Professional Resources/References: 1. Gaylie, V. (2011). The poetry garden: Eco literacy in an urban school.

Language and Literacy, 10(2). Lin": http://e ournals.library.ualb erta.ca/inde!.php/langandli t/article/"ie#$rticle/%&&'

Why We Chose It (n order to learn the role that a school garden plays in learning ecology #hile also engaging students in learning literacy. )earn ne# strategies *or teaching literacy.

What We Wanted to Learn (Sub-Questions) +o# can a school garden help engage students in learning literacy,

What We Did Learn The study *ound that using a school garden to #rite poetry can i-pro"e students. acade-ic #or/, sel* estee-, and class participation. 0tudents *reely e!pressed their *eelings about the-sel"es and their li"es in their poetry through nature and hidden in -etaphors. 0tudents are engaged in #riting because they can -a/e personal connections and *ind -eaning in their o#n surroundings and the earth. +a"ing a school garden #as *ound to be "ery e**ecti"e in teaching science. Teachers used the school garden to teach < 79 sub ect areas #ith high *reGuency. Ti-e in school day and lac/ o* standards based curriculu-aterials #ere the -ain barriers.

e! Questions +o# can #riting poetry using a school garden be #or/ed into the regular school curriculu- and schedule,

2. Graha-, +., 1eall, 2., )ussier, 3., 3c)aughlin, 4., 5 6idenberg78herr, 0. (2009). :se o* 0chool Gardens in $cade-ic (nstruction. Journal Of Nutrition Education And Behavior, 37(;), 1<&7191. doi:10.101=/01<%%7 <0<=(0=)=02=%7' Lin": http://eds.b.ebscohost.co-. pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/eds/de tail,sid>*19&19097%a907 <<207a;b=70900&c=da&1* ?<0session-gr1125"id>1 5hid>1025bdata>@nApdG :%6BCD)B!pd-:-c2A "cG:%c2l06E?;d ?;dFdb>psyh5$A>20097 0%21=700= ;. Citchhart, C., 8hurch, 3., 5 3orrison, H. (2011). Making thinking visi le! "o# to $ro%ote engage%ent& understanding& and inde$endence for all learners. 0an Irancisco, 8$: @ossey71ass. Lin": 0ee the 3a/ing Thin/ing Visible page.

To learn #hy schools start school gardens and #hat barriers there are to starting school gardens.

+o# can a school garden help engage students in learning literacy,

+o# can the ti-e and lac/ o* standards based curricular -aterials barriers be resol"ed,

To learn ho# 3a/ing Thin/ing Visible routines #ill help enhance students. thin/ing.

+o# can 3a/ing Thin/ing Visible routines help enhance student thin/ing in the classroo-,

<. 0-ith, 3., Trundle, H. 5 3ollohan, H. (201;). 4lants, ali/e and 2i**erent. 'cience ( )hildren& 90(=), 9279&. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic

To learn ho# engaging in play, e!ploration, and discussion are used to teach science content.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

The particular "isible thin/ing routine e!a-ined #as called 0ee7Thin/7 Bonder. The purpose o* this routine #as to place e-phasis on student obser"ation to gain insight. 0tudents start by e!a-ining an ob ect/idea and state #hat they JseeK (#hat is on the sur*ace). Ae!t, the students e!a-ine #hat they Jthin/K about the ob ect. There could be a response to the Guestion, JBhat is going on here,K )ast, students #rite do#n #hat they still J#onder.K This routine is reco--ended at the start o* a study. 0tudents #ere *irst introduced to the properties o* plants through dra-atic play. Ae!t they e!plored di**erent types o* plants and -ade obser"ations. Then the students shared and

+o# can teachers guide their students into -a/ing -ore e"idence based responses rather than opinion,

+o# can these strategies be used to teach students #ith autis- science content,

4lay

9. 3cGregor, 2. 5 4recious, B. (2010). 2ra-atic 08(EA8E. 'cience ( )hildren& <'(2), 9=79%. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay

To learn ho# dra-atic play is used to teach science content.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

=. 1ro#n, H. 5 Hennedy, +. (2011). )earning through con"ersation: E!ploring and e!tending teacher and children.s in"ol"e-ent in classrootal/. 'chool *sychology +nternational& ;2(<), ;&&7 ;%=. Lin": http://spi.sagepub.co-.pro !y.lib.#ayne.edu/content/; 2/</;&&.*ull.pd*Mht-l &. 6hang, 3., 4assalacGua, 0., )undeberg, 3., Hoehler, 3. @., Eberhardt, @., 4ar/er, @., :rban7 )urain, 3., 6hang, T. 5 4ai/, 0. (2010). J0cience tal/sK in /indergarten classroo-s: (-pro"ing classroo- practice through collaborati"e action research. Journal Of 'cience ,eacher Education& 21(2), 1=171&%. Lin": http://pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/ login, url>http://search.ebscohost. co-/login.asp!, direct>true5db>o*s5$A> 90'1<&0=&5site>eds7 li"e5scope>site '. Bebb, 4., 5 Treagust, 2. I. (200=). :sing e!ploratory tal/ to enhance proble-7sol"ing and reasoning s/ills in grade7& science classroo-s. -esearch +n 'cience

(n order to learn ho# teachers can encourage student dialogue and incorporate their ideas into classroo- con"ersations.

+o# can #e *oster e!ploratory con"ersations in the science classroo-,

discussed data. 1y using the preschool learning cycle -odel and ali/e and di**erent in"estigation the students #ere able to lay a *oundation *or understanding -ore ad"anced concepts, pro"iding a basis on #hich to build *uture learning. Eight strategies #ere used in this pro ect to teach science contentL hot seating, spontaneous role7play, on the table, -i-ing -o"e-ent, *reeDe *ra-e, -ind -o"ies, -odeling, and acting out -ini7historical plays. These strategies helped the students de"elop process s/ills in the areas o* *or-ulating Guestions, obser"ing and in*erring, co--unicating and -odeling, predicting, and classi*ying. +o# to build on children.s ideas. +o# to support cooperation a-ongst students. +o# to increase child in"ol"e-ent in class discussions.

+o# can dra-atic play be used to teach children #ith autisscience content,

+o# can teachers -oti"ate those students #ho are less li/ely to spea/ during class discussions, Bhat are the long tere**ects o* e!ploratory con"ersations,

(n order to learn ho# teachers at the /indergarten le"el introduce and e!pose their students to e!ploratory learning.

+o# can #e *oster e!ploratory con"ersations in the science classroo-,

Bith e!perience, students -o"e *ro- ust stating *acts in classroo- tal/s to actually as/ing Guestions and responding to others ideas. +o# to encourage collaborati"e science tal/s. +o# to use class tal/s as in*or-al assess-ent.

2oes introducing students to e!ploratory con"ersation in /indergarten help de"elop a -ore positi"e student attitude to#ard class tal/s,

(n order to learn #hether or not science discussions are bene*icial to second language learners.

+o# can #e *oster e!ploratory con"ersations in the science classroo-,

0cience scores o* pupils in"ol"ed in classroodiscussions sho#ed signi*icant increases. 4roble- sol"ing and reasoning also sho#ed -entionable gro#th.

(s e!ploratory tal/ as bene*icial to second language learners in other sub ect areas,

Education, (<), ;'1. Lin": http://pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/ login, url>http://search.ebscohost. co-/login.asp!, direct>true5db>edsgao5$ A>edsgcl.19;9=<=2&5site >eds7li"e5scope>site %. 0al-on, $. H. (200'). 4ro-oting a culture o* thin/ing in the young child. Early )hildhood Education Journal& 3.(9), <9&7<=1. Lin": 0ee the 3a/ing Thin/ing Visible page. To learn ho# pro-oting a culture o* thin/ing (Visible Thin/ing routines) e**ects young children. +o# can *ostering Visible Thin/ing Coutines in young children help the- build positi"e attitudes about learning and be re*lecti"e learners, The study *ocused around &0 children ranging *ro- ;.9 to = years old in a pre7H to *irst grade setting. Teachers re*lected on their teachings o* the di**erent routines. $t the end o* the study reported that students had a positi"e attitude to#ards learning and that they built -etacogniti"e and critical thin/ing s/ills. The steps in"ol"ed in creating a school garden are. 1. Iinding a large sunny space appro!i-ately to plant. ' ! ' #ill #or/ but e"en s-aller #ill #or/ also. 2. Iind parent and *aculty "olunteers to -aintain garden. ;. Ta/e pictures and post to #eb site periodically. <. (ncorporate garden into curriculu-. 9. Eat your produce. (n this co-parison study o* *our si! year old children attending a play7based curriculu- school and a traditionally structured classroo- curriculuschool, it #as *ound that play7based curricului-pro"es children.s play, language, and social s/ills. (* Visible Thin/ing routines are present throughout a child.s schooling years, #ill his/her critical thin/ing s/ills i-pro"e,

10. 1ec/rich, $. (201<). The green roo-: Iebruary 201<, -a/ing your teaching -ore en"iron-entally *riendly. ,he 'cience ,eacher, (2), ' )in/: http://eds.b.ebscohost.co-. pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/eds/pd *"ie#er/pd*"ie#er, sid>c**12b%*70a'%7<d*=7 '=d&7 d'b'b91<2'&=?<0session -gr11<5"id>25hid>11=

(n order to learn the steps in"ol"ed in starting a school garden and the reasons *or creating a school garden.

+o# to create a school garden.

+o# do you -aintain during the su--er -onths and #hat are good resources *or *unding.

11. Ceynolds, E., 0tagnitti, H., 5 Hidd, E. (2011). 4lay, language and social s/ills o* children attending a play7based curriculuschool and a traditionally structured classroocurriculu- school in lo# socioecono-ic areas. Australian Journal of Early )hildhood& ;=(<). 12071;0. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay 12. Thorp, 2. 3., 0tah-er, $. 8., 5 0chreib-an, ). (1%%9. E**ects o* socio7dra-atic play training on children #ith autis-. Journal of Autis% and /evelo$%ent /isorders& 29(;), 2=972'2. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay

To learn #hat e**ect play7 based curriculu- has on the play, language, and social s/ills o* young children and ho# it can be used to teach science content to children #ith autis-.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

+o# can play7based curriculu- be used to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

To learn #hat e**ects socio7 dra-atic play training has on children #ith autis- and ho# this could relate to science content.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

(n this study, a "ariation o* 4i"otal Cesponse Training #as used to teach three children #ith autis- socio7 dra-atic play. 4ositi"e changes #ere obser"ed in play, language, and social s/ills.

+o# can socio7 dra-atic play training be used to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

1;. Aicholas, +., 5 Ag. B. (200'). 1lending 8reati"ity, 0cience and 2ra-a. 0ifted and ,alented +nternational& 2;(1), 917=0. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay

To learn ho# to use dra-a to teach science and ho# this could be used #ith children #ith autis-.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

1<. +endri!, C., Eic/, 8., 5 0hannon, 2. (2012). The (ntegration o* 8reati"e 2ra-a in an (nGuiry71ased Ele-entary 4rogra-: The E**ect on 0tudents $ttitude and 8onceptual )earning. Journal of 'cience ,eacher Education& 2;(&), '2;7'<=. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay

To learn #hat e**ects the integration o* dra-a in an inGuiry7based progra- can ha"e on students and ho# this could be used #ith children #ith autis-.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

19. Enyedy, A., 2anish, @., 2elacruD, G., 5 Hu-ar, 3. (2012). )earning physics through play in an aug-ented reality en"iron-ent. +nternational Journal of )o%$uter1 'u$$orted )olla orative Learning2 &(;), ;<&7;&'. Lin": 0ee :sing 2ra-atic 4lay

To learn ho# play can help teach students physics and ho# this could be used #ith children #ith autis-.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

1=. 2a#es, )., 2ore, 1., )o!ley, 4., 5 Aicholls, ). (2010). $ tal/ *ocus *or pro-oting en oy-ent and de"eloping understanding in science. English teaching! *ractice and criti3ue, 4(2), %%7110. Lin": http://pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/ login, url>http://search.ebscohost. co-/login.asp!, direct>true5db>edselc5$ A>edselc.2792.07 &'=90&==12&5site>eds7 li"e5scope>site 1&. Citchhart, C., Turner, T., 5 +adar, ). (200%). :nco"ering studentsN thin/ing about thin/ing using concept -aps.

(n order to learn ho# to e**ecti"ely use student tal/ in the science classroo- at the pri-ary le"el.

+o# can #e *oster e!ploratory con"ersations in the science classroo-,

(n this study, through an e!tended learning acti"ity, students used the creati"e process o* script #riting and production o* a science play to learn science content. They #ere able to *urther de"elop their co--unication, creati"e and higher order thin/ing s/ills to bring abstract science concepts to a -ore concrete and "isual *or-. 8reati"e dra-a acti"ities designed to help children learn di**icult science concepts #ere integrated into an inGuiry7based ele-entary science progra-. 0tudents in the dra-a treat-ent group had signi*icantly higher learning gains than the students in the non7dra-a control group. 8reati"e dra-a is an e**ecti"e strategy to increase science conceptual learning #hen used as an acti"e e!tension to the pre7e!isting inGuiry7based science curriculu-. The )earning 4hysics through 4lay 4ro ect engaged =7' year old students in a series o* scienti*ic in"estigations o* Ae#tonian *orce and -otion including a series o* aug-ented reality acti"ities. The students #ere able to de"elop a conceptual understanding o* *orce, net *orce, *riction and t#o7 di-ensional -otion a*ter participating in the )earning 4hysics through 4lay 4ro ect. The article e!plains three stages o* science tal/ to encourage student in"ol"e-ent and pea/ their curiosities. The *ollo#ing stages are detailed along #ith dialogue e!a-ples: e!ploratory stage, re7 describing stage and application stage.

+o# can blending creati"ity, science, and dra-a be used #ith children #ith autis-,

+o# can the integration o* dra-a in science curriculu- be used #ith children #ith autis-,

+o# can children #ith autis- learn science content through play,

+a"e these strategies been pro"en to be e**ecti"e in other sub ect areas,

To learn ho# students "ie# their o#n thin/ing and to see i* their conception o* their o#n thin/ing changes o"er ti-e.

+o# can a concept -ap help students "ie# their o#n thin/ing,

2;% students grades ;711 #ere used in this study. These students created a concept -ap at the start o* the study on #hat thin/ing is

Bould the results o* this study been di**erent i* there #as a control group,

Metacognition and Learning& 5(2), 1<9719%. )in/: http://search.proGuest.co-. pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/doc"ie #/=1'=<2&%, accountid>1<%29

to the-. Throughout the year, their teachers continued to use Visible Thin/ing Coutines to help students "isualiDe their thin/ing. $ post7concept -ap on student thin/ing #as -ade by the students. The study concluded that, #hile student.s conception o* their o#n thin/ing i-pro"ed #ith age, a classroo- #here -odeling o* thin/ing ta/es place has bene*its. To learn basics o* an e!ploratory discussion. +o# can #e *oster e!ploratory con"ersations in the science classroo-, The #ebsite gi"es si-ple directions *or a teacher to lead an e!ploratory con"ersation #ithin their classroo-. E!a-ples are also included *or a -odel.

Bhat are e**ecti"e #ays *or teachers to e"aluate students. concept -aps, (s it -ore bene*icial *or students to #or/ in groups on concept -aps,

Other Cesources 1. Bee/s, 3. (n.d.). ,eaching techni3ues! E6$loratory discussion % ethod. Cetrie"ed *rohttp://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/stude nts/-7#ee/s/e!pdisc.ht-l 2. 4essin, G. (201<). 0chool Gardens )esson, $cti"ities, and 8urricula. )esson 4lan. 'chool 0arden 7eekly2 Cetrie"ed 3arch 1%, 201< *rohttp://schoolgarden#ee/ly. co-/tag/lesson7plan $t #hat age should e!ploratory con"ersations begin,

(n order to help in planning lessons that integrates eco7 literacy (school gardens) #ith core sub ect areas.

+o# to plan lessons that center around the school garden into the classroocurricula.

+o# to plan lessons and acti"ities that integrate school garden lessons and core sub ect areas.

2o these school garden lessons -a/e students -ore engaged in #riting, reading, and science,

;. 2ra-atic 4lay in Early 8hildhood. Cetrie"ed $pril =, 201< *rohttp://dra-aticplay.#ordpr ess.co-/

To help get ideas *or encouraging dra-atic play in early childhood classroo-s,

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

This #ebsite pro"ides ideas *or teachers and parents on #ays to pro-ote dra-atic play and di**erent the-es to use in early childhood classroo-s and at ho-e.

Bhat science content can be taught using the ideas *ro- this #ebsite,

<.2ra-a Therapy #ith $utistic 8hild P QouTube. Cetrie"ed $pril =, 201< *ro###.youtube.co-/#atch, ">OVy9'R08;@/

To learn ho# dra-a therapy is used #ith children #ith autis-.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

(n this "ideo, dra-a therapy is used to help teach a child #ith autis- about *eelings (happy, sad, angry, and scared).

+o# can dra-a therapy be used to help teach science content,

9. 2ra-a Education Aet#or/. 7hy 8se /ra%a 0a%es or ,heatre 0a%es9 Cetrie"ed $pril =, 201< *ro###.dra-aed.net/#hydra -aga-es.ht-

To learn #hy using dra-a and theatre ga-es is an e**ect *or- o* teaching.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

This #ebsite pro"ides in*or-ation and rationale on #hy teachers should use dra-a and theatre ga-es. • Teaches to $rts 8ontent 0tandards • $ :ni"ersal Ior- o* +u-an E!pression • 2e"elops the (-agination • Teaches to 3ultiple (ntelligences • $ 3ulti7sensory 3ode o*

+o# does the rationale relate to children #ith autis-,

=. Teacher"ision. /ra%a ( ,heater -esources for ,eachers2 Cetrie"ed $pril =, 201< *rohttps://###.teacher"ision. co-/dra-a/teacher7 resources/992&&.ht-l

To learn #hat resources are a"ailable to help teachers incorporate dra-a into lessons and acti"ities.

+o# to use dra-atic play to teach science content to children #ith autis-,

)earning Ceaches 0tudents #ho 0truggle in traditional 0chooling • 4ro"ides )ong7 ter- 1ene*its that 0pill O"er into 0chool and )i*e • 4ro-otes )iteracy and )anguage $rts • $ 3ethod o* )earning Through 4lay • $n Outlet *or Gi*ted and Talented 0tudents • 4ractical $d"antages This #ebsite pro"ides teachers #ith dra-a and theater resources: • 0ha/espeare Teacher.s Guides • +arry 4otter $cti"ities • Ceaders Theater • 4rintables • 3usic 5 2ra-a 8onnected • 0cience 5 2ra-a 8onnected • 0ocial 0tudies 5 2ra-a 8onnected • )iterature 5 2ra-a 8onnected •

+o# can these resources be used to help teach science content to children #ith autis-,

&. Citchhart, C., 5 4er/ins, 2. (200'). 3a/ing thin/ing "isible. Educational Leadershi$& :.(9), 9&. Cetrie"ed *rohttp://search.proGuest.co-. pro!y.lib.#ayne.edu/doc"ie #/22<'<1'9', accountid>1<%29

To learn ho# thin/ing routines #ill help enhance students. thin/ing.

+o# can 3a/ing Thin/ing Visible routines help enhance student thin/ing in the classroo-,

The Thin/74uDDle7E!plore routine has students co-ing up #ith #hat they thin/ they /no# about the topic, #hat puDDles/Guestions they ha"e, and also ho# they are going to e!plore the topic. One di**erence bet#een the Thin/74uDDle7E!plore routine and a H7B7) chart is students are allo#ed to #rite #hat they thin/ they /no# on the topic, rather than #hat they de*initely /no#. Teachers should use the phrase, JBhat -a/es you say that,K to *urther discussions. $ headline has the students su--ariDe or capture #hat the Jheart o* the story/lesson is.K +eadlines can also be used in any sub ect.

+o# can a teacher help students -aintain engage-ent during the #hole routine, +o# could the teacher guide students into ha"ing di**erent responses during the Je!ploreK portion,

'. Citchhart, C. (2011, @uly &). Mark church de%onstrates the headline routine. Cetrie"ed *rohttps://###.youtube.co-/ #atch,">r3ginVgsQ4s

To learn ho# the thin/ing routine, +eadlines, #ill help enhance students. thin/ing.

+o# can the thin/ing routine, +eadlines, help enhance student thin/ing in the classroo-,

$*ter the student co-es up #ith the Jheart o* the story/lessonK can you e!tend this routine into so-ething *urther,

%. Ritchhart, R. (2011, July 7). Why thinking matters in schools. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/w atch v!"#$%a&'r1()

To learn #hy ha"ing a 8ulture o* Thin/ing classroo- can bene*it students and teachers.

+o# can a 8ulture o* Thin/ing classroobene*it students and teachers,

The 21st century learner needs to be able to "ie# things in di**erent perspecti"es. Teachers need to de"elop this and curiosity in their classroo-s.

+o# can teachers recei"e 42 on 8ultures o* Thin/ing,