Region 1

(Ilocos Region) People
History of Ilocanos The Ilocanos are the third largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. The term “Ilocano” was derived from the words “i-“ (from) and “looc” (cove or bay), which when combined means “People of the bay”. They were also referred to as Samtoy, which is a contraction of the phrase sao mi ditoy (this is our language).

Basically, the Ilocanos are Austronesian-people / Austronesian-speaking people. The Ilocano dialect is related to the languages Indonesian, Malay, Fijian, Maori, Hawaiian, Malagasy, Samoan, Tahitian, Chamorro, Tetum and Paiwan. Today, the Ilocano dialect is the third most spoken language in the Philippines.

Spanish era

Prior to the Spanish colonial regime, a humble civilization already resides in the Ilocos Region (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Abra). The region stretched from Cape Bojeador at the northwestern tip of Luzon down to the Gulf of Lingayen.

The Ilocos region was primarily famous for their gold mines. The first Ilocos inhabitants were living in large villages at sheltered coves or rivermouths. Traders from China and Japan often come here to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk.

Spanish conquistadors headed by Juan de Salcedo arrived in Vigan in 1572. After landing in Vigan, the conquistadors headed to Laoag, Currimao and to Badoc. They’ve named the region “Ylocos” and its people “Ylocanos”.

The Spaniards weren’t particularly lucky with their conquest of Ilocos. The Ilocanos were the first ethnic group to revolt against Spanish officials. It was in January 1661 when the Ilocanos proclaimed their illustrious leader, Don Pedro Almazan, as their King. He was executed by the Spaniards after the kingdom was dissolved.

Australia and Europe. South Korea. Hong Kong. They became the first Filipino ethnic group to immigrate to North America (Manong Generation). The Ilocanos were prominent in the nationalist movement. Traces of Ilocanos settlement could also be found in the frontier lands of Mindanao particularly in the provinces Sultan Kudarat. North Cotabato. This is why Ilocanos are stereotyped with “survival-like” regional traits such as clannish.000 Ilocanos migrated to different provinces and regions in the Philippines in 1903. The most famed and controversial of all is the late former president Ferdinand Marcos. Tarlac and Nueva Ecija) and in the Cagayan Valley. tenacious industry and frugality. It was a tough geographical location for the Ilocanos to live in. the mounting population pressure due to substantial population density has moved the Ilocanos to leave their homeland. Canada. They dominate about 85% of the Filipino population in Hawaii. The Silangs’ revolt was fueled by the grievances stemming from Spanish taxation and abuses. More than 290. and South Cotabato. . they are considered the largest number of expatriates in the United States. the Ilocos region is a barren strip of land in the northwestern tip of Luzon. many Ilocanos searched for greener pastures in Manila and other major cities in the country. which was continued by his wife Gabriela Silang. Alaska and California. Singapore. It is squeeze in between the inhospitable Cordillera mountain range to the east and the South China Sea to the west. In the 19th century. Many Ilocanos have risen to high office in the central government. Basically. The Ilocanos can be found living in the Central Plain of Luzon (consisting of the provinces Pangasinan. A growing number of Ilocanos can also be found in the Middle East. the Ilocanos are the most migrant. In 1906. the Ilocanos started migrating to Hawaii. Ilocanos today Among all the Filipino ethnic groups. By the 20th century. Japan. Ilocanos move to places in search for better opportunities. Washington. Today.One of the Philippines’ most notable uprisings was lead by the Ilocano Diego Silang.

every Ilocano family encourages the children to go to school and learn skills to find better paying jobs and consequently. which have started to expand its network up to the national level. difficulty is never a hindrance to their success. The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-industrial businesses . Eco-tourism takes advantage of the marine and forest resources in the region and displays the natural beauty of the Region 1. is anchored on agroindustrial and service industry. which posted 61% of the total. While Laoag City in Ilocos Norte has an international airport. To and Ilocano. At the same time the importance of trading. The tourism industry. livestock raising. industry and patience. focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-tourism. The distribution of the economic activity in the region may be seen from the collection of tax revenue of the national government.[citation needed] Cultural Beliefs Ilocanos strive hard to make a living. driven by local airlines and land transportation firms in the area like Farinas Transit Company and Partas. San Fernando City in La Union also has an international shipping port and the upgraded and soon to be developed San Fernando International Airport. thus. and fruits. the economy in the northern portion of the region is anchored in the agricultural sector. The bulk of the collections come from Pangasinan. chicken. raising livestock such as pigs.[6] The service and light manufacturing industries are concentrated in the cities.[citation needed] The region is also rich in crafts. fish paste processing (bagoong). Pangasinan. Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern portion mostly come from cultivating rice. There are fine sands stretching along Bauang. La Union and the rest of the region. . corn. and carabaos (water buffalos). such as milkfish (bangus) cultivation and processing. He believes in the value of study. with renowned blanket-weaving and pottery. From the cradle to the grave. Dagupan City is mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs.Economic Activities Although the economy in the southern portion of the region. tobacco. Most customs and traditions of the Ilocanos are influence by their frugality. goats. financial services. Opportunities to engage in other water sports and activities abound. esp. sugarcane. have a better life. hardships can easily be overcome. the Ilocano rituals reflect what they believe in. and educational services in the economy cannot be denied. and others.[citation needed] The Ilocanos' burnay pottery is well known for its dark colored clay.

It does not includes the belief of some religion in the places. Precolonial times to the 19th century[edit] . Literary Works Ilokano literature or Iloko literature pertains to the literary works of writers of Ilocano ancestry regardless of the language used . A big log is is then lighted in front of the houses so that the spirit of the dead will go to heaven with the smoke. The body is placed in a coffin in the middle of the house parallel to the slats of the floor. Families and clans arrived by viray or bilog. the members of the family keep vigil. The terms "Iloko" and "Ilokano" are different. As long as the dead body is in the house. next to Tagalog (Filipino) and Philippine Literature in English. It is one of the most active tributaries to the general Philippine literature. the log is kept burning to keep the evil spirit away. thus "people of the bay." Ilokanos also refer to themselves as Samtoy. a contraction from the Ilokano phrase sao mi ditoy. No part of the house must be touched by the coffin. English. The term Ilokano originates from i-. The period of mourning ends on the ninth day when relatives and friends spend the day feasting and praying. Spanish or other foreign and Philippine languages. "Iloko" is the language while "Ilokano" refers to the people or the ethnicity of the people who speak the Iloko language. History of Iloko literature[edit] Ilocanos are descendants of Austronesian-speaking people from Taiwan. If the father dies. After each night's prayer. The above customs and traditions are purely Catholic rituals and practices. The women wear black clothes and a black manto (handkerchief) to cover the head and the shoulders. Family members shampoo their hair with gogo as soon as the funeral is over to wash away the power of the dead man's spirit. Ilokano literature in the Philippines is one of several regional Philippine literatures. Ilocanos are descendants of Austronesian-speaking people from southern China via Taiwan.be it Iloko. Generally. The first death anniversary will then be another occasion for feasting and praying. otherwise the man's spirit will stay behind and bring trouble to the family. Prayers are said every night for the next nine nights. "from". "our language here". the wife dresses the deceased alone so that her husband's spirit can tell her any messages or wish he was not able to convey when he was still alive.Death to the Ilocanos means great sorrow. During the wake. and looc. meaning "boat". "cove or bay". Before the coffin is carried out of the house all windows must be closed. rice cakes and basi are served to all guests.

Antonio Mejia in 1845. a highly picturesque presentation of the wars between Christians and Muslims. otherwise known as the moro-moro. comic-opera. folklore. the first book to be printed in Iloko. versified and at times impromptu long poem delivered in a sing-song manner. an improvised. During the 18th century. and utterly devoid of form. The achievement of both Claudio Fojas and de los Reyes is possibly more significant than the critical reader of Iloko literature today is ready to admit. a Spanish grammar and an Iloko-Spanish dictionary." Bucaneg. studies. A study of Iloko poetry could be found in the Gramatica Ilokana. dramas. . an Ilokano secular priest who wrote novenas. under the title Vida de Lam-ang. a translation of St. who collaborated with Lopez in the translation of the Doctrina into Iloko. biographies. with Spanish translation in prose. and seemingly interminable religious as well as political articles. stories. The 19th century likewise saw the appearance of Leona Florentino. for having been the first known Ilokano poet. proverbs. During the Spanish regime. published his own Iloko translation of the Doctrina Cristiana by Cardinal Bellarmine. and the zarzuela were presented for the first time in the Ilocos in the 19th century. In fact. but was probably written before 1606. the missionaries used religious as well as secular literatures among other means to advance their mission of converting the Ilokanos to Christianity. too sentimental to the point of mawkishness. The earliest written form of the epic poem was given by Fr. and the skit interminably preoccupied with the eternal theme of boy-meetsgirl-who-always-live-happily-ever-after-seemingly-impossible-odds are still as popular today as they were when first staged in the Ilocos. published in 1895. and also reprinted it in his El Folklore Filipino. the earliest known written Iloko poems were the romances translated from Spanish by Francisco Lopez. Ancient Ilokano poets expressed themselves in folk and war songs as well as the dallot. Iloko poetry was generally patterned after Spanish models. Justo Claudio Fojas. based on Lopez's Arte de la Lengua Iloca. lamentations called dungaw. Iloko literature developed in many ways. blind since childhood. and the zarzuela. Jacinto Rivera's Sumario de las Indulgencias in 1719 and the Pasion. Leona's son.Pre-colonial Iloko literature were composed of folk songs. appear to the modern reader as being too syrupy for comfort. an Augustinian friar who. Her poems which have survived. and epic stories in written or oral form. was Leona Florentino's contemporary. himself wrote poems. The comedia. earlier published in 1627. The century also saw the publication of religious works like Fr. who published it in El Ilocano from December 1889 to February 1890. Vincent Ferrer's sermons into Iloko by Fr. who has since been considered by some as the "National Poetess of the Philippines". in 1621. however. riddles. catechism. an equally picturesque depiction of what is at once melodrama. The comedia. Gerardo Blanco to Isabelo de los Reyes. metrical romances. authored the popular epic known as Biag ni Lam-ang ("Life of Lam-ang") written in the 17th century. prayerbooks. Fr. Some Iloko writers credit Pedro Bucaneg. Isabelo de los Reyes. and as the "Father of Ilokano Poetry and Literature.

"Mining Wenno Ayat ti Cararua" ("Mining or Spiritual Love") by Marcelino Peña Crisologo (1914). Guerrero of the Manuel L. pillage and death. tighter. By the latter part of the decade. The year 1892 saw the printing for the first time of the first Iloko novel. When the Bannawag magazine." Her findings showed that the Iloko stories offer a mine of information about the . "Apay a Pinatayda ni Naw Simon?"("Why Did They Kill Don Simon?") first known detective novel in Iloko by Leon C. 1934.and with more credible characterization than those written previously. While many articles have been written by Ilokanos and non-Ilokanos about the Ilocos Region. Yabes of the University of the Philippines." and Isaias R. Ari Esteban ken Reyna Hipolita. Respicio (1930). The growth of the short story was not apparent until Bannawag resumed publication in 1947. Iloko literature reached a headland. Bernardo Carpio. 20th century literature The 20th century was comparatively more intense in literary activity. Lazo (1887–1983) of San Vicente. In 1954. His findings showed that Iloko literature began with Pedro Bucaneg. Thomas B. Many Ilokanos started to write literary pieces. Mercedes F. His study showed that the short stories and novels at that time were still young and needed more improvement. Doce Paris. Bisaya and Hiligaynon. guerrilla activities. Some of the literature in this period are "Biag ti Maysa a Lakay. Wenno Nakaam-ames a Bales" ("Life of an Old Man. and from their ranks came stories that were less verbose. Pichay (1935). Ilocos Sur. 3. Ilocos Sur who wrote comedia and zarzuela. Among these scholars were Leopoldo Y. "Nasam-it ken Narucbos nga Sabong dagiti Dardarepdep ti Agbaniaga" ("Sweet and Fresh Flower of a Traveller's Dreams") by Marcos E. Kaanonto Ngata?" ("Love. Japanese atrocities. Quezon Educational Institution (now MLQU) made a masteral thesis titled "Critical Analysis of the Outstanding Iloco Short Stories Published in the Bannawag from 1948 to 1952. hit the streets on Nov. murder. The short stories written in the 1920s were poor imitations of equally poor American fiction. Millon (1921). who made a brief survey of Iloko literature in 1934. a sister publication of Liwayway. When Shall it Be?"). an Augustinian friar. Jaime del Prado. titled "Matilde de Sinapangan. "Uray Narigat no Paguimbagan" ("Improvement Despite Obstacles") by Facundo Madriaga (1911). The early Bannawag short stories showed sustained growth. "Puso ti Ina" ("A Mother's Heart") by Leon C. or a Dreadful Revenge") by Mariano Gaerlan (1909). Rufino Redondo. Most of the stories published dealt with themes of war. written by Fr.The comedia was scripted from the corridos like Principe Don Juan. Marcelino Mena Crisologohelped popularize the zarzuela based on the culture and tradition of the Ilokanos particularly those in Vigan. Early short story writers had practically no literary background in their attempts. Pichay (1936). writers of different ages emerged. few scholarly studies have been conducted. So did Pascual Agcaoili y Guerrero (1880–1958) of Ilocos Norte who wrote and staged "Daguiti Agpaspasukmon Basi. Alcid of the University of Santo Tomas made a study on the Iloko prose fiction and discussed the Iloko short story and the Iloko novel and their possibilities inPhilippine literature. "Sabsabong ken Lulua" ("Flowers and Tears") by R." Another Iloko novel which was written before the end of the 19th century by one Don Quintin Alcid was "Ayat. In 1940.

struggles. most of whom were college students and professionals.. And currently. loves. of the De La Salle University-Manila. Writers by then. Guerrero also found out that the Ilokano author served his society by: 1. it publishes poems (daniw). Prof. novels (nobela). an international association of Ilokano writers.The Ilokano language is so highly developed as to have produced the greatest number of printed works in any Philippine language. A related literature published by Dr. Before the martial-law era. Bannawag launched a writing contest in 1961. customs and traditions of the people.Jr. Angel C. 3. Foronda. most of its contents were translations from the Liwayway magazine save a novel by Hermogenes F. a . There are stories on mere trifling matters as well as their own nationslaking subjects. Marcelino A. Jose P. To help in the development of the Iloko short story. Bragado. Bragado is one of the foremost writers in contemporary Ilokano literature. conflicts. These are stories about persons. essays (salaysay). He is a former literary editor of Bannawag magazine and past president of GUMIL. Jr. in 1967.(From an essay by Jose A. Anden of the Manuel L. like rallies and demonstrations by students.) Casting away sectional sentiments and prejudices and bringing about fuller understanding of the different ethnic groups. 2. It is the only magazine where Ilokano writers hope to publish most of their writings." discussed the traits and characteristics of the Ilokanos. stories and novels dwelt on political unrest and protests. biographies. sorrows. most of the poems. the Iloko author has been free or spontaneous in dealing with the life he portrayed. Godofredo S. folktales and many others including what some call avant garde literary output. Benjamin Gray. In the display of emotions and feelings. Reyes. had a bigger library of literary books. professionals and workers against the government. Marcelino A.) Preserving the ideals. development of plots and themes. poems. among others. about animals. Marcelino A. short stories and novels published by the Bannawag became better—in craftsmanship.) Bringing out the social consciousness of the era—its mood.ideals and customs of the Filipino people. Sionil Jose. Foronda. the most internationally translated Filipino author is an Ilokano from Rosales. Acance. a Californiaimmigrant born to Ilokano parents in Pangasinan.. One of the most popular authors of Ilocano ancestry abroad was the late Carlos Bulosan. He is famous for his Rosales saga. he stated: ". He has treated a wide variety of subjects that there is no important place of Filipino life that has not been depicted. Pangasinan--Francisco Sionil Jose. Other writers at that time included Benjamin M. One of the judges said the quality of Iloko short stories was competitive with those written in English. titled "Dallang: An Introduction to Philippine Literature in Iloko. and Dr. hatreds and jealousies of the people. next to Tagalog. popularly known as F. Bannawag has played and still plays a major role in the development of Iloko literature. about places and about events. Of their literature. Quezon University. short stories (sarita). The judges were Prof. Jr. Belen titled "Nadaraan a Linnaaw" (Bloodstained Dew) which was serialized in 1947. Foronda. David D.) Awakening man's sensibilities to the joys. At present. comics. 4. This contest lasted until 1970. In the 1960s. Campañano. Pascual. During the magazine's infancy years in the 1930s. Most often he has been compassionate with his characters.) Iloko Literature: Today and Tomorrow[edit] Ilokano writers have also published their works in foreign countries. Santiago Alcantara of the National University. and rehabilitation. Benito de Castro.

”[citation needed] . Duque. and illustrated with new art by Beaulah Pedregosa Taguiwalo drawn from the landscapes of the Philippines. what could be. William V. The novels. Joel B. virtually documenting Philippine history from Spanish time to the years of the Marcos administration. Their mission is to publish books in as many languages as possible. Bermudez. Back home. a new publishing company based in Manila. Originally published in the United States with illustrations by Eric Carle. Nesperos. Beltran.. These famous winners' names include Reynaldo A. Noli S. Roy V. but also what will be. Daniel L. Jaime M. colored children's picture book. The publisher is Mother Tongue Publishing Inc. Maria Fres-Felix. Danilo Antalan. the story has been translated to Iloko by Herminio S. Aurelio S. Le Guin: “Literature takes shape and life in the body. Tabag. Ricarte Agnes. Children's books[edit] Ti Bantay A Nagayat Iti Maysa A Billit[edit] Ti Bantay A Nagayat Iti Maysa A Billit is a fully illustrated. Agcaoili. They are inspired by the words of science fiction writer Ursula K. Tabin. Ariel S. Bernardo D. Prescillano N.five-novel work about an Ilokano clan. are circulated and read around the world. and what we want and do not want to be. de Francia. Philippines formed in November 2006 by Mario and Beaulah Taguiwalo. in the wombs of the mother tongue. translated in about 22 languages. Manuel. Jr. the most prestigious and most anticipated of all literary contests in the Philippines. Lorenzo G. The original story is The Mountain That Loved A Bird by Alice McLerran.” They also agree with neuro-scientist Elkhonon Goldberg who refers to mother tongues as “an extremely adaptive and powerful device for modeling not only what is. Clarito G. Severino Pablo. Tabbada. Arnold Pascual Jose. Dumlao and others. Aragon.. Agpalo Jr. many Iloko writers have won major prizes in the annual Palanca Awards. Eden Aquino Alviar. Alvarado.

Region II (Cagayan Valley) People Economic Activities Cultural Beliefs Literary Works .

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