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Ultrasonic Testing Part 1

Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd

NDT Training & Certification

Ultrasonic Testing

Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd

Course Layout
• • • • • • • Duration : 9.5 Days (Mon – Fri) Start : 8:30 am Coffee Break : 10:00 – 10:30 am Lunch : 12:30 – 1:30 pm Tea Break : 3:00 – 3:30 pm Day End : 5:00 pm Course Objective: To train and prepare participants to obtain required skill and knowledge in Ultrasonic Testing and to meet the examination schemes requirements.

Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd

NDT
Most common NDT methods:
Penetrant Testing (PT)
Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Eddy Current Testing (ET) Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Mainly used for Internal Testing

Mainly used for surface testing

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NDT • Which method is the best ? Depends on many factors and conditions Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing • To understand and appreciate the capability and limitation of UT Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Sound is transmitted in the material to be tested The sound reflected back to the probe is displayed on the Flaw Detector Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing The distance the sound traveled can be displayed on the Flaw Detector The screen can be calibrated to give accurate readings of the distance Signal from the backwall Bottom / Backwall Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

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Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing The presence of a Defect in the material shows up on the screen of the flaw detector with a less distance than the bottom of the material The BWE signal Defect signal Defect Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 60 mm The depth of the defect can be read with reference to the marker on the screen Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

the signal will be more to the left of the screen C B A 30 46 68 The thickness is read from the screen The THINNER the material the less distance the sound travel C B A Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .Thickness / depth measurement The closer the reflector to the surface.

Ultrasonic Testing Principles of Sound Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Sound • Wavelength : The distance required to complete a cycle – Measured in Meter or mm • Frequency : The number of cycles per unit time – Measured in Hertz (Hz) or Cycles per second (cps) • Velocity : How quick the sound travels Distance per unit time – Measured in meter / second (m / sec) Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Properties of a sound wave • Sound cannot travel in vacuum • Sound energy to be transmitted / transferred from one particle to another SOLID Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd LIQUID GAS .

Velocity • The velocity of sound in a particular material is CONSTANT • It is the product of DENSITY and ELASTICITY of the material • It will NOT change if frequency changes • Only the wavelength changes • Examples: V Compression in steel : 5960 m/s V Compression in water : 1470 m/s V Compression in air : 330 m/s 5 M Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd STEEL WATER AIR .

Velocity What is the velocity difference in steel compared with in water? 4 times If the frequency remain constant. in what material does sound has the shortest wavelength. water. in what material does sound has the highest velocity. or air? Air Remember the formula Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd =v/f . steel. steel. or air? Steel If the frequency remain constant. water.

ULTRASONIC TESTING Very High Frequency 5 M Hz Glass High Frequency 5 K Hz DRUM BEAT Low Frequency Sound 40 Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

000 cps Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .Ultrasonic • Sound : mechanical vibration What is Ultrasonic? Very High Frequency sound – above 20 KHz 20.

000Hz 0 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 100m Ultrasonic Testing 0.50MHz Ultrasonic : Sound with frequency above 20 KHz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .Acoustic Spectrum Sonic / Audible Human 16Hz .5MHz .20kHz Ultrasonic > 20kHz = 20.

Frequency • Frequency : Number of cycles per second 1 second 1 cycle per 1 second = 1 Hertz 1 second 3 cycle per 1 second = 3 Hertz 1 second 18 cycle per 1 second = 18 Hertz THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY THE SMALLER THE WAVELENGTH Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Frequency • 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second • 1 Kilohertz = 1 KHz = 1000Hz • 1 Megahertz = 1 MHz = 1000 000Hz 20 KHz = 5 M Hz = Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd 20 000 Hz 5 000 000 Hz .

Sound waves are the vibration of particles in solids.Wavelength Wavelength is the distance required to complete a cycle. liquids or gases. wavelength Displacement  wavelength Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd The distance taken to complete one cycle One cycle . Particles vibrate about a mean position.

Wavelength Velocity V  f Frequency Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Frequency & Wavelength 1 M Hz LONGEST 5 M Hz 10 M Hz 25 M Hz SMALLEST =v/f F  F  Which probe has the smallest wavelength? Which probe has the longest wavelength? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

18 mm 5.900 .000 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .000   1.000 .Wavelength is a function of frequency and velocity. Therefore: V  f or f V  or V f  5MHz compression wave probe in steel 5.

• Which of the following compressional probe has the highest sensitivity? • 1 MHz • 2 MHz • 5 MHz • 10 MHz 10 MHz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Wavelength and frequency • The higher the frequency the smaller the wavelength • The smaller the wavelength the higher the sensitivity • Sensitivity : The smallest detectable flaw by the system or technique • In UT the smallest detectable flaw is ½  (half the wavelength) Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

The Sound Beam • Dead Zone • Near Zone or Fresnel Zone • Far Zone or Fraunhofer Zone Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

The Sound Beam NZ Intensity varies Exponential Decay FZ Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd Distance .

The side lobes has multi minute main beams Two identical defects may give different amplitudes of signals Side Lobes Near Zone The main beam or the centre beam has the highest intensity of sound energy Main Lobe Any reflector hit by the main beam will reflect the high amount of energy Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Sound Beam Near Zone • Thickness measurement • Detection of defects • Sizing of large defects only Far Zone • Thickness measurement • Defect detection • Sizing of all defects Near zone length as small as possible Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 V  f 2 D f Near Zone  4V Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd 2 .

000  4  5.1mm Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd 2 .000.Near Zone • What is the near zone length of a 5MHz compression probe with a crystal diameter of 10mm in steel? D f Near Zone  4V 2 10  5.920.000  21.

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 2 D f  4V 2 • The bigger the diameter the bigger the near zone • The higher the frequency the bigger the near zone • The lower the velocity the bigger the near zone Should large diameter crystal probes have a high or low frequency? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Which of the above probes has the longest Near Zone ? 1 M Hz 1 M Hz 5 M Hz 5 M Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Near Zone D Near Zone  4 2 D f  4V 2 • The bigger the diameter the bigger the near zone • The higher the frequency the bigger the near zone • The lower the velocity the bigger the near zone Should large diameter crystal probes have a high or low frequency? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Beam Spread • In the far zone sound pulses spread out as they move away from the crystal /2   K KV Sine  or 2 D Df Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

K=1.K=0.Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df Edge.K=1.08 6dB.22 20dB.56 Beam axis or Main Beam Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df • The bigger the diameter the smaller the beam spread • The higher the frequency the smaller the beam spread Which has the larger beam spread. a compression or a shear wave probe? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

1278  7.35 Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd  .08  5920  5000  10 o  0.5MHz compression wave probe in steel? KV Sine  2 Df 1.Beam Spread • What is the beam spread of a 10mm.

Which of the above probes has the Largest Beam Spread ? 1 M Hz 1 M Hz 5 M Hz 5 M Hz Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .

a compression or a shear wave probe? Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .Beam Spread  K KV Sine  or 2 D Df • The bigger the diameter the smaller the beam spread • The higher the frequency the smaller the beam spread Which has the larger beam spread.

Testing close to side walls Copyright © 2004 WI Ltd .