Language Acquisition

Tabitha Ford

Goals/Objectives of Mini-workshop
• Create an understanding and awareness of the challenges that face CLD/E students. • Explore the stages of language acquisition. • Analyze classroom practices and develop actions to promote positive change.

Stages of Language Acquisition (Stephen D Krashen)
1. Silent/Receptive 2. Early Production 3. Speech Emergence

4. Intermediate Fluency
5. Continued Language Development/ Advanced Fluency
Source: http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/news/five-stages-of-secondlanguage-acquisition/

Language Acquisition (Stephen D Krashen)
Stage 1 Silent/Receptive • This stage may last for several months; it depends on the Individual. • Time spent learning vocabulary and practicing pronouncing new words. Stage 2 Early Production • Lasts about six months. • Learner typically acquires understanding of up to 1,000 words. • May begin speaking some words and short grammatically incorrect phrases.

Language Acquisition (Stephen D Krashen)
Stage 3 Speech Emergence
• Learners typically acquire a vocabulary of up to 3,000 words and learn to communicate through short phrases, sentences and questions. • Important stage where the learner gains greater comphrehension and begins reading and writing in the new language.

Stage 4 Intermediate Fluency
• May last a year or more after stage 3, and learners typically acquire a vocabulary of up to 6,000 words. Usually acquire ability to communicate in writing and speech using more complex sentences. Crucial stage where learner begins thinking in their second language.

Stage 5 Continued Language Development/ Advanced Fluency • Takes most learners two years to reach this stage, and may then take up to ten years to achieve full mastery of second language. • Learners need opportunity for engaging in discussions and expressing themselves in the new language in order to maintain fluency.

http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/best%20of%20bilash/krashen.html

BICS versus CALP
Knowing the difference makes all the difference.

BICS and CALP
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
• Everyday or common language; language common to everyday funtioning. A student can be mistaken for having greater fluency due to having strong BICS. Sometimes referred to as ”lunchroom” or ”playground” English. Content saturated; if student lacks a word they may use gestures or nonverbal cues to express meaning.

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
• Academic language; complex and requires higher level academic vocabulary.

Cannot generally be communicated through nonverbal, paraverbal, or context clues. Not fully acquired for five to seven years, or longer. Literacy implications: ELL students may read fluently and still require support due to the length of time it takes to acquire CALP.

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Mazur, A.J. and Doran, P.R. (2010). Teaching diverse learners: Principles for best practice. Corwin SAGE Company; Thousand Oaks, CA. Chapter 6

BICS and CALP Activity
• Pre-teaching vocabulary and being aware of the vocabulary used in your classroom is crucial for students who are language learners. Both BICS and CALP need to be considered when pre-teaching vocabulary. • Remember to also include Idiomatic language- has a figurative meaning (generally tied to a culture’s everyday use of the language) phrases like ”stop to smell the roses”. • Complete the BICS and CALP In My Classroom Chart. Consider a unit you are about to teach or one you are currently teaching.

Sheltering Classroom Instruction for ELLs
• • • Include extra ”wait time” by pausing after sentences, key words, or directions. This allows students time to process what you have said. Reinforce vocabulary and directions with visual aids. As much as possible, standardize directions (use the same directions whenever possible, and teach the key words in each direction); so students can understand , can gain skill and experience over time, and become familiar with your classroom routines. Simplify sentence structures. For example, you might want to plan to say something like ”After lunch, everybody should come in and sit down, unless you have already completed your math problems, and then you can have an extra five minutes of recess.” To make this sentence more

accessible to your students, consider breaking it down into shorter sentences: ”If you still need to
do math, come back after lunch. If you are done with math, you may stay outside.” (As this is still a complex concept, you could also supplement your oral directions with a note on the board.)
Mazur, A.J. and Doran, P.R. (2010). Teaching diverse learners: Principles for best practice. Corwin SAGE Company; Thousand Oaks, CA. Chapter 6

Literacy Activity
When in doubt act it out!

Resources
Concordia University. Retrieved from World Wide Web: http://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/news/five-stages-of-secondlanguage-acquisition/ Mazur, A.J. and Doran, P.R. (2010). Teaching diverse learners: Principles for best practice. Corwin SAGE Company; Thousand Oaks, CA. Chapter 6 University of Alberta . Retrieved from World Wide Web: http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/best%20of%20bilash/kra shen.html

Handouts for Presentation

BICS and CALP In My Classroom Basic, Everyday Words I Use In My Classroom (BICS) *Remember to include Idiomatic language* Academic, Content-Specific Language My Students Need to Know (CALP)

What additional support would be helpful for my students in mastering the academic language demands of my classroom?
(Examples may include pre-teaching vocabulary, creating word walls with definitions or pictures alongside to help students access the meaning; providing example problems on worksheets or assessments to help students understand the directions; increasing one-on-one support from the teacher during individual work time; and highlighting and reviewing academic words on take-home activities.)

Source: Mazur, A.J. and Doran, P.R. (2010). Teaching diverse learners: Principles for best practice. Corwin SAGE Company; Thousand Oaks, CA. Chapter 6.

How Do I Read Materials In A Second Language (L2)
Part I. With your partner, review the following directions in preparation for reading the second language text. Listen to your partner read the reading, and follow along as best you can with the printed text. After reading, take a moment to think about what you remember from listening and reading along. Then, respond to each of the following questions by circling the number on the Likert scale that best represents your response to the question.

0 Not at all

1 slightly or rarely

2 Somewhat

3 Always or almost always

When reading this text… 1. I sound out each unfamiliar word. 0 1 2 3

2. I skip over words I do not understand. 0 1 2 3

3. If I see an unfamiliar word, I reread the word. 0 1 2 3

4. If I see an unfamiliar word, I think about the context before rereading the word. 0 1 2 3

5. I am most comfortable if I can say words aloud. 0 1 2 3

6. I find that hearing the text read aloud helps me understand the meaning. 0 1 2 3

7. I think about cognates or modern Mother Tongue “matches” when I read. 0 1 2 3

8. I find it helpful to think about the structure of the sentence when I am trying to find the meaning. 0 1 2 3

9. I find it helpful to think about the structure of the text (e.g. poem, essay. Etc.). 0 1 2 3

Source: Mazur, A.J. and Doran, P.R. (2010). Teaching diverse learners: Principles for best practice. Corwin SAGE Company; Thousand Oaks, CA. Chapter 6