-load torque to drive the machine at the required speed. When this happens. Possibly the rated load can be obtained from the supplier or from other similar loads. * Pull-up torque.some instances. this is as simple as obtaining the specifications from the nameplate on the driven load. You should review the Fig. As a final resort. if a Design B motor is used to drive a load that needs a high starting torque. 1 curve and understand it because NEMA has available standard curves. This assures high efficiency. The hp rating of a motor also depends upon the motor rated-load output characteristics of torque and speed. and * Breakdown torque. the motor should be sized so the load is 75% to 95% of its rated full load. as shown in Fig. the proper size motor can be determined. and then using common sense. causing the . that must be considered: * Locked-rotor or starting torque. the operator may decide to defeat the motor protection. Motor selection parameters Horsepower. Measure the input current and temperature rise of the motor. Torque and speed. A fundamental first step in selecting an induction motor is to determine [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] its horsepower rating so that it will drive the load. to which all NEMA-design motors must adhere. and it must be able to overcome peak loads (breakdown torque) without stalling. or possibly the load can be tested and the required power measured. For a particular application. 1. The motor must have sufficient starting and pull-up torque to bring the driven machine to operating speeds. The horsepower requirements can also be calculated from known data. Sometimes. as shown in Fig. However. This will tell if your test motor is too small or too large. operating speed. the motor may overheat during starting and trip out prior to reaching. For example. try driving the load at rated load and voltage with a motor that appears to be about the right rating. even an 8-hr operation may result in reduced total costs that will justify the initial premium paid for a high-efficiency motor. on page 80. Ideally. This will enable you to effectively select the right motor for the job at hand. 2.
The differences of the curves shown in Fig.motor to burn out. Output torque values drop as rated hp increases at any given synchronous speed. someone may decide to install a larger motor. a Design A motor may be used. Calculation of the root-mean-square horsepower will indicate the proper motor rating from a heating standpoint. and it has high starting current. In case of extremely large variations in load. Where the load is maintained at a constant value for an extended period (varying from 15 min to 2 hrs. The Design C motor is characterized by a low starting current and high starting torque. a horsepower-versus-time curve will help you determine the peak horsepower required. The Design B motor is perhaps industry's workhorse for general-purpose across-the-line starting duty. For extremely heavy starting conditions. the horsepower may not give a true indication of the equivalent continuous load. It has a "normal" or relatively high starting torque for accelerating highinertia loads. will operate inefficiently. 2 are due primarily to the differences in rotor resistance and reactance introduced during design. In situations like this. on page 82. depending upon the size). such as conveyors and compressors. and can handle short-duration overloads to 200% full-load torque or more before reaching the breakdown point. This high-efficiency motor is just coming onto the market and appears to be best suited for fan or pump applications because its breakdown torque is somewhat lower than Design B. Characteristics of the Design E motor have just been introduced by NEMA. Load variations. and related data is available in the 1996 NEC. Where the load duty-cycle has a peak in excess of the Design B breakdown torque. because it's oversized. This type has a starting torque very close to the Design B motor but develops a higher breakdown torque and will have a higher starting current. Where the load varies with time. the Design D motor is available. the motor manufacturer should be consulted. Characteristics of NEMA design motors and their appropriate applications are shown in Table 1. The curves for any specific design also vary according to motor size. Or. which will cost more initially and. or where shutdown accelerating or decelerating periods make up a large portion of the cycle. It's suitable for loads requiring a high starting torque and rather rapid accelerating loads. the horsepower rating usually will not be less than .
130 [degrees] C. Selecting the right motor and speed can sometimes avoid the necessity of using a speedcontrol device. Synchronous speed ratings of integral-horsepower motors are given in Table 2. * Class B. Insulation and temperature rise.00. A rule-of-thumb says that for every 10 [degrees] C rise above the limit. A multispeed motor can be of the single-winding type with two independent speeds or special 2-speed. There is a specific temperature rise that is permitted by standards based upon the capabilities of the insulating material. and breakdown torque are unchanged. constant torque (for conveyers. the horsepower required at each speed must be determined. variablefrequency AC motor drive. and constant horsepower (for winches and machine tools). * Class F. the DC drive. The insulation of motor windings is subject to thermal aging. regardless of other parts of the cycle. the motor may be overloaded up to the horsepower calculated by multiplying the rated horsepower by the service factor shown on the nameplate. and degradation of dielectric capability allows shorting to occur between conductors and causes failure.the constant value. single winding motor with flexible ratio of low-tohigh speed. Multispeed motors can be selected as either variable torque (for fans and centrifugal pumps). Service Factor is defined as the permissible amount of overload a motor can handle within defined temperature limits without overheating. and . insulation life is halved. Where the application requires speed adjustment over a range. Service Factor. compressors. If the driven machine is to operate at more than one speed. The total allowable temperature for different insulation classes (including ambient temperature and temperature rise) are: * Class A. locked-rotor current. Constant-speed motors operate at a practically uniform speed during normal operations.15 (standard for open motors). Multispeed motors are available for use on loads that can be most effectively operated at two or more specific speeds. Induction motors are available from 514 rpm to 3600 rpm in the smaller sizes. and 1. NEMA service factor values range from 1. 105 [degrees] C.25. locked-rotor torque. or mechanical speed changer can be provided. and positive-displacement pumps). When voltage and frequency are maintained at nameplate rated values. However.1. 155 [degrees] C.
ambient temperature. the maximum temperature must not be exceeded. there are several alternatives. Class B insulation is considered standard and most often will be supplied. Standard motors are rated for continuous duty. etc. the permitted temperature rise will vary. If the motor has 1. it's normally not necessary for you to indicate the type of insulation required. 180 [degrees] C.15 service factor can be compensated for by reducing the service factor or by supplying a higher-rated insulation. Cycling of the load also affects the temperature of the windings.. then it can be operated at unity factor at altitudes up to 9000 ft in a 40 [degrees] C ambient. that is. or if the load is a cyclical. When designing a motor circuit and selecting an appropriate motor. Requirements such as a 1. .15 service factor for a totally enclosed motor will usually be met by the manufacturer by supplying a higher grade of insulation.15 service factor. the load is relatively constant for long periods of time. Depending upon the method of measurement. The increased temperature of an open dripproof motor with a 1. Permitted temperature rise of different insulations is based on operation of the motor at altitudes of 3300 ft or less. when selecting a higher insulation class is justified as a safety factor or to provide for some particular condition that may not be adequately covered by the ambient temperature chosen. There are cases. however. duty-cycle information should be included in the specifications. Larger frame sizes or higher-rated insulations may be required. leading to higher-than-normal temperatures. An encapsulated motor includes more material over the windings. When this elevation must be exceeded. size of motor.* Class H. However. If the application requires that the motor be started and stopped often.
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