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Natural Disasters :
A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard .(e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake,and landslide) which moves from potential in to an active phase, and as a result affects human activities. Human vulnerability, e acerbated by the lack of planning or lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. !he resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.!his understanding is concentrated in the formulation" #disasters occur when ha$ards meet vulnerability#. A natural ha$ard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. !he term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not ha$ards or disasters without human involvement. !he degree of potential loss can also depend on the nature of the ha$ard itself, ranging from a single lightning strike, which threatens a very small area, to impact events, which have the potential to end civili$ation.
Natural hazards :
%atural ha$ards are natural events that threaten lives, property, and other assets. &ften, natural ha$ards can be predicted. !hey tend to occur repeatedly in the same geographical locations because they are related to weather patterns or physical characteristics of an area. %atural ha$ards such as flood, fire, earthquake, tornado, and windstorms affect thousands of people every year. 'e need to know what our risks are from natural ha$ards and take sensible precautions to protect ourselves, our families, and our communities.
Here is the list of some natural ha$ard "(
• • • • • •
)loods !ornadoes Hurricanes !hunderstorms and *ightning 'inter +torms and , treme -old , treme Heat
which left most of %ew &rleans under water in the year =::?. million people homeless. or very large.• • • • • • .::: deaths. +ome floods develop slowly. • !yphoon %ina. producing effects similar to flash floods. !ropical cyclones can result in e tensive flooding. and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path. rapid melting of large amounts of snow. including thunderstorms. !e as in =::6 and • Hurricane @atrina. also in -hina. mud. 2rolonged rainfall from a storm. Take Protectice Measures . • !he =::: 0o$ambique flood covered much of the country for three weeks. or rivers which swell from e cess precipitation upstream and cause widespread damage to areas downstream. resulting in thousands of deaths.:::. striking -hina in 67>?.arthquakes . as happened with" • Bhola -yclone. or less frequently the bursting of man(made dams or levees. which struck Houston.ast 2akistan (now Bangladesh) in 67>:.::: and . left 6. and leaving the country devastated for years afterward. )looding can also occur when a dam breaks. However. impacting a neighborhood or community. • !he 5reat )lood of 6778 was one of the most costly floods in <+ history. sometimes in 1ust a few minutes and without any visible signs of rain. striking . )lash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks. affecting entire river basins and multiple states. but still can be destructive. • !ropical +torm Allison. • !he Huang Ho (3ellow 4iver) in -hina floods particularly often. such as when a levee is breached. !he 5reat )lood of 6786 caused between 9::. sometimes over a period of days. But flash floods can develop quickly.olcanoes *andslide and /ebris )low (0udslide) !sunamis )ires 'ildfires Flood : )lood effects can be local. all floods are not alike. &verland flooding occurs outside a defined river or stream. • !he 6779 3angt$e 4iver )loods..
and electric panel if susceptible to flooding. 3ou and the vehicle can be quickly swept away. and other areas known to flood suddenly. you should: • *isten to the radio or television for information. Af you have to walk in water. canyons. Driving Flood Facts The following are important points to remember when driving in flood conditions: • +i inches of water will reach the bottom of most passenger cars causing loss of control and possible stalling. • !wo feet of rushing water can carry away most vehicles including sport utility vehicles (+<. abandon the car and move to higher ground if you can do so safely. . Af floodwaters rise around your car.Before a Flood To prepare for a flood. move immediately to higher ground. remember these evacuation tips: • /o not walk through moving water. • . Af you have time. Af there is any possibility of a flash flood. you should: • Avoid building in a floodplain unless you elevate and reinforce your home.Cs) and pick(ups. • Be aware of streams. • /o not drive into flooded areas. )lash floods can occur in these areas with or without such typical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain. 0ove essential items to an upper floor. drainage channels. • -onstruct barriers (levees. +i inches of moving water can make you fall.levate the furnace. • +eal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage. • A foot of water will float many vehicles. • !urn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to do so. /o not wait for instructions to move. walk where the water is not moving. /o not touch electrical equipment if you are wet or standing in water. After a Flood The following are guidelines for the period following a flood: • *isten for news reports to learn whether the communityCs water supply is safe to drink. /isconnect electrical appliances. If you must prepare to evacuate. During a Flood If a flood is likely in your area. • Anstall #check valvesB in sewer traps to prevent flood water from backing up into the drains of your home. floodwalls) to stop floodwater from entering the building. • Be aware that flash flooding can occur. <se a stick to check the firmness of the ground in front of you. water heater. beams. you should do the following: • +ecure your home. bring in outdoor furniture. If you have to leave your home.
4eturn home only when authorities indicate it is safe. often greenish sky o *arge hail o A large.• • • • • • • • • Avoid floodwatersD water may be contaminated by oil. gasoline. Take Protective Measures Before a Tornado Be alert to changing weather conditions. Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. particularly in foundations. or raw sewage. dark. • *ook for the following danger signs" o /ark. be prepared to take shelter immediately. 0ud left from floodwater can contain sewage and chemicals. Tornado :A tornado is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm. +tay away from downed power lines. 4oads may have weakened and could collapse under the weight of a car. !ornadoes are violent. or can occur in large tornado outbreaks along squall lines or in other large areas of thunderstorm development. rotating columns of air which can blow at speeds between ?: and 8:: mph. /amaged sewage systems are serious health ha$ards. cesspools. +ervice damaged septic tanks. • *isten to %&AA 'eather 4adio or to commercial radio or television newscasts for the latest information. similar to a freight train. • *ook for approaching storms. During a Tornado If you are under a tornado WA !I!". +tay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters. Avoid moving water. pits. <se e treme caution when entering buildingsD there may be hidden damage. and leaching systems as soon as possible. and possibly higher. low(lying cloud (particularly if rotating) o *oud roar. -lean and disinfect everything that got wet. seek shelter immediately# If you are in: Then: . 'aterspouts are tornadoes occurring over tropical waters in light rain conditions. 'ater may also be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines. If you see approaching storms or any of the danger signs. !ornadoes can occur one at a time. and report them to the power company.
school. )lying debris from tornadoes causes most fatalities and in1uries. or mobile 5et out immediately and go to the lowest floor of a sturdy. factory. 5et under a sturdy table and use your arms to protect your head and neck.g. and typhoon are different names for the same phenomenon" a cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. . 2ut as many walls as possible between you and the outside. offer little protection from tornadoes. hospital. . high(rise building) 5o to a pre(designated shelter area such as a safe room.ffect causes the storms to spin. and Typhoons :Hurricane. !he outside with no shelter *ie flat in a nearby ditch or depression and cover your head with your hands. 3ou are safer in a low. flat location. typhoon in the western 2acific. shopping center. nursing home. tropical cyclone. tropical cyclone in the Andian. doors. even if tied down. nearby home building or a storm shelter.ustatius and Barbados. Anstead. Hurricanes. !he -oriolis . interior hallway) away from corners./o not get under an overpass or bridge. which devastated 0artinique. basement. Hurricane is used for these phenomena in the Atlantic and eastern 2acific &ceans. 0obile homes. Be aware of the potential for flooding. Af there is no basement. 'atch out for flying debris. or the lowest building level. go to the center of an interior room on the lowest level (closet. /o not open windows.A structure (e. windows. leave the vehicle immediately for safe shelter. small building.%ever try to outrun a tornado in urban or congested areas in a car or truck. storm cellar. and a hurricane is declared when this spinning mass of storms attains a wind speed greater than >. A vehicle. residence. trailer. +t. !he deadliest hurricane ever was the 67>: Bhola cycloneD the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the 5reat Hurricane of 6>9:. mph. and outside walls. At is caused by evaporated water that comes off of the ocean and becomes a storm. Tropical cyclones.
though -ategories &ne and !wo are still e tremely dangerous and warrant your full attention. Homes flooded. 5reater than 69 feet Take (rotecti*e 'easures +efore a Hurricane !o prepare for a hurricane. small crafts. roofs.egetation destroyed. tensive" +mall buildings. Hurricanes are classified into five categories based on their wind speed. 0a1or roads cut off.(7? 7E(66: 666(68: 686(6?? Storm Sur$e . low(lying roads cut off. which devastated the 5ulf -oast of the <nited +tates in =::?. .Another notable hurricane is Hurricane @atrina. A second option is to board up windows with ?F9B marine plywood. • -lear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts. . mobile homes destroyed. . cut to fit and ready to install. treme" 4oofs destroyed. central pressure. 0oderate" All mobile homes.(? feet E(9 feet 7(6= feet 68(69 feet )ama$e 0inimal" <nanchored mobile homes. trees down. vegetation and signs. • -onsider building a safe room. -ategory !hree and higher hurricanes are considered ma1or hurricanes. flooding. Sustained &inds "'(H% >. 2ermanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. Beach homes flooded. ? 0ore than -atastrophic" 0ost buildings 6?? destroyed. !ape does not prevent windows from breaking. you should take the following measures" • 0ake plans to secure your property. and damage potential (see chart). roads cut off. Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Scale um!er "#ate$ory% 6 = 8 . • Be sure trees and shrubs around your home are well trimmed. !his will reduce roof damage. • /etermine how and where to secure your boat. • Anstall straps or additional clips to securely fasten your roof to the frame structure. .
walkways. . • Af you live in a high(rise buildingHhurricane winds are stronger at higher elevations. Af you do not have one. • !urn off propane tanks. closed highways. and secure outdoor ob1ects or bring them indoors. • Af you live in a mobile home or temporary structureHsuch shelters are particularly ha$ardous during hurricanes no matter how well fastened to the ground. or on an inland waterway. or hallway on the lowest level. go to your wind(safe room. you should" • *isten to the radio or !. 'inter storms can result in flooding.)urin$ a Hurricane Af a hurricane is likely in your area. creating a coating of ice on roads. close storm shutters. closet. • Af you feel you are in danger. trees. • .-treme #old :Heavy snowfall and e treme cold can immobili$e an entire region. • -lose all interior doorsHsecure and brace e ternal doors. • +ecure your home.ven areas that normally e perience mild winters can be hit with a ma1or snowstorm or e treme cold. on a floodplain. 3ou should evacuate under the following conditions" • Af you are directed by local authorities to do so. )ill the bathtub and other large containers with water. . blocked roads. • @eep curtains and blinds closed. • 0oor your boat if time permits. for information. follow these guidelines" • +tay indoors during the hurricane and away from windows and glass doors. • Af you live on the coast. • !ake refuge in a small interior room. Be sure to follow their instructions. and power lines.nsure a supply of water for sanitary purposes such as cleaning and flushing toilets. turn the refrigerator thermostat to its coldest setting and keep its doors closed. &inter Storms and . *ie on the floor under a table or another sturdy ob1ect. Af you are unable to evacuate. storm surge. . /o not be fooled if there is a lullD it could be the eye of the storm I winds will pick up again. downed power lines and hypothermia.now the Terms )ree$ing 4ain" 4ain that free$es when it hits the ground.G Avoid using the phone. near a river. &therwise. e cept for serious emergencies. • !urn off utilities if instructed to do so.
+leet also causes moisture on roads to free$e and become slippery. Bli$$ard 'arning" +ustained winds or frequent gusts to 8? miles per hour or greater and considerable amounts of falling or blowing snow (reducing visibility to less than a quarter mile) are e pected to prevail for a period of three hours or longer. asphalt and concrete store heat longer and gradually release heat at night.+leet" 4ain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground. or television for more information. commercial radio. Take Protective Measures Before Winter Storms and !treme "old Include the following in your disaster supplies kit: • 4ock salt to melt ice on walkways • +and to improve traction • +now shovels and other snow removal equipment. -onsequently. 'inter +torm 'atch" A winter storm is possible in your area. Also. . An e treme heat and high humidity. &lder adults. you should: • Anstall window air conditioners snuglyD insulate if necessary. 0ost heat disorders occur because the victim has been overe posed to heat or has over( e ercised for his or her age and physical condition. young children. treme Heat"( Heat kills by pushing the human body beyond its limits.B Take Protective Measures Before !treme #eat To prepare for e$treme heat. • -heck air(conditioning ducts for proper insulation. 'inter +torm 'arning" A winter storm is occurring or will soon occur in your area. people living in urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave than those living in rural areas. which can produce higher nighttime temperatures known as the #urban heat island effect. Dress for the Weather . -onditions that can induce heat(related illnesses include stagnant atmospheric conditions and poor air quality. evaporation is slowed and the body must work e tra hard to maintain a normal temperature. !une in to %&AA 'eather 4adio. and those who are sick or overweight are more likely to succumb to e treme heat.
and the first aid treatment. 'eak place. haustion be cool.5ive sips of up to a half glass of cool water every 6? minutes.) /iscontinue liquids. e haustion. • • • • First Aid for #eat$%nduced %llnesses %$treme heat brings with it the possibility of heat&induced illnesses. /rink plenty of water. +eek immediate medical attention if Heat -ramps . /ress in loose(fitting. kidney. blisters. -heck on family. and light(colored clothes that cover as much skin as possible. 2ainful spasms. 2rotect face and head by wearing a wide(brimmed hat.*oosen or remove clothing. possible !ake a shower using soap to remove oils swelling. fever. possible. wet clothes. or louvers.) @eep storm windows up all year. 2ersons who have epilepsy or heart. vomiting. is possible. if victim is nauseated. Heat Heavy sweating but skin may 5et victim to lie down in a cool . -over windows that receive morning or afternoon sun with drapes.Apply dry.• • • • • Anstall temporary window reflectors (for use between windows and drapes). shades. such as aluminum foil(covered cardboard. lightweight. or liver diseaseD are on fluid(restricted dietsD or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake. that may block pores. and neighbors who do not have air conditioning and who spend much of their time alone. pale. preventing the headaches body from cooling naturally. but temperature will likely rise. their symptoms. awnings. di$$iness. usually in leg 5et the victim to a cooler and abdominal musclesD heavy location. *imit intake of alcoholic beverages. to reflect heat back outside. nausea. #ondition Symptoms First /id +unburn +kin redness and pain. and headaches are Be sure water is consumed slowly. friends. and get medical attention. %ormal body temperature cool. (/o not give liquids with caffeine or alcohol.*ightly stretch and gently sweating massage affected muscles to relieve spasms. or flushed. sterile dressings to any blisters. )ainting or 5ive sips of water if victim is conscious.Apply pulse. 'eather(strip doors and sills to keep cool air in. The following table lists these illnesses. (&utdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat that enters a home by up to 9: percent.
Ash accumulations mi ed with water become heavy and can collapse roofs .:. . dry skinD rapid. G !he >.::: people. gritty. and to those suffering from severe respiratory illnesses. gassy. 'atch for breathing problems. /elay can be fatal. and odorous. an eruption occurs. *ava flows destroy everything in their path. but most move slowly enough that people can move out of the way. )resh volcanic ash. !here may be lava flows. <se fans and air conditioners. 'hen pressure from gases within the molten rock becomes too great. earthquakes may manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes tsunamis. sponging. which also triggered tsunamis. . 'hile not immediately dangerous to most adults. red. . and flying rock and ash. !he huge tsunamis triggered by this earthquake cost the lives of at least ==7. made of pulveri$ed rock. or wet sheet to reduce body temperature.E(>.> magnitude Luly =::E Lava earthquake. acidic. which cost >7.::: lives in 2akistan. including engines and electrical equipment. the second largest earthquake in recorded history. can be abrasive. +ome of the most significant earthquakes in recent times include" G !he =::. At the . the acidic gas and ash can cause lung damage to small infants. weak ( a severe pulseD and rapid shallow medical breathing. to older adults. or get the victim to a hospital immediately.8.arthquake "( An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from a sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. few of which are large enough to cause significant damage.arthCs surface. Heat High body temperature (6:?J)D +troke hot.4emoving clothing !ry a cool bath. 0olcanoes:A volcano is a vent through which molten rock escapes to the earthCs surface.ictim will probably emergency) not sweat unless victim was sweating from recent strenuous activity. registering a moment magnitude of 7.ruptions can be quiet or e plosive.vomiting occurs. lava flows are great fire ha$ards. poisonous gases. which roughly bounds the 2acific 2late.> =::? @ashmir earthquake. 7:K of all earthquakes I and 96K of the largest I occur around the . 0any earthquakes happen each day. 2ossible unconsciousness. . Because of their intense heat.:::km long 2acific 4ing of )ire. -all 7(6(6 or emergency medical services.olcanic ash also can damage machinery. Andian &cean earthquake.0ove victim to a cooler environment. flattened landscapes. !he >.
or mud flows. volcanic eruptions. -lear heavy ash from flat or low(pitched roofs and rain gutters. but instead of occurring with snow. Protection from Falling Ash • • • • • • • • 'ear long(sleeved shirts and long pants. keep speed down to 8? 02H or slower. Avoid driving in heavy ash fall unless absolutely required. -lose doors. fans. +tay indoors until the ash has settled unless there is a danger of the roof collapsing. and other vents. including rocks. +tay away from active volcano sites. are a special case of landslides.G <se goggles and war eyeglasses instead of contact lenses. During a &olcanic ru'tion The following are guidelines for what to do if a volcano erupts in your area: • • • . /riving can stir up volcanic ash that can clog engines. parts of houses. and stall vehicles. Be aware of mudflows. *andslides and 0udflows"( A landslide is a disaster closely related to an a alanche. damage moving parts.Take Protective Measures Before a &olcanic ru'tion • • Add a pair of goggles and disposable breathing mask for each member of the family to your disaster supply kit. and all ventilation in the house (chimney vents. Avoid running car or truck engines. *ook upstream before crossing a bridge. in which . <se a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help with breathing. hot gases. !he danger from a mudflow increases near stream channels and with prolonged heavy rains. or general instability in the surrounding land. and do not cross the bridge if mudflow is approaching. it occurs involving actual elements of the ground. +tay away from areas downwind from the volcano to avoid volcanic ash. 0udslides. windows. lateral blast.vacuate immediately from the volcano area to avoid flying debris. air conditioners. Avoid river valleys and low(lying areas. and lava flow. Af you have to drive. trees. furnaces. and anything else which may happen to be swept up. *andslides can be caused by earthquakes. 0udflows can move faster than you can walk or run.
or natural erosion valleys. +lowly developing. flows. as fle ible fittings are more resistant to breakage (only the gas company or professionals should install gas fittings). Take Protective Measures Before a (andslide orDe)ris Flo* The following are steps you can take to protect yourself from the effects of a landslide or debris flow: • • • • /o not build near steep slopes. widening cracks appear on the ground or on paved areas such as streets or driveways. or progressively leaning trees. near drainage ways. or trees tilt or move. %ew cracks appear in plaster.heavy rainfall causes loose soil on steep terrain to collapse and slide downwards (see also *ahar)D these occur with some regularity in parts of -alifornia after periods of heavy rain. close to mountain edges. 0inimi$e home ha$ards by having fle ible pipe fittings installed to avoid gas or water leaks. )ences. mud. fallen rocks. walks. -onsult an appropriate professional e pert for advice on corrective measures. or foundations. <nderground utility lines break. tile. !he ground slopes downward in one direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet. -ollapsed pavement. might indicate moving debris. 5et a ground assessment of your property. <nusual sounds. utility poles. +ecognize (andslide Warning Signs • • • • • • • • • • • • • -hanges occur in your landscape such as patterns of storm(water drainage on slopes (especially the places where runoff water converges) land movement. and other indications of possible debris flow can be seen when driving (embankments along roadsides are particularly susceptible to landslides). A faint rumbling sound that increases in volume is noticeable as the landslide nears. or stairs begin pulling away from the building. such as trees cracking or boulders knocking together. /oors or windows stick or 1am for the first time. During a (andslide or De)ris Flo* . 'ater breaks through the ground surface in new locations. brick. retaining walls. small slides. Bulging ground appears at the base of a slope. &utside walls.
m (6>. !he topography of the coastline and the ocean floor will influence the si$e of the wave.The following are guidelines for what you should do if a landslide or debris flow occurs: • • 0ove away from the path of a landslide or debris flow as quickly as possible. !here may be more than one wave and the succeeding one may be larger than the one before. -heck for in1ured and trapped persons near the slide. )rom the area where the tsunami originates. Take Protective Measures During a Tsunami The following are guidelines for what you should do if a tsunami is likely in your area: . 'atch for associated dangers such as broken electrical. and sewage lines and damaged roadways and railways. landslide. gas. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in the open ocean and smash into land with waves as high as 6:: feet or more.in *ituya Bay. or meteorite.= ft. /irect rescuers to their locations. volcanic eruption. it builds in height.) vertical run(up on Luly 6:. Tsunamis:!sunamis (pronounced soo(nM(mees). +eek advice from a geotechnical e pert for evaluating landslide ha$ards or designing corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. without entering the direct slide area. !he word comes from Lapanese words #津波B meaning harbor and wavealso known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called #tidal wavesB). 4eplant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding and additional landslides in the near future. 67?9. !he highest !sunami ever recorded was estimated to be of ?=. are a series of enormous waves created by an underwater disturbance such as an earthquake. -url into a tight ball and protect your head if escape is not possible. !hat is why a small tsunami at one beach can be a giant wave a few miles away. waves travel outward in all directions. After a (andslide or De)ris Flo* The following are guidelines for the period following a landslide: • • • • • +tay away from the slide area.Alaska. water. !here may be danger of additional slides. &nce the wave approaches the shore.
::: are in1ured in fires. !o protect yourself. you may fall into a deeper sleep. it is important to understand the basic characteristics of fire. After a Tsunami The following are guidelines for the period following a tsunami: • • +tay away from flooded and damaged areas until officials say it is safe to return. Heat and smoke from fire can be more dangerous than the flames. An 1ust two minutes. 0ove inland to higher ground immediately and stay there. to 6= inches from ceiling).• • !urn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning if an earthquake occurs and you are in a coastal area. 2roperly working smoke alarms decrease your chances of dying in a fire by half.. Asphy iation is the leading cause of fire deaths. -A<!A&% I Af there is noticeable recession in water away from the shoreline this is natureCs tsunami warning and it should be heeded. or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near (but not in) the kitchen.ach year. 2lace them outside bedrooms on the ceiling or high on the wall (. An five minutes. . 3ou should move away immediately. Take Protective Measures +efore a Fire 'moke Alarms • • Anstall smoke alarms.::: Americans die and more than =?.E billion annually. )ire produces poisonous gases that make you disoriented and drowsy. /irect property loss due to fires is estimated at N9. Anstead of being awakened by a fire. Fires"( . many of which could be prevented. a residence can be engulfed in flames. )ire spreads quicklyD there is no time to gather valuables or make a phone call. e ceeding burns by a three(to(one ratio. 2lace smoke alarms on every level of your residence. Anhaling the super(hot air can sear your lungs. a fire can become life(threatening. +tay away from debris in the waterD it may pose a safety ha$ard to boats and people. at the top of open stairways. more than .
naptha. Af you need to plug in two or three appliances. sturdy ashtrays. /ouse cigarette and cigar butts with water before disposal. Ansulate chimneys and place spark arresters on top. get a <*(approved unit with built(in circuit breakers to prevent sparks and short circuits. -lean out storage areas. if possible. over nails. in a locked cabinet. +tore flammable liquids in approved containers in well(ventilated storage areas. !he chimney should be at least three feet higher than the roof. %scaping the (ire: • • • • • 4eview escape routes with your family. 0ake sure windows are not nailed or painted shut. you should" . 0atches and +moking • @eep matches and lighters up high. (lammable Items • • • • • %ever use gasoline. • 0ake sure insulation does not touch bare electrical wiring. and. -onsider escape ladders if your residence has more than one level. /iscard all rags or materials that have been soaked in flammable liquids after you have used them. 2rovide smokers with deep. 0ake sure security gratings on windows have a fire safety opening feature so they can be easily opened from the inside. or across high(traffic areas. or similar flammable liquids indoors. 2ractice escaping from each room.• !est and clean smoke alarms once a month and replace batteries at least once a year. +afely discard them outdoors in a metal container.lectrical 'iring • Have the electrical wiring in your residence checked by an electrician. • %ever smoke in bed or when drowsy or medicated. %ever smoke near flammable liquids. • /o not overload e tension cords or outlets. such as old newspapers and maga$ines. • Anspect e tension cords for frayed or e posed wires or loose plugs. accumulate. 4eplace smoke alarms once every 6: years. away from children. • 0ake sure outlets have cover plates and no e posed wiring. 4emove branches hanging above and around the chimney. ben$ine. • 0ake sure wiring does not run under rugs. and ensure that burglar bars and other antitheft mechanisms that block outside window entry are easily opened from the inside. . !each family members to stay low to the floor (where the air is safer in a fire) when escaping from a fire. )urin$ a Fire Af your clothes catch on fire. /o not let trash.
Hot )oor #ool )oor /o not open. such as a window. and the crack between the door and door frame before you open it.• +top. At can hold intense heat for several hours.scape &pen slowly and ensure fire andFor smoke is not through a window. leave immediately through the door and close it alerting fire fighters to your behind you.e. • Af you have a safe or strong bo . use the back of your hand to feel the top of the door. • Af you are a tenant. • Af you must leave your home because a building inspector says the building is unsafe. /fter a Fire !he following are guidelines for different circumstances in the period following a fire" • Af you are with burn victims. evacuate immediately. rise. 4unning only makes the fire burn faster. !he air is clearer and cooler near the floor. . ladders and crawling). hang a white blocked. outside the window. +moke and heat presence. Be prepared to crawl. Af clear. drop. Af you blocking your escape route. call 7(6(6D cool and cover burns to reduce chance of further in1ury or infection. contact the landlord. the doorknob.. !o escape a fire. • Af you detect heat or smoke when entering a damaged building. or are a burn victim yourself. Af your escape route is cannot escape. Af the door is opened before the bo has cooled. you should" • -heck closed doors for heat before you open them. and roll I until the fire is e tinguished. . %ever use the palm of your hand or fingers to test for heat I burning those areas could impair your ability to escape a fire (i. ask someone you trust to watch the property during your absence. Af you are escaping through a closed door. do not try to open it. shut the door immediately and use an or light(colored sheet alternate escape route. the contents could burst into flames.
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