Advanced Drilling And Well Technology Deepwater Technology
Eng.Sherif Fathy

Risks in deep water drilling
• • • • • • Low seabed temperatures, Highly unconsolidated formations, Low fracture pressure, Shallow water flow, Shallow gas flow, Narrow operational margin between pore pressure & fracture pressure, • Depleted reservoirs,
• Low temperature below 5⁰C lead to severe gel development, and

• Lower collapse pressure of the wellbore is higher than pore pressure and/or the upper collapse pressure of the wellbore is lower than fracture pressure.




Drilling Fluids Systems In Deepwater


Drilling Fluids Systems In Deepwater
• Aqueous systems: – Water based drilling-fluid formulation – Typical additives to the systems are polymers, bridging solids, lubricants, weighting agents, salts & defamers. • Non-aqueous systems: – Water-in-oil emulsions; – Base oils: • Internal olefins, normal paraffin, isoparaffin, ester etc – Internal phase is a brine of low water activity to ensure shale stabilization

00 0.45 0.15 WT% Max 0.00 1.45 PAC polymer NaCl Cationic polymer Triazine Caustic soda Detergent Barite GANOPE Fluid loss reducer Shale inhibitor Clay-swelling inhibitor Biocide pH controller Bit-balling preventer Weighting agent 0.00 0.10 As needed 5 .10 0.02 0.30 5.45 0.00 0.15 0.50 0.00 0.45 31.Aqueous drilling fluid system formulation(1) Concentration Additive Function Min Sea water Soda ash Xanthan gum Polyacrylamide (PAC) Continuous phase Calcium remover Viscosifier Viscosifier 0.00 2.20 As needed 0.

45 14 0.3 0.1 vol% 2-3 vol% 0 0.Aqueous drilling fluid system formulation(2) Concentration Additive Function Min Water NaCl Defoamer Xanthan gum Modified Starch Magnesium oxide Calcium carbonate Lubricant Triazine GANOPE WT% Max Continuous phase Shale inhibitor Foam Preventer Viscosifier Fluid loss reducer pH controller Birding & weighting materials Lubricity agent Biocide As needed 2.55 2.15 6 .2 1.25 10 31 0.8 0.7 0.

00 0.70 1.50 1.Non aqueous-drilling-fluid composition with a 70:30 oil/water ratio Concentration Additive Function WT% Min Max Base oil Primary emulsifier Calcium Oxide NaCl-saturated brine Secondary emulsifier Organic clay Theology Wetting agent Barite GANOPE Continuous phase Emulsifier Alkalinity Internal phase Fluid loss reducer Viscosifier Viscosifier Wettability Weighting agent 0.40 1.20 0.67 vol% 2.34 0.60 As needed As needed 7 .50 1.50 0.

Mitigation of Deepwater Drilling Risks • Development efforts are focused on two different topics: 1) Dual gradient-drilling(DGD) systems. and 2) Noninvasive drilling fluids. GANOPE 8 .

Dual gradient-drilling(DGD) Systems • Beneficial way of managing the narrow pressure window. Mwt will be less than effective Mwt below seafloor:   Injecting hollow spheres. Mechanical lifting:  Consists of pumping system to lift the mud from the seafloor up to the surface. • Achieved by focusing on the development of systems based on two approaches: 1. 2. and Injecting gas at the bottom of the marine riser to maintain the pressure in the subsea well head equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the sea water at the same water depth. • Has two effective fluid gradients: 1. • Effective fluid density at the previous CSG is less than the effective fluid density at the current depth. an innovative drilling process require new equipment & operational procedures. and Within subsea well. GANOPE 9 . Between the surface & seafloor. The use of light weight fluids by diluting the mud returns at sea floor. 2. through the injection up ward to the surface of low –density materials.

GANOPE 10 . – The primary idea is to combine N2 injection with high pressure concentric-casing riser.The use of light weight fluids • Injecting hollow spheres: – As dilution material generates an incompressible light weight fluid. – Will be reused after being extracted. – DGD involves the use of a closed pressurized circulating system. – The annular space between the outer & internal casing filled with sea water to prevent collapse of the outer marine riser. • Gas lifted riser DGD system: – Consists of injecting gas at BOP level to reduce marine-riser annular density down to the seawater density. – Easy to implement than injecting hollow spheres.

Noninvasive fluids • Minimizing formation damage depend on a min interaction between fluids and drilled rock. size & rock type. • Designing factors of noninvasive fluids: – – – – GANOPE Evaluation of solids additives. • Require knowledge of filtration mechanisms of solids containing polymeric solutions in porous media. Evaluation of noninvasive fluid formulation. Evaluation of polymers. 11 . Evaluation of solids shape.

• Commercial noninvasive fluids based on physicochemical mechanisms or surface interaction between additives and permeable rock may be recommended for some application depending on rock type. down hole conditions & drilling scenario. • Particle & size distribution shape are the major factors governing fluid invasion. GANOPE 12 .Noninvasive fluids • Bridging materials act quite different during filtration through a high-permeability unconsolidated porous medium confirming the importance of shape effects on filtration mechanisms.

GANOPE 13 . • Kick tolerance. • PVT measurements of mixture of methane and organic fluids currently applied in drilling fluids systems for deepwater and ultra deepwater wells. Gas solubility • Caused by thermodynamic interaction between synthic noninvasive fluids and the formation gas.Mud weight considerations • Riser safety margin. and • Tripping safety factors.

Density of the saturated fluid for methane in n-paraffin(NP) and in ester(E) GANOPE 14 .

• Antiagglomerants used to avoid growth of hydrates once GANOPE they begin to form. Glycol & Salts) to prevent hydrates • Kinetic inhibitors used to delay hydrates.Hydrates • Ice looks like. • Thermodynamics inhibitors used (Methanol. • Drilling fluids formulated to inhibit or to delay of hydrate formation or preventing growth of hydrates once they are 1st formed. 15 . • Potential of forming hydrates increased with low seabed temperature and high pressure especially in aqueous drilling fluids. Ethanol.

Minimize surge pressures.Shallow water flows • Is a result of: – Existence of an abnormal high pore pressure resulting from undercompacted sands caused by rapid deposition(an underwater landslide known as turbidite depositional event). • To avoid SWF: – – – – Minimize water loss. and cementing. Minimize ECD. – Hydraulic communication with deeper. higher –pressure formation. Use computational simulator to design the cementing job better by adjusting the properties of the fluids to get better displacement efficiency. casing. and – Destabilization of gas hydrates during drilling. GANOPE 16 .

GANOPE Offshore rigs statistics 17 .

2% 75.7% 79.6% 76.6 GANOPE 18 .Worldwide overall Offshore Rig Utilization Rig utilization for the entire competitive rig fleet 6 Month ago 471 Current Month ago 1 year ago 475 Rigs working 498 490 Total rigs 650 643 622 597 utilization 67.

SouthEast Europe .0% 68. America .Persian Gulf N.Brazil 74.2% 72.4% 75.Offshore Rig Utilization by Region Current Competitive Offshore Rig Utilization by Region Africa . America .8% 70.US GOM S.1% 86.3% 91.North Sea Mediterranean MidEast .Mexico N.1% 70.1% (46/62) (68/94) (72/79) (14/20) (65/95) (25/33) (54/77) (62/72 GANOPE 19 .West Asia . America .

1% (8/10) (47/67) (275/369) (145/176) (23/28 GANOPE 20 .0% 70.5% 82.Offshore Rig Utilization by Rig Type Current Competitive Offshore Rig Utilization by Rig Type Drill Barge Drillship Jackup Semisub Tender 80.1% 74.4% 82.

000 Semisub 1500'+ WD Semisub 4000'+ WD 65 rigs 78 rigs 85 rigs 104 rigs $295.000 GANOPE 21 .Offshore Rig Day Rates Floating Rigs Rig Type Drillship < 4000' WD Drillship 4000'+ WD Semisub < 1500' WD Rigs Working 4 rigs 45 rigs 11 rigs Total Rig Fleet 8 rigs 62 rigs 18 rigs Average Day Rate $241.000 $458.000 $249.000 $425.

000 $79.000 $60.000 $55.Jackup Rigs Rig Type Jackup IC < 250' WD Jackup IC 250' WD Jackup IC 300' WD Jackup IC 300'+ WD Jackup IS < 250' WD Rigs Working 32 rigs 35 rigs 88 rigs 118 rigs 5 rigs Total Rig Fleet 53 rigs 64 rigs 127 rigs 154 rigs 7 rigs Average Day Rate $73.000 -- Jackup IS 250' WD Jackup IS 300' WD Jackup IS 300'+ WD Jackup MC < 200' WD Jackup MC 200'+ WD Jackup MS < 200' WD Jackup MS 200'+ WD GANOPE 7 rigs 2 rigs 1 rigs 2 rigs 11 rigs 2 rigs 6 rigs 10 rigs 5 rigs 3 rigs 12 rigs 28 rigs 2 rigs 19 rigs $137.000 $141.000 $50.000 -$60.000 22 .000 $91.000 $36.

000 -- Tender GANOPE 23 rigs 32 rigs $131.Other offshore Rigs Rig Type Drill Barge < 150' WD Rigs Working 18 rigs Total Rig Fleet 39 rigs Average Day Rate -- Drill Barge 150'+ WD 6 rigs 9 rigs -- Inland Barge Platform Rig Submersible 20 rigs 145 rigs 0 rigs 74 rigs 250 rigs 5 rigs $43.000 23 .000 $38.

GANOPE Deepwater cementing 24 .

Deepwater cementing • The main difference in performing cementing jobs in deepwater wells compared with cementing jobs in onshore and shallow-water wells: – Very low temperature – Existence of different temperature gradients for the sea and the formation. GANOPE 25 . – Possible occurrence of shallow water-or gas-flow. and – short thickening time. – Form destabilization of gas hydrates. – Narrow operational window between pore pressure and fracture gradient. – Fast liquid-to-solid transition.

• If BHCT over estimated slurry reaction may be slowed much ”overlay retarded” GANOPE 26 . Presence or absence of a riser.Temperature • Bottom Hole Circulating Temperature(BHCT) for onshore and shallow wells can be determined using API spe 10(RP10B1997) • Factors affecting temperature in deepwater conditions re: – – – – Ocean/sea-current velocities. and Heat of hydration of the cement slurry. Sea temp.

Numerical heat transfer simulator • Recommended to predict the temperature expected during circulation and temperature achieved because of the heat recovery after the circulation stopped. – Circulation rate. – Narrow operational window between pore pressure and fracture gradient. time. – Well deviation survey. and • Should consider: – Very low temperature – Existence of different temperature gradients for the sea and the formation. • Numerical heat transfer recommended by ISO10426—3(2003). – Possible occurrence of shallow water-or gas-flow. GANOPE 27 . – More than 1 temperature gradient. and – Temp of injected fluid.

• Beside water other fluids can flow from shallow formation such as mixtures of water & gas. • To ensure that hydrostatic pressure is always transmitted to the formation. which in turn can result in problems such as buckling or shear of the casing. Shallow gas causes fewer problems in deepwater wells compared to conventional water depth and compared to shallow water. GANOPE 28 . • Influx of gas into the cement while is setting is obviously a problem. • The rapid set of the cement slurry is a very important characteristics to avoid water flow during the gelation period. two slurries can be used with different thickening times. • The back pressure provided by the long sea water column reduce the gas expansion so the wellbore erosion or failure caused by shallow gas is less likely. when the slurry begins to develop gel strength and loss the ability to fully transmit hydrostatic pressure. the lead slurry having a longer thickening time than of the tail slurry.Shallow water flows(SWF) • Will result in a poor cement isolation. causing an underbalanced condition that can lead to fluid invasion.

and gas density where the hydrates are stable.Hydrates & Cementing •If gas hydrates are present before the cement job. it’s necessary to reduce the risk of destabilization of gas hydrates by the use of cement slurries that generate low heat of hydration. GANOPE 29 . temperature. •Figure shows the combination of pressure.

Extended cement with clays. Microsphere cement. the use of extenders allows to reduce the amount of cement required to produce a given volume of slurry. Beside the density reduction. Foamed cement. the extenders can be classified as follows: 1. Clays and waterviscosifying agents are water extenders. 2. reducing the density of the slurry • Light weight of-cement systems include the following: 1. Extended cement with diatomaceous earth.Cement systems • In order to reduce the cement-slurry density. 2. 5. it’s necessary to use extenders as additives. 3. Gaseous extenders are nitrogen or air used to prepare foamed cements. Water extenders are additives that allow the addition of water in excess without causing the setting of the cement slurry. 3. GANOPE 30 . Low-density materials are solids with density lower than that of the cement. Optimized-particle-size distribution(OPSD) cement. 4.

slurry density for different slurry compositions GANOPE 31 .Compressive strength vs.

• Used to avoid SWF problems • Very low densities[719 kg/m3(6 Ibm/gal) minimum] with relatively high strength. • More difficult to prepare. • High ductility.1.Foamed cement • Consists of a mixture of cement slurry & nitrogen. • There is a requirement for more-precise control to ensure that the base cement slurry and nitrogen are mixed together in the correct proportions and homogeneously GANOPE 32 .

3. This can cause nonhomoginity in the cement column.Extended cement with clays: • The most common clay used as a water extender is bentonite. with the light microspheres to the top of the blend. • Microspheres can be added to the cement forming dry blend. • There are materials that can resist hydrostatic pressure greater than 414 MPa(60. gravity segregation can occur.2. • Requires large quantity of water.000psi). and because of the large density difference between the materials. 4. mainly composed of sodium montmorillonite.Microsphere cement: • Hollow glass or ceramic microspheres can be added to the cement to obtain cement-slurry density as low as 959 kg/m3 (8Ibm/gal). GANOPE 33 .Extended cement with diatomaceous Earth: • Composed mostly of very small amorphous silica shells of organisms called diatoms. • The crush strength of different microspheres varies in a broad range.

• Higher content of solids responsible for the low permeability and high compressive strength presented by this system. • This technology uses materials with different particlesize distribution in order to achieve a high packing density. GANOPE 34 . • The water amount used in these system is reduced compared to conventional slurries.Optimized-particle-size distribution(OPSD) cement: • Used first by construction industry. such as fly ash. • Part of the cement replaced by aggregates(sand & gravels) and by other materials.5. blastfurance slag or micro silica increasing the compressive strength of the set concrete.

GANOPE 35 . and • Zero free water and no sedimentation. • Good control of fluid loss. • Fast liquid-to-solid transition and long-term sealing to avoid fluid or gas migration.Physical properties of the cement systems • Low density to avoid fracturing the formation that presents a low fracture gradients.

GANOPE Deepwater hydraulics 36 .

 Predicting impact of solids loading by considering an average density of the fluid cutting mixtures. and – ρf . • Presence of solids in the annulus pays a major roe in bottom hoe pressure prediction by two mechanisms: 1.  This effect increases with water depth due to low annular velocity through the riser. – ρm = ρf(1 . which impact bottom hole pressure directly.cs)+ρscs – cs :solids concentration(vol%). Solids travelling in the annulus transmit hydrostatic pressure. ρs:fluid & cutting density respectively.Deepwater hydraulics • Understanding of phenomena governing bottom hole pressure is necessary for high-cost ultra deep water operations. GANOPE 37 .

Impact of cuttings concentration(Cs) at several water depth GANOPE 38 .

2. Solids forming a cuttings bed • In highly inclined sections may not transmit hydrostatic pressure but will restrict flow area. resulting in pressure peaks. and also will accumulate near-annulus restrictions. GANOPE 39 .

3. Rate of penetration(ROP).Parameters affect solids concentration 1. Pipe rotation. GANOPE 40 . 4. and Rheoogy. Well depth. Flow rate. 5. 2.

cuttings loading increase. while at lower angels. • Increase in ROP will result at ancrease of ECD in deepwater wells.Rate of penetration(ROP) • In high angel sections the tendency toward cuttings-bed formation increases. GANOPE 41 .1. • ECD shoud be kept inside operational window.

Effect of ROP on cuttings concentration In a deviated well In the riser GANOPE 42 .

• This factor is negligible for small diameter holes(0. • This factor is irrelevant for clean largediameter hoes.Well depth • As the MD increase affects he frictional terms and so the ECD increases.241-m . 0.2.216-m and smaller) GANOPE 43 .

Impact of the well length on fracture gradient GANOPE 44 .

GANOPE 45 .Pipe rotation • High pipe rotation enhance solids resuspension which immediately affects ECD.3.

GANOPE 46 .Flow rate • Increase flow rate will enhance the hole cleaning and so will reduce solids concentration • Friction losses are directly proportional to flow rate. • ECD may increase or decrease depending on the importance of both aspects.4.

Impact of the flow rate regarding hoe cleaning & pressure drop effects GANOPE 47 .

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