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ELPS Reading/Writing: a) 4(F): use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language. b) 5(A): learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English c) 5(B): Write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based gradelevel vocabulary d) 5(F): write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired Activity: An activity that will cover the ELPS that I have chosen is called Mini Story Booklet. In this activity, the students will use their spelling words to create a story. They will incorporate those words as well as draw pictures to describe what is happening like in a book. They will be working in pairs to come up with a story as a group. They can write about anything that is school appropriate. After everyone is done, they will share it with the class. This activity can be used in any content area. For math, students can write a story about the new math terms they just learn. This activity allows students to be creative and it is a fun activity. For science, if they learn about different body parts or the five senses, they can come up with a story using terms related to the different body parts of five senses.

Rationale: This activity is great because it allows students to do lots of things within this activity. By allowing students to work in pairs, they can learn to work collaboratively as well as help develop ELLs’ social skills. They can talk to their partners which would provide ample exposure to comprehensible input at a time when their affective filter is low enough to allow the input to register, which Krashen states is key for second language acquisition (Peregoy & Boyle p. 65). The assignment has no right answer which allows students to explore their creative side. It gives the student the opportunity to write about what they are interested in, which can be key in helping them learn and understand a topic/concept if they are able to learn about what they are interested in. The pictures will help them connect the terms to the learning concept. This will help them understand as well as remember the terms better. The short story will help them learn how to write short sentences as well as develop correct grammar usage. The group nature of this assignment is also important as it allows students of all ability levels to organize their ideas and practice their speaking and writing skills in a safe environment (Peregoy & Boyle p. 275). 2. ELPS Reading/Writing: a) 4(G): Demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs. b) 5(C): Spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired. Activity: In this activity, students will pick a nonfiction or fiction book that they will read in pairs or in a group that is within their reading level. If they are reading as a group or with

a partner, they will take turn reading aloud. By reading aloud, ELLs can hear how the words are pronounced as well as developing their reading skills. After they finished reading, they will write a short summary about what they just read. This activity enables the students to analyze the literature, learn to find the main idea of the text, and learn to summarize the literature. They can also make a concept map after the reading to help them in writing. This activity can be used for science or social studies not necessary in language arts alone. For science, the teachers can have the study read about their five senses and have them summarize what they just read. This allows the students to incorporate some of the key terms in their writing as well which helps them learn and remember the words. Rationale: This activity helps ELLs develop literacy because it enables the English learners and native English speakers to develop reading comprehension and control of their writing. By reading aloud, the ELLs can develop fluency in their speaking as well as comprehension skills. They will be able to pick any book that they like which allows more participation. When students are allowed to pick a book of their chose, they will be more interested in the story and be more motivated to read. This will give the teacher a good way to measure the students' comprehension skills in an authentic context. When they work in pairs or in groups, their peers can help them read or pronounce words that are too difficult for them. According to Krashen, the more English learners read or read to would enable them to develop ideas and write in English (Peregoy & Boyle p. 257). When the students are summarizing what they read, it will help the English learners to improve their writing, and it also helps to promote their second language acquisition (Peregoy & Boyle p.258)

3. ELPS Reading/Writing: c) 4(D): use pre-reading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other pre-reading activities to enhance comprehension of written text Activity: An activity that would help ELLs develop literacy would be the concept of mapping. In this activity students will be working in groups to brainstorm words or phrases that describe a word given by the teacher. They will work together to come up with descriptive words that will help them understand the word better. This activity can be used in any content area such as science, or math. In science, the teacher can give them the word sour and students can come up phrases or words that describe sour. In math, teacher can give the students a geometric shape and have them brainstorm phrases or words. After mapping, they can use the phrases or words to help them come up with sentences or help them write an essay. Rationale: This activity can help ELLs structure their writing in an organized way. Mapping allows students to classify ideas and communicate more effectively. It can help ELLs who are struggling with writing because they are able to think about the content and form their story or essay when they are ready to sit down and write. It can help them formulate their thoughts and help them learn how to form sentences and paragraphs. This activity can help beginner English learners who are not familiar with the sentence structures and not comfortable with writing sentences. Mapping activity can be used to teach vocabulary words, prepositions, synonyms, and rhyming words. This will also help them connect with the words more if they understand how it can be used. By working in groups, students can help one another and it provides more interactions in the classroom. Interaction and oral language activities are important for ELLs because better L2 oral language skills are associated with better L2 reading

comprehension and writing skills. According to the interactionist perspective, this activity would also facilitate the students’ learning by forcing them to help each other understand what they are trying to say. This effort helps the students process the language more deeply and internalizes the rules of spoken and written English (Peregoy & Boyle p. 66).When students work together to brainstorm phrases and words it helps them “build vocabulary, provide opportunities for productive language use, and create opportunities for successful participation in classroom activities” (Peregoy& Boyle p. 276).