New Zealand is a country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two large islands (the North Island and the South Island) and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. In Māori, New Zealand has come to be known as Aotearoa, which is usually translated into English as The Land of the Long White Cloud. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are self-


governing but in free association; Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica). New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation, being separated from Australia to the northwest by the Tasman Sea, approximately 2000 kilometres (1250 miles) across. Its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. The population is mostly of European descent, with the indigenous Māori being the largest minority. Non-Māori Polynesian and Asian people are also significant minorities, especially in the cities. Elizabeth II, as the Queen of New Zealand, is the Head of State and, in her absence, is represented by a non-partisan Governor-General. The Queen 'reigns but does not rule.' She has no real political influence, and her position is largely symbolic. Political power is held by the democratically-elected Parliament of New Zealand under the leadership of the Prime Minister, who is the Head of Government. New Zealand Language Official Languages English and Maori are the official languages of New Zealand. Maori became an official language in 1987.

In April 2006, New Zealand became the first country to declare sign language ad an official language, alongside Maori and English.New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL is the main language of the deaf community in New Zealand. Maori Language Maori is only used in New Zealand and nowhere else in the world. Despite its official status, the language continues to struggle against being lost. In the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi, Queen Victoria promised the Maori that their language would be protected. It was only recently that the Maori language has


gathered widespread support. In the present, the Maori language is commonly used in the media and at school. When Maori people moved to the cities in the 1940's, they felt pressured to speak English and children were raised without the Maori language. By the 1970's, the Maori language was close to being irrevocably lost. A recent survey by the New Zealand government shows about 130,000 people speak some Maori.

Religion in New Zealand
Religion in New Zealand was originally dominated by Māori religion in the days before the European colonization. Missionaries including Samuel Marsden then converted most Māori to Christianity, which remains the dominant religion in New Zealand to this day. However, many other religions have become established as well due to immigration and dispersal of culture. Notably, the country has become much more secular in recent times, with roughly 40% of New Zealanders—whether atheist, agnostic or simply apatheist— claiming no religion at all. Currently just over half of New Zealanders identify with a religion, based on the results of the 2006 New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings

. Holy Trinity Cathedral, Parnell, Auckland.

Law of New Zealand


The law of New Zealand can be found in several sources. The primary sources of New Zealand law are statutes enacted by the New Zealand Parliament and decisions of the New Zealand Courts. At a more fundamental level, the law of New Zealand is based on three related principles: parliamentary sovereignty; the rule of law; and the separation of powers. As a former British colony, the New Zealand legal system is heavily based on the English legal system, and remains similar in many respects. There are also important differences, which reflect the unique legal culture that has developed in New Zealand.

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. [26] Although it has no codified constitution, the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. [27] The constitution has been described as "largely unwritten" and a "mixture of statutes and constitutional convention." [27] Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and is titled Queen of New Zealand under the Royal Titles Act 1974. She is represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the exclusive advice of the Prime Minister. The current Governor-General is Anand Satyanand. The Governor-General exercises the Crown's prerogative powers, such as the power to appoint and dismiss ministers and to dissolve Parliament, and in rare situations, the reserve powers. The Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. The main constitutional function of the governor-general is to "arrange for the leader of the majority political party to form a government"; by constitutional convention, the governor-general "acts on the advice of ministers who have majority support in parliament.Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime Minister, who is also, by convention, the Parliamentary leader of the


governing party or coalition. This is the highest policymaking body in the government. The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, the House of Representatives, which usually seats 120 Members of Parliament. Parliamentary general elections are held every three years under a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional. The Economist magazine explains: "Under MMP (Mixed Member Proportional) there is usually a 120-seat parliament; an extra seat can sometimes be added to ensure truly proportional representation. Of the total number of seats, 65 electorate (directly elected constituency) seats are contested on the old firstpast-the-post basis, including seven seats reserved for the indigenous Māori people. The remaining 55 or so seats are allocated so that representation in parliament reflects overall support for each party (the party vote). Under the MMP system, a party has either to win a constituency seat or more than 5% of the total party vote in order to gain representation in parliament. The government can continue to rule only if it retains majority support in the House of Representatives, or can secure the support of other political parties to give it a majority to pass legislation and survive parliamentary confidence votes." The 2008 General Election created an 'overhang' of two extra seats, occupied by the Māori Party, due to that party winning more seats in electorates than the number of seats its proportion of the party vote would have given it.


Business dressing (Men & Women)

When conducting business in New Zealand, you want to dress conservatively and tending toward a more formal look. Men should wear darker colored suits with a conservative tie. To maintain formality, a white shirt would be worn. Women should wear a suit, a dress, or skirt and blouse with a jacket. The wardrobe should incorporate classic styles and colors (navy and gray). Umbrellas and raincoats are necessary most of the year because of the climate and rainfall. The climate is temperate, not tropical. A medium weight wool gabardine would be a good choice of fabric for your basic wardrobe. When not involved in business meetings and activities, your wardrobe may be casual. To maintain a professional, though casual look, keep your clothing classic in neutral colors (navy, gray, camel, ivory, and white). Make sure your casual shoes are properly maintained.

Behavior and Punctulity in Newzealand
Always be on time or early for all appointments. Punctuality is part of the culture. "Fashionably late" is not an option in this country as most social events start on time. Maintain a reserved, formal demeanor, especially when first meeting someone. Take your lead to become more relaxed by following the behavior of your New Zealand hosts.


Business Hours
Normal business hours are Monday – Friday 8:30am-5:00pm and Saturday 9:00am-12:30pm.

Eating habits and table manners
Talking is minimal while you are eating a meal. The conversation will occur before and after your meal. Dinners are reserved for social interactions only, therefore not business is discussed at these occasions. Lunch is used for business conversations. Boisterous behavior is always inappropriate, even when you are drinking. Pace yourself to maintain the proper reserved and polite behavior. Afternoon tea is between 3:00 - 4:00pm.Tea is between 6:00 - 8:00pm, and an evening meal is served.Supper is a snack served much later in the evening, A tip may be refused, as tipping is rare. Entertaining is frequently done in a person's home. A small thank you gift of flowers, chocolate, or whiskey may be taken to the host and/or hostess. Cover your mouth if you must yawn, and do not chew gum or toothpicks in public. Ask permission before you attempt to photograph someone.

Communications The official language is English.
When meeting someone, and when leaving, use a firm handshake with good eye contact. Good eye contact means looking into the other person's eyes when shaking hands, not looking down at your hand. The eye contact is maintained during the handshake. You are not staring at the other person, but showing genuine interest in meeting or seeing the person.


Men generally wait for a woman to be the first to extend her hand for a handshake. Women do shake other women's hands. Use your same firm handshake with good eye contact. When your are meeting someone, say "How do you do?" A more relaxed greeting, such as "Hello", is reserved for the meetings after you've had the opportunity to get to know the person. The people are reserved, but always very warm and polite when you meet them.

Address a person using his/her title, or Mr., Mrs., Miss plus the full name. Honesty is the best policy. Don't hype your product or service, and don't be a braggart. Do not allow your voice to get loud. Maintain a reserved manner. Politics, sports, and weather are good conversational topics, and may be hotly debated. In order to be a good conversationalist, stay current and informed on critical topics. One in particular is New Zealand's "nuclear free" zone. Avoid confusing or comparing New Zealand with Australia, as they are two distinct countries. If you are not familiar with New Zealand, spend time before your trip to learn about the history and culture.

Etiquette and Customs
Meeting and Greeting Greetings are casual, often consisting simply of a handshake and a smile. . Never underestimate the value of the smile as it indicates pleasure at meeting the other person. . Although New Zealanders move to first names quickly, it is best to address them by their honorific title and surname until they suggest moving to a more familiar level or they call you by your first name.


Maori meeting and greeting

. Maori stand on ceremony and have distinct protocols regarding how visitors should be welcomed and seen off. . If the business dealings are with a tribal group (Iwi) the welcoming protocols may be practiced through the process of Powhiri – a formal welcome that takes place on a Marae. . A Powhiri can take between 30 minutes to 2-3 hours depending on the importance of the event. . It begins by calling the visitors onto the area infront of the traditional meeting house. Visitors should walk as a group and in silence expect if they have a responding caller to reply to the home peoples’ caller (usually an older woman). . A Powhiri dictates where people sit, in what position in their group, and who speaks. . In most cases, but not all, you will notice the men are seated forward and only males speak. There is a tension between the men and women on this matter and in a few places this has been resolved and you will see both genders stand to speak. In the interests of not causing friction in your business dealings, always follow the lead of the home people. . The welcoming speeches are given by the agreed speakers of the home people and always end with the most revered speaker or elder. . Speeches are given in the Maori language and each one accompanied by traditional song. You may not understand what is being said but you can rest assured it is likely to be from the best orators in the group and often very complimentary. . The visitors are expected to have at least one speaker reply on their behalf.


. If possible, the speaker should prepare a learned opening in Maori – it is critical that he/she focus on the pronunciation. Mispronounced words often result in whispers and sniggers and is considered disrespectful. It is better to have a very short opening said well, than a long one said badly. . The speaker’s reply should never be about the detailed purpose of the visit nor should it be to self-promote as this would be considered arrogant. . The speaker should use the opportunity to briefly show respect to the place that they stand (ie. the location), to the houses (the traditional carved meeting house and dining room are named after ancestors and so are greeted accordingly), to greet the home people, and to explain where his/her group have come from (place is important to Maori). This should be followed by a song from the visitors’ country that the visitors’ group should sing together. . The Powhiri can be daunting to visitors and can be fraught with traps that may offend. This is why most visitors seek the assistance of a Maori person to ‘guide’ them. . Once the last elder of the home people has spoken, they will gesture the visitors to come forward in a line to shake hands, kiss (once) on the cheek or hongi (touch noses) with the home people. . Following this the kitchen is ready to call people in to eat. . Following the food, the meeting proper can begin. . While this seems to be a set routine, I have been to many a Powhiri where variations of this occur. It pays to be vigilant and to follow the lead of others, or to discreetly ask questions if unsure.

Gift Giving Etiquette

. If invited to a Kiwi's house, bring a small gift such as flowers, chocolates, or a book about your home country to the hosts.


. Gifts should not be lavish. . Gifts are opened when received.

The Economy of New Zealand is a market economy which is greatly dependent on international trade, mainly withAustralia, the European Union, the United States, China and Japan. It has only small manufacturing and high-tech sectors, being strongly focused on tourism and primary industries like agriculture (though both sectors are highly profitable). Economic free-market reforms of the last decades have removed many barriers to foreign investment, and the World Bank in 2005 praised New Zealand as being the most business-friendly country in the world, before Singapore. Economy of New Zealand Currency Fiscal year 1 New Zealand Dollar (NZD$) = 100 cents 1 April - 31 March

Trade APEC, WTO and OECD organisation s Statistics GDP $128.141 billion (2007 est.)

GDP growth 3.0% (2007 est.) GDP per capita GDP by sector $30,234 (2007 est.) agriculture (4.6%), industry (27.4%), services (68%) (2004 est.)


Inflation (CP 3.9% (2005 est.) I) Population n/a below povert y line Labour force2.17 million (2009 est.) Labour force agriculture (10%), industry (25%), services (65%) (1995 est.) by occupation Unemployme 6% (2009 est.) nt Main industries Food processing, Textiles, Machineryand Transportation equipment, Finance, Tourism (in NZ), Mining External Exports Export goods $29.2 billion (2005) tourism destination, dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery

Main export Australia 19.6%, U.S. 14.3%, Japan11.4%, the People's Republic partners of China6.3%, UK 5.1% (2004) Imports Import goods Main import $ 35.8 billion (2005) machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics Australia 28.6%, Japan 10.7%, U.S.10%, the People's Republic of China6.6%, Germany 4.2%, Singapore4.1% (2004)


partners Public finances Public debt Revenues Expenses $42.84 billion (2005 est.) $38.29 billion (2004) $36.12 billion (2004)

Economic aid donor: $99.7 million (FY99/00)

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Business Management and Human Resources Administrative Services Finance, Accounting and Insurance Advertising, Communications, Marketing and Sales Languages Education Social Sciences Automotive Engineering Civil Engineering Electrical Engineering and Electronics Manufacturing Mechanical Engineering, Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing

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Metal, Plastics, Glass and Chemical Engineering and Manufacturing Finance, Accounting and Insurance Property Services Government Law and Legal Services Defence Public and Border Protection, and Emergency Services Nursing, Midwifery and Care Health Services Dental Services Doctors Health Administration and Support Community Services Hospitality Sport and Recreation Tourism Telecommunications Information and Communication Technology Specialised Craft and Equipment Manufacturing and Repair

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Haka (singular is the same as plural: haka) is the traditional dance form of the Māori of New Zealand. It is a posture dance performed by a group, with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet with rhythmically shouted accompaniment. The various types of haka include whakatu waewae, tutu ngarahu and peruperu. The peruperu is characterised by leaps during which the legs are pressed under the body. In former times, the peruperu was performed before a battle in order to invoke the god of war and to discourage and frighten the enemy. It involved fierce facial expressions and grimaces, poking out of the tongue, eye bulging, grunts and cries, and the waving of weapons. If the haka was not performed in total unison, this was regarded as a bad omen for the battle. Often, warriors went naked into battle, apart from a plaited flax belt around the waist. The aim of the warriors was to kill all the members of the enemy war party, so that no survivors would remain to undertake revenge. The tutu ngarahu also involves jumping, but from side to side, while in the whakatu waewae no jumping occurs. Another kind of haka performed without weapons is the ngeri, the purpose of which was to motivate the warriors psychologically. The movements are very free, and each performer is expected to be expressive of their feelings. Manawa wera haka were generally associated with funerals or other occasions involving death. Like the ngeri they were performed without weapons, and there was little or no choreographed movement. The most well-known haka is "Ka Mate", attributed to Te Rauparaha, war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe. The "Ka Mate" haka is classified as a haka taparahi – a ceremonial haka. "Ka Mate" is about the cunning ruse Te Rauparaha used to outwit his enemies, and may be interpreted as "a celebration of the triumph of life over death"


New Zealand cuisine/ Food
New Zealand cuisine is largely driven by local ingredients and seasonal variations. Occupying an island nation with a primarily agricultural economy, New Zealanders enjoy quality local produce from land and sea. Similar to the cuisine of Australia, the cuisine of New Zealand is a diverse British-based cuisine with Mediterranean and Pacific Riminfluences as the country becomes more cosmopolitan. Historical influences came from Māori culture, and New American cuisine, Southeast Asian, East Asian and Indian traditions have become popular since the 1970s. In New Zealand households, dinner (also known as "tea") is the main meal of the day, when families gather and share their evening together. Restaurants and take-aways are widespread and increasingly favoured over home cooking.

Music of New Zealand
The music of New Zealand is a vibrant expression of the culture of New Zealand. As the largest nation in Polynesia, New Zealand's music is influenced by the indigenous Māori and immigrants from the Pacific region, though New Zealand's musical origins lie predominantly in British colonial history, with contributions from Europe and America. As the nation has grown and


established its own culture, local artists have mixed these styles with local influences to create music that is uniquely New Zealand in style. The most popular styles of the late twentieth century were rock and hip hop, both genres garnished with New Zealand's unique Pacific influences. By the twenty-first century, roots, reggae, dub and electronica were all popular with local artists. New Zealand has maintained a thriving alternative scene for several decades. Māori have also developed a popular music scene, and incorporated reggae, rock and roll and other influences: New Zealand reggae bands like Herbs, Katchafire and Fat Freddy's Drop are highly popular. The 1990s saw the rise of hip hopgroups like Moana & the Moahunters and the Upper Hutt Posse, primarily based out of South Auckland (see below). In the traditional styles, New Zealand's geographic isolation and cultural milieu perhaps contributed to the slow growth of formal traditions based on European classical music, however these styles have also gained broad recognition. Music of New Zealand Indigeno Māori music us Other influence Britain, Europe, Polynesia, Australia s Classical · Hip hop · Jazz · Country · Rock ·Indie · Re ggae · Blues · Metal


Organisa RIANZ [1] · SOUNZ · CANZ tions


Awards "Tui" NZ Music Awards Charts RIANZ official chart

Big Day Festivals Out · Parachute · Nambassa ·Tahora · Rhythm & Vines Media Radio with Pictures · Radio Hauraki ·Concert FM

Pokarekare Ana · Slice of Heaven · Ka Notable Mate · Not Given Lightly · Six Months songs in a Leaky Boat National God Defend New Zealand anthem (also God Save the Queen)

Folk music

Māori culture group at 1981 Nambassa festival.

Māori music
In summary, pre-European Māori singing was micro-tonal, with a repeated melodic line that did not stray far from a central note. Group singing was in unison or at the octave. Instrumental music was played on a variety of blown,


struck and twirled instruments. Missionaries brought harmony, a wider compass and their instruments which were gradually adopted in new compositions. The action song (waiata-ā-ringa) was largely developed in the early twentieth century. Since colonisation, Māori music has developed in parallel and in interaction with styles from overseas, generating a rich brew of new styles. Pioneer folk music The early European (Pākehā) settlers had folk music similar to, and shared with Australia's. The tradition is invigorated with several festivals, especially the annual Tahoragathering, and musicians like Mike Harding have won some fame for performing old and original New Zealand folks music. Brass bands

Twilight bagpipe band practice, Napier. New Zealand has a proud history of Brass Bands, which hold regular provincial contests, and often celebrate cultural events. The NZ National Band has earned international accolades.

Highland pipe bands New Zealand is said to have more pipebands than Scotland; historical links are maintained by Caledonian Societies throughout the country.


The nation is often reminded of its colonial heritage by the stirring sounds of bagpipes at military commemorations and parades. Sport in New Zealand Sport in New Zealand largely reflects its British colonial heritage. Some of the most popular sports in New Zealand, namely rugby, cricketand netball, are primarily played in Commonwealth of Nations countries. Sport is very popular in New Zealand and despite New Zealand being a very small nation, it has enjoyed great success in many sports notably Rugby Union (The national sport) and also Rugby League, Cricket, Americas Cup Sailing, Netball, motorsport and many other sports. New Zealand's most popular sport is rugby union, the national sport. Other popular sports include cricket, which is considered the national summer sport, rugby league, soccer and netball (the top ranking female sport by participation); golf, tennis, rowing and a variety of water sports, particularly sailing. Snow sports such as skiing and snowboarding are also popular. Rugby union Rugby union is popular across all sections of New Zealand society and many New Zealanders associate it with their national identity. It is the national sport. It has the largest spectator following of all sports in New Zealand. New Zealand's national rugby team, the All Blacks, has the best winning record of any national team in the world, and is currently ranked world number 2[1]. The All Blacks won the first rugby world cup and will host the 2011 World Cup. The All Blacks traditionally perform a haka, a Māori challenge, at the start of international matches. This practice has been mimicked by several other national teams, notably the national rugby league team and the basketball teams. Outside Test matches, there are three widely followed competitions:


Super 14 (previously Super 12 and soon to be Super 15), the elite club competition in the southern hemisphere, involving teams from New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. Air New Zealand Cup, created in 2006 as a successor to the National Provincial Championship (NPC), involves professional provincial New Zealand teams and is played mainly during the winter months.

Heartland Championship, an amateur competition of lower-level New Zealand provincial teams, also created in 2006 as a successor to the NPC.  Rugby league  Main article: Rugby league in New Zealand  Unlike Australia, where rugby league is the dominant rugby code, rugby union is the more popular code in New Zealand. The New Zealand domestic league is semi-professional and does not enjoy a high profile. However, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL), in which New Zealand Warriors play, is popular. The New Zealand national side has competed in the Rugby League World Cup since 1954. They are the current World Champions and they won the World Cup for the first time on 22 November, 2008 at Lang Park,Brisbane

 Cricket  Main article: Cricket in New Zealand  Cricket is the national summer sport in New Zealand, which is one of the ten countries that take part in Test match cricket. The provincial competition is not nearly as widely followed as the case with rugby, but international matches are watched with interest by a large proportion of the population. This parallels the global situation in cricket, whereby the international game is more widely followed than the domestic game in all major cricketing countries. Historically, the national cricket team has not been as successful as the national rugby team. New Zealand played its first test in 1930 but had to wait until 1956 to win its first test. The national team began to have more success in the 1970s and 1980s. New Zealand's most famous cricketer, the fast bowler Richard Hadlee who was the first


bowler to take 400 wickets in test cricket, played in this era. Although traditionally New Zealand have had one of the strongest sides they have never progressed past the semi-finals of the Cricket World Cup where they ended up five times, the semi-finals of the Commonwealth Games and the semi-finals of the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. However New Zealand's Woman's Cricket Team has reached the World Cup finals. Netball is the most popular women's sport both in terms of participation and public interest in New Zealand.[3] As in many netballplaying countries, netball is considered primarily a women's sport, with men's netball largely ancillary to women's competition. The sport maintains a high profile in New Zealand, due in large part to its national team, the Silver Ferns, which, with Australia, has remained at the forefront of world netball for several decades. In 2008, netball in New Zealand became a semi-professional sport with the introduction of the trans-Tasman ANZ Championship. The sport is administered by Netball New Zealand, which registered 125,500 players in 2006.

Soccer Soccer (also known as "football" or "Association football") is less popular in New Zealand than in most other countries. The New Zealand national soccer team has qualified for the FIFA World Cup only once, in 1982; it was knocked out in the first round. The country's only professional soccer team, Wellington Phoenix FC, plays in the A-League which is otherwise an all-Australian competition. The sport is administered by New Zealand Football, which changed its name from "New Zealand Soccer" in 2007 to move in line with common usage around the world. The two major domestic competitions are the New Zealand Football Championship which is played between eight regional teams, and theChatham Cup which is knock-out competition played between clubs. Neither the Phoenix nor the NZFC


franchises play in the Chatham Cup. Soccer is especially popular amongst boys and girls, and is the second most popular participation sport for both boys and girls (aged between 5 and 17 years old) in New Zealand.[5] New Zealand hosted the 1999 FIFA U-17 World Cup and the inaugural FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup in 2008.



New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE) is the government of New Zealand's official economic development agency. It works to stimulate growth, boost export earnings, strengthen regional economies, and deliver economic development assistance to industries and individual businesses. [1] NZTE reports to the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development and the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

New Zealand Trade and Enterprise

Agency overview Formed July 1, 2003

Jurisdiction New Zealand Parent New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development



New Zealand comprises two main islands (called the North and South Islands in English, Te-Ika-a-Maui and Te Wai Pounamu inMāori) and a number of smaller islands located near the centre of the water hemisphere. The total land area, 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq mi), is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the United Kingdom. The country extends more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 miles) along its main, north-north-east axis, with approximately Template:Convert/km of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands include Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland'sHauraki Gulf; Great Barrier Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named Rēkohu by Moriori. The country has extensive marine resources, with the seventh-largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 million sq mi), more than 15 times its land area.[१३] The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 3754 metres (12,320 ft). There are eighteen peaks over 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) in the South Island. The North Island is less mountainous than the South, but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m / 9,177 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the The Last Samurai.


Aoraki/Mount Cook is the tallest mountain in New Zealand The climate throughout the country is mild and temperate, mainly maritime, with temperatures rarely falling below 0 °C (32 °F) or rising above 30 °C (86 °F) in populated areas. Temperature maxima and minima throughout the historical record are 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in Rangiora,Canterbury and -21.6 °C (-6.9 °F) in Ophir, Otago respectively. [१४] Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on the West Coast of the South Island to semiarid (Köppen BSh) in the Mackenzie Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the main cities, Christchurch is the driest, receiving only some 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year. Auckland, the wettest, receives almost twice that amount. Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive on average in excess of 2000 hours of sunshine per annum. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a continent that is 93% submerged. Zealandia is almost half the size of Australia and is unusually long and narrow. About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began to pull Zealandia apart forcefully. The submerged parts of Zealandia include the Lord Howe Rise, Challenger Plateau, Campbell Plateau, Norfolk Ridge and the Chatham Rise. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu, a hill in the Hawke's Bay region of the North Island, is credited by The Guinness Book of World Records with having the longest place name in the world.


A satellite image of New Zealand. Lake Taupo and Mount Ruapehu are visible in the centre of the North Island. The snow-capped Southern Alpsand the rain shadowthey create are clearly visible in the South Island Capital Wellington is the capital of New Zealand, at the southwestern tip of the North Island between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. The Wellington urban area is the major population centre of the southern North Island and is New Zealand's third most populous urban area with 386,000 residents. There are 478,600 residents in the Wellington Region (June 2009 estimates).[4] Wellington's suburbs lie across four cities. Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half of Wellington's population. Porirua City on Porirua Harbour to the north is notable for its large Māori and Pacific Island communities. Lower Hutt City and Upper Hutt City are suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the Hutt Valley. Although each of the four cities also contains a rural hinterland, almost all of the population is within the urban area.


New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Under the Royal Titles Act (1953), Queen Elizabeth IIis Queen of New Zealand and is represented as head of state by the Governor-General, currently Anand Satyanand. New Zealand is the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land have been occupied simultaneously by women: Queen Elizabeth II, Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright, Prime Minister Helen Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives Margaret Wilson and Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias were all in office between March 2005 and August 2006. The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, the House of Representatives, which usually seats 120 Members of Parliament. Parliamentary general elections are held every three years under a form of proportional representation called Mixed Member Proportional. The 2005 General Election created an 'overhang' of one extra seat, occupied by the Māori Party, due to that party winning more seats in electorates than the number of seats its proportion of the party vote would have given it.

Beehive, Parliament Buildings There is no written constitution; the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. The Governor-


General has the power to appoint and dismiss Prime Ministers and to dissolve Parliament. The Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime Minister, who is also, by convention, the Parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition. The current Prime Minister is Helen Clark, the leader of the Labour Party. Since October 17, 2005, Labour has been in formal coalition with Jim Anderton, the Progressive Party's only MP. In addition to the parties in formal coalition, New Zealand First andUnited Future provide confidence and supply in return for their leaders being ministers outside cabinet. A further arrangement has been made with the Green Party, which has given a commitment not to vote against the government on confidence and supply. Since early 2007, Labour has also had the proxy vote of Taito Phillip Field, a former Labour MP. These arrangements assure the government of a majority of seven MPs on confidence votes. The Leader of the Opposition is National Party leader John Key. The ACT party and the Māori Party are both also in opposition. The Greens, New Zealand First and United Future all vote against the government on some legislation. The highest court in New Zealand is the Supreme Court of New Zealand. This was established in 2004 following the passage of the Supreme Court Act 2003, which also abolished the option to appeal to the Privy Council in London. The current Chief Justice is Dame Sian Elias. New Zealand's judiciary also includes the High Court, which deals with serious criminal offences and civil matters; the Court of Appeal; and subordinate courts.


Helen Clark, Prime Minister


The four cities have a total population of 389,700 (June 2009 estimate),[4] and the Wellington urban area contains 99% of that population. The remaining areas are largely mountainous and sparsely farmed or parkland and are outside the urban area boundary.Counts from the 2006 census gave totals by area, sex, and age. Wellington City had the largest population of the four city council areas with 179,466 people, followed by Lower Hutt City, Porirua, and Upper Hutt City. Women outnumber men in all four areas, according to data from Statistics New Zealand, particularly in the Wellington City area.


Wellington Population by Area and Sex (2006 census)
Area Wellington City Lower Hutt City Upper Hutt City Porirua City Total 179466 97701 38415 48546 Men 86932 47703 19088 23634 177369 Women 92532 49998 19317 24912 186759

Total four cities 364128

List of cities in New Zealand
After the local government reforms of 1989, the term "city" began to take on two meanings in New Zealand. Before 1989, a borough council with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city. The boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. In 1989, the local government structure was significantly rationalised. The new district and city councils were generally much larger and covered both urban and rural land. Many places that once had a city council were now being administered by a district council. The word "city" began to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed. Urban areas by population The populations given in the table below are provisional New Zealand usually resident population, June 2009 estimates,[1] and refer to the entire main urban area unless otherwise stated.


Urban Rank area Population

Area (km²)[2]

Population Density (km²) 1,227.7 635.0 869.4 192.5 1. 664.0 453.7


1 2 3 4 5 6

Auckland Christchurch Wellington Hamilton Tauranga Dunedin Palmerston North Hastings Nelson Napier Rotorua

1,333,300 386,100 386,000 168,800 118,200 115,700

1,086 608 444 877 178 255





8 9 10 11

65,100 59,200 58,100 55,600

235 146 140 89

277.0 2. 405.5 415.0 2. 624.7



New Plymouth Whangarei Invercargill Wanganui Gisborne




13 14 15 16

51,400 48,300 39,600 33,900

133 123 105 85

386.5 392.7 377.1 398.8

New Zealand Flag

Introduction Of Flag
The New Zealand Flag is the symbol of the realm government and people of New Zealand. Its royal blue background is reminiscent of the blue sea and clear sky surrounding us. The stars of the Southern Cross emphasise this


country's location in the South Pacific Ocean. The Union Flag gives recognition to our historical foundations and the fact that New Zealand was once a British colony and dominion. The New Zealand Flag may be flown on any day of the year. It is particularly appropriate to fly it on days of national commemoration, such as Anzac Day, and on other important occasions. As New Zealand's national symbol the New Zealand Flag should be treated in a manner worthy of its high status. The Flags, Emblems, and Names Protection Act 1981, administered by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage, defines and protects the Flag. Contained in the Act is the power to prosecute those who misuse it. urprisingly, many people are not aware of the special significance attached to the New Zealand Flag. Within certain guidelines, the New Zealand Flag may be used in a number of ways. Similarly, the correct way to display the New Zealand Flag varies from one situation to another. The aim of this website is to simplify flag flying, which otherwise may seem too complicated and not worth the trouble. It contains adescription of the New Zealand Flag and an outline of its history. Certain restrictions placed on the use of the Flag are explained. Guidance is given on the appropriate choice of a flag and on the care of the Flag. Other flags, often flown alongside the New Zealand Flag or confused with it, are also described briefly.

Currency :New Zealand dollar The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD) is the currency of New Zealand. It also circulates in the Cook Islands (see alsoCook Islands dollar), Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally written with the dollar sign $, or NZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is often informally known as the "Kiwi (dollar)", kiwi typically being associated with New Zealand, and the $1 coin depicts a kiwi. It is one of the 12 most-traded currencies in the world.


New Zealand dollar Tāra o Aotearoa (Māori)

$100 ISO 4217 Code User(s) NZD


New Zealand 5 territories[show]

Inflation Source Pegged by Subunit 1/100 Symbol cent Nickname

4.0% (3.4–4.8%)(New Zealand only) Reserve Bank of New Zealand,29 September 2008 Cook Islands dollar at par

cent $ C Kiwi


Coins Banknotes Central bank Website Printer Website

10c, 20c, 50c, $1, $2 $5, $10, $20, $50, $100 Reserve Bank of New Zealand Note Printing Australia (provides base polymer note material)

Family life


Lifestyle and Recreation Choose Your Outdoor Pursuits The farther north in New Zealand you live, the more temperate the climate. The 'Far North' (north of Auckland) enjoys a warm, tropical summer (similar to that of San Diego) and a mild, snowless winter (similar to that of San Francisco). The bottom half of the South Island receives snow, so winter sports are more prevalent there. Over 1/3 of New Zealand is protected park land and marine reserves. These parks alone encompass a wide variety of scenery, vegetation and geography, and offer numerous opportunities to camp, mountain bike, fish, hike and so on. Add the climate together with the easy and boundless accessibility, and you begin to see why New Zealander's treasure their environment. And enjoy it daily. You'll find plenty of solo and team sports here - although baseball or American football are not widely played. From whitewater rafting to hiking, soccer to basketball, cricket to golf, fishing to skiing, you'll find it all here. And New Zealand’s professional athletes are well-represented on the world stage, from rugby to sailing to golf - giving all the country’s sports fans a


thrill. Kids Participate Too Children are encouraged, through their schools and social groups, to learn and participate in a number of outdoor activities. In this sense, schooling in New Zealand is similar to that in the UK or US, offering a well-balanced daily set of in and outdoor activities to stimulate both mind and body. A Multicultural Mix Every person you’ll meet in New Zealand is either an immigrant or descended from one, which gives New Zealand a true multicultural feel. The first settlers were the Maori who arrived over 700 years ago, followed in the nineteenth century by large numbers of immigrants from the United Kingdom. The end of World War II saw a dramatic increase in European migrants as citizens fled war-weary countries for a new start. From the 1960s, people from neighbouring Pacific Islands, including Samoa and Tonga began settling here, primarily in Auckland. Chinese and Korean migrants followed in the 1980s, many also making Auckland their new home. These migrants have given the city a very strong Pacific and Asian feel. Most recently, New Zealand has welcomed new residents from a wide range of countries such as South Africa, Zimbabwe and India. Just be Yourself One of the things we find in New Zealand, and something that is taken very seriously, is the acceptance of different views and ideas. New Zealand is a modern, secular, democratic society, with no ingrained class system. Freedom of speech, expression and religious beliefs are guaranteed by law. In short, New Zealanders are a diverse and tolerant lot. Quality of Life In many ways, it’s not what New Zealand has that’s important to quality of life here, it’s what we don’t have. • We don’t have high crime rates. • We don’t have abject poverty or hunger, largely because of a commitment to social welfare dating back to the 1930s.


• Corruption is virtually unheard of. New Zealand was ranked the 2nd least corrupt country in the world in the 2004 Corruption Perception Index by Transparency International. • We don’t have the pollution, congestion, health issues and cramped city living that is often the case elsewhere. What we do have is equal opportunity where people are not judged on their gender, how they sound, what colour they are, how they vote, or where – if -they go to church. It all adds up to a fresh, healthy lifestyle in one of the most beautiful countries in the world.



Introduction to India
It is impossible not to be astonished by India. Nowhere on Earth does humanity present itself in such a dizzying, creative burst of cultures and religions, races and tongues. Every aspect of the country presents itself on a massive, exaggerated scale, worthy in comparison only to the superlative mountains that overshadow it. Perhaps the only thing more difficult than to be indifferent to India would be to describe or understand India completely. India is, indeed, incredible. Within the continent-of-acountry are the world's highest mountains, the Himalayas. Here is the great Indian desert, the Thar; deep jungle where the tiger roam and rhinos run wild; sylvan beaches, among the longest in the world; one of the most ancient settlements - the Indus Valley Civilization - with a recorded past of five thousand years; the cradle of some of the oldest religions on


the globe - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism. Equally enthralling monuments - forts, palaces, temples, memorials - line its historic face. Dances from the past survive as living arts even today. There is vibrancy to the culture, both ancient and modern. For India is also modern with its 21st century metropolises, luxury hotels, airconditioned surface transport, hi-speed trains, and networks of domestic airlines, Discotheques and shopping malls. Food - in an amazing range - Indian (oh, the variety!) and International. And music to blow your mind.

About India
India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराजय Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventhlargest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, India has a coastline of 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west;[16] People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean.


Home to the Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by the British East India Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by the United Kingdom from the mid-nineteenth century, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread non-violent resistance. India is a republic consisting of 28 states and seven union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy. It has the world's twelfth largest economy at market exchange rates and the fourth largest in purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1991 have transformed it into one of the fastest growing economies; [19] however, it still suffers from high levels of poverty,illiteracy, disease, and malnutrition. A pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

The name India (pronounced india) is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi , the people of the Indus.The Constitution of India and common usage in various Indian languages also recognise Bharat (pronounced as an official name of equal status. The name Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu Mythology. Hindustan , originally a Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” referring to northern India, is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.

History of India
The spirit of India has thus fascinated the world with its very mystique. A subcontinent with a 5000-year old history. A civilization united by its diversity India has always been known as a land where history echoes itself with all its wonders in every piece of stone and every particle of dust.


Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[dating back to 3300 BCE in western India. It was followed by the Vedic period, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society, and ended in the 500s BCE. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, sixth centuryIn the third century BCE, most of South Asia was united into the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient "India's Golden Age. Empires in Southern India included those of the Chalukyas, the Cholas and the Vijayanagara Empire. Science, technology, engineering, art, logic, language, literature, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings. Following invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 12th centuries, much of North India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. Under the rule of Akbar the Great, India enjoyed much cultural and economic progress as well as religious harmony.Mughal emperors gradually expanded their empires to cover large parts of the subcontinent. However, in North-Eastern India, the dominant power was the Ahom kingdom of Assam, among the few kingdoms to have resisted Mughal subjugation. The first major threat to Mughal imperial power came from a Hindu Rajput king Maha Rana Pratap of Mewar in the 14th century and later from a Hindu state known as the Maratha confederacy, that dominated much of India in the mid-18th century. From the 16th century, European powers such as Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom established trading posts and later took advantage of internal conflicts to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of India was under the control of the British East India Company.[A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, known as India's First War of Independence or the Sepoy Mutiny, seriously challenged the Company's control but eventually failed. As a result of the instability, India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown. In the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and other political organisations. Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in national campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience. On 15 August 1947, India gained independence from British rule,


but at the same time Muslim-majority areas were partitioned to form a separate state of Pakistan. On 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect. Since independence, India has faced challenges from religious violence, casteism, naxalism, terrorism and regional separatist insurgencies, especially in Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast India. Since the 1990s terrorist attacks have affected many Indian cities. India has unresolved territorial disputes with P. R. China, which in 1962 escalated into the Sino-Indian War; and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. India is a founding member of the United Nations (as British India) and the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1974, India conducted an underground nuclear test and five more tests in 1998, making India a nuclear state. Beginning in 1991, significant economic reforms have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, increasing its global clout.


however, use the beginning of mature agriculture in the Indus and Ganges valleys as the starting point of the story of Indian civilization. The calendar reads first millennium BC. By now, iron had been discovered, and even iron implements for clearing of forests and cultivation had been fashioned out. Beginning here, the art or science of metallurgy developed very rapidly in India. India had many copper, tin, lead, brass and silver reserves, not to mention gold mines. Indian steel was so well known that after the famous battle between Alexander the Great and Porus, the only gift Porus could think of giving Alexander was steel. Today, apart from many steel plants, India has held this thread of continuity even in indigenous research in titanium technology and composites.

Government of India
The Constitution of India, the longest and the most exhaustive constitution of any independent nation in the world, came into force on 26 January, 1950. The preamble of the constitution defines India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. India has a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Its form of government was traditionally described as being 'quasi-federal' with a strong centre and weaker states, but it has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic and social changes.


The President of India is the head of state elected indirectly by an electoral college for a five-year term. The Prime Minister is the head of government and exercises most executive powers. Appointed by the President, the Prime Minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of Parliament. The executive branch consists of the President, Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the Prime Minister and his Council being directly responsible to the lower house of the Parliament. The Legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha, a permanent body, has 245 members serving staggered six year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population. 543 of the Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms. The other two members are nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian community if the President is of the opinion that the community is not adequately represented. India has a unitary three-tier judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, twenty-one High Courts, and a large number of trial courts. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the Centre, and appellate jurisdiction over the High Courts. It is judicially independent, and has the power to declare the law and to strike down Union or State laws which contravene the Constitution. The role as the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution is one of the most important functions of the Supreme Court.

Administrative divisions of India India consists of twenty-eight states and seven Union Territories. All states, and the two union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments patterned on the Westminster model. The other five union territories are directly ruled by the Centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were formed on a linguistic basis. Since then, this structure has remained largely unchanged.


Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts in turn are further divided into tehsils and eventually into villages.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat

Haryana 9. Himachal Pradesh 10. Jammu and Kashmir 11. Jharkhand 12. Karnataka 13. Kerala 14. Madhya Pradesh

15. Maharashtra 16. Manipur 17. Meghalaya 18. Mizoram 19. Nagaland 20. Orissa 21. Punjab

22. Rajasthan 23. Sikkim 24. Tamil

Nadu 25. Tripura 26. Uttar Pradesh 27. Uttarakhand 28. West Bengal

Union Territories:
A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep National Capital Territory of Delhi Puducherry Covering an area of 3.28 million sq kms it is the seventh largest country in the world. The mainland of India extends between 8° 4 ' N and 37° 6' North Latitude and 68° 7 ' and 97° 25 ' East Longitudes.

Geography of India

• The Tropic of Cancer 23° 30 ' N • divides India almost into two halves. The land frontier of the country is 15, 200 km and the total length of the coastline is over 7, 500 kms.


• • •

Indian peninsula tapers southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two expanse of water - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. There is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, wide plates and a number of islands. Broadly the physical features of India can be divided into five physical units - The Great Mountains of the North, The North Indian Plain, The Peninsular Plateau, The Coastal Plains, and The Islands.

Culture of India


India is blessed with rich culture and heritage. The culture of India is one of the oldest cultures in the world. Right from the medieval period there prevail diverse cultural diversities in form of dances, languages, religions, people, their customs, festivals. Every state of India has its own distinct cultures and has carved out its own cultural niche. In spite of so much of cultural diversities, Indian's are closely bond and makes India as a great country perhaps because of its common history. Dating back to over 5000 years old civilization, India's culture has been adorned by migrating population, which over a period got absorbed into the Indian way of life. This great Indian culture comprises of Indian music, Indian Dance, costumes and Indian Festivals, languages, art, names, food, clothing, and entertainment. The culture of India has been shaped by its long history, unique geography, diverse demographics and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbours as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, which were formed during the Indus Valley Civilization and evolved further during the Vedic age, rise and decline of Buddhism, Golden age, Muslim conquests and European colonization. India's great diversity of religious practices, languages, customs, and traditions are examples of this unique co-mingling over the past five millennia. The various religions and traditions of India that were created by these amalgamations have influenced other parts of the world too.

Culture & People
Way of Greeting "Namaste", for an Indian it's a way common way of greeting outsiders and elders. Both palms placed together and raised below the face not only show the respect for others but it also makes you feel the affection in the greeting. It is for sure that no 'hello' or 'hi' can create that magic. Flower Garlands Indian people are also famous for welcoming with flower garlands. In the Indian marriages the exchange of garlands between bride and groom is a ritual in itself. People also offer flower garlands to gods and goddesses during their prayers. Indian Marriages Time has changed but the lavishness has always been an integral and indispensable part of Indian marriages. In India, marriage is still taken as an institution where not two people but two families get united. So, it always calls for boisterous


celebrations full of music and dance. Within India, every caste and community has its own way of performing the rituals of marriage. In Hindu marriages, while Punjabis perform the 'Roka' ceremony in weddings, Sindhis perform the 'Berana'. But most common of all is the ritual of Hast Milap ceremony popularly called Paanigrahan Sanskar.

Festivals in India
India, being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India, the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals, such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam, are also fairly popular. Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Notable examples include Diwali which celebrated by Hindus, Sikhs and Jains and Buddh Purnima which is celebrated by Buddhists and Hindus. Islamic festivals, such Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Ramadan, are celebrated by Muslims across India. Adding colors to the culture of India, the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh, which is the easternmost state of this country.

Indian food
The multiple families of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many spices and herbs. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian, many traditional Indian dishes also include chicken, goat, lamb, fish, and other meats. Food is an important part of Indian culture, playing a role in everyday life as well as in festivals. Indian cuisine varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically diverse subcontinent. Generally, Indian cuisine can be split into five categories: North, South, East,West Indian and North-eastern India. Despite this diversity, some unifying threads emerge. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation, and are used to enhance the flavor of a dish and


create unique flavors and aromas. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history, such as the Persians, Mughals, and European colonists. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia, Indian tandoori dishes, such as chicken tikka made with Indian ingredients, enjoy widespread popularity. Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. The spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers, such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus, set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. The popularity of curry, which originated in India, across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan-Asian" dish.

Indian dance
Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Jharkhand and Orissa, the ghoomar of Rajasthan, the dandiya and garba of Gujarat, the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of the state of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam. Kalarippayattu or Kalari for short is considered one of the world's oldest martial art. It is preserved in texts such as the Mallapurana. Kalari and other later formed martial arts have been assumed by some to have traveled to China, like Buddhism, and eventually developing into Kung-fu. Other later martial arts are Gatka, Pehlwani and Malla-yuddha. There have been many great prout.

Indian art
a. Painting The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of pre-historic times, the petroglyphs as found in places like Bhimbetka, some of which go back to the Stone Age. Ancient texts outline theories of darragh and anecdotal accounts suggesting that it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided.


Cave paintings from Ajanta, Bagh, Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu, Buddhist or Jain. A freshly made coloured flour design (Rangoli) is still a common sight outside the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. Raja Ravi Varma is one the classical painters from medieval India. Madhubani painting, Mysore painting, Rajput painting, Tanjore painting, Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art; while Nandalal Bose, M. F. Husain, S. H. Raza, Geeta Vadhera, Jamini Roy and B.Venkatappa are some modern painters. Among the present day artists, Atul Dodiya, Bose Krishnamacnahri, Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian art where global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. These recent artists have acquired international recognition. Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai, Mysore Palace has on display several good Indian paintings. b. Sculpture The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilization, where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism developed further, India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Sculptures produced in the northwest, in stucco, schist, or clay, display a very strong blend of Indian and Classical Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman influence. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. During the Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. c. Architecture Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time, constantly absorbing new ideas. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (26001900 BCE) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. During the period of the Maurya and Gupta empires and their successors, several Buddhist architectural complexes, such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Later on, South India produced several


Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur, the Sun Temple, Konark, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, and the Buddha stupa (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Bhattiprolu. Angkor Wat, Borobudur and other Buddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture, as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. The traditional system of Vaastu Shastra serves as India's version of Feng Shui, influencing town planning, architecture, and ergonomics. It is unclear which system is older, but they contain certain similarities. Feng Shui is more commonly used throughout the world. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy, (also called life-force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese), through the house, it differs in the details, such as the exact directions in which various objects, rooms, materials, etc. are to be placed. With the advent of Islamic influence from the west, Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. Fatehpur Sikri, Taj Mahal, Gol Gumbaz, Qutub Minar, Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era, and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style, and mixing of several other styles, such as European Gothic. The Victoria Memorial or the Victoria Terminus are notable examples. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia, due to the spread of Buddhism. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa, temple spire or sikhara, temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana, have become famous symbols of Asian culture, used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. The central spire is also sometimes called a vimanam. The southern temple gate, or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. Contemporary Indian architecture is more cosmopolitan. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple, and the various modern urban developments of India like Chandigarh, are notable. Indian Dress Traditional Indian clothing for women are the saris and also Ghaghra Cholis (Lehengas). For men, traditional clothes are the Dhoti, pancha / veshti or Kurta. Delhi is considered to be India's fashion capital, housing the annual Fashion weeks. In some village parts of India, traditional clothing mostly will be worn. Delhi,


Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedabad, and Pune are all places for people who like to shop. In southern India the men wear long, white sheets of cloth called dhoti in English and in Tamil. Over the dhoti, men wear shirts, t-shirts, or anything else. Women wear a sari, a long sheet of colourful cloth with patterns. This is draped over a simple or fancy blouse. This is worn by young ladies and woman. Little girls wear a pavada. A pavada is a long skirt worn under a blouse. Both are often gaily patterned. Bindi is part of the women's make-up. Traditionally, the red bindi (or sindhur) was worn only by the married Hindu women, but now it has become a part of women's fashion. A bindi is also worn by some as there third eye. It sees what the others eyes can't and protect your brain from the outside and the sun. Indo-western clothing is the fusion of Western and Subcontinental fashion. Churidar, Dupatta, Gamchha, Kurta, Mundum Neriyathum, Sherwani, uttariya are among other clothes.

Languages of India
Hindi - The National & official Language of India. The languages of India belong to several major linguistic families, the two largest being the Indo-European languages—Indo-Aryan (spoken by 70% of Indians)— and the Dravidian languages (spoken by 22% of Indians). Other languages spoken in India come mainly from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families, in addition to a few language isolates. Individual mother tongues in India number several hundred[2]; the 1961 census recognized 1,652 (SIL Ethnologue lists 415). According to Census of India of 2001, 29 languages are spoken by more than a million native speakers, 122 by more than 10,000. Three millennia of language contact has led to significant mutual influence among the four language families in India and South Asia. Two contact languages have played an important role in the history of India: Persian and English. Language 1. Assamese/Axomiya 2. Bengali 3. Bodo 4. Dogri 5. Gujarati Geographical distribution Assam West Bengal Assam Jammu and Kashmir Gujarati


6. Hindi 7. Kannada 8. Kashmiri 9. Konkani 10. Maithili 11. Malayalam 12. Manipuri 13. Marathi 14. Nepali 15. Oriya 16. Punjabi 17. Sanskrit 18. Santali

"Hindi belt", Northern India Karnataka Jammu and Kashmir Konkan (Goa, Maharashtra.) Bihar Kerala Manipur Maharashtra Sikkim Orissa Punjab, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana Mattur Santal Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand,

Orissa) 19. Sindhi Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh 20. Tamil Tamil Nadu, 21. Telugu Andhra Pradesh 22. Urdu Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh. Indian Names Indians settled overseas adopt unique names. As the culture insists to keep a second name, Nishant Sean Gaekwad or Sharvari Tina Menon is quite common. It is interesting to note that people are looking for unique names like Shlok, Pulkit, Pranay, Suhani, Shwas and Damayanti. Many names also indicate colour like Shweta for white, Lal for red and Nila for blue. Padma means the lotus flower, Juhi for jasmine and Petula is a modern name meaning petals.

Entertainment in India
Arts and entertainment in India have a rich and ancient history. Right from ancient times there has been a synthesis of indigenous and foreign influences that have shaped the course of the arts of India, and consequently, the rest of Asia.


Arts referto paintings, architecture, literature, music,dance, languages and cinema. In early India, most of the arts were derived Vedic influences. After the birth of contemporary Hinduism, Jainism andBuddhism, arts flourished under the patronage of kings and emperors. The coming of Islam spawned a whole new era of Indian architecture and art. Finally the British brought their own Gothic and Roman influences and fused it with the Indian style.They have a culture infusion in their art. Cinema of India India is a major regional center for cinema. The Indian film industry is the largest in the world (1200 movies released in the year 2002). Each of the larger languages supports its own film industry: Hindi, Bengali, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Malayalam. The Hindi/Urdu film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is called Bollywood (a melding of Hollywood and Bombay). Similar neologisms have been coined for the Kannada (Karnataka State) film industry (Sandalwood) based on Karnataka being known for Sandalwood, Tamil film industry (Kollywood, from the Kodambakkam district of Chennai) and the Telugu film industry (Tollywood). Tollygunge is a metonym for the Bengali film industry, long centered in the Tollygunge district of Kolkata. Music of India Indian music includes multiple varieties offolk, popular, pop, and classical music. India's classical music tradition, includingCarnatic and Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and, developed over several eras, remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects. Alongside distinctly subcontinental forms there are major influences fromPersian, Arab and British music. Indian genres like filmi and bhangra have become popular throughout the United Kingdom, South and East Asia, and around the world. Indian pop stars now sell records in many countries, while world music fans listen to the roots music of India's diverse nations. American soul, rock and hip hop music have also made a large impact, primarily on Indian pop and filmi music. Other highly popular forms are ghazal, qawwali, thumri, dhrupad, dadra, bhajan, kirtan, shabad, and gurbani. Filmi music is often said to have begun in 1931, with the release of Ardeshir M. Irani's Alam Ara and its popular soundtrack. In the earliest years of the Indian cinema, filming was generally Indian (classical and folk) in inspiration, with some Western elements. Over the years, the Western elements have increased,


but without completely destroying the Indian flavour. Most of the Indian movies are musicals and feature elaborate song and dance numbers. There is constant work for pop music composers — or music directors, to use the Indian term. Movie soundtracks are released as tapes and CDs, sometimes even before the move is released. Table Manners & Etiquettes in India

• • • • • • • • •

Traditionally, Indian food is served on a rug on the floor and people are supposed to sit in a circle. In case you are using a table, let the eldest person sit first. The host is supposed to sit in a direction from where he can see everyone around him. When everyone is seated, wait for the food to be served. You should not chatter unnecessarily with the people around you. Indian tradition does not emphasize on the use of cutlery which are considered to be a part of western culture, such as fork and knife. Indian food such as curries and gravies are enjoyed best when eaten with hands. Wash hands properly before starting as much of the food is eaten with hands, even if you are using basic cutleries such as spoon and fork. Wait for the eldest to start first. Even if you are starving don’t attack the food or east hastily. It is considered disrespectful and a bad manner. You are not expected to use your left hand while eating. Even breads and chapattis are broken into pieces using the right hand alone. But you are supposed to transfer food from the common plate using your clean left hand. In north India it is not acceptable to stain your hands with gravies or curries, only fingertips it used to pick and gather food. However, in south India, you can take liberty to dip your hand up to your palms. Don’t flood your plate with food. You don’t have to taste each and every dish served. Finish your whole food before asking for more. Wasting food is considered disrespect to the host and the food. Once you have finished your food, don’t leave the table until the host asks you to. If you have to leave the table, ask for the permission from the people before leaving. Don’t wash your hands in your plate or on the bay leaf and you are not expected to close the bay leaf- if you are in south India. Use a finger bowl (lemon and water) to wash your greasy hands.


• You are expected to say polite terms like ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’ as a courtesy towards your host.

Religion in India
India is the birth place of Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Dharmic religions, also known as Indian religions, is a major form of world religions next to the Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with around 1.4 billion followers altogether. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of most of its people. The religion of more than 80.4% of the people is Hinduism. Islam is practiced by around 13.4% of all Indians.[3] Sikhism, Jainism and especially Buddhism are influential not only in India but across the world. Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other faiths.

Economy of India
From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist-inspired policies. The economy was shackled by extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow growth.Since 1991, the nation has moved towards a market-based system. The policy change in 1991 came after an acute balance of payments crisis, and the emphasis since then has been to use foreign trade and foreign investment as integral parts of India's economy. With an average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% for the past two decades, the economy is among the fastest growing in the world. It has the world's second largest labour force, with 516.3 million people. In terms of output, the agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish. Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software. India's trade has reached a relatively moderate share 24% of GDP in 2006, up from 6% in 1985.


India's share of world trade has reached 1%. Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, software, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures. Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals. India's GDP is US$1.237 trillion, which makes it the twelfth-largest economy in the world or fourth largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates. India's nominal per capita income US$1,068 is ranked 128th in the world. In the late 2000s, India's economic growth has averaged 7½% a year, which will double the average income in a decade. Despite India's impressive economic growth over recent decades, it still contains the largest concentration of poor people in the world, and has a higher rate of malnutrition among children under the age of three (46% in year 2007) than any other country in the world. The percentage of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of $1.25 a day (PPP, in nominal terms Rs. 21.6 a day in urban areas and Rs 14.3 in rural areas in 2005) decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005 Even though India has avoided famines in recent decades, half of children are underweight, one of the highest rates in the world and nearly double the rate of Sub-Saharan Africa. A 2007 Goldman Sachs report projected that "from 2007 to 2020, India’s GDP per capita will quadruple," and that the Indian GDP will surpass that of the United States' before 2050, but India "will remain a low-income country for several decades, with per capita incomes well below its other BRIC peers." Although the Indian economy has grown steadily over the last two decades; its growth has been uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas. The World Bank suggests that the most important priorities should be public sector reform, infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labor regulations, reforms in lagging states, and combating HIV/AIDS.

Sectors • Agriculture • Industry and services • Banking and finance


• • •

Natural resources External trade and investment Global trade relations Balance of payments Foreign direct investment in India

Issues of Indian Economy • Agriculture • Corruption • Government • Education • Infrastructure • Labour laws • Economic disparities • Environment and health

Business Etiquettes in India

Business Culture in India There are two major, typical miscalculations U.S. corporations tend to make when they approach the Indian market. First, they tend to feel that because culture is intangible and it does not show itself in the bottom line, they do not need to waste their time on that issue. Second, they may think that culture is like marketing or finance: you learn about culture in India in a four or eight


hour session and that is all you need to know. Then you are free to continue with your job since you are adequately sensitized to the culture. It is important to really appreciate Indian culture. The main reason for this is that if conflict arises, it will give them a much better perspective on understanding the source of the conflict and resolving it. Still, many U.S. businesses tend to put everything in a "black box." If a problem occurs, for example, with castes or religion, here are the solutions _ one, two, three, four. In reality, it is not as simple as that. If foreign visitors can learn to appreciate cultural issues and understand the cultural background of their Indian partner, then they will have a much better understanding of the general problems which arise in doing business. They will be able to look at a problem and consider all the variables that are affecting the particular situation, and then go about and seek a solution for it.

Doing Business in India In such a richly diverse and complex country as India it is difficult to impart generic conclusions that can be used by those doing business there. Regionalism, religion, language and caste are all factors that need to be taken into account when doing business in India. Behaviour, etiquette and approach are all modified depending on whom you are addressing and the context in which they are being addressed.


However, most of those doing business in India will do so in cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad and with a particular socio-economic class. This short guide to doing business in India will explore a few cultural facts and their influence on business culture and etiquette. These are in no way meant to be an all-inclusive summary on doing business in India but an introduction.

Language of Indian Business
Different states in India each have different official languages. Central government only recognises Hindi as the official language of India. However, when doing business in India, English is the language of international commerce. Hierarchy Of all the cultural influences that most impact Indian business culture, hierarchy plays a key role. With its roots in Hinduism and the caste system, Indian society operates within a framework of strict hierarchy that defines people's roles, status and social order. For example, within companies manual labour will only be carried out by the "peon" (roughly equivalent to a 'runner'). It is not uncommon for the moving of a desk to take hours. This is because no-one in the office will carry out the task but the "peon", who, if otherwise engaged can not do so. Doing Business - Meeting and Greeting When doing business in India, meeting etiquette requires a handshake. However, Indians themselves use the namaste. This is where the palms are brought together at chest level with a slight bow of the head. Using the namaste is a sign of your understanding of Indian etiquette. Names speak volumes about an Indian's background. For example, a Singh will always be a Sikh. The suffix "-jee" ( as in Banerjee) is a sign of a high caste. "Kar" (as in Chandraskar) denotes that person is of Maharashtan high caste. Arabic sounding names will be used by Muslims. When addressing an Indian whom you know personally, always use the appropriate formal title, whether Professor, Doctor, Mr, Mrs or if you do not know their names then Sir or Madam will suffice. When doing business in India, business cards should be exchanged at the first meeting. It is a good idea to have it translated on one side into Hindi, more as a sign of respect as opposed to linguistic necessity. Be sure to receive and give with your right hand. Make sure the card is put away respectfully and not simply pushed into a trouser pocket.


Doing Business - Building Relationships Doing business in India involves building relationships. Indians only deal favourably with those they know and trust - even at the expense of lucrative deals. It is vital that a good working relationship is founded with any prospective partner. This must take place on a business level, i.e. demonstrating strong business acumen, and at a personal level, i.e. relating to your partner and exhibiting the positive traits of trustworthiness and honour. Doing Business - Meetings and Negotiations Meetings should be arranged well in advance. This should be done in writing and confirmed by phone. Avoid meetings near or on national holidays such as Independence Day, Diwali or either of the two Eids. Avoid the heat by scheduling between October and March. Punctuality is expected, although being 10 minutes late will not have disastrous consequences. Flexibility is paramount. Family responsibilities take precedence over business so last minute cancellations are possible when doing business. When entering a meeting room you must always approach and greet the most senior figure first. Meetings should always commence with some conversation. This is part of the 'getting to know you' process. Favourable topics of conversation are the latest business news, the fortunes of the Bombay Stock Exchange or cricket. Avoid talking about personal matters and, if new to India, do not comment on matters such as the poverty or beggars. If your business dealings in India involve negotiations, always bear in mind that they can be slow. If trust has not yet been established then concentrate efforts on building a rapport. Decisions are always made at the highest level. If the owner or Director of the company is not present, the chances are these are early stage negotiations. Indians do not base their business decisions solely on statistics, empirical data and exciting PowerPoint presentations. They use intuition, feeling and faith to guide them. Always exercise patience, show good character and never exhibit frustration or anger. When negotiating avoid high pressure tactics. Do not be confrontational or forceful. Criticisms and disagreements should be expressed only with the most diplomatic language. Indian society has an aversion to saying "no" as it is considered rude due to the possibility of causing disappointment or offense. Listen carefully to Indians' responses to your questions. If terms such as "We'll see", "I will try" or "possibly" are employed then the chances are that they are saying 'no'.


Once terms have been agreed you will be expected to honour them. When negotiations end successfully continue the relationship building process with a celebration dinner. BUSINESS GIFTS: Business Gifts are not normally expected or given at the first meeting. Gifts may be given once a relationship with your counterpart has developed. Suggested gifts could be: Imported Whiskey (only if the recipient drinks), pens, ties, calculators, desk accessories, etc. BUSINESS ATTIRE/Dressing: Mainly formals are worn. That is a formal shirt and a formal pant. Usually on the last working day of a week casuals are worn. But that should be descent. Women should wear casual dresses or pants ensembles. Women should wear conservative dresses or trouser suits. Clothing should not reveal too much skin - especially legs. Women were slacks and a jacket or long desses. W India Business Hours Throughout the year, apart from Festivals, businesses in India are open at the following hours: Government Offices: Mondays to Fridays: 09.30 - 17:30. Offices: Mondays to Fridays: 09.30 - 17:30 (on Saturdays until 14:00). Banks: Mondays to Fridays 10:00 - 15:00 (on Saturdays until 13:00). Stores: Mondays to Saturdays 09:00 - 19:00. Visiting Cards The visiting card ritual is not so formal as in China or Japan but you should always carry decent and presentable cards with you. Cards in English are fine. You don't need to print them in local languages. • Never use the left hand to give and receive cards. Behavior the Indian work force is known for its command of English, but nevertheless if you stay in India you have a language of your own to learn. One glaring difference between the British-American English and the Indian English is the absence of the word "no." Indians hate to say no. They sort of hesitate and they say 'uhhh yes,' and they mean no. You make the person uncomfortable if you press. Saying "no" is


a nonstarter in lots of cultures. In parts of the Mideast it is considered inhospitable to refuse someone outright. The sensitivity stretches eastward, even to China. It's a sharp contrast to blunt-spoken American business culture. • The head is considered the seat of the soul. Never touch someone else’s head, not even to pat the hair of a child. • Beckoning someone with the palm up and wagging one finger can be construed as in insult. Standing with your hands on your hips will be interpreted as an angry, aggressive posture. • Whistling is impolite and winking may be interpreted as either an insult or a sexual proposition. • Never point your feet at a person. Feet are considered unclean. If your shoes or feet touch another person, apologize. • Gifts are not opened in the presence of the giver. If you receive a wrapped gift, set it aside until the giver leaves. • Business lunches are preferred to dinners. Hindus do not eat beef and Muslims do not eat pork.

• Politics of India

India is the most populous democracy in the world. For most of the years since independence, the federal government has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Politics in the states have been dominated by several national parties including the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, barring two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the state of emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989, a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years. As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority,


the INC formed a minority government under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term. The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term. In the 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), supported by various Left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP. The UPA again came into power in the 2009 general election; however, the representation of the Left leaning parties within the coalition has significantly reduced. Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.

Central and State Governments
The central government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the President, whose duties are largely ceremonial. The president and vice president are elected indirectly for 5-year terms by a special electoral college. The vice president assumes the office of president in case of the death or resignation of the incumbent president. The constitution designates the governance of India under two branches namely the executive branch and Real national executive power is centered in the Council of Ministers, led by thePrime Minister of India. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who is designated by legislators of the political party or coalition commanding a parliamentary majority. The President then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. In reality, the President has no discretion on the question of whom to appoint as Prime Minister except when no political party or coalition of parties gains a majority in the Lok Sabha. Once the Prime Minister has been appointed, the President has no discretion on any other matter whatsoever, including the appointment of ministers. But all Central Government decisions are nominally taken in his name. Legislative branch The constitution designates the Parliament of India as the legislative branch to oversee the operation of the government. India's bicameral parliament consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Council of Ministers is held responsible to the Lok Sabha.


The government can enact laws and ordinances as required for the governance of the country. However, laws and ordinances have to be passed by the legislative branch in order to be effected. Parliament sessions are conducted to discuss, analyze and pass the laws tabled as Acts. Any law is first proposed as a bill in the lower house. If the lower house approves the bill in current form, the bill is then proposed to be enacted in the upper house. If not, the bill is sent for amendment and then tabled again so as to be passed as an Act. Even if the bill is passed in the lower house, the upper house has the right to reject the proposed bill and send it back to the government for amending the bill. Therefore, it can be said that the governance of India takes place under two processes; the executive process and the legislative process. Ideally, the governance cannot be done through the individual processes alone. After the Bill is passed by both the houses, the President signs the Bill as an Act. Thus the legislative branch also acts under the name of the President, like the executive branch. Ordinances are laws that are passed in lieu of Acts, when the parliament is not in session. When the parliament is in recess, the President assumes the legislative powers of both the houses temporarily, under Part V: Chapter III - Article 335 of the Constitution of India. The government has to propose a law to the President during such periods. If the President is fully satisfied with the bill, and signs the bill, it becomes an ordinance. The powers of ordinances are temporary, and each ordinance has to be tabled in the parliament when the houses reassemble. The President also has the right to withdraw an ordinance.
State Government States in India have their own elected governments, whereas Union Territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the central government. Some of the state legislatures are bicameral, patterned after the two houses of the national parliament. The states' chief ministers are responsible to the legislatures in the same way the prime minister is responsible to parliament.

Each state also has a presidentially appointed governor who may assume certain broad powers when directed by the central government. The central government exerts greater control over the union territories than over the States, although some territories have gained more power to administer their own affairs. Local state governments in India have less autonomy compared to their counterparts in the United States and Australia. Judicial branch India's independent judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The constitution designates


the Supreme Court, the High Courts and the lower courts as the authority to resolve disputes among the people as well as the disputes related to the people and the government. The constitution through its articles relating to the judicial system provides a way to question the laws of the government, if the common man finds the laws as unsuitable for any community in India..

Role of political parties
As like any other democracy, political parties represent different sections among the Indian society and regions, and their core values play a major role in the politics of India. Both the executive branch and the legislative branch of the government are run by the representatives of the political parties who have been elected through the elections. Through the electoral process, the people of India choose which majority in the lower house, a government can be formed by that party or the coalition. India has a multi-party system, where there are a number of national as well as regional parties. A regional party may gain a majority and rule a particular state. If a party represents more than 4 states then such parties are considered as national parties. In the 61 years since India's independence, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress (INC) for 48 of those years. The party enjoyed a parliamentary majority barring two brief periods during the 1970s and late 1980s. This rule was interrupted between 1977 to 1980, when the Janata Party coalition won the election owing to public discontent with the controversial state of emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The Janata Dal won elections in 1989, but its government managed to hold on to power for only two years. Between 1996 and 1998, there was a period of political flux with the government being formed first by the right-wing nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) followed by a left-leaning United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed theNational Democratic Alliance with smaller regional parties, and became the first non-INC and coalition government to complete a full five-year term. The2004 Indian elections saw the INC winning the largest number of seats to form a government leading the United Progressive Alliance, and supported by leftparties and those opposed to the BJP. On 22 May 2004, Manmohan Singh was appointed the Prime Minister of India following the victory of the INC & the left front in the 2004 Lok Sabha election. The UPA now rules India without the support of the left front. Previously, Atal Bihari Vajpayee had taken office in October 1999 after a general election in which a BJP-led coalition of 13 parties called the National Democratic Alliance emerged with a majority.


Formation of coalition governments reflects the transition in Indian politics away from the national parties toward smaller, more narrowly-based regional parties. Some regional parties, especially in South India, are deeply aligned to the ideologies of the region unlike the national parties and thus the relationship between the central government and the state government in various states has not always been free of rancor. Disparity between the ideologies of the political parties ruling the centre and the state leads to severely skewed allocation of resources between the states.

Foreign relations and military

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a leading role in the 1950s by advocating the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia. India was involved in two brief military interventions in neighbouring countries – Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka and Operation Cactus in Maldives. India is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. After the SinoIndian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. India has fought two wars with Pakistan over the Kashmir dispute. A third war between India and Pakistan in 1971 resulted in the creation of Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). Additional skirmishes have taken place between the two nations over the Siachen Glacier. In 1999, India and Pakistan fought an undeclared war over Kargil.


India and Russia share an extensive economic, defence and technological relationship. Shown here is PM Manmohan Singh with President Dmitry Medvedev at the 34th G8 Summit. In recent years, India has played an influential role in the SAARC, and the WTO. India has provided as many as 55,000 Indian military and police personnel to serve in thirty-five UN peace keeping operations across four continents. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT, preferring instead to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program. Recent overtures by the Indian government have strengthened relations with the United States, China and Pakistan. In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia and Africa. India maintains the third-largest military force in the world, which consists of the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command. The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces. India maintains close defence cooperation with Russia, Israel and France, who are the chief suppliers of arms. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) oversees indigenous development of sophisticated arms and military equipment, including ballistic missiles, fighter aircraft and main battle tanks, to reduce India's dependence on foreign imports. India became a nuclear power in 1974 after conducting an initial nuclear test, Operation Smiling Buddha and further underground testing in 1998. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy. On 10 October, 2008 Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement was signed, prior to which India received IAEA and NSG waivers, ending restrictions on nuclear technology commerce with which India became de facto sixth nuclear power in world.


CONCLUSION After reading this all details of the countries Like India and New zealand We can say ABOUT INDIA :As India has always been considered as the country of Unity in Diversity. This is the land with Unity in Diversity. India is a land of different religions and communities. There is great diversity in our manners, habits, tastes and customs. We speak different languages and yet we are all Indians. "Unity in Diversity" has been the distinctive feature of our culture. India being the largest democracy in the world with a civilization more than five thousand years old boasts of multiple cultural origins. A lot of festivals are celebrated with a great zeal in India in spite of all whether the festival is Hindu oriented or Christian or whatever. This is Unity in Diversity of different festivals. All religions are treated equally in spite making any partiality to anyone of a specific religion .All religions are given equal preference. Thus India is diverse in its religions. Different Languages are spoken in different regions. Different cultures and different traditions are followed by different people of different regions. Thus we can say that Modern India presents a picture of unity in diversity where people of different faiths and beliefs live together in peace and harmony and world peace is the only motto of all Indians. About NEW ZEALAND We can say :New Zealand the “Land of the Kiwi” New Zealand's mix of people will tell us much about what they like in food: about 3 million are of British descent, while about 280,000 or native Maori and 250,000 are Pacific Islanders. Consequently, the majority of the dishes are of British derivation but the other communities contribute their own flare and influences. Once near cultural extinction, the Maori have mostly adapted to urban life and the


government has established school programs that teach the Maori traditions, language, arts and culture, fostering nationalism and pride in Maoritanga, the Maori way of life. It is course, the land of the kiwi, their flightless national bird, and the kiwifruit, the oval, fuzzy, tart green fruit so popular today. Thus we can say that For every country has their own respect and their culture their beliefs,No one can change and no one can blame on the country. A famous personality said about the India :-

“We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made !" Albert Einstein

And as citizen of India We love India…..!!!!!!!!!


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