Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree of

By P.BHARGAVA (08241A0261) B.PRASANNA KUMAR (08241A0283) J.RAMESH BABU (08241A0290 S.VENKATESH (08241A02B3)

Under the guidance of

Ms. K. Sireesha Assistant Professor







This is to certify that the project report entitled “TEMPERATURE CONTROL USING ANALOG PID CONTROLLER” that is being submitted by P.BHARGAVA, B.PRASANNA KUMAR , J.RAMESH BABU, S.VENKATESH in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of

Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering to the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University is a record of bonafide work carried
out by him under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any Post graduation degree.

Prof P.M.Sharma HOD, EEE GRIET, Hyderabad

Ms. K.Sireesha

Dr. S.N.Saxena

Assistant Professor, EEE Dept. Professor, Coordinator, GRIET, Hyderabad (Internal Guide) EEE Dept. G.R.I.E.T, Hyderabad


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is to place on record my appreciation and deep gratitude to the persons without whose support this project would never seen the light of day. We wish to express my propound sense of gratitude to Mr. P. S. Raju, Director, G.R.I.E.T for his guidance, encouragement, and for all facilities to complete this project. We have immense pleasure in expressing my thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my guide Ms K.Sireesha, Asst. Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, G.R.I.E.T for his guidance throughout this project. We are also thankful to Mr.Chakravarthi, Assoc. Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, G.R.I.E.T who help.ed us a large wit his excellent guidance. We also express our sincere thanks to Prof.P.M.Sharma, Head of the Department, G.R.I.E.T for extending his help. We express our gratitude to Dr. S.N. Saxena, Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Coordinator, Project Review Committee, G.R.I.E.T for his valuable recommendations and for accepting this project report. Finally we express our sincere gratitude to all the members of faculty and my friends who contributed their valuable advice and helped to complete the project successfully.

P.BHARGAVA (08241A0261) B.PRASANNA KUMAR (08241A0283) J.RAMESH BABU (08241A0290) S.VENKATESH (08241A02B3)



The objective of our project is maintaining the temperature constant in a particular area using analog PID controller. The motivation for doing this project is the fact that temperature control has become an integral part of any control system operating in a temperature sensitive environment Whatever the process or the parameter (temp, flow, speed, ..) the principles of control are similar. Input and output signals are specified in this project are analog. Control of a process is achieved by means of a closed loop circuit. One of the primary purposes of using feedback in control system is to reduce the sensitivity of the system to parameter variations.The project deals with a simple aspect of giving information about the controlling of temperature in a furnace. In this project we are developing a system, which can control temperature of a furnace automatically. The furnace temperature is compared with the value set by the user and if the temperature goes beyond the Preset temperature then heater will get off and if temperature goes below the set value then heater gets on.In this project we tried to control the temperature of surrounding area of the bulb.Initially the input voltage of the system for a particular temperature at bulb is noted and it is taken as reference or set point and that temperature is maintained constant using analog pid controller with the help of heat sensor LM35 whose output is fed back to the input as feed back.


1 P .CONTENTS Chapter No.4 PID .Characteristics 2.1. 1 INTRODUCTION 9 2 PID CONTROLLER THEORY 2.1 Description 26 28 29 6|Page . Name Of The Chapter Page No.1 Op Amp IC741 4.2 Temperature Sensor LM35 4.Characteristics 2.5 Importance Of Temperature Control 2.2.1 Description 4.2 I .Characteristics 11 12 14 16 2.Characteristics 2.6 Advantage Of PID Controller For Temperature Control 18 20 21 3 CONTROL LOOP BASICS 23 4 PROJECT OVERVIEW 4.3 D .

2 Optimum Behaviour 5.3.1 Description 31 33 5 PHYSICALLY IMPLEMENTING OF PID CONTROLLER 5.3.1 Design Of Panel Board 6.3.5 Voltage Regulators 7915 7815 7015 4.2 Panel Board Circuit 6.3 Relay RAS0510 4.1 Ideal versus Standard PID Form 5.3 Manual Tuning 34 36 37 6 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT KIT 6.3.30 4.1 Power Circuit 6.3 Sensor Circuit 40 41 45 46 7|Page .3 Working Of The Panel 6.2.1 Description 4.4 Bridge Rectifier BR 68 PID Circuit 6.1 Description 4.2 Loop Tuning Stability 5.

1 Feed Fprward Appendix – D 9.1 APPENDIX 9.1.5 Appendix .E 52 54 8|Page .7 CONCLUSION 48 FUTURE SCOPE OF PID CONTROLLER 8 8.1.2 Other Improvements 50 51 9 BIBILOGRAPHY 9.1.3 Appendix – C 9.1.1 Improvements 8.1 Appendix – A 9.1.2 Appendix – B 9.


transportation. 3. which accepts a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple or RTD as input. selectors. alarm. It is an important component in every control engineer’s tool box. are also organized hierarchically. Type of input sensor (thermocouple. PID controllers have survived many changes in technology. There are standalone systems in boxes for one or a few loops. The controller is one part of the entire control system. more than 95% of the control loops are of PID type. Many sophisticated control strategies. gain scheduling. analog output) Control algorithm needed (on/off. from mechanics and pneumatics to microprocessors via electronic tubes. and simple function blocks to build the complicated automation systems used for energy production. and manufacturing. transistors. The following items should be considered when selecting a controller: 1. PID control is often combined with logic. The PID controller can thus be said to be the “bread and butter ’t’ of control engineering. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control temperature. sequential functions. a temperature control system relies upon a controller. proportional. and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. This has given opportunities to provide additional features like automatic tuning. The microprocessor has had a dramatic influence on the PID controller. PID controllers are today found in all areas where control is used. SSR. 2. most loops are actually PI control. RTD) and temperature range Type of output required (electromechanical relay. 4. and continuous adaptation. and provides an output to a control element. In process control today. The controllers are also embedded in many special purpose control systems. limit) 10 | P a g e . or set point. PID control is used at the lowest level. PID) Number and type of outputs (heat. the multivariable controller gives the set points to the controllers at the lower level. cool.The PID controller is the most common form of feedback. integrated circuits. such as model predictive control. which are manufactured by the hundred thousands yearly. To accurately control process temperature without extensive operator involvement. Practically all PID controllers made today are based on microprocessors. PID control is an important ingredient of a distributed control system. It was an essential element of early governors and it became the standard tool when process control emerged in the 1940s. The controllers come in many different forms.


the error is multiplied by a constant P (for "proportional"). a proportional controller's output is zero A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. For example. 50% at 15 °C and 10% at 19 °C.2. Tuning theory and industrial practice indicate that the proportional term should contribute the bulk of the output change. In contrast. P is only valid in the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the system. and a less responsive or less sensitive controller. The proportional term is given by: Proportional . called the proportional gain. a controller with a proportional band of 10 °C and a set point of 20 °C would have an output of 100% at 10 °C. the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. If the proportional gain is too high. a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp. the system can become unstable (see the section on loop tuning). and added to the controlled quantity. If the proportional gain is too low.To handle the immediate error. 12 | P a g e .1 P – CHARACTERISTICS (Proportional term) The proportional term produces an output value that is proportional to the current error value. for a heater. Note that when the error is zero.

or corrected by adding an integral term 13 | P a g e . referred to as droop. for three values of Kp (Ki and Kd held constant) Because a non-zero error is required to drive the controller. Droop may be mitigated by adding a compensating bias term to the set point or output. Droop is proportional to the process gain and inversely proportional to proportional gain.Plot of PV vs time. a pure proportional controller generally operates with a steady-state error.

a simple proportional system would oscillate and/or stabilize at a too low value because when zero error is reached P is also zero thereby halting the system until it again is too low.2.” that current through the feedback loop charges the capacitor and is stored there as a voltage from the output to ground. since the integral term responds to accumulated errors from the past. or oscillates and/or stabilizes at a too low or too high value.2 I – CHARACTERISTICS ( Integral term) Integral . This is a voltage input current integrator. it can cause the present value to overshoot the set point value Integrator Circuit If a capacitor is used as the feedback element in the inverting amplifier. Therefore. and added to the controlled quantity. An intuitive grasp of the integrator action may be obtained from the statement under the section.To learn from the past. and then multiplied by a constant I (making an average). A simple proportional system either oscillates. However. shown in figure 21. By adding a proportion of the average error to the process input. 14 | P a g e . “Current Output. As an example. eventually. a well-tuned PID loop's process output will settle down at the set point. the result is an integrator. The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller. the average difference between the process output and the set point is continually reduced. moving back and forth around the set point because there's nothing to remove the error when it overshoots. the error is integrated (added up) over a period of time. a system that has a tendency for a lower value (heater in a cold environment).

The integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The integral term is given by: 15 | P a g e . for three values of Ki (Kp and Kd held constant) The contribution from the integral term is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error.Plot of PV vs time. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain ( ) and added to the controller output.

Derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the combined controller-process stability. Such a circuit is known as a phase-lead compensator. The derivative term controls the response to a change in the system. differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this term in the controller is highly sensitive to noise in the error term. and can cause a process to become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large. However. Its D term is the reason a PID loop is also sometimes called a "predictive controller.3 D – CHARACTERISTICS (Derivative Term) Derivative . a PID loop can be characterized as a filter applied to a complex frequency-domain system.To handle the future. the controlled process input can oscillate. Hence an approximation to a differentiator with a limited bandwidth is more commonly used. and also added to the controlled quantity. the derivative term slows the transient response of the controller. the first derivative (the slope of the error) over time is calculated. More technically. the more rapidly the controller responds to changes in the process's output. Differentiator Circuit Using a capacitor as the input element to the inverting amplifier. Practical controllers for slow processes can even do without D term. The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output. Consideration of the device in figure 23 will give a feeling for the differentiator circuit.2." The D term is reduced when trying to dampen a controller's response to short term changes. If the values are chosen incorrectly. The larger the derivative term. and the process output may never stay at the set point. Since the inverting input is at ground potential: 16 | P a g e . This is useful in order to calculate whether it will actually reach a stable value. figure 22. yields a differentiator circuit. Also. and multiplied by another constant D.

Plot of PV vs time. for three values of Kd (Kp and Ki held constant) 17 | P a g e .

the final form where Kp: Proportional gain. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain . The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting terms.4 PID – CHARACTERISTIC (PID Term) A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain. whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV). a tuning parameter : Error t: Time or instantaneous time (the present) 18 | P a g e . . 2. The proportional. and derivative terms are summed to calculate the output of the PID controller. Defining of the PID algorithm is: as the controller output. a tuning parameter Ki: Integral gain. integral. a tuning parameter Kd: Derivative gain. The derivative term is given by.

down a bit" movement of the process's input variable is how the PID loop automatically finds the correct level of input for the process. 19 | P a g e . these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error." This "up a bit. the integral and derivative values. and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional. whose sum constitutes the output of the PID controller. Ion the accumulation of past errors. Heuristically. and D. or the power supplied to a heating element. and D is a prediction of future errors. removing error from the process's controllable variable (its input). The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve. based on current rate of change.The PID loop adds positive corrections. adjusting the process's input to keep the process's measured output at the set point. "PID" is named after its three correcting calculations. "Turning the control knob" reduces error. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate constant parameters. I. denoted P. The error is found by subtracting the measured quantity from the set point. Differing terms are used in the process control industry: The "process variable" is also called the "process's input" or "controller's output." The process's output is also called the "measurement" or "controller's input.

PD. but now there’s an even easier way of achieving the same results – wireless temperature monitoring. whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. Manual temperature control is often used. since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise.5 IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL Temperature control is so important because it not only keeps all substances and food items at set temperatures but it also means that the business is operating completely legally. 2. A PID controller will be called a PI. PI controllers are fairly common. so businesses should always consider investing in a wireless system (such as that provided by Kelsius) for complete peace of mind.Some applications may require using only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system control. This is a lot more convenient and hassle-free than more conventional methods. 20 | P a g e . This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. and it’s surprising how temperature can have so much of an effect when it comes to the law. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions.

but no steady-state error.  The real PD controller to with has a smaller maximum overshoot due to the 'faster' D action compared with the controller types mentioned under a) to c). and for the PD controller .2. It shows a maximum overshoot and settling time similar to the P controller but no steady-state error. It shows a smaller maximum overshoot than the PD controller and has no steady state error due to the I action. a long settling  The I controller has a higher maximum overshoot than the P controller due to the slowly starting I behaviour. This is because the PD controller generally is tuned to have a larger gain due to the positive phase shift of the D action. The qualitative concepts of this example are also relevant to other type of plants with delayed proportional behaviour.  The PI controller fuses the properties of the P and I controllers. Also in this case a steady-state error is visible. For the results shown in Figure the gain for the P controller is of .6 ADVANTAGE OF PID CONTROLLER FOR TEMPERATURE The different cases are discussed below:  The P controller shows a relatively high maximum overshoot time as well as a steady-state error . . 21 | P a g e . This discussion has given some first insights into the static and dynamic behaviour of control loops. The plant has a gain  The PID controller to with fuses the properties of a PI and PD controller. which is smaller than in the case of the P controller.

for step disturbance types of controllers at the input to the plant for different 22 | P a g e .Figure Behaviour of the normalised controlled variable .


In the event that hot water does not arrive quickly. Clearly whilst the inflow and outflow are in mass balance. the controller decides when to change the tap position (MV) and by how much. which supplies a process. and hence on the PV. The difference between the temperature measurement and the set point is the error (e) and quantifies whether the water is too hot or too cold and by how much. Changes in feed water temperature constitute a disturbance to the faucet temperature control process. say. The desired temperature is called the set point (SP). the output would oscillate around the set point in either a constant. How can we effectively control 24 | P a g e . Any difference in the relative flows will cause the level to vary. a pump. So in order to compensate for this effect. This is an example of an integral control Making a change that is too large when the error is small is equivalent to a high gain controller and will lead to overshoot. speed and practically every other variable for which a measurement exists Consider a typical process control system. at its output. Generally controllers are used to reject disturbances and/or implement set point changes. the controller may elect to temper its adjustments. the controller may wish to damp the anticipated future oscillations. If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV = SP). This is an example of a simple proportional control. In the interest of achieving a gradual convergence at the desired temperature (SP). or it may open the valve all the way if very hot water is desired. If the oscillations increase with time then the system is unstable.chemical composition. This typically involves the mixing of two process streams. The input to the process (the water valve position) is called the manipulated variable (MV). the level will remain constant. This can be thought of as a derivative control method. whereas if they decrease the system is stable. Based on this feedback they perform a control action to adjust the hot and cold water valves until the process temperature stabilizes at the desired value. This predetermined level is referred to as the set point (SP) and it is also the controlled quantity of the system.A familiar example of a control loop is the action taken when adjusting hot and cold faucets (valves) to maintain the water at a desired temperature. pressure. a controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable output (PV). The tank will require a supply to maintain its level (and therefore the pumps positive suction head) at a fixed predetermined point. or decaying sinusoid. The sensed water temperature is the process variable or process value (PV). The person touches the water to sense or measure its temperature. In theory. If the oscillations remain at a constant magnitude the system is marginally stable. For a particular example let us look at an open tank. After measuring the temperature (PV). a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the process (MV) that will affect the relevant PV. Controllers are used in industry to regulate temperature. flow rate . If the controller were to repeatedly make changes that were too large and repeatedly overshoot the target. the hot and cold water. the controller may try to speed-up the process by opening up the hot water valve more-and-more as time goes by. Variables that impact on the process other than the MV are known as disturbances. it may turn the hot valve only slightly if warm water is desired. then further changes by the controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the process that impact on the process. When the controller first turns the valve on. and then calculating the error. growing.

M 25 | P a g e . the inflow or outflow from the system. Obviously there could be a number of variables in any system. the inflow to the system and outflow are balanced. the error will always take the form of: Error = Set point .this system to a constant level? We must first identify our variables. Depending on whether this error is a positive or negative quantity. If we look more closely at our sample system (Figure 1). the appropriate control correction will be made in an attempt to restore the process to the set point. Measured Quantity OR e = SP .in our example this will be level. The manipulated variable . Obviously no control action is required whilst this status quo exists. the two in which we are most interested are: The controlled variable . Control action is only necessary when a difference or error exists between the set point and the measured level. assuming the level is at the set point. Henceforth.


List of Components used in the project (Panel Board)  Op Amp IC741  Temperature Sensor LM35  Relays RAS0510  Bridge Rectifier BR 68  Voltage Regulators 7915 7815 7015 27 | P a g e .

Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp. Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear. but with two outputs). or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits.4. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today. Characteristics of a circuit using an op-amp are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes or manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself. the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier. which makes op-amps popular building blocks for circuit design. a single-ended output. being used in a vast array of consumer.1 Op Amp IC741 DECRIPTION An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and. the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps). The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network) . Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume. non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. industrial. but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp). 28 | P a g e . An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals. however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. and scientific devices.[citation needed] Opamps may be packaged as components. usually.

There have been some improvements on the technique but. its a chip that tells you what the ambient temperature is! These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature. bi metallic strips (like in some home thermometers or stoves). Instead. the voltage across a diode increases at a known rate. they dont use mercury (like old thermometers).2 Temperature Sensor LM35 Description An analog temperature sensor is pretty easy to explain.4. it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. That is to say. this is actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter . (Technically. they use the fact as temperature increases. nor do they use thermistors (temperature sensitive resistors). essentially that is how temperature is measured.of a transistor.the V be . By precisely amplifying the voltage change. 29 | P a g e .

work under many environmental conditions. never wear out. the functionality is basically the same. Moreover they are very inexpensive and quite easy to use These stats are for the temperature sensor in the Ad a fruit shop. the Analog Devices TMP36 (-40 to 150C). The reason we went with the '36 instead of the '35 or '34 is that this sensor has a very wide range and doensn't require a negative voltage to read sub-zero temperatures. and are constant between sensors and readings.Because these sensors have no moving parts. they are precise. Its very similar to the LM35/TMP35 (celsius output) and LM34/TMP34 (farenheit output). Otherwise. don't need calibration. 4.3 Relays RAS0510 30 | P a g e .

but other operating principles are also used. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contactor. repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another.Description A relay is an electrically operated switch. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays" . instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts. 4. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits). Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults.4 Bridge Rectifier BR 68 31 | P a g e .

FEATURES · Low cost · This series in UL recognized under component index. half wave. 5 in-lbs torque max. (2. MECHANICAL DATA · Technology: Cell with vacuum soldered · Case: Molded plastic body · Terminal: Lead solderable per MIL-STD-202E method 208C · Polarity: Polarity symbols marked on case · Mounting: Thru hole for #10 screw. resistive or inductive load · For capacitive load derate current by 20% 4. · Weight: 0.66 gram MAXIMUM RATINGS AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS · Ratings at 25OC ambient temperature unless otherwise specified · Single Phase. at 5 lbs.13 ounce.5 Voltage Regulators 7915 7815 7015 32 | P a g e . file number E127707 · High forward surge current capacity · Ideal for printed circuit board · High isolation voltage from case to leads · High temperature soldering guaranteed: 260OC / 10 seconds.3kg) tension. 3. 60Hz.

or electronic components. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. Depending on the design. In anelectric power distribution system. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. voltage regulators control the output of the plant. It may use an electromechanical mechanism.Description A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constantvoltage level. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants. 33 | P a g e .


1 Ideal versus Standard PID Form The form of the PID controller most often encountered in industry. Variable voltages may be applied by the time proportioning form of Pulsewidth modulation (PWM) – a cycle time is fixed. Software implementations have the advantages that they are relatively cheap and are flexible with respect to the implementation of the PID algorithm. or even the movement-detection circuit of a modern seismometer. a capacitor and a resistance. These mechanical controllers used a lever. Electronic analog controllers can be made from a solid-state or tube amplifier. for example. Nowadays.In the early history of automatic process control the PID controller was implemented as a mechanical device. yielding: Where Ti is the integral time Td is the derivative time 35 | P a g e . and Dout terms. These pneumatic controllers were once the industry standard. and variation is achieved by varying the proportion of the time during this cycle that the controller outputs +1 (or −1) instead of 0. spring and a mass and were often energized by compressed air. In this form the Kp gain is applied to the Iout..1 second within a 2 second cycle time yields 20 possible steps: percentage increments of 5% – so there is a discretization error. Electronic analog PID control loops were often found within more complex electronic systems.g. the power conditioning of a power supply. the head positioning of a disk drive. electronic controllers have largely been replaced by digital controllers implemented with microcontrollers or FPGAs. Most modern PID controllers in industry are implemented in programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or as a panel-mounted digital controller. but for high enough time resolution this yields satisfactory performance 5. increments of . On a digital system the possible proportions are discrete – e. and the one most relevant to tuning algorithms is the standard form.

critically damped. different applications have different requirements. Most robotics systems are over-damped so that they never overshoot their setpoint. is more common in industry. is the most general and flexible form. where the parameters are treated as simple gains. These measurements are shown in the graph of a system’s response to a step input below When tuning your controller. In the ideal parallel form. and more sophisticated techniques are the subject of patents. The standard form. However. different systems have different behavior. the parameters have a clear physical meaning. Stability (bounded oscillation) is a basic requirement. A PID controller needs to be tuned (PID gains set to appropriate values for your specific system) to function properly. assuming that the loop control remains unchanged. but beyond that. 5. The resulting compensated single error value is scaled by the single gain . it is also the form where the parameters have the least physical interpretation and is generally reserved for theoretical treatment of the PID controller. this section describes some traditional manual methods for loop tuning. The integral component adjusts the error value to compensate for the sum of all past errors. derivative gain/rate) to the optimum values for the desired control response. then. you may desire an over-damped. but can be hard in practice. and requirements may conflict with one another. The performance of your control system is defined by a set of measurements made when applying a specific input step function as the set point command variable (going from 0 to 100% of the output value instantaneously) and then measuring the response of the process variable.2 Loop Tuning Tuning a control loop is the adjustment of its control parameters (proportional band/gain. or underdamped system. because it must satisfy complex criteria within the limitations of PID control. shown in the controller theory section the gain parameters are related to the parameters of the standard form through and This parallel form. In most robotics applications overshoot is unacceptable and may cause damage to the system. The addition of the proportional and derivative components effectively predicts the error value at Td seconds (or samples) in the future. despite being slightly more complex mathematically. with the intention of completely eliminating them in Ti seconds (or samples). integral gain/reset. the inner summation produces a new single error value which is compensated for future and past errors. The goal of tuning such systems. Designing and tuning a PID controller appears to be conceptually intuitive. even though there are only three parameters and in principle is simple to describe. is decreasing the rise-time and steady-state error to achieve the best possible performance PID tuning is a difficult problem. In particular.In this standard form. if multiple (and often conflicting) objectives such as short transient and high stability 36 | P a g e . There are accordingly various methods for loop tuning.

with or without oscillation. though sometimes marginal stability (bounded oscillation) is acceptable or desired 5. particularly in the presence of significant lag. this can be corrected by gain scheduling (using different parameters in different operating regions). Specific criteria for command tracking include rise time and settling time. stabilization of response is required and the process must not oscillate for any combination of process conditions and set points. Some processes must not allow an overshoot of the process variable beyond the set point if. initial designs need to be adjusted repeatedly through computer simulations until the closed-loop system performs or compromises as desired. Generally.2.are to be achieved.2 Optimum Behaviour The optimum behavior on a process change or set point change varies depending on the application. Usually. for example. but performance can generally be improved by careful tuning. integral and derivative terms) are chosen incorrectly.e. 5. the controlled process input can be unstable. Some processes have a degree of non-linearity and so parameters that work well at full-load conditions don't work when the process is starting up from no-load. Other processes must minimize the energy expended in reaching a new set point 37 | P a g e . Instability is caused by excess gain. i. its output diverges. PID controllers often provide acceptable control using default tunings. and performance may be unacceptable with poor tuning. Two basic requirements are regulation (disturbance rejection – staying at a given set point) and command tracking (implementing set point changes) – these refer to how well the controlled variable tracks the desired value..2.1 Stability If the PID controller parameters (the gains of the proportional. and is limited only by saturation or mechanical breakage. this would be unsafe.

if required. Increase the Kp until the output of the loop oscillates. Finally.2. some systems cannot accept overshoot. increase Kd. However. then the Kp should be set to approximately half of that value for a "quarter amplitude decay" type response. too much Ki will cause instability.3 Manual Tuning If the system must remain online. in which case an overdamped closed-loop system is required. which will require a Kp setting significantly less than half that of the Kp setting causing oscillation 38 | P a g e .Effects of increasing a parameter independently Parameter Rise time Overshoot Settling time Steady-state error Stability Decrease Increase Small change Decrease Degrade Decrease[4] Increase Increase Decrease significantly Degrade Minor decrease Minor decrease Minor decrease No effect in theory Improve if small 5. However. one tuning method is to first Ki set Ki and Kd values to zero. Then increase until Ki any offset is corrected in sufficient time for the process. too much Kd will cause excessive response and overshoot. until the loop is acceptably quick to reach its reference after a load disturbance. A fast PID loop tuning usually overshoots slightly to reach the set point more quickly. however.


1 Design Of Panel Board 40 | P a g e .6.

41 | P a g e .

42 | P a g e .

43 | P a g e .

2 Panel Board Circuit 44 | P a g e .6.

The transformer used is 230/36 volts.1 Power Circuit It consists of Transformer.Voltage regulators namely 7815 and 7915 followed by filter circuit. The Output from the filter is fed to the regulators 7915 and7815 whose output is +15 Volts and -15Volts respectively. This 36V is fed to the BR68 rectifier which converts the voltage from AC to DC.3 Working Of The Panel 6. bridge rectifier . This is used as +Vcc and –Vee for an Operational amplifiers used in the circuit. This voltage obtained is filtered using capacitors. Bridge rectifier used is BR68 .6.The AC supply voltage of 230 is fed to the transformer which whose out put is 36V AC. 45 | P a g e .3.

The output terminals of the relay is connected to the bulb. The op amp is use to design the proportional . The error is fed to proportional .6. Diode and Relay. Where the error is multiplied with proportional gain in P block and error is multiplied after integrating in I block and the error is multiplied after differentiating in D block. The input to the op amp consist of two voltages . The Voltage regulator is used to give an input to the op amp. Potentiometers. 6.The diode is connected in series with the relay.3. one is the variable voltage fed from the sensor as feedback and other is the fixed value taken as reference.2 PID Circuit This circuit consists of op amps.integral and derivative analog controller.3 Sensor Circuit The sensor used is LM35 which is a heat sensor consisting of three terminals such as input output and ground respectively .integral and derivative block. The output of these three blocks or circuits is added up using a summer circuit.this sensor is output is amplified using op amp and the output is fed as feed back to the input terminal of op amp which is compared with the reference value and the error is calculated. 46 | P a g e . The output of the summer circuit is fed to the diode IN4007 . The difference between these two inputs is taken as error. voltage regulators..3.


Now a days temperature control has become an integral part of any control system operating in a temperature sensitive environment. Here we used a bulb in the place of a heater or furnace and tried to control the temperature of the surroundings of the bulb using heat sensor LM35 . The output of the sensor is fed back as input to the system as feed back. Input and output signals are specified in this project is analog.The gains are to be tuned manually. Here we used analog PID controller to control the temperature. 48 | P a g e . In this project we have developed a system which controls the temperature of a furnace. One of the primary purposes of using feedback in control system is to reduce the sensitivity of the system to parameter variations. Control of a process is achieved by means of a closed loop circuit.The project deals with a simple aspect of giving information about the controlling of temperature in a furnace.But use the softwares (like labview) apt control is possible.


50 | P a g e . fuzzy logic or computational verb logic. Working together. The PID controller can be used primarily to respond to whatever difference or error remains between the setpoint (SP) and the actual value of the process variable (PV). then it is beneficial to take the instantaneous acceleration desired for the load. the combined open-loop feed-forward controller and closed-loop PID controller can provide a more responsive. Another new method for improvement of PID controller is to increase the degree of freedom by using fractional order.1 Improvements 8. Further practical application issues can arise from instrumentation connected to the controller. a proportional amount of force is commanded from the prime mover regardless of the feedback value. A high enough sampling rate.1. and measurement accuracy are required to achieve adequate control performance. The PID loop in this situation uses the feedback information to change the combined output to reduce the remaining difference between the process setpoint and the feedback value. thus improving the system response and stability. Knowledge about the system (such as the desired acceleration and inertia) can be fed forward and combined with the PID output to improve the overall system performance. The order of the integrator and differentiator add increased flexibility to the controller. If a velocity loop PID controller is being used to control the speed of the load and command the force or torque being applied by the prime mover. motor. in most motion control systems. in order to accelerate a mechanical load under control. or actuator. more force or torque is required from the prime mover.8.2 Other improvements In addition to feed-forward. it can never cause the control system to oscillate. scale that value appropriately and add it to the output of the PID velocity loop controller. measurement precision.1. Since the feed-forward output is not affected by the process feedback. stable and reliable control system. PID controllers are often enhanced through methods such as PID gain scheduling (changing parameters in different operating conditions). 8. For example. This means that whenever the load is being accelerated or decelerated. The feed-forward value alone can often provide the major portion of the controller output.1 Feed-forward The control system performance can be improved by combining the feedback (or closed-loop) control of a PID controller with feed-forward (or open-loop) control.


wikipedia. “Super Gain Transistors for ICs. Op Amps and Comparators . J.org/wiki/PID_control  Texas Instruments. Bruce Carter.Don't Confuse Them.” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 52 | P a g e .org/wiki/PDI  PID controller http://en. www.wekipedia. http://en. SLOA067. Widlar.wikipedia.com. 09/06/2001  R.

1 Appendix – A 53 | P a g e .1 Appendixes 9.1.9.

9.2 Appendix – B 54 | P a g e .1.

1.9.3 Appendix – C 55 | P a g e .

4 Appendix – D 56 | P a g e .1.9.

1.9.5 Appendix – E 57 | P a g e .

58 | P a g e .