1

ISBN 3 901 906 27  4  
COMMISSION  INTERNATIO NALE  DE  LECLAIRAGE  
INTERNATIONAL  COMMISSION  ON  ILLUMINATION  
INTERNATIONALE  BELEUCHTUNG  KOMMSSI ON  
CO  TROl  OF  DAMAG  TO 
M  SEUM OBJECTS BY 
OP  ICAl  RADIAT ON 
CIE  157:2004 
UDC: 535.683 Descript or: Influenc e of radiation
535.683.1 Fastness to light
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CIE 157:2004
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY
v
RESUME
V
ZUSAMM ENFASS UNG V
INTRODUCTI ON
.,
1. THE SCIENTIFI C PRINCIPLES
1.1 The processes of damage to museum obj ects
1.2 Photochemical action
1.2.1 The process of photochemical acti on
1.2.2 Effects of photochemical act ion
1.2.3 Causes of photochemi cal action
1.2.4 Irradiance and duration of expos ure
1.2.5 Spectral power distribu tion of incident irradia tion
1.2.6 Acti on spectrum of rec eiving material
1.3 Radiant heating effect
1.3.1 The process of radi ant heating
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
7
7
1.3.2 Eff ects of radiant heati ng
B
2. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND RECENT RESEARCH
2.1 Measur ement of damage
2.1.1 The "Blue W ool" sca le
2. 1.2 The CIELAB system
9
9
9
9
2.1.3 Thr eshold effective radiant exposure
10
2.1.4 Responses of colora nts to exposure 13
2.2 Tuning the spectrum 15
2.2. 1 Correlat ed colour temper ature of lighting
15
2.2.2 Spectr al power distributi on of lighting
16
3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LIGHTING tN MUSEUMS
18
! I
3.1 Materials to be protected
18
3.1.1 Four categories of resp onsivity 18
3.1.2 Classifying pigments for responsivity
19
3.2 Proced ure to control damage to museum objects
22
3.2. 1 To minimise exposure of museum objects
22
3.2.2 Use of electronic fl ash
24
3.2. 3 Exposure rat e
25
3.2.4 Outline of procedu re
26
REFERENCES
28
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IV
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CIE 157 :2004
CONTROL OF DAMAGE TO MUSEUM OBJECTS BY OPTICAL RADIATION
SUMMARY
The report comprises three parts . The first part reviews the scientific principles that govern the
processes of radiation-induced damage to museum objects with the aim of providing
fundamental information for museum conservators and research workers . The second part
reviews current knowledge and recent research to provide a commentary on the efforts of
researchers to better understand how thes e processes may be retarded or eliminated in the
museum environment. The final part gives the committee's recommendations for lighting in
museums in the form of a practical procedure that covers setting up a new display and
monitoring the lighting during the life of the display. This procedure takes account of the
research findings that have been reviewed as well as recommendations published by other
organisations, and is modelled on current practice in several of the world's leading museum
institutions.
MAITRISE DES DEGRADATIONS OCCASIONEES PAR LES RADIATIONS OPTIQUES
AUX COLLECTIONS MUSEALES
RESUME
Le present rapport est constitue de trois parties. La premiere partie est un rappel des
principes scientifiques qui reqissent les degradations induites par les radiations optiques aux
objets de muses avec comme objectif de donner au personnel des musses une information
de base. La seconde partie fait Ie point sur les connaissances actuelles et les derniers travaux
des chercheurs realises dans Ie but de mieux envisager les moyens a mettre en ceuvre pour
retarder, voire elirniner les causes de ces degradations. La derniere partie donne les
recommandations du cornite pour un eclairaqe rnuseoqraphique, sous une forme pratique, par
la mise en place de nouvelles presentations et d'un controls de la lurniere durant celles-ci.
Ces recommandations tiennent compte aussi bien des etudes citees dans Ie rapport que des
recommandations editees par d'autres organismes, Ie tout a la lurniere de la pratique en place
dans les principaux rnusees du monde.
BEGRENZUNG DES SCHADENS AN MUSEUMSOBJEKTEN DURCH OPTISCHE
STRAHLUNG
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Der Bericht besteht aus drei Teilen. Der erste Teil gibt einen Oberblick uber die
wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen der durch Strahlung verursachten Schadlqunqsprozesse an
musealen Objekten. Das Ziel dabei ist, grundlegende Information fur Museumskonservatoren
und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter bereitzustellen. Der zweite Teil gibt einen Uberblick uber
aktuelle Forschungsarbeiten und den Kenntnisstand zur Erlauterunq der Bernuhunqen von
Forschern, um besser zu verstehen, wie diese Prozesse im Bereich von Museen verzoqert
oder eliminiert werden konnen. Der letzte Teil enthalt Empfehlungen des Komitees hinsichtlich
der Beleuchtung in Museen in Form einer praktischen Vorgehensweise fur die Darbietunq
eines neuen Ausstellungsgegenstandes und fU r die Uberwachung der Beleuchtung wahrend
dessen Ausstellungszeit. Das Verfahren beruckslchtlqt die hier behandelten
wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse, aber auch Empfehlungen, die von anderen Organisationen
verottentlicht wurden, und folgt der gangigen Praxis von einigen der fUhrenden
Museumsinstitutionen der Welt.
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CIE 157:2004
INTRODUCTION
Thi s report compri ses three parts.
• Part 1 reviews the scientific principles of radi ation exposure and conservation.
• Part 2 revi ews curr ent knowledge and recent research.
• Part 3 gives recommendations for lighting in museums.
Parts 1 and 2 comprise important information for professional conse rvators and
research workers, but it is expected that some museum staff and exhibitions design ers wil l
choose to turn directly to Part 3.
The starting poi nt for the committee' s work was CIE 89/3- 1991 (CIE, 1991), whi ch had
established a basis for relat ing the optical radiation exposure of an object to the
photochemical response of the object. Initially the committee's intention was to develop this
approach so that it could be applied to the practical task of controlling the degradation of
museum exhibits.
The CIE 89/3-1991 (CIE, 1991) approach depends upon the action spectrum of the
receiving object being defined, and in practical situations this incurs several problems .
Materials vary in both absolute and relative spectral respon sivity, and many museum objects
compri se a combination of mat erials. However, recent research has made important
contributions to knowledge of how museum materials react to exposure, and the work initiated
by Prof. .l urqen Krochmann and conti nued by his coll eagu es in Berlin deserves particular
menti on. These researchers have selectively exposed a range of typical museum mat erial
samples, and from dat a of measured colour shifts have deriv ed typical responsivity functions
for several material groups. Each of these groups is defined by a logarithmic responslvlty
function, and this suggested a practical means of enabling museum staff to predict visible
eff ects of exposure. For a given lamp and fi lter combination, the duration of exposure that
would cause a given material to undergo a j ust noticeabl e change of colour is shown to be
inversely proportion al to the illuminan ce.
Att empts to apply this approach to practical situations revealed fund amental
problems. The formul ae defining the responsivity functions do not distinguish between radiant
energy that is visually useful and that which is not. Large gains in permitted exposur e are
obtained by reducing short-wavelength radi ation, so that long-wavelengt h rich light sour ces
are always favour ed regardl ess of the visual effect intended by the lighting designer.
Furthermore, as only photochemical degradation is consider ed, the detrimental effects of
infra-red exposure are ignored.
For these reasons, the committee has recommended a procedure that seeks to give
lighting designers opportunities to achi eve their display objectives whil e avoiding unnecessary
exposure of the exhibits, and where necess ary, achieving control by restricting the duration of
exposure.
For Part 1, the committee's aim has been to outline the known facts that govern the
processes of radiation-induced damage to museum obj ects. Part 2 provides a commentary on
the efforts of researchers to better underst and how these processes may be retarded or
elimi nated in the museum environment. The recommendati ons given in Part 3 are based upon
these research findings, but cl early, this is a developing fiel d and it must be expected that
notions of good practice will change as resea rch progresses and the technology of control
develops. Refer ences are given throughout the document for more detailed informati on.
The committee's aim has been to give recommendations for good lighting practice
wherever the conse rvation of museum objects is a cause for concern . These
recommendations are modelled on the lighting polici es in leadi ng national institutions, and are
considered to represent practical standards to which all museums should aspire They incl ude
procedures for setting up lighting for a new displ ay and for periodic monitoring dur ing the life
of a display, and in several respects these diff er from conventional current practice. After
much discussi on, the committee has proposed a four-category mater ial classification for
limiti ng light exposure that includes a high responsivity category, for which permanent display
is preclud ed. Also, the committ ee arrived at the decis ion that there is no rational basis for
recommending that museum objects may be subjected to any level of ultraviolet exposure,
and elimination of UV is recommend ed.
CIE 1572004
It is recognised that some museums will decide that not all of its displa ys need to te
fully compli ant with the committee's recommendations. Some obj ects may be classified ss
inresponsive to radiation expos ure, whil e others may be considered to have a limit ed lifespaa,
or to be of insufficie nt value to j ustify the expe nse of instituting the recommended prcceduee .
In any such cases, the museum should consider all aspects of the committees
recommendations to ensure that its own poli cy is comprehensive. Also, staff should be alert «:J
to the risks of putti ng light-r esponsive objects on long-term displ ay in non-compli a t
conditions.
.
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CIE 157:2004
1. THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES
1.1 The processes of damage to museum obj ects
It is natural for many substan ces to change with time. Nature has provided processes to
dismantle the substances produced by organi c growth in order to provid e for recycling of the
molecules that are the building blocks of life on this planet. Even inorganic substances are not
necessarily permanent, although chang e may occur much more slowly.
The principal aim of conservation policies in museums is to retard thes e processes,
and these poli cies must address all causes of chang e that migh t aff ect obj ects in the
museum' s collection. It is only in the case of exposure to light that the needs for conservation
and display are directly in conflict. For the conservat ion of many materials, the ideal
environment would be compl etely dark.
There are two processes by which exposure to light may cause damage:
• Photochemical action ;
• Radiant heating effect.
1.2 Photochemical action
1.2. 1 The process of photochemical action
Photochemical action is the process by whi ch a molecul e undergoes a chemical change, with
the activation energy for the change being derived from the absorption of a photon. Wh ile the
initial event of the - hoton absorption is independent of the surrounding environment,
.subsequent yhemical action?         affecl ecr ::"try. _enviwnmental factors such as
        and humidity. The photon absorption may be the initial stage in a complex series
of chemical changes, but whether or not the process is complex, the change is irreversible. All
forms of chemical action affecting museum objects constitute damage, and w -ere ne aim is
to minimise the effects of photochemical action on museum objects, the museum must have a
comprehensive policy for environmental control.
Material s differ substantially in their responsivity to light exposure. The process by
which a photographic film forms an image is also due to photochemical action, and obviously,
even the most susceptible museum objects, including photographic prints, have low
sensitivities in comparison with unexposed photographic emulsion materials. Even so, unless
an object is totally irresponsive to light exposure, l or every incId.ent hoton b.eLe....· 'nite
gLQbabilit of ermanent damage.     is no safe level of exposure for a light-responsive
object.
1.2.2 Effects of photochemical action
Colour change is usually the most obvious indicati on of light-induced damage to museum
objects. The appearance of fading is well known, but the visible eff ects of photochemical
act ion may be quite diff erent. It can cause some colorants to darken , and some to undergo
changes of hue that are quit e unl ike the yellowing and lightening associated with fading.
The other main effect of light-induced damage is loss of strength, which may be
evident as fraying of f ibres on fabrics, or embrittlement and surface cracking of artefacts.
These effects may be diffi cult to distinguish from eff ects of radiant heating discussed in
Sect ion 1.3.
1.2.3 Causes of photochemical action
Four factors determine the level of photochemical act ion:
• Irradiance;
• Duration of exposure;
• Spectral power distribution of inci dent radiati on;
• Action spectrum of receiving material.
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CIE  157:2004 
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1.2.4  /rradiance  and  duration  of exposure 
The  principle  that , for  a  given source of  irradiation, exposure  (H)  is  the  integration  of  irradiance 
and  time  may  be  referred  to  as  the             the  Bunsen-Roscoe  Law,  or,  as  in  thi s 
I
document,  the  Reciprocity Principle.  Whichever  title  is  used , the  principle  may  be  expressed 
as:  
I
H = JE;  dt 
(1.1) 
t
where 
E
e
is irradiance  incident on  the  surface  (W/m
2


t  is time  in  hours  (h) 
When  E
e
is  constant ,  as  with  electric  lighting,  the  equation  takes  the  simple  form:
' j
II 

H  =E
e
· t   I 
According  to  this    a  total  exposure  of  10 W/m 

for  10  hours  is  equivalent  to 
20  W/m

for  5  hours  or  5  W/m  for  20  hours  if  the  spectral  power  distribution  is  the  same.  It 
should  be  noted  that  the  principle  is  defined  in  terms  of  irradiance,  which  is  a  measure  of  the  I 
density of  incident radiant  power , or  as  it is  referred  to  hereafter,  incident radiant  flux.  't  needs 
to  be  recognised  that  illuminance  is  not  a  reliable  alternative  measure,  as  it  represents  the 
density  of  luminous  flux,  being  radiant  flux  evaluated  according  to  a  typical  human  visual 
I
response,  defined  by  the  photopic  spectral  luminous  efficiency  function  V(}.). Not  only  does 
illuminance  take  no  account  of  irradiance  outside  the  visible  spectrum,  but  also  radiant  flux 
within  the  visible  spectrum  is  weighted  according  to  its  relative  visual  effect,  which  is  not 
related  to  its  damage  effect.  Illuminance  meters  are  reasonably  affordable  and  easy  to 
operate,  whereas  meters  that  measure  radiant  flux  irrespective  of  wavelength  are  more 
specialised  scientific  instruments.  It  is  common  practice  for  museum  staff  to  use  an  I 
illuminance  meter  to  monitor  light  exposure,  but  they  should  be  aware  that  an  illuminance 
reading  can  not  alert  them  to  the  presence of  non-visible radiation, either  UV or  IR,  nor is  it  an 
entirely reliable  indicator of  the  damage  effect due  to  visible  radiant  flux .  Some  hand-held  UV 
meters are  available, but it  is  important to  check that the  spectral  range  covered  is  appropriate  I 
for  conservation  assessments.  These  instruments  are  useful  only  for  checking  the  presence 
of  UV.  They  can  not  indicate  the  extent  of  possible  damage,  because  for  this  both  the  UV 
spectrum  and  the  action  spectrum  of  th-e  receiving  object must be  known.  See  Section  3.2  for  I 
more  discussion of  this  topic. 
The  aim  of  preventive  conservation  is  to  retard  the  photochemical  process and  extend 
it  over  many  years,  and  this  makes  it  more  likely  that  extraneous  factors  will  complicate  the 
process. For  example,  the  radi ant  heating  effect of  lighting  may raise the  surface temperature  I 
of  the  object  to  the  extent  that  chemical  reactions  which  may follow  photochemical  action  are 
accelerated. Also,  as  discussed  in  the  following  subsection,  the  spectral  power  distribution  of 
the  incident radiant flux  affects  the rate  of  photochemical  action. 

1.2.5 Spectral power  distribution of incident irradiation 
Radiant  flux,  which  includes  ultraviolet  (UV),  visible  and  infrared  (IR )  wavebands  may  be  I 
envisaged  as  a  stream  of  photons  in  which  each  photon  is  a  discrete  energy  package. 
Photons  differ  widely  in  energy  level ,  although  they  all  travel  at  the  same  velocity  in  vacuum. 
Photon energy level E (Joules) is directly  proportional  to frequency, and is given  by the  expression:  I 
E= hv  J   (1.2) 
where   h is  Planck's  constant, a number that relates the  units of  frequency to  energy 
(h  =6,626  XI  0-
34 
J  s) 
v is frequency (Hz) 
The  photons  are  the  "bullets"  that  trigger  photochemical  reactions ,  and  if  absorbed, 
their  energy  level s  indi cate  their  potential  to  cause  damage (Feller,  1964 ).  Different  molecules 
have  different  photon  energy thresholds. A  molecule that is  highly responsive  to  light exposure 
will  have  a  low  photon  energy  thr eshold,  so  that  a  low  level  of  photon  energy  is  sufficient  to 
trigger a chemical change. 
I 4 
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CIE 157:2004
Photon energy defines the energy level of an individual photon. It is not to be
confused with irradiance, except that under conditions of very high irradiance a molecule may
receive photons in such rapid succession that a biphotonic process is init iated. This occurs
when the photon energy threshold is exceeded by the sum of two or more photons. However ,
this effect may be ignored in this context as it is unli kely to occur at the low irradiances
encountered in properly managed museums (Thomson, 1986).
As shown in Equation (1. 2), photon energy is proportional to frequency. However,
frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength A. , so that Equation (1.2) can be rewritten
E= hcl A J (1.2a)
where c is the velocity of light in vacuum .
This shows that photon       to the reciprocal of wavelength 1/A, so that
short wavelength luminous flux (i.e. blue light) has higher photon energies than long wavelength
luminous flux (i.e. red light ), and UV flux has higher photon ener gies still. It may be noted that the
CIE defi nes UV as radiant energy of wavelength less than 400 nm, even though the visible
spectrum is defined as extending down to 380 nm. However, the visual response to radi ation in
the 380 to 400 nm waveband is very low, and for museum conservation purposes, all
wavelengths less than 400 nm are considered to be UV and unwanted.
The amount of UV produ ced by different light sources is often indicated in terms of
microwatts of UV per lumen, 11m, and Table 1.1 lists typi cal proportions for various light
sources. These data do not take account of the wavel ength distribution of the UV radiation,
and so do not provide a reliabl e indication of rel ative damage potential. It can be seen that no
practical light source is entirely devoid of UV emission, so that except for materials that are
totally irresponsive to UV, there is always scope to reduc e damage by using filt ers that block
UV. The use of UV blocking filters is discus sed in Section 3.2, and is generally recommended.
Table 1.1 Typical ultraviolet proportions for various light sources.
Light source UV content        
Daylight
Tungsten incandescent
Tungsten halog en-
Fluorescent lamps
Metal halide
Light emitting di ode (LED)*-
400 -1500
70 - 80
40 - 170
30 - 100
160 - 700
<5
- Includes "UV-STOP" lamps .
** These lamps are not of SUitably high colour qual ity for museum use at present , but have
futur e potential as very low UV power sources.
Data provided by Dr David Saunders, Scientific Department, The National Gallery, London, UK.
1.2.6 Action spectrum of receiving material
In 1953, Harrison (1953) proposed a procedure for evaluating the rel at ive damage pot ential of
different types of light sources and sourcelfilter combinations. He introduced a Dama  
function O(A), which is an action spectrum that defines the relative spectral responsivity of a
receiving material (Figure 1.1), and he proposed that this be used to determine a Damage
Index 01 or incid ent radiat ion. The intention was that this index would be used to compare the
damage potenti al of alternative light sourc es, or source and f ilter combi nations.
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CIE 157:2004
8  
7  
6  
Ql 
W5
500 600
Wavelength (nm)
I I
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I
,
I I I
I
,
I
I
I
f--
H-
I I
,
I
I

ro 
°4
Ql 
>
I
   
a:::
2  I 


300 400 700 
Figure 1.1 Harrison's Damagefuncti on O(,i).
The relative damage flux is given by:
Fdm,rel =J ct\,i) . T(,i) .O(,i) .d,i
A
where:
where
(jJ (,i)
T(A)
O(,i)
,i
isspectral radiantpower
isspectraltransmittanceof filter
isdamagefunction
iswavelength
W/nm
nm
And the relative luminousflux:
Fv,rel = J (jJ (,i)
A
. T(,i) . V(,i) .d,i
V(,i ) isthe spectral luminousefficiencyfor photopicvision
Thenthe damageindex for the incidentradiation:
I
01 =Fdm.rel / F v,rel



(1.3)



(1 .4)
I
(1.5) I
Although Harrison's proposal aroused a lot of interest at the time, the conservators
were sceptical that a single damage function could be representative of all the diverse
materials found in museums. Thorr 'on (1978, p. 178) stated "for more fugitive materials ... I
i
the figure for visible radiation would )e higher. On the other hand...the fastest dyes are
r
probably affected only by UV. Thus it can be seen that no single figure can be given for
damage versus wavelength" . Confidencewas further eroded when it became evident that the I
precisely defined O(,i) function had been extrapolated from a very limited number of
measurements basedon exposing samplesof "low-gradepaper" ,such as newsprint.
Because of the sci entists' mistrust of O(,i) , Harrison's proposal failed to gain I
acceptance as the procedure for comparing the damage potential of diff erent types of light
sources. Itwas , nonetheless, influential in the wid er museum community. As can be seen in
Figure 1.1 ,the O(lc) function giv es the impression that damage is due almost entirely to UV.
Furthermore, the relatively smal l amount of damage shown to be attributable to visible
radiati on is due to the shorter wavel engths,with damage becorninq negligibl e at wavel engths

I
CIE  157:2004 
longer  than  500 nm.  This  cemented  in  the  mi nds  of  many  museum  directors  that  the 
incandescent  lamp  was  safe  and  the  museum  light  source  of  choice  (the  halogen  lamp  had 
not  been  invented),  and  that  daylight must  be eliminated  from  galleries. 
Despite  the  shortcomings  of  D(A.) , scientists  realised  that  Harrison's  procedure  was 
basically  sound .  If a  reliable  way  of  expressing  the  relative damage  pot ential  of  radia tion  as  a 
function  of wavelength  could  be found, it would  be pract ical to compare the effects of  exposing 
obj ects  to  different  spectra  of  incident  radiation.  Modern  computers  would  make  the 
cal cul ations  very  simple.  It has  been  shown  that, despite  its  appearance  in  Figure  1.1,  D(/L) is 
actually  a  simpl e  logarithmic  function  (Cuttle,  1988)  with  a  slope  of  -1,25  10gD(/L)  unit s  per 
100  nm  of  wavel ength.  (This  way  of  characteri sing  relative  damage  functions  is  employed  in 
Section  2.1, where  this  function  would  be shown  as -1 ,25  logD(/L)/100 nm .) 
Because  the  range  of  photochemical  reactions  that  can  occur  in  a  museum  is  vast 
and  the  actions  themselves  are  complex, a  si mple  model  of  spectral  responsivity can  not  be 
expected to be precise or entirely reliable. Nonetheless , such  a model  could  take the  form: 
S(A.)dm,rel  =  a{A.) . 1//L· f(/L) (1.6) 
where  
S(/L)dm,rel  is relative spectral  responsivity  
a{/L) is spect ral  absorptance  
f(A.) is a function of  wavelength  determined  by the  receiving  mat erial  
The  rationale  for  this  model  is  that  fir st, energy  has  to  be  absorbed  to  cause damage; 
second, the chance of a photochemical response  is relat ed to the  photon energy level  which , 
as  shown  in the  previous  subsection,  is  proportional  to  the  reciprocal  of  wavelength;  and  third, 
ther e  will  be  some  function  of  wavel ength  that  is  determined  by  the  inherent  properties  of  the 
material.  It may  be  noted  that  at  a  given  wavelength,  a{/L) =1-[p(/L)+'Z(/L)],  where p(/L) and  'Z(/L) 
are  spectral  reflectance  and  transmittance,  respectively, 
The  growth  of  scientific  interest  in  relating  light  exposur e  to  damage  led  mus eum 
professionals  to  question  what  actually  constitutes  damage.  Before  researchers  could  make 
progress  with  defining  action  spectra  of  museum  materials,  they  needed  a  reliabl e  measure of 
damage. This  is discussed in Section 2.1. 
1.3 Radiant heating effect
1.3.1 The process of radi ant heating
Radiant heating  effect  is  the  raising  of surface temperatur e above  ambient temperature due  to 
absorption  of  incident  radiant  flux .  It  has  been  shown  (Feller,  1968)  that  the  maximum 
attainable temperature of  an irradiated obj ect  is given  by: 
kAE
e
== T  +-- (1 .7)  T
max 
a he 
where 
T« is ambient (air)  temperature (C)  
k  is a proportionality constant  
A  is absorptance  of  the  object"  
E

is irradiance (W/m
2
)  
he  is coefficient of  convection heat loss  
·In general, unlike UV energy, IR energy is not evaluated on a wavelength basis but
rather in terms of all such energy incident on a surface. In this expression, A is assumed to be
averaged over the spectrum, but some situations may require spectral variations to be taken
into account.
Equation  (1.7)  shows  that  the  elevat ion  of  the  obj ect's  surface  temp erature  above 
ambient temperature  is  proportional  to  irradi ance ,  and  is  independent  of  the  obj ect's  thermal 
capaci ty, density  or  thi ckness.  Wh en  radiant flux  is di rected  ont o  an obj ect , some  proportion  is 
absorbed,  depending  on  the  spectral  power  distr ibution  of  the  incid ent  flux  and  the  spectral 
absorptance  of  the  object.  Some  small  proportion  of  the  absorbed  radiation  may  promote 
photochemical  action  as  discussed  in  the  previous  sect ion,  but  regardless  of  whether  the 
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CIE  157:2004 
I
object  is  light-responsive,  its  surface  temperatur e  will  ri se  towar ds  the  maximum  attainable  
tem perature,  T
max
.  
I
1.3.2 Effects of radiant heating 
Radiant  heating  is  a  less  seriou s  source  of  concern  than  photochemical  action,  and  it  is  not  I 
uncommon  for  museums  to  disregard  it completely.  However,  it  does  cause  damage,  and  as  
museums  become  more  rigorous  in  the  control  of  photochemical  act ion,  so  radiant  heating  
eff ects  are  mor e  likely  to  become  the  predominant  cause  of  damage.  Museum  staff  may  not  
recognise this, as the visible effects are not readily distinguished from  photochemical  damage.  
Radiant  heating  has  the  effec t  of  rai sing  the  temperature  of  an  illuminated  surface,  
and  this  encourages  chemical  activity.  Al so,  in  a  changing  thermal  environment ,  materials  
undergo  corresponding  dimensional  changes  and  deformations.  Stresses  occur  where   I 
materi als  having  different  coeffici ent s  of  thermal  expansion  are  in  contact,  and  particul arly  
where  materials  having  high  coefficients  are  involved. Partial  shading  of  the  object may cause  
differential  heating  effects.  Variati on  of  relativ e  humidity  causes  mi grations  of  moisture   I 
between  hygroscopic objects  and  the surrounding atmosphere.  Preventive conservation seeks  
to mi nimis e these effec ts by mainta ining  air temperature and  humidity within  prescribed  limits.  
Lighting  adds  a  variable  effect,  as  some  proportion  of  the  inci dent  radiant  flux  is  I 
absorbed  by  the  objects  causing  a  radiant  heating  effect.  This  results  in  local  elevation  of  
surface  temperature  and  dehydration.  Daily  on/off  switching  of  lighting  causes  cyclic  surface  
expansions  and  contractions,  and  mi grations  of  moisture.  The  visible  effects  of  these  
processes  are  surface  hardening,  discolouration  and  cracking,  whi ch  may  be  difficult  to   I 
distinguish  from  the  eff ects  of  photochemical  action.  Damage is  parti cularly likely  in  materials 
that  are  hygroscopi c  (which  includes  virtually  all  organic  materials)  or  where  the  surface 
comprises  layers  of  dissimilar  materials,  such  as  varnish  over  pigment,  or  pigment  over  a  I 
substrat e. 
IR  radiant  flux  is  associat ed  with  incandescent  lamps ,  and  where  the  light  from  this 
type  of  source  is  focussed  onto  an  object  to  provid e  strong  visual  impact,  the  radiant  heating 
eff ect can  become a significant source of damage.  Museum staff tend  to  think of  incandescent  I 
lighting  as  being  relatively safe, as  its  UV content  is  lower than  for  most other types  of lighting. 
Procedures for  addressing the  issue  of radiant  heating  effect  are  described in  Section  3.2. 








8
CIE 157:2004
2. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND RECENT RESEARCH
2.1 Measurement of damage
Several research studies have exposed samples of typical museum material s to controlled
levels of radiat ion, and have sought to define relationships between light expos ure and
damage due to photochemical action. Generally these studies have ignored radi ant heating
effects. Whi le it is relatively straightforwa rd to measure exposure to the cau ses of
photochemical action (Secti on 1.2), damage is less easi ly quantified.
2. 1.1 The "Blue Wool" scale
For many materials, the most obvious effect of exposure is "on-line" fading , which is
characterised by loss of colour saturation and, particularly for dark er colours , lightening of
appearance. This has led some researchers to adopt the ISO rating system (ISO, 1995) as a
general classification syst em for museum materials . This system is based on the "blue wool"
scale of light-fa stness, whi ch comprises eight categories. ISO 1 is the most responsive to
light; ISO 2 is approximately half as responsive as ISO 1; and so on to ISO 8 which is the least
respons ive. A material is categorised by e posing it to a broad-spectrum light sour ce in a
cont rolled environment cabinet alongside a standard card that has eight dyed-wool samples.
Both the material and the sample card are partly covered, and visual comparisons are mad e
at intervals to match the rate of fading of the mat erial to one of the wool samples. In this way,
a materi al rated as ISO 3 is approximately half as responsive as a material rated ISO 2, and
twice as responsive as a mater ial rated ISO 4.
2.1.2 The CIELAB system
Not all materials demonstrate on-line fading under exposure. Some materials show yellowing,
some darken, and some change hue. Researchers need to be able to record chang es of
surface colour over time, and for this they need a precise system of colour measurement.
Curr ently, the most widely used system for exposure research is CIELAB (CIE, 1986). This
system defines a three-dimensional colour space within which the colour characteristics of a
sampl e materi al are specified in terms of a lightness dimension L*, and two chrom atic
dimens ions, a* and b* (Figur e 2.1). The L* dimension ranges from black to white. Positive
values of a* indicate redness, and negative values greenness. Positive values of b* indicate
yell owness, and negat ive values blueness. The value of this syst em as a research tool is that
it enabl es extents of colour diff erence to be measured and compared.
Suppose, for example, that a medium red coloured material has been exposed, and
the before and after exposure meas urements are being compared. The "befor e"
measurement for this material would have a moderate L* value ; a relatively high positive a*
value; and a low b* value that might be positive or negative. If the "after" measurement shows
a reduction of L*, this indicates a loss of lightness, or a darkening of the material. A reduction
of a* indicates a loss of redness, and if b* is proportionately reduced, there has been a loss of
chroma without a change of hue. The magnitude of any colour difference can be represented
by a vector, which is indicated by the symbol t:"E*ab , and takes account of the changes on all
three dimensions. The scales of the three dimensions have been so chosen that when the
col our difference is just discernabl e in a side-by-side comparison, t:"E*ab has a value of one . In
this condition the human eye is a very responsive discriminator, and it requires quite elaborate
equipment to reliably measure colour differences as small as one unit of t:"E*ab o
9
---
CIE 157:2004
6 L*
I
/
»:
/'  
I
Figure 2.1 Dist ance between two objects in CIELAB colour space.
I
Thethreerectangul arcoordinatesdefining anobjectinCIELABcolourspac eare:
I
L*, CIE 1976Lightness units;
a*,CIE 1976 Red-green units;
b*, CIE 1976Yellow-blue unit s.
I
Using the subscript 0  for the standard and 1  for the sample, the dist ance 62ab
betweenL*o a*ob*oand L*1 a*, b*1in rectangularcoordinates:
where: 6 L*=L*1- L*0
6a* =a*, - a*o
I
tsb" =tr ,- b*o
The CIELAB system has enabled resear chers to gath er precis e data on the
progressive nature of colour change due to light exposurefor manymaterials. The reciprocity
principl e(Equation 1.1)has beenconfirmed for museummaterials (Saunders and Kirby, 1996 ;
Ezrati, 1996) . Furth ermore, a scientifi c model for the visible effects of exposure has been I
proposed by a team of researchers working in Berlin, Germany (Kroc hmann,1988; CIE, 1991 ;
Hilbert etaI.,1991).
2.1.3 Threshol deffectiveradiantexposure
I
In the Ber lin model , the damage suffered by an exposed obj ect OM  is a f unction of the
effec tive radi ant exposure H
dm
:
I
I
OM =f(H
dm
)  (2.1) I
I
j
The Eff ectiv e lrradiance that causes the damage takes account of the spectrum of
incidentradiation and therel ativ espectral response ofthereceiving material:

I

2
E
dm
=J E
e
,? .  S(.-1.)dm.rel .d.-1. W1m  (2.2)
I
A
where
I
is spectralirradi ance W1m
2
is relative spectr al responsivity normal ised at300 nm,so thatS(JC)dm.rel=1,0 I
for /l. = 300  nm
I ·
iswavelength nm
10
i
. 1
i

I
----- - - - - ---
CIE  157:2004 
Note:   The  SI  unit  for  irradiance  is  W/m
2
,  irrespe ctive  of  spectral  power  distribution.  The 
suff ix  dm  indicates  that  effective  irradiance  is  evaluated  according  to  the  spectral 
responsivity of  the  receiving  material. 
The  Effective  Radiant  Exposure  is the  effective irradiance  over time : 

dm 
= JE
dm 
. dt W  h/m
2  
(2.3 )

where   t  is time  h 
The Threshold Effective Radiant Exposure H  s,dm  is  the  value  of  H
dm 
that  will  cause  a 
just noticeable colour  change,  that  is to say,  for  which  llE*ab =  1. 
Hs,dm  =E
dm 
. t
s
W  h/m
2  
(2.4)
wher e  t
s
is the critical  durati on of  exposure  in  h 
The  basis  of  the  Berlin  model  is  illustrated  in  Figure  2.2.  The  cause  of  damage  is 
effective  radiant  exposure,  shown  on  the  horizontal  scale,  and  the  effect  is  change  of  colour, 
shown  on the vertical  scale.  When  the  material  is first  exposed  the curve  is  steep and  the effect 
rapid, so that  it requires  only a relatively small  level of  H s,dm  to  cause  one  unit  of  t:£*ab to occur, 
but as damage  continues  the density of susceptible  molecules  reduces,  so  that  greater exposure 
is  required  to  produce  the  same  visible  effect.  Eventually  the  material  stabilises ,  and  no  more 
colour  change occurs  because  all of the colorant has faded . 
Colour difference IlPab
y  Y  pre-exposure 
(no  more colour change) 
Hs-dm 
X  pre-exposure 
-f--l..- - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - - - - - - ...L..------7X
Hs-dm 
Effective radiant exposure H
dm 
Figure 2.2 The  cause  of  damage  (eff ective  radiant  exposure,  H
dm 
)  and  the  effect  (colour 
change, llE*ab) according  to  the  Berlin  model. The  threshold  effective  radiant exposure  H
s
.
dm 
is 
the  exposure  that  causes  one  unit  of 1lE*ab for the  mater ial concerned , and  this increases as 
damage progr esses. 
11 



I

.' 
I     
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J'    
CIE  157:2004 
The  responsivity  of  an  object  is  defined  by  its  threshold  effective  radiant       I 
Hs, dm and  its  rel ative  spectral  responsivity  S(/I.)dm.rel '  The  general  form  of  the S(/I.)dm,rel  function 
. given  in Equatio n (1.6): 
S(/I.)dm,rel =  0(/1.)  . 1/ /1.·  f(/I.) 
whi ch  can  be simplified  to: 
S().,)dm,rel:=  0(/1.) . f'(/I. )
and  for  many  non-pigmented  materials  0(/1.)  is  nearly  const ant,  so  that  for  thes e  it  may  be I 
assumed  that  S(/I.)dm,rel  =  f '("l). The  Berlin  resea rchers  have  exposed  samples  represent ing 
vari ous  categories  of  museum  materials  to  a  xenon  source,  with  portions  of  each  sample 
being  shielded  from  selected  spectral  bands  by  a  series  of  sharp  cut-off  filters .  Data  from 
periodic  color imetric  measurements  have  indicated  that  S(/I.)dm,rel  may  be  represented  by  an I 
exponential functi on of the  form: 
S(/I.)dm, rel =  exp [-b(/I.- 300)] (2.5)
The  S(/I.)dm,rel function  defines  the  acti on  spectrum  for  each  category  of  materials,  and I 
is normalised at  300 nm  so  that  equati on  (2.5) ret urns  a value  of one for /I. = 300  nm. 
Table 2.1 Threshold  effective  radiant  expos ure  H s,dm and  b values  for  the  relative  spectra, 1 
responsivity function  [Equati on  (2.5)] for  five  categories  of  museum  materials. 
a  Low-grade  paper  5  0,038
b  Rag  paper  1200  0,012 5 
c  Oil  paints  on canvas  850  0,0115 
d  Textiles  290  0,0100 
e  Water colours  on  rag  paper  175  0,0115 
I
Hs,dm
Group Samples b
(W  h/m
2




I

The  sample  mat erials  have  been  classified  into  five  categories,  and  values  of  HS'dml 
and  b are  given  in Table  2.1. For  incident monochromatic radiation  of  300 nm  wavelength, the 
values  of  Hs,dmin  Table  2.1  indicate  the  exposures  required  to  cause  the  samples  to  undergo 
a just  discernable  colour  change.  It  should  be  noted,  therefore,  that  reducing  values  of  H
s
.
dm
indicate  incre asing  responsivity. For  other wavelengths,  the  required  exposures  correspond  tal
the  value  of  Hs,dm/S(/I.)dm.rel,  and  this  is  shown  on  a  logarithmi c  scale  in  Figure  2.3.  The 
combined  effects  of  Hs ,dm and  S(/I.) dm,rel are  clearly  evident.  It is  apparent  that  the  slopes  of  the 
curves  are  similar for  categories  b through  e,  while  category  a is distinctly different.  The  siopesl 
are  determined  by  the  value  of  b, and  may  be  more  conveniently  expressed  in  terms  of 
logarithmi c  units  of  Hs,drn  per  100  nm  (logHs,dm/100  nm). 
For  categories  b  through  e,  whi ch  covers  a  reasonably  representative  range  of 
museum  mat eri als,  the  typi cal  value  of  b is  0,0115  for  which  the  slope  of  Hs,drn  convenientl y 
turns  out  to  be  0, 50  logH
s
,dml100  nm.  In  everyday  language,  this  means  that  for  every 200  nm 
of  wavelength,  responsivity  changes  by  a  factor  of  ten .  It  may  be  noted  also  that  at  all 
wavel engths,  the  range  of  threshold  effective  exposure  for  these  materials  lie  within  onel
logarithmi c  unit ,  indicating  that  the  range  from  the  least  to  the  most  resp onsive  of  these 
material s  is  not  more than  a factor  of  ten. For  these  four  categories of  mu seum  mat eri al s,  this 
research  leads to a reasonably simple model of material type , exposure and  damage. 

I

  I
I I 
12 
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CIE 157:2 004
8
0
0-
5 ><
QJ
QJ
>
:;:;
4
CJ
QJ
:t:
QJ
3
"0
"0
..c:
en
2
QJ
...
..c:
.....
OJ
0
b
c
e
d
  a
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7
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6
en
a
300 400 500 600 700
Wavelength (nm)
Figure 2.3 The spectral distribution of the logarithm of threshold effective radiant exposure
10gHs,dm for five categories of museum materials:
a Low-grade paper b Rag paper c Oil paints on canvas d Textiles
e Watercolours on rag paper (Cuttle, 1996, after CIE 89/3-1991)
Category a, which comprised newsprint, is quite different from the other materials.
The slope is 1,65 logHs,dm/100 nm, and compared with the other categories, this material is
much more responsive to UV and much less responsive to visible radiation. The slope is fairly
close to that of Harrison's D(A.) , which was discussed in Section 1.2, and this finding vindicates
the refusal of the museum community to accept Harrison's D(A.) as being representative of
typical museum materials,
The aim of this continuing research is that wher e museum staff know the values of Hs,dm
and b for a material that is to be put on display, they will be able to make decisions on display
lighting with knowledge of the consequences of exposure. The appropriate critical duration of
exposure will become a matt er of policy, for which the question posed is: what is an acceptable
number of hours of display before the material will undergo a just perceptible change of colour?
This decision determines the permissible eff ective irradiance E
dm
of the display lighting, which
takes account of the illuminance, the spectral power distribution of incident radiat ion, and the
action spectrum , or spectral responsivity distribution, of the material.
There are some difficult issues still to be resolved, It has been explained that Hs,dm is not
constant, but increases as exposure causes the materi al to become less responsive. Also,
fading and other induced col our changes are visible evidence of changing spectral absorptance
of the mater ial, and this effect may become cr-itical in the case of pigments.
2.1.4 Responses of colorants to exposure
Laboratory stud ies of colorant fading have produced data that show close correl ations with
physical laws. Johnston-Feller (1968) has exposed carefully prepared samples of a colorant,
alizarin lake, combined with titanium dioxide and dispersed in a PVC vehicle, and her data
demonstrate that the rate of loss of colora nt was proportional to the logarithm of color ant
concentrat ion. This is in accor dance with the kinetic first order rate equation, which may be
expressed as:
13

CIE  157:2004 
(2.6) 
where : 
I
Co is initial  colorant concentration 
C

is colorant concentration after time t
k
1
is a constant 
In  refers to  logarithm  to the  base e 
This  expr ession  sugg ests  a  simple  model  for  duration  of  exposur e  and  loss  of 
colorant.  However,  researchers  concerned  with  mus eum  conservation  issues  generally  have l 
directed  their  efforts  towards  exposing  samples  of  mus eum  materials  and  assessing  damage 
by measuring  the  resulting  colour  changes. 
.  Saunders  and  Kirby  (1994)  have  examined  the        of various artists' l 
pigments.  They  exposed  samples  of  the  pigment s  to  radiant  fl ux  In  seven  70  nm  bandwidths 
at  50  nm  intervals  in  the  range  400 nm  to  700 nm,  and  measured  colour  shifts  in  terms  of 
ll E*ab to  give  detailed  data  for  wavel ength  effects  in  the  visible  spectrum.  Figure  2.4  is  a 
      of  their . data ,  which  shows  how  the  differing  spectral  sensitivities  of  the l 
pigments  relate  to  their  spectral  absorptance  values.  Also  shown  IS  the  Berlin  spectr al 
responsivity  function  (Equation  2.5)  for  b=0,011 5, in  this  case normalised  for  A =  400  nm,  and 
it  can  be  seen  that  the  individual  spectral  responsivity  curves  have  a  general  tendency  tal 
follow  this function  while  their  different spectr al  absorptance curves  impart variations  upon  the 
trend .  This  pattern  can  be  seen  to  be  in  accord  with  Equation  (1.6).  While  it  is  cl ear  that 
"typical "  spectral  responsivity  functions,  such  as  the  Berlin  function,  cannot  be  expected  to 
accurat ely represent the  spectral  sensitivities of  individual  pigments,  it  might be  supposedthat l 
they  coul d  represent  the  overall  responsivity  of  a  palette  of  pigments.  However,  this 
suppositi on  assumes  that  all  the  pigments  have  similar  overall  sensitivities.  For  example,  if 
ther e  is  one  highly  responsive  pigment  in  a  low  responsivity  multi-coloured  art -work,  then  tOI 
assess  the  effective  irradiance  on the  basis  of  a typical  spectral  responsivity function  could  be 
seri ously misleading . 
l-
B.-asilwood L a k e  (red) 
Weld  Lake (yellow ) 

1, j _' ...       1,0

\------ ..... 
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  \.... 

0'5  -l' "::::, ...
...;. ...
...... 
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I I 
400  500 600
700 400 500 600 700
Wavelength(nm) 
Wavelength (nm) 
L

Sap Green (g r ee n) 
Litmus  ( bl ue ) 
1,0
1,0

>,  j

Related Interests

. .
i
  i \  . 
  0,5 -1 \  ....  0,5  ..••./-- - - ..........  
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'§  I  \.  . • • •• .  <, 
§   "'_....-:-;-....... .'. <,
I  e- t  .. .  . <, "-
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1 ..... ---...., "'-

..... ........"::":  . 
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t , , 0 -r------ - j  I 
400    
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Related Interests

e1ength(nm)  Wavelength (nm)  I 
:I 
Figure  2.4  Spectr al absorptance  (solid  line)  and  relative  spectral responsi vity  (broken line)  for 
four  art ist's  pigments (Cuttle  and  Ne'eman,  1999,  after  Saunders  and  Ki rby,  1994). The  dotted 
lines  show  relative  spectral  sensitivities  normali sed  at  400  nm  based  on  the  Berlin  relativel 
I,
i I 
spectral responsivity funct ion,  Equation  (2.5). 
'.1 
14 
CIE 157:2004
It can be seen in Figur e 2.4 that spectral responsivity and spectral absorptance curves
do not show exact corr espondence, and this has been the subject of experi ments in severa l
countries. In Korea, Kim and Kim (2000) have irradiated samples of white and col oured paper,
and have reported finding "a close relationship between the spectr al damage fact or and the
spectral absorpta nce in the visible wavelength range" . However, resea rchers in Japan (Katano
et aI., 1999) have exposed samples of dyed fabrics to diff erent types of fluor escent lamps, and
found that in some cases the spectral absorptance of the sample did not provi de a reliabl e
indicati on of its relative spectral responsivity. A workable syst em for characterisi ng action
spectra for colorants, including pigments and dyes, rema ins an unattained goal.
While these activities indicate progr ess, to rely only on CIELAB measurements for
measures of the effects of radiati on exposure assumes that the effects are entir ely visibl e. At
least as important as fading is the loss of str ength caused by light exposur e, as evi denced by
the embrittlement of paper and the fraying of textil es. Although it will often happen that
noticeabl e fading will precede significant weakening of the material, it is not safe to assume
that ther e is correspondence between the two effects. For exampl e, a mat erial that
incorporat es a light-fast col orant may show little visibl e effect of light exposure while its
physical structure is undergoing serious damage. Although progress is being mad e towards
limiting rates of exposure based on the visi ble effect, mor e work is needed before this
approach can provide reli abl e guidance for practic e in museums.
2.2 Tuning the spectrum
2.2.1 Correlated colour temperature of lighting
While the variations of spectral responsivity for individu al materials, part icularly pigments,
rema ins problematic, the overall tendency for responsivity to increase at shorter wavelengths
is reasonably well defined. It has been shown that ther e is a general eff ect for the relat ive
dama ge potential to increase as colour temperature incr eases (Cutt le, 1988), and Tabl e 2.2
and Figure 2.5 show this relati onship for two types of broad-spectrum, UV-free light sources. It
can be seen that UV filtered illumination from a black-body source at a colour temperature of
6000 K has twi ce the damage potent ial of the light from a regular incand escent lamp
(CIE Standard Illuminant A). The 0 ser ies sources, which are standard daylight spectral
distr ibutions, show a similar effect as would any broad-spectrum light source, whether natural
or artificial. The practical implications are discussed in Section 3.2.
Table 2.2 Damage potential relative to CIE Standard IIluminant A (2856 K) accord ing to
Equation (2.5) where b=0,0115, for a Planckian (i.e. black-body) sour ce, and three 0 seri es
sources. In all cases, wavelengths shorter than 400 nm are excluded.
Colour temperature of
a Planckian source
Relative damage
potential
o series source
Relative damage
pot ential
2500 K 0,92 055 1,63
3000 K 1,04 0 65 1,87
3500 K 1,20 0 75 2,07
4000 K 1,37
4500 K 1,54
5000 K 1,71
5500 K 1,87
6000 K 2,01
6500 K 2, 15
7000 K 2,28
7500 K 2,40
15
,
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###BOT_TEXT###quot;
i
CIE 157:2004
2,5 'I
2,0 I
1,0
Plonckian source
+D65
 
I D75
0,5 -t---- -r------r- --- ,------,-- ------.
7
4 5 5
Colour temperature (kK)
Figure 2.5 Relat ive dama ge potential and colour temperature for a Planckian (i.e. black-body)
source and three 0 series sources, based on Equation (2.5) and exc luding wavelengths s horte -
than 400 nm.
2.2.2 Spectral power distribution of lighting
Museum staff tend to favour light sources having cont inuous spectral power distributions a
the correlated colour temperatur e together wit h the colour rendering index provide a'fai rly
rel iable indication of the colour charact eristi cs of the lighting. However, some nove'
approaches have been proposed for mod ifying the spectrum to redu ce the effects of ligt
exposure. .
Mill er (1993) has proposed a refl ected energy matching (REM) procedure by which
filt ers are inserted into a fi bre optic lighti ng system so that the spectrum of incident lig!
closely matches that of the reflec ted light. This reduces the amount of energy being abso rbe.,
by the obj ect and signi ficant reductions of fad ing are claimed . It should also be expected that
the procedure wou ld have the effect of increasi ng the appar ent colour satur ation of th
displayed material s. Whil e this may be found an attractive feature in some situations , it rais
questions conce rning the ethics of modifying the apparent colours of displayed objects.
Thornton (1975) has proposed an approach that purpo rts to maint ain, or eve
enhance, the colour rendering properties of the lighting while red ucing the irradiance . Hi
techni que is to use a "prime colou r" light source , which provides a spec trum that co mprises
three narrow bands of radia nt f lux that relate to the response peaks of the three typ es of
reti nal cones. Thi s approach is employed wide ly in tri-phosphor f luorescent lamps and color
television screens , but so far its application in museums has aroused little interest. Of th ,
available fl uorescent lamps, Thomson (1986) has stated "ther e will be certain museum
situations not demanding the best colour rendering where they wil l be the choice".
App licatio n of Thornton's proposal in an art gall ery situation has been the focus of _
recent resear ch st udy (Cuttle, 2000) in which subjects made comparative setti ngs of lighting
for a broad-band source (tungs ten halogen lamp) and a special tri -band light source i
simulated art gal lery settings. Th e subjec ts matched luminances for equal preference, and di
not show a preference for one source over the ot her. However, the irrad iance on the art works
for the tri-band source was less by 30 to 40%, depending on the cor related colour temperature
of the illuminat ion , and this suggests that there may be potentia l to signi ficant ly red uce th
damag e exposure of the displayed obj ects without reducino illuminance.
16
CI E 157:2004
Whil e researchers are able to demonstrate some conservation advantages by
depa rting from the continuous spect rum exemplified by the incandescent lamp, museum
curators need to.be caut ious about employing the proposed spect ra in situatio ns where colour
rendering is of prime importance. It woul d seem likely that new light sources will become
available with claims for reduced damage effect, and it will be up to curators to asses s their
visual effect and decide in what situations they might be acceptable. There clearly is potential
for reduced damage rates, but small differences of CIE colour render ing index R
a
should not
be relied upon to compare "good" colour rendering sources. The acceptability of "tuned
spectrum" light sources must ultimately be determined by critical viewi ng, and this could lead
to beneficial interacti on between the museum communi ty and scientific resear chers.
This review of recent research does not lead to a clear conclusi on, but rather it shows
the diversity of invest igations being pursued by researchers around the world. Some of this
work is aimed towards developing understandi ng of the conserva tion issues, and some to
developing a more scientific approach to museum lighti ng. Meanwhil e, it appears that the
techni ques that are currently empl oyed and the equipment that is availab le rely mor e on
progressi ve refinement than upon scientific breakthroughs.
17
,
!
;,
,
CI E 157:2004
3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LIGHTING IN MUSEUMS
3.1 Materials to be prot ect ed
The objects in a museum's collection can be class ified into two main conservation catego ries:
rnateriais of mi neral or inorganic origin (stone, met als and glass) , and organic mat erials, w hi ch
include materials of vegetable origin (paper, papyrus, wood, natural tex tiles, ma ny pigm ents
and dyes, etc.) and materials of animal origin (bone, ivory, ski ns, etc ., as well as scrne
pigments and dyes). In general, inorganic materials show little or no responsivity to light , V"Ihile
organic materials are moderately or highly responsive.
To classify materi als as inorganic or organic is fai rly straightforward, but the items of a
museum collecti on must also be classed according to their responsivi ties to ex posu re. The
recommended classification uses four categories.
3. 1. 1 Four categories of responsivity
The recommended categories of responsivity to expos ure are shown in Ta ble 3 .1 . Apart f rom
the irresponsive category, the materials described are mostl y natural materials and traditional
pigments. This tabl e is necessarily a simplification. As is explai ned in the foll owing subsecton,
pigment fading is a complicated topic and it takes skill to reliably identify a pigment. Synthetic
mat erials are generally more diffi cult to identify than natural materials.
Synthetic materials add another level of compl ication. Pol ymeric substances form the
basis of modern plastics, text iles, rubber, paints, varnishes, adhesives, pigments and dyes. In
their pure form the polymers are generally colourless and quite stabl e at room temp eratures,
but invariably they are combined with other subst ances to give them part icular propert ies .
Some plastics and synthetic rubbers appear to "swea t" when placed on displ ay, and th is is
because added plasticiser is leachi ng out of the mater ial . Added pigme nts may fade while the
base material is rel atively unaff ected . Some syntheti c materials become "chalky" when
exposed, and this is separ ation of fill er that has been added to the material. It might actually
be chalk.
Conservators have made substantial advances in identifying materi als through use of
non-destructive infra red spectroscopy, and wher e the re is doubt and the consequences of
error are serious, the advice of a professional conservator shou ld be sought. Even so, many
lighting decisions will be made wi thout this advanced technology being applied , and both
light ing desi gners and conservators will have to look elsewhere for guidance. Hebblethwaite
(1986) gives extensive information on artists' mater ials and their relative respons ivity to
exposu re.
Table 3. 1 Four category classi fication of materials according to responsivity to visibl e light.
Cat ego ry Description
1. Irr esponsive
The object is composed entirely of mat erials that are
permanent , in that they have no light responsivity. Exam pl es:
mos t met als, stone , mo st glass, genuine ceram ic, enamel,
most min erals .
-'
2. Low responsi v it y
Th e objec t incl udes durable mat eri als that are slightly lig ht
responsive. Exam ples: oil and temp era pai nti ng , fres co,
undyed leather and wood, horn, bone, ivory , lacquer, some
plastics.
3. Medi um responsivi ty
T he obj ect includes fu gitive materials that are moderately
light responsive. Exampl es: costumes, wat er colours,
past els, tapest ries, prints and drawin gs, man uscripts,
miniatures , paintings in distemper medi a, wallpaper , gouache ,
dye d leat her and mos t natural hist ory objects , incl udinq
botanical specimens, fur and feat hers .
4. Hi gh responsi v ity
T he obje ct
Exa m ples:
newspaper.
incl udes highl y li ght
silk, co lorants know n
re sponsive ma teri als .
to be highly fu git ive,
is
I
CIE 157:2004
3.1.2 Classifying pigments for responsivity
Pigments are a special concern for conservators because it often happens that the first visible
sign of damage due to exposure is the deterioration of pigments, and pigments vary widely in
responsivity to exposure. Identification of pigments requires the skills of a professional
conservator or museum scientist.
The ISO rating based on the "blue wool" scale has been described in Section 2.1.
Although this scale was devised for categorising materials such as clothing and furnishing
textiles, several researchers have used it for classifying the sensitivities of artists' pigments,
and based on these studies, the responsivity classifications in Table 3.1 may be related to ISO
ratings for pigments as shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Relationship of responsivity categories and blue wool categories.
Responsivity category ISO Rating
1. Irresponsive
2. Low responsivity
3. Medium responsivity
4. High responsivity
----
7&8
4,5 & 6
1,2 & 3
The skills of a professional conservator are needed to make the identification, and if
there is doubt, it is necessary to assume that the most responsive pigment likely to have been
used is present. Table 3.3 has been developed by Michalski (1987, 1997) and is
recommended for relating pigments to ISO ratings and estimates of probable fading.
Modern pigments offer artists a full palette of colours that has been developed to have
high resistance to the effects of light exposure, and pigments that are rated ASTM 04303
Category 1, or Winsor and Newton AA, are all in the irresponsive or low responsivity
categories of light-fastness. However, in the past, artists have used many pigments that are
much more responsive to light exposure, and Table 3.3 shows examples of these.
Furthermore, the light-fastness of a pigment may be substantially affected by how it is
applied by the artist. Indigo on wool is a low responsivity material (ISO 7), and there are many
examples in museums of woollen tapestries where indigo is the only pigment that is not
seriously faded. However, on paper, cotton or silk, indigo becomes a high responsivity
material (ISO 3) and must be treated with great care if its rich blue hue has not already been
faded.
The importance of relating illuminance to the light-fastness of the most susceptible
pigment present is indicated by the "Mix h for noticeable fade" data given in Table 3.3.
Consider the case of a medium responsivity material with an ISO rating of 5 on permanent
display (3000 hours per year), where the display illuminance is 50 lux and UV is eliminated.
The annual exposure is 3000 hours x 50 lux =150 kilolux hourslyear. The Table indicates that
noticeable fading is probable after 30 megalux hours of exposure, and this will occur after
300001150 = 200 years of display. Suppose now that a highly responsive material with an ISO
2 rating is placed in the same display situation. Probable fading will occur after 1 megalux
hour of exposure, and this will occur in 10001150 = 6,7 years. It is for this reason that the
"highly responsive" category has been included in Table 3.1, and it is recommended that
materials in this category are not placed on permanent display.
19
- - -
- - - - - - -
o
N
Table 3.3 The light  responsivity of pigments and  substrates.  o 

<J1
M dl  , it  L . .  f 
-..J
e  turn responstvi  y  ow responsivtty  Irresponsive 

A few historic plant extracts, particularly  Artists' palettes classified as "permanent"  Most but not all mineral pigments. 
o

alizarin (madder red) as a dye on wool  (a mix of truly permanent and low light  "  "  .  . 
.p.. 
or as a lake pigment in all media. 9  responsivity paints  e.g. ASTM D4303  The  true fresco  paletl.e, a coincidence 
.  a  .  .  '  With the need for stability In  alkati. 
The colour of most furs and feathers.  C  tegory I, Winsor and Newton AA) 
St  t  I  I  .  .  t  (if UV  The colours of true glass enamels, 
Most colour photographic prints with  bl ruced).  co ours In  msec s  I  ceramics (not to be confused with 
"chrome" In  the name.  ock  ).  enamel paints).  I 
A few historic plant extracts, especially  .  ' 
.  d'  I  Many monochrome Images on paper,  I 
In Igo on woo .  but the tint of the paper and added tint to i 
Silver/gelatin black and white prints, not  the carbon ink are often IJigl1 
RC paper, and only if all UV blocked.  responsi vity, and paper itself must be
Many high quality modern pigments  cautiously considered low responsivity.
developed for exterior use, automobiles.  Many high quality modern pigments 
developed for exterior use, automobiles. 
4  5 6  7  B  Over B 
3 5  B  20  50  120 

10  30  100  300  1100 
Lac dye on wool.  Alizarin  Cochineal  Alizarin  Cadmium red, orange,  Carbon, hence: true pencil, charcoal, 
S  d  (madder)  on silk.  (madder) lake  yellow (may belong in No  India Ink. (Not iron gall ink, not the yellow : 
eawee  on  I k  t'  t  . 't  b  t i  ffi  '  t l i  . )
wool.  a  e  m .  Foxglove  Madder on          y  u  msu  icren  In  sepia  .  , 
.  .  Alizarin  on wool.  wool.  ala).  Ochre. 
ling heather tips  (madder)  Vermilion  Some dyes  such as indigo 
on wool.  Chrome  .  '  Umber.  
.  on wool.  tanned  Chrome  and cochineal on cotton,  .  
Weld, tm mordant  I  th  II  Silk, and wool, move  Sienna,  
ea  er  ye ow. 
on wool.  .  .  '  several steps up, to 8 or  Indian red (iron oxide).  
Vegetable tanned  Colour photo pnnt 1.1 Indigo on  better, when one tests the  .  .  
I  th  silver-dye bleach  wool.  remnant of a partially faded  Black OXide of Iron.  
ea  er,            e.g.  Water lily  sample. This is NOT      of  Ultramarine.  
Cibachrorne.  roots (black)  all colours, and especially  
I  not true of those that start  Cobalt blue.  
On woo .  . 
In  the range Blue Wool  1,2.  Silver point. 
These fade uniformly fast.  I 
Ali lhe white pigments. 
Broad  category  of 
    ivltv t  llnht
reSfJOnSIVILY  0     
General isat i ons  
Blue Wool cat egories  
Mi x  h'  for noti ceabl e f ade"  
UV rich" 
Probabl eMl xh'for 
not i cea ble  tade"  if  no  uv' 

Sel ected  s pecific 
exa mples" 
H' h  . it
19 responstvi  y 
Most plant extracts, hence most historic bright 
dyes and lake pigments in all rnediaf  yellows, 
oranges, greens, purples, many reds, blues. 
Insect extracts, such as lac (yellow), cochineal 
lne) .  II  di  9
(
carmine  In a  me  ra,  . . 
Most  early synthetic colours such as the anilines, 
all media. 
Many cheap synthetic colorants in all medla.? 
M  t f It r  .  I d'  bl  k 
as  e  tp pens meu  Ing  ac  S. 
Most dyes used for tinting paper before zo"  
century.  
Most colour photographic prints with "colour" in  
the name. 

0  22 

0 3 

Turmeric. 
Saffron 

Sulphonated 
indigo. 
Many modern 
dyes for paper 

e.q. 
methyl violet, 
victoria blue, 
eosine (pink), 

0 6 


Carmine 
lake. 
Gamboge. 

Ouercitron lake. 
Madder on cation. 
Old f  t' 
us IC. 
.. 
Coornassie Violet 
on paper. 
Rhodamine on 
bi smarck brown.  paper 

A  h t  verage p  a o. 
colour pnnt. 

1 5 


Madder on 
silk. 
Cochineal 
on wool and 
cotton 

Weld  alum 
rd'  t 
mo  an on 
wool 

Indigo on 
paper, 
cotton and 
silk. 
Notes to Table 3.3:
a. Mix h is the exposure unit megalux hours =1000 kilolux hours
b. A noticeable fade is defined here as Grey Scale 4 (GS4), the step used in most lightfastness tests as noticeable . It is approximatel y equal to a colour
diff erence of 1,6 CIELAB units. There are approxi mately thirty such steps in the transition from a bright colour to white.
c. UV rich refers to a spectrum similar to daylight through glass. This is the spectrum generally used for the lightfastness data used to derive this table.
The exposures here are the best fit to data that vari es about ± one Blue Wool step.
d. Exposur es est imat ed for UV blocked light source are derived from a study on 400 dyes and the blue wool standards themselves. As such, it is only
probable, and probably only for organi c colorants. These estimates show minor benefit of UV filtration for high responsivity colorants, but large improvements
for low responsivity colorants. For conservative estimates, use the UV rich scal e.
e. The specific examples are near optimum tint strength unless noted otherwise ("standard depth" for dyes, peak chroma for pigmen ts). Heavier
concentrations of colorant can be less responsive by up to two Blue Wool steps. The exampl es are also for unfaded samples. Partly faded samples may or may
not show lower responsivity. Fading prediction is an imprecise science, so the broad categories of this table are most practical. Accurat e predict ions can only be
made directly on the artifact in question, or on samples known to be identical. Several researchers are developing microspot tests in Canada, the UK, and the USA.
f. "Irresponsive" to light does not mean guaranteed colour life. Many colorants in this group are responsive to pollution. Many organic media will chalk
or yellow or both if any UV is present.
g. The particular paint medium makes only small differences to fadi ng rate, it is the colorant that matters in fading, not whet her it is oil , or tempera, or
watercolour, or acrylic . Media does, however, make large differences to rate of discolourat ion from pollutants such as ozone and hydrogen sulph ide.
o
m
CJ1
-..J
N
o
o
N  
......
CIE 157:2004
It should not be supposed that because a material is classi fied as havin g low
responsivity, it does not need to be protected from UV exposure. Tabl e 3.3 shows that as th
ISO rating increases, there is increasing difference between the exposure for not iceabl
fading for "UV rich" and "no UV" lighti ng. This is because the more resi stant materi als tend t
be much more resistani to vi sible radiation but , at best , only slightly more resi st ant to UV. It
should be assumed that all organic mat erials ar e responsive to UV exposure, and even wherJ
the displayed obj ects are inorganic and irresponsive to UV, display supp ort materials are likel
to be affected by UV exposure. If it is deci ded that some areas of a muse um will not be U
prot ected, museu m staff must be alerted against placing responsive materials on display i
these areas. Because this can be restrict ive and diff icult to administer, it is reco mmended tha
UV is eliminated throughout museums.
l
3.2 Procedure to control damage to museum objects
Museum staff shoul d give careful consideration to developing a poli cy for conservation that is
appr opriate for the objects to be displayed. According to the scope of the coll ection, this mal
involve establishing more than one procedure to guide museum staff when designing an
commissioning new exhibitions and when maint aining displays. The foll owing procedure is a
outline that may be adapted to meet circumstances.
The extent to which control can be exer ci sed over environmental condi tions, i n l u    i n ~  
lighting, is likely to vary from room to room within a museum. The first stage of developing ~  
policy should be to classify zones within the museum according to their suitability for housing
objects that requir e strict environmental control. These cl assifications sho uld be tak en i   n t ~  
account when planning new exhibiti ons, with the aim of ensuring that the mo re responsiv.
obj ects are located where appropriate control can be exercised. In the cas e of lighting, it is
recommended that highly responsive objects should be grouped in locati ons wh ere low
ambient light levels can be maintained. Direct visual contact with area s that have significantl .
higher illuminances adversely affects visual adaptation, and should be avoi ded. While it is t ~  
be expected that exhibition designers will want to group obj ects according to their context in
the sequence of the exhibition, cons ervati on concerns should not be di sr egarded.
3.2. 1 To minimise exposure of museum objects
The aim is to achieve the designer' s objectives for effective display with min imu m exposure o.
the objects. The fi rst aspect to examine is the durati on of exposure, and switching control .
should be arrang ed so that the displ ay lighting is in use only when required (Ezrati, 1994).
There should be alternative lighting which does not direct light onto the objects available fOJ
cleaning, and if needed, for security. In some instances , it may be pract ical to employ moti o
detectors (Gint hner & Rummel , 1997), or viewer-operated time switches to restrict use a
lighting during the museum's opening hour s, or dynami c lighting which is cycled br ighter and
dimmer, so that the average must be used in calculating the expos ure. I
Once the necessary durati on of light exposure has been determined, the next step isll
to minimise irradi ance. To achieve thi s, start by ensuring that obj ects are prot ect ed from non-
visible radiant flux , both UV and IR. The role of UV in causing damage has been discussed i ~  
Sections 1.2 and 3.1. It is practi cal to virtual ly eliminate all radiant flux of wavelengths shorte.
than 400 nm, and generally, this is recommended.
UV blocking filters are available for every type of light source used f or museum.
lighting. Organic fil ters are avail able in various grades of clear acrylic sheet ; as plastic tubes t ~  
be placed over fl uorescent lamps; as plastic interlayers for laminated glas s; and as varni shes
for coating skylight and window glazing. It is generally recommended that the fil ter is appl ied tJ
the light sources and the window glazing, so that UV control is provided throu ghout the space,
although in some instances it will be appropriate to use clear sheet UV-blocking materials fo
pictur e glazing or display cabinets. Mineral filt ers , in the form of dichroic coa ti ngs on hard
glass , can wi thstand high temperat ures and are preferred for use with spotlights , although
acryl ic plastic may be a more economical altern ative despite needing regular rep lacement in
this application.
Recently some lamp s with quart z envelopes (halogen and metal halide) have beera
marketed with "UV STOP" or "UV BLOCK" labels . Exami nation of the spectral emiss ions otl
these lamps has shown that UV output is significa ntly reduced compared with conventional
22
I
i
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---- ---- ----- --- - - - --
CIE 157:2004
lamps, but that it ;s not reduced to the level recommended in this document. One difficulty is
that the lighti ng industry considers that the visible spectrum extends to 380 nm, and that "Uv"
applies only to wavelengths shorter than this value, whereas the museum community insi sts
that the UV spectrum extends up to 400 nm. A lamp that is claimed to "eliminate 99% of UV"
may have significant emission in the 380 nm - 400 nm waveband. The performance of these
lamps may improve, but at the time of writing they do not provide the recommended level of
UV control, and UV blocking filters should be applied. Nonetheless, a general policy of using
these lamps may be advantageous . Should a UV-blocking filter deteriorate or be accid entally
omitted, less damage will result if this type of lamp in use. Their use in non-gallery areas will
lower overall UV levels, and if a light-respons ive material is mist akenly located in one of these
areas, again, damage will be reduced .
Some fibre optics systems claim to achieve elimination of UV. Conservators should
require that manufacturers provide evidence of such claims. Both glass and plastic fibres
eliminate short wavelength UV «315 nm), but do not necessarily eliminate UV in the 315 nm-
400 nm waveband . Some systems using plast ic fibres incorporate UV blocking filt ers to
protect the fibres from degradat ion, but it is up to the conservator to ensure that level of UV
control meets the recommended standard. Many fibre opti c illuminators use met al halide
lamps, and these are powerful sourc es of UV.
If it is decided to use a halogen lamp without a glass UV filter, it is recommended that
a cover glass is used. Some halogen refl ector lamps have an integral glass cover, but
otherwise a separate cover glass must be instal led. This has two useful effec ts. It blocks short
wavelength UV, which although produced in very small quantities by the halogen source, is
freely transmitted through the quartz lamp envelope and has high damage potentia l. Also, it
can happen (rarely, fortunately) that halogen lamps shatter. As they operate at high internal
pressure, the reSUlting shower of hot particles is another potential conservation hazard, as
well as a safety hazard for staff and visitors. Although some manufacturers claim that their
lamps do not require cover glasses , it is a prudent pol icy to use them for all halogen lamps.
Accurate measurement of UV is a notori ously diffic ult technical probl em. Although
portabl e UV meters are available, there is no singl e type of detector that responds to the ent ire
range of the UV spectrum, and even within its stated wavelength range , the response of a
portable meter is likely to depart significantly from linearity. As has been explained in Section
2.1, the spectra l sensitivities of museum materials are distinctly non-li near, so that no
correspondence can be expected between a UV detector response and the probable
photochemical respons e of a museum obj ect.
This document recommends UV elimination, and so the need is for reliabl e detection
of UV rather than accurate measurement. UV levels of less than 10 llW11 m are diff icult to
detect, and so this may be taken as the practical limit for control. Wh ere radiation has passed
through glass (not quartz) it is saf e to assume that all wavelengths shorte r than 315 nm have
been blocked, and the need is for a UV responsive instrument that can be reli ed upon to
detect even low levels of radiation throughout the UV-A spectral region, this being the range
315 nm - 400 nm.
It is recommended that wherever conservation is a concern, every source of light
should be equipped with an appropriate UV filter. The conservator should check the
eff ect iveness of these filters, whi ch involves not only checking new installations, but also
making periodi c checks that filters are in place and that their performances have not
deteriorated, as loss of performance as a consequence of ageing has been recorded (Ezr ati,
1987). Treatments on glazing that is exposed to sunlight are particul arly suscepti ble, and the
condition of these and other types of filter can be checked with a UV-A meter and a UV-
blocki ng filter of known performance. Meas urement s are taken with and without the filter in
question, and compared with "with" and "wi thout " measurements for the known filter. It may be
noted that it is not uncommon to find that portable UV meters have some response in the
visibl e spectrum (i.e. wavelengths longer than 400 nm).
It is recognised that many mus eums show little concern for controlling IR exposure,
and it is acknowledged that the radiant heat ing is generally a less serious source of dam age
than photoch emical action . Even so, the cycl ic eff ects of IR exposure are detrimental (Section
1.3) and are not easily distingui shed from the effects of photochemical action, so that museum
staff should be aware that this is a potent ial source of damage. Furt hermore , the main source
of conc ern is incande scent lamps, which are oft en thought of as being the saf e choice for
23

CIE  157:2004

museum  lighting.  Significant  radiant  heating  may  occur where  these  lamps  are  mounted  close 
to  museum  objects,  as  in  display  cabinets ,  or  where  a  spotlight  luminaire  con centrates  both 
visible  light  and  IR  onto  an  object.  Lamps  with  dichroic  reflectors  reduce  the  problem  byl 
allowing  more  than  50% of  the  IR  to  pass  through  the  reflector  so  that  it  is  not  reflected  into 
the  beam,  and  "hard"  dichroic  reflectors  should  be  specified  as  they  reta in  their  performance 
better  than  the  older  type  of  soft-coated  dichro ic  lamps .  If  "hard"  dichroic  reflector  lamps  of 
suitable  performance  are  not  ava lable,  glass  IR  filters  are  generally  recommended  for 
spotlighting  organic material s. 
Total  elimination  of  IR  is  not  practical,  and  dir ect  measurement  is  difficult.  It  is 
possible  to obt ain  a  measure  of  relative  radiant  heating  effect by  placing  sma ll  black  and  white 
metal  plates  at  the  display  location  for  a  short  time  and  measuring  their  temperatures  with  an 
infrared  thermometer.  The  temperature of the white  metal  plate  will  be  close  to  the  ambient air 
temperature  Ts. and  the  extent  to whi ch  the  temp erature  of the  black  plate  exceeds  this  value 
gives  an  indication  of  the  extent  to  whi ch  T
max
could  exceed  T
a
for  a  material  of  high 
absorptance  (Equation  1.7).  Alt ernat ively,  a  simple  test  is  to  place  one's  hand  between  the 
spotlight  and  the  obj ect  and  to  sense  the  heating  effect  on  the  skin.  Section  1.3 discusses 
materials  that  are most likely to  be affected  by cyclic radiant  heatin g,  and  museum staff should 
be aware  that there  are  means  of controll ing  IR exposure. 
3.2.2 Use of electronic flash
Many  museum  visitor s  like  to  record  their visits  by  taking  their  own  photographs,  and  most  of 
them use cameras that have  built-in flash devices that fire automatically in indoor lighting. This 
preferen ce of visitors  has to  be weighed  against  possible  damage to  museum objects. 
To  expose  phot ographic  film  of  ISO  100 rating  with  a  lens  aperture  of  f/8 , an 
electronic  flash  produc es  an  exposure  of  approximately  600 Ix s  (lux  seconds)  on  the  object 
being  photographed  (Saund ers,  1995). Thi s  energy  arrives  at  the  object  within  a  very  short 
period,  typically  in  the  order  of  0,001 s,  and  this  has  given  rise  to  concern  for  biphotoni c 
j ' 
processes,  which  occur  when  two  photons  arrive  at  the  same  molecule  in  such  rapi d 
succession  that  their  effect  is  combined.  The  possibility  of  such  two-photon  processes  being 
caused  by  photographi c flash  exposure  has  been  examined  by Schaeffer  (2001) and  found  to 
be very  unlikely.  Accordingly,  it  may  be  assumed  that  reciprocity  applies,  so  that  an  exposure 
of  600 Ix s is equivalent to 0,17 Ix  h. 
The  limiting  annual  exposure  for  a  medium  responsivity  object  is  150000 Ix  hly
(Tabl e 3.4) . and  one  flash  represents  approximately one  millionth  of  this  value.  It  can  be  seen 
that  a  ' .dle  electronic  flash  subjects  the  receiving  object  to  only  a  very  small  degree  of  0-
exposure, but  the  effect of  multi ple exposures  is  cumulative. For  a  medium responsivity object 
that  is  on  display for  3000 hly, the limiting  exposure  equals  300 fl ashes  per hour.  This  means 
that  if  the  display  lighting  is  already  subjecting  the  object  to  the  limiting  exposure,  just  30
flashes  per  hour  would  cause  the  total  exposure  of  the  object  to  exceed  the  limiting  level  by 
ten percent. 
High  responsivity  obj ects  should  not  be  exposed  to  more  than  15000 Ix  h/y . If  this  is 
achi eved  by  illuminating  to  30 Ix  for  500 hly, it  would  take  only  18 flashes  per  hour,  or  one 
flash  every  three  and  a  half  minutes,  to  cause  the  limit ing  exposure  to  be  exceeded  by  ten 
percent.  It would  seem very  likel y that this  flash  rate  would  be  exceeded  for popular exhibits  in 
public  museums. 
It  is  clear  that  a  museum's  effort s  to  control  the  light  exposure  of exhibits  risk  being. 
jeopardi sed  if  there  is  no  restri ction  on  the  use  of  photographic  flash.  While  this     
concerns  popular  exhibits  in  the  medium  or  high  responsivity  cat egories,  it  may  not  be 
practical  to  restri ct  flash  use  to  certain  objects  or  locations.  In  these  situations  it  is
J
I, 
recomm ended  that flash  use  not  be permitted  in  museums.  It may be  noted  that  other reason s 

i  
are  often  cited  for  enforcing  a  flash  ban. Flash  use  can  be  disturbing  to  other viewers,  and  in 
any  case,  for  obj ect s  that  are  displ ayed  behind  gl ass,  an  image  taken  wi th  a  built -in  flash  is 
likely  to be unsatisfactory due to  the reflected  image  of  the  flash. 
These  comments  refer  onl y  to  use  of  flash  by  museum  visitors.  Conservators  oft en 
recommend  use  of  flash  for  pr ofes sional  photography  of  museum  objects,  as  the  object  can 
be  set  up  under  normal  room  lighting  and  subjected  to  the  photographic  lighting  for  only  ve1 
short  durat ion  (Schaeffer, 2001 ; Sancho-Ar royo  and  Rioux , 1996).
I
24
CIE 157:2004
3.2.3 Exposure rate
Now the designer or conservator can turn their attention to the central issue: how to achieve
the display objectives with the minimum of radiant flux incident on the objects . By this stage of
the procedure, the necessary duration of exposure has been determined, and steps will have
been taken to eliminate UV and, if necessary, to control IR. The remaining decisions that
affect conservation concern display illuminances and the spectral distribution of the lighting.
It is common practice for museum lighting designers to select continuous spectrum
light sources of high colour rendering index, and to choose the correlated colour temperature
to suit the overall appearance of the display and its setting. The use of discontinuous
spectrum sources is discussed in Section 2.2. While colour rendering is an important design
decision, it does not affect conservation considerations. Generally CIE Colour Rendering
Group 1A will be specified (CIE, 1995), but if Group 'I B is specified for some locat ions, this
does not affect the exposure rate.
The effect of increasing damage potential with increasing correlated colour
temperature of lighting is shown in Figure 2.5, and this effect can lead museum staff to
discriminate against daylight and to justify general use of low colour temperature light sources as
the preferred choice for conservation. Such lighting can be very effective for some types of
display, notably rare books and old manuscripts where some yellowness of appearance is not
objectionable. However, a higher colour temperature must be provided where a whiter colour
appearance is required. It is recommended that decisions on the colour temperature of lighting
should be made with concern for the visible characteristics of the objects on display and the
setting in which they will be seen. Where the viewing conditions call for moderate or high colour
temperature lighting, conservation concerns should not override design objectives for the display.
If necessary, the duration of exposure should be restricted rather than the visual qualities of the
display be compromised. It should be borne in mind that low colour temperature artificial lighting
is likely to be judged unsatisfactory where it is seen in combination with daylight. This occurs
because the eye is adapted to the higher colour temperature of daylight. For an observer who
is fully adapted to the low colour temperature artificial lighting, the appearance may be quite
satisfactory.
The accepted practical measure of exposure rate is illuminance. Museum staff must
never overlook that lux readings can grossly understate the exposure rate where UV control is
lacking or ineffective. Also it can be seen from Figure 2.5 that even where UV is eliminated,
illuminance cannot be an entirely reliable indic ator of exposure rate.
The data in Table 3.4 take account of the recommendations of various authorities
(AFE, 1997; CIBSE, 1994; IESNA, 1996) and provide initial guidance on exposure rates .
Consider the limiting illuminances. There is no reason to restrict the exposure of irresponsive
materials on account of conservation concerns, but in practice illuminances have to be
considered in the context of exhibitions that include responsive objects. With proper control of
the surrounding environment, 200 Ix is generally sufficient to provide for adequate visibility and
for object appearances that will satisfy exhibition design objectives (Loe et al ., 1982), and it is
recommended generally that object illuminances should not exceed this value. In cases where
illuminances below 200 Ix are required, visibility of the exhibit can be enhanced by lighting the
background to a lower level. This has the effect of reducing visual adaptation and making the
exhibit the brightest part of the field of view. It has been suggested that a ratio of 3:1 for object
illuminance to background illuminance be used (Loe et aI., 1982).
Medium responsivity materials require more care . Sometimes satisfactory viewing can
be achieved with less than 50 lx, particularly if the object is light in colour and does not contain
fine detail, and advantage should be taken of these situations. However, for some objects,
particularly those that are dark in colour, it may not be possible to achieve a satisfactory
appearance at 50 Ix. Even so, the limiting illuminance should never be quoted as the
justification for unsatisfactory display. It is thoroughly bad policy to place an object on display,
where it inevitably will suffer some damage, and to fail to present it adequately. Where an
illuminance greater than 50 Ix is found to be necessary to provide for a satisfactory
appearance of an object that is composed, even in part , of a light-responsive material , the
duration of display should be restricted to comply with the limiting exposure value. It is
recommended that materials classified as having high responsivity are not placed on
permanent display .
25
CIE 157:2004 
It  is  easier  to  achieve  cont rol  over  liqhtinq  where  dayl ight  is  eliminated.   
there  are  some  museum  objects,  particularly  art  objects,  for  which  the  pre sence  of  daYligi 
forms  part  of  the  tot al  experien ce.  This  consideration  has  led  to  so me  elaborate  an 
technica lly  sophist icated  install ations  that  automatically  respond  to  dayli ght  vari ati ons.  Ther 
have  been report s of severe  operational probl ems  associated  with  such  installations  (Cannon-
Brookes , 2000),  and  some  desi gners  have  recently  advocated  hybri d  strategies  that  combi n. 
passive  control elements with  active  devi ces (Sedgwick  and  Shaw, 2000) .  For  damage     
procedures  to  be  eff ective,  it  is  necessary  not  only  that  they  are  based  on  sound  sci entifi c 
principles, but  also that  their  operation and  maintenance is  withi n the  technic al compet ence   
the museum staf f.  • 
Table  3.4  Limiting  illumi nance  (lux)  and  limiting  annual  exposure  (lux  hours  per  year)  f 
material responsivity cl assi fications. 
I  
II  
Material classificati on  Limiting  illuminance 
(IX) 
Limi ting  exposure 
(Ix  h/y) 
1. Irresponsive 
2. Low responsivity 
3. Medium  respo nsivity 
no  lim it 
200 
50 
no  lim it 
6000 00 
150000 
4.  High responsivity  50  15000 
   
3.2.4 Outline of procedure
It is  the  intenti on  of  this  document that  the conservator  and  the  exhi biti on  designer should  us 
Table  3.4  as  a  guide  for  ensuring  that  all  of  their  conc erns  are  taken  into  account.  Finall  , 
Table  3.5  gives  the  outline  for  a  practical  procedure  for  control  of  museum  lighting.  Mus eui 
staff  may  use  thi s  as  a  gUideline  for  establishing  working  procedures  and  ensuring  th 
responsibiliti es  are  appropriately al located.  In parti cular,  the procedures  to  occur during  the  Iif 
of the display will  be very  much dependant  upon  the  natur e of the museum obj ects, the  type  of 
lighting  being  used,  and  whether  the  life  of  a  di splay  is  measured  in  weeks  or  years. 
museu:  .s  are  encouraged  to  check  their  procedures  against  this  outline,  and  to  asses 
whe

.er they are taking  adequate steps  to  avoid  unnecessary damage to  their collection. 
26 

CIE 157:2004
Table 3.5 A practical procedure for control of museum lighting.
Wh en setting up lighting for a new displ ay:
(a) Classify all exhibits according to the four-categ ory scale given in Table 3.1 .
(b) Install UV filters on all light sources, including windows and skylights, and check
each source with a UV meter to ensur e that UV is below the detecti on thresh old
(UV <10 f,1W/lm).
(c) Focus the lighting, and visual ly assess the eff ect of reducing display illumination
with the aim of ensuring that illuminances are no greater than is necessary to
sat isfy display objectives. Check Illuminance values. The limiting illumi nance is the
max imum illuminance at any point on the exhibit' s surface .
(d) Check the radiant heating effect for each object, particularly where incandes cent
filam ent spotlighting is in use. If radiant heating effect seems to be significant ,
consider use of dichroic reflector lamps or IR filters .
(e) Check controls and procedures for restricting the durati on of display lighting .
Estimate annual hours of exposure.
(f) Measure and record illuminances for each object or group of objects. Calcu late
annual exposures and plan for the duration of display to be restr icted as
necessary, both for the exhibition and for individual objects at risk .
During the life of the display:
(g) Periodically check the light ing with a UV meter, and replac e filters where
necessary.
(h) Periodically check radiant heating effect and redu ce IR if necessary .
(i) Periodically check illuminances, and adjust if necessary.
U) Check that procedures for restricting the duration of displ ay are operating
satisfactorily, both for the exhibiti on and for individu al obj ects at risk.
27

Related Interests


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e1ength(nm)  Wavelength (nm)  I 
:I 
Figure  2.4  Spectr al absorptance  (solid  line)  and  relative  spectral responsi vity  (broken line)  for 
four  art ist's  pigments (Cuttle  and  Ne'eman,  1999,  after  Saunders  and  Ki rby,  1994). The  dotted 
lines  show  relative  spectral  sensitivities  normali sed  at  400  nm  based  on  the  Berlin  relativel 
I,
i I 
spectral responsivity funct ion,  Equation  (2.5). 
'.1 
14 
CIE 157:2004
It can be seen in Figur e 2.4 that spectral responsivity and spectral absorptance curves
do not show exact corr espondence, and this has been the subject of experi ments in severa l
countries. In Korea, Kim and Kim (2000) have irradiated samples of white and col oured paper,
and have reported finding "a close relationship between the spectr al damage fact or and the
spectral absorpta nce in the visible wavelength range" . However, resea rchers in Japan (Katano
et aI., 1999) have exposed samples of dyed fabrics to diff erent types of fluor escent lamps, and
found that in some cases the spectral absorptance of the sample did not provi de a reliabl e
indicati on of its relative spectral responsivity. A workable syst em for characterisi ng action
spectra for colorants, including pigments and dyes, rema ins an unattained goal.
While these activities indicate progr ess, to rely only on CIELAB measurements for
measures of the effects of radiati on exposure assumes that the effects are entir ely visibl e. At
least as important as fading is the loss of str ength caused by light exposur e, as evi denced by
the embrittlement of paper and the fraying of textil es. Although it will often happen that
noticeabl e fading will precede significant weakening of the material, it is not safe to assume
that ther e is correspondence between the two effects. For exampl e, a mat erial that
incorporat es a light-fast col orant may show little visibl e effect of light exposure while its
physical structure is undergoing serious damage. Although progress is being mad e towards
limiting rates of exposure based on the visi ble effect, mor e work is needed before this
approach can provide reli abl e guidance for practic e in museums.
2.2 Tuning the spectrum
2.2.1 Correlated colour temperature of lighting
While the variations of spectral responsivity for individu al materials, part icularly pigments,
rema ins problematic, the overall tendency for responsivity to increase at shorter wavelengths
is reasonably well defined. It has been shown that ther e is a general eff ect for the relat ive
dama ge potential to increase as colour temperature incr eases (Cutt le, 1988), and Tabl e 2.2
and Figure 2.5 show this relati onship for two types of broad-spectrum, UV-free light sources. It
can be seen that UV filtered illumination from a black-body source at a colour temperature of
6000 K has twi ce the damage potent ial of the light from a regular incand escent lamp
(CIE Standard Illuminant A). The 0 ser ies sources, which are standard daylight spectral
distr ibutions, show a similar effect as would any broad-spectrum light source, whether natural
or artificial. The practical implications are discussed in Section 3.2.
Table 2.2 Damage potential relative to CIE Standard IIluminant A (2856 K) accord ing to
Equation (2.5) where b=0,0115, for a Planckian (i.e. black-body) sour ce, and three 0 seri es
sources. In all cases, wavelengths shorter than 400 nm are excluded.
Colour temperature of
a Planckian source
Relative damage
potential
o series source
Relative damage
pot ential
2500 K 0,92 055 1,63
3000 K 1,04 0 65 1,87
3500 K 1,20 0 75 2,07
4000 K 1,37
4500 K 1,54
5000 K 1,71
5500 K 1,87
6000 K 2,01
6500 K 2, 15
7000 K 2,28
7500 K 2,40
15
,
r
###BOT_TEXT###quot;
i
CIE 157:2004
2,5 'I
2,0 I
1,0
Plonckian source
+D65
 
I D75
0,5 -t---- -r------r- --- ,------,-- ------.
7
4 5 5
Colour temperature (kK)
Figure 2.5 Relat ive dama ge potential and colour temperature for a Planckian (i.e. black-body)
source and three 0 series sources, based on Equation (2.5) and exc luding wavelengths s horte -
than 400 nm.
2.2.2 Spectral power distribution of lighting
Museum staff tend to favour light sources having cont inuous spectral power distributions a
the correlated colour temperatur e together wit h the colour rendering index provide a'fai rly
rel iable indication of the colour charact eristi cs of the lighting. However, some nove'
approaches have been proposed for mod ifying the spectrum to redu ce the effects of ligt
exposure. .
Mill er (1993) has proposed a refl ected energy matching (REM) procedure by which
filt ers are inserted into a fi bre optic lighti ng system so that the spectrum of incident lig!
closely matches that of the reflec ted light. This reduces the amount of energy being abso rbe.,
by the obj ect and signi ficant reductions of fad ing are claimed . It should also be expected that
the procedure wou ld have the effect of increasi ng the appar ent colour satur ation of th
displayed material s. Whil e this may be found an attractive feature in some situations , it rais
questions conce rning the ethics of modifying the apparent colours of displayed objects.
Thornton (1975) has proposed an approach that purpo rts to maint ain, or eve
enhance, the colour rendering properties of the lighting while red ucing the irradiance . Hi
techni que is to use a "prime colou r" light source , which provides a spec trum that co mprises
three narrow bands of radia nt f lux that relate to the response peaks of the three typ es of
reti nal cones. Thi s approach is employed wide ly in tri-phosphor f luorescent lamps and color
television screens , but so far its application in museums has aroused little interest. Of th ,
available fl uorescent lamps, Thomson (1986) has stated "ther e will be certain museum
situations not demanding the best colour rendering where they wil l be the choice".
App licatio n of Thornton's proposal in an art gall ery situation has been the focus of _
recent resear ch st udy (Cuttle, 2000) in which subjects made comparative setti ngs of lighting
for a broad-band source (tungs ten halogen lamp) and a special tri -band light source i
simulated art gal lery settings. Th e subjec ts matched luminances for equal preference, and di
not show a preference for one source over the ot her. However, the irrad iance on the art works
for the tri-band source was less by 30 to 40%, depending on the cor related colour temperature
of the illuminat ion , and this suggests that there may be potentia l to signi ficant ly red uce th
damag e exposure of the displayed obj ects without reducino illuminance.
16
CI E 157:2004
Whil e researchers are able to demonstrate some conservation advantages by
depa rting from the continuous spect rum exemplified by the incandescent lamp, museum
curators need to.be caut ious about employing the proposed spect ra in situatio ns where colour
rendering is of prime importance. It woul d seem likely that new light sources will become
available with claims for reduced damage effect, and it will be up to curators to asses s their
visual effect and decide in what situations they might be acceptable. There clearly is potential
for reduced damage rates, but small differences of CIE colour render ing index R
a
should not
be relied upon to compare "good" colour rendering sources. The acceptability of "tuned
spectrum" light sources must ultimately be determined by critical viewi ng, and this could lead
to beneficial interacti on between the museum communi ty and scientific resear chers.
This review of recent research does not lead to a clear conclusi on, but rather it shows
the diversity of invest igations being pursued by researchers around the world. Some of this
work is aimed towards developing understandi ng of the conserva tion issues, and some to
developing a more scientific approach to museum lighti ng. Meanwhil e, it appears that the
techni ques that are currently empl oyed and the equipment that is availab le rely mor e on
progressi ve refinement than upon scientific breakthroughs.
17
,
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;,
,
CI E 157:2004
3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LIGHTING IN MUSEUMS
3.1 Materials to be prot ect ed
The objects in a museum's collection can be class ified into two main conservation catego ries:
rnateriais of mi neral or inorganic origin (stone, met als and glass) , and organic mat erials, w hi ch
include materials of vegetable origin (paper, papyrus, wood, natural tex tiles, ma ny pigm ents
and dyes, etc.) and materials of animal origin (bone, ivory, ski ns, etc ., as well as scrne
pigments and dyes). In general, inorganic materials show little or no responsivity to light , V"Ihile
organic materials are moderately or highly responsive.
To classify materi als as inorganic or organic is fai rly straightforward, but the items of a
museum collecti on must also be classed according to their responsivi ties to ex posu re. The
recommended classification uses four categories.
3. 1. 1 Four categories of responsivity
The recommended categories of responsivity to expos ure are shown in Ta ble 3 .1 . Apart f rom
the irresponsive category, the materials described are mostl y natural materials and traditional
pigments. This tabl e is necessarily a simplification. As is explai ned in the foll owing subsecton,
pigment fading is a complicated topic and it takes skill to reliably identify a pigment. Synthetic
mat erials are generally more diffi cult to identify than natural materials.
Synthetic materials add another level of compl ication. Pol ymeric substances form the
basis of modern plastics, text iles, rubber, paints, varnishes, adhesives, pigments and dyes. In
their pure form the polymers are generally colourless and quite stabl e at room temp eratures,
but invariably they are combined with other subst ances to give them part icular propert ies .
Some plastics and synthetic rubbers appear to "swea t" when placed on displ ay, and th is is
because added plasticiser is leachi ng out of the mater ial . Added pigme nts may fade while the
base material is rel atively unaff ected . Some syntheti c materials become "chalky" when
exposed, and this is separ ation of fill er that has been added to the material. It might actually
be chalk.
Conservators have made substantial advances in identifying materi als through use of
non-destructive infra red spectroscopy, and wher e the re is doubt and the consequences of
error are serious, the advice of a professional conservator shou ld be sought. Even so, many
lighting decisions will be made wi thout this advanced technology being applied , and both
light ing desi gners and conservators will have to look elsewhere for guidance. Hebblethwaite
(1986) gives extensive information on artists' mater ials and their relative respons ivity to
exposu re.
Table 3. 1 Four category classi fication of materials according to responsivity to visibl e light.
Cat ego ry Description
1. Irr esponsive
The object is composed entirely of mat erials that are
permanent , in that they have no light responsivity. Exam pl es:
mos t met als, stone , mo st glass, genuine ceram ic, enamel,
most min erals .
-'
2. Low responsi v it y
Th e objec t incl udes durable mat eri als that are slightly lig ht
responsive. Exam ples: oil and temp era pai nti ng , fres co,
undyed leather and wood, horn, bone, ivory , lacquer, some
plastics.
3. Medi um responsivi ty
T he obj ect includes fu gitive materials that are moderately
light responsive. Exampl es: costumes, wat er colours,
past els, tapest ries, prints and drawin gs, man uscripts,
miniatures , paintings in distemper medi a, wallpaper , gouache ,
dye d leat her and mos t natural hist ory objects , incl udinq
botanical specimens, fur and feat hers .
4. Hi gh responsi v ity
T he obje ct
Exa m ples:
newspaper.
incl udes highl y li ght
silk, co lorants know n
re sponsive ma teri als .
to be highly fu git ive,
is
I
CIE 157:2004
3.1.2 Classifying pigments for responsivity
Pigments are a special concern for conservators because it often happens that the first visible
sign of damage due to exposure is the deterioration of pigments, and pigments vary widely in
responsivity to exposure. Identification of pigments requires the skills of a professional
conservator or museum scientist.
The ISO rating based on the "blue wool" scale has been described in Section 2.1.
Although this scale was devised for categorising materials such as clothing and furnishing
textiles, several researchers have used it for classifying the sensitivities of artists' pigments,
and based on these studies, the responsivity classifications in Table 3.1 may be related to ISO
ratings for pigments as shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Relationship of responsivity categories and blue wool categories.
Responsivity category ISO Rating
1. Irresponsive
2. Low responsivity
3. Medium responsivity
4. High responsivity
----
7&8
4,5 & 6
1,2 & 3
The skills of a professional conservator are needed to make the identification, and if
there is doubt, it is necessary to assume that the most responsive pigment likely to have been
used is present. Table 3.3 has been developed by Michalski (1987, 1997) and is
recommended for relating pigments to ISO ratings and estimates of probable fading.
Modern pigments offer artists a full palette of colours that has been developed to have
high resistance to the effects of light exposure, and pigments that are rated ASTM 04303
Category 1, or Winsor and Newton AA, are all in the irresponsive or low responsivity
categories of light-fastness. However, in the past, artists have used many pigments that are
much more responsive to light exposure, and Table 3.3 shows examples of these.
Furthermore, the light-fastness of a pigment may be substantially affected by how it is
applied by the artist. Indigo on wool is a low responsivity material (ISO 7), and there are many
examples in museums of woollen tapestries where indigo is the only pigment that is not
seriously faded. However, on paper, cotton or silk, indigo becomes a high responsivity
material (ISO 3) and must be treated with great care if its rich blue hue has not already been
faded.
The importance of relating illuminance to the light-fastness of the most susceptible
pigment present is indicated by the "Mix h for noticeable fade" data given in Table 3.3.
Consider the case of a medium responsivity material with an ISO rating of 5 on permanent
display (3000 hours per year), where the display illuminance is 50 lux and UV is eliminated.
The annual exposure is 3000 hours x 50 lux =150 kilolux hourslyear. The Table indicates that
noticeable fading is probable after 30 megalux hours of exposure, and this will occur after
300001150 = 200 years of display. Suppose now that a highly responsive material with an ISO
2 rating is placed in the same display situation. Probable fading will occur after 1 megalux
hour of exposure, and this will occur in 10001150 = 6,7 years. It is for this reason that the
"highly responsive" category has been included in Table 3.1, and it is recommended that
materials in this category are not placed on permanent display.
19
- - -
- - - - - - -
o
N
Table 3.3 The light  responsivity of pigments and  substrates.  o 

<J1
M dl  , it  L . .  f 
-..J
e  turn responstvi  y  ow responsivtty  Irresponsive 

A few historic plant extracts, particularly  Artists' palettes classified as "permanent"  Most but not all mineral pigments. 
o

alizarin (madder red) as a dye on wool  (a mix of truly permanent and low light  "  "  .  . 
.p.. 
or as a lake pigment in all media. 9  responsivity paints  e.g. ASTM D4303  The  true fresco  paletl.e, a coincidence 
.  a  .  .  '  With the need for stability In  alkati. 
The colour of most furs and feathers.  C  tegory I, Winsor and Newton AA) 
St  t  I  I  .  .  t  (if UV  The colours of true glass enamels, 
Most colour photographic prints with  bl ruced).  co ours In  msec s  I  ceramics (not to be confused with 
"chrome" In  the name.  ock  ).  enamel paints).  I 
A few historic plant extracts, especially  .  ' 
.  d'  I  Many monochrome Images on paper,  I 
In Igo on woo .  but the tint of the paper and added tint to i 
Silver/gelatin black and white prints, not  the carbon ink are often IJigl1 
RC paper, and only if all UV blocked.  responsi vity, and paper itself must be
Many high quality modern pigments  cautiously considered low responsivity.
developed for exterior use, automobiles.  Many high quality modern pigments 
developed for exterior use, automobiles. 
4  5 6  7  B  Over B 
3 5  B  20  50  120 

10  30  100  300  1100 
Lac dye on wool.  Alizarin  Cochineal  Alizarin  Cadmium red, orange,  Carbon, hence: true pencil, charcoal, 
S  d  (madder)  on silk.  (madder) lake  yellow (may belong in No  India Ink. (Not iron gall ink, not the yellow : 
eawee  on  I k  t'  t  . 't  b  t i  ffi  '  t l i  . )
wool.  a  e  m .  Foxglove  Madder on          y  u  msu  icren  In  sepia  .  , 
.  .  Alizarin  on wool.  wool.  ala).  Ochre. 
ling heather tips  (madder)  Vermilion  Some dyes  such as indigo 
on wool.  Chrome  .  '  Umber.  
.  on wool.  tanned  Chrome  and cochineal on cotton,  .  
Weld, tm mordant  I  th  II  Silk, and wool, move  Sienna,  
ea  er  ye ow. 
on wool.  .  .  '  several steps up, to 8 or  Indian red (iron oxide).  
Vegetable tanned  Colour photo pnnt 1.1 Indigo on  better, when one tests the  .  .  
I  th  silver-dye bleach  wool.  remnant of a partially faded  Black OXide of Iron.  
ea  er,            e.g.  Water lily  sample. This is NOT      of  Ultramarine.  
Cibachrorne.  roots (black)  all colours, and especially  
I  not true of those that start  Cobalt blue.  
On woo .  . 
In  the range Blue Wool  1,2.  Silver point. 
These fade uniformly fast.  I 
Ali lhe white pigments. 
Broad  category  of 
    ivltv t  llnht
reSfJOnSIVILY  0     
General isat i ons  
Blue Wool cat egories  
Mi x  h'  for noti ceabl e f ade"  
UV rich" 
Probabl eMl xh'for 
not i cea ble  tade"  if  no  uv' 

Sel ected  s pecific 
exa mples" 
H' h  . it
19 responstvi  y 
Most plant extracts, hence most historic bright 
dyes and lake pigments in all rnediaf  yellows, 
oranges, greens, purples, many reds, blues. 
Insect extracts, such as lac (yellow), cochineal 
lne) .  II  di  9
(
carmine  In a  me  ra,  . . 
Most  early synthetic colours such as the anilines, 
all media. 
Many cheap synthetic colorants in all medla.? 
M  t f It r  .  I d'  bl  k 
as  e  tp pens meu  Ing  ac  S. 
Most dyes used for tinting paper before zo"  
century.  
Most colour photographic prints with "colour" in  
the name. 

0  22 

0 3 

Turmeric. 
Saffron 

Sulphonated 
indigo. 
Many modern 
dyes for paper 

e.q. 
methyl violet, 
victoria blue, 
eosine (pink), 

0 6 


Carmine 
lake. 
Gamboge. 

Ouercitron lake. 
Madder on cation. 
Old f  t' 
us IC. 
.. 
Coornassie Violet 
on paper. 
Rhodamine on 
bi smarck brown.  paper 

A  h t  verage p  a o. 
colour pnnt. 

1 5 


Madder on 
silk. 
Cochineal 
on wool and 
cotton 

Weld  alum 
rd'  t 
mo  an on 
wool 

Indigo on 
paper, 
cotton and 
silk. 
Notes to Table 3.3:
a. Mix h is the exposure unit megalux hours =1000 kilolux hours
b. A noticeable fade is defined here as Grey Scale 4 (GS4), the step used in most lightfastness tests as noticeable . It is approximatel y equal to a colour
diff erence of 1,6 CIELAB units. There are approxi mately thirty such steps in the transition from a bright colour to white.
c. UV rich refers to a spectrum similar to daylight through glass. This is the spectrum generally used for the lightfastness data used to derive this table.
The exposures here are the best fit to data that vari es about ± one Blue Wool step.
d. Exposur es est imat ed for UV blocked light source are derived from a study on 400 dyes and the blue wool standards themselves. As such, it is only
probable, and probably only for organi c colorants. These estimates show minor benefit of UV filtration for high responsivity colorants, but large improvements
for low responsivity colorants. For conservative estimates, use the UV rich scal e.
e. The specific examples are near optimum tint strength unless noted otherwise ("standard depth" for dyes, peak chroma for pigmen ts). Heavier
concentrations of colorant can be less responsive by up to two Blue Wool steps. The exampl es are also for unfaded samples. Partly faded samples may or may
not show lower responsivity. Fading prediction is an imprecise science, so the broad categories of this table are most practical. Accurat e predict ions can only be
made directly on the artifact in question, or on samples known to be identical. Several researchers are developing microspot tests in Canada, the UK, and the USA.
f. "Irresponsive" to light does not mean guaranteed colour life. Many colorants in this group are responsive to pollution. Many organic media will chalk
or yellow or both if any UV is present.
g. The particular paint medium makes only small differences to fadi ng rate, it is the colorant that matters in fading, not whet her it is oil , or tempera, or
watercolour, or acrylic . Media does, however, make large differences to rate of discolourat ion from pollutants such as ozone and hydrogen sulph ide.
o
m
CJ1
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CIE 157:2004
It should not be supposed that because a material is classi fied as havin g low
responsivity, it does not need to be protected from UV exposure. Tabl e 3.3 shows that as th
ISO rating increases, there is increasing difference between the exposure for not iceabl
fading for "UV rich" and "no UV" lighti ng. This is because the more resi stant materi als tend t
be much more resistani to vi sible radiation but , at best , only slightly more resi st ant to UV. It
should be assumed that all organic mat erials ar e responsive to UV exposure, and even wherJ
the displayed obj ects are inorganic and irresponsive to UV, display supp ort materials are likel
to be affected by UV exposure. If it is deci ded that some areas of a muse um will not be U
prot ected, museu m staff must be alerted against placing responsive materials on display i
these areas. Because this can be restrict ive and diff icult to administer, it is reco mmended tha
UV is eliminated throughout museums.
l
3.2 Procedure to control damage to museum objects
Museum staff shoul d give careful consideration to developing a poli cy for conservation that is
appr opriate for the objects to be displayed. According to the scope of the coll ection, this mal
involve establishing more than one procedure to guide museum staff when designing an
commissioning new exhibitions and when maint aining displays. The foll owing procedure is a
outline that may be adapted to meet circumstances.
The extent to which control can be exer ci sed over environmental condi tions, i n l u    i n ~  
lighting, is likely to vary from room to room within a museum. The first stage of developing ~  
policy should be to classify zones within the museum according to their suitability for housing
objects that requir e strict environmental control. These cl assifications sho uld be tak en i   n t ~  
account when planning new exhibiti ons, with the aim of ensuring that the mo re responsiv.
obj ects are located where appropriate control can be exercised. In the cas e of lighting, it is
recommended that highly responsive objects should be grouped in locati ons wh ere low
ambient light levels can be maintained. Direct visual contact with area s that have significantl .
higher illuminances adversely affects visual adaptation, and should be avoi ded. While it is t ~  
be expected that exhibition designers will want to group obj ects according to their context in
the sequence of the exhibition, cons ervati on concerns should not be di sr egarded.
3.2. 1 To minimise exposure of museum objects
The aim is to achieve the designer' s objectives for effective display with min imu m exposure o.
the objects. The fi rst aspect to examine is the durati on of exposure, and switching control .
should be arrang ed so that the displ ay lighting is in use only when required (Ezrati, 1994).
There should be alternative lighting which does not direct light onto the objects available fOJ
cleaning, and if needed, for security. In some instances , it may be pract ical to employ moti o
detectors (Gint hner & Rummel , 1997), or viewer-operated time switches to restrict use a
lighting during the museum's opening hour s, or dynami c lighting which is cycled br ighter and
dimmer, so that the average must be used in calculating the expos ure. I
Once the necessary durati on of light exposure has been determined, the next step isll
to minimise irradi ance. To achieve thi s, start by ensuring that obj ects are prot ect ed from non-
visible radiant flux , both UV and IR. The role of UV in causing damage has been discussed i ~  
Sections 1.2 and 3.1. It is practi cal to virtual ly eliminate all radiant flux of wavelengths shorte.
than 400 nm, and generally, this is recommended.
UV blocking filters are available for every type of light source used f or museum.
lighting. Organic fil ters are avail able in various grades of clear acrylic sheet ; as plastic tubes t ~  
be placed over fl uorescent lamps; as plastic interlayers for laminated glas s; and as varni shes
for coating skylight and window glazing. It is generally recommended that the fil ter is appl ied tJ
the light sources and the window glazing, so that UV control is provided throu ghout the space,
although in some instances it will be appropriate to use clear sheet UV-blocking materials fo
pictur e glazing or display cabinets. Mineral filt ers , in the form of dichroic coa ti ngs on hard
glass , can wi thstand high temperat ures and are preferred for use with spotlights , although
acryl ic plastic may be a more economical altern ative despite needing regular rep lacement in
this application.
Recently some lamp s with quart z envelopes (halogen and metal halide) have beera
marketed with "UV STOP" or "UV BLOCK" labels . Exami nation of the spectral emiss ions otl
these lamps has shown that UV output is significa ntly reduced compared with conventional
22
I
i
I
---- ---- ----- --- - - - --
CIE 157:2004
lamps, but that it ;s not reduced to the level recommended in this document. One difficulty is
that the lighti ng industry considers that the visible spectrum extends to 380 nm, and that "Uv"
applies only to wavelengths shorter than this value, whereas the museum community insi sts
that the UV spectrum extends up to 400 nm. A lamp that is claimed to "eliminate 99% of UV"
may have significant emission in the 380 nm - 400 nm waveband. The performance of these
lamps may improve, but at the time of writing they do not provide the recommended level of
UV control, and UV blocking filters should be applied. Nonetheless, a general policy of using
these lamps may be advantageous . Should a UV-blocking filter deteriorate or be accid entally
omitted, less damage will result if this type of lamp in use. Their use in non-gallery areas will
lower overall UV levels, and if a light-respons ive material is mist akenly located in one of these
areas, again, damage will be reduced .
Some fibre optics systems claim to achieve elimination of UV. Conservators should
require that manufacturers provide evidence of such claims. Both glass and plastic fibres
eliminate short wavelength UV «315 nm), but do not necessarily eliminate UV in the 315 nm-
400 nm waveband . Some systems using plast ic fibres incorporate UV blocking filt ers to
protect the fibres from degradat ion, but it is up to the conservator to ensure that level of UV
control meets the recommended standard. Many fibre opti c illuminators use met al halide
lamps, and these are powerful sourc es of UV.
If it is decided to use a halogen lamp without a glass UV filter, it is recommended that
a cover glass is used. Some halogen refl ector lamps have an integral glass cover, but
otherwise a separate cover glass must be instal led. This has two useful effec ts. It blocks short
wavelength UV, which although produced in very small quantities by the halogen source, is
freely transmitted through the quartz lamp envelope and has high damage potentia l. Also, it
can happen (rarely, fortunately) that halogen lamps shatter. As they operate at high internal
pressure, the reSUlting shower of hot particles is another potential conservation hazard, as
well as a safety hazard for staff and visitors. Although some manufacturers claim that their
lamps do not require cover glasses , it is a prudent pol icy to use them for all halogen lamps.
Accurate measurement of UV is a notori ously diffic ult technical probl em. Although
portabl e UV meters are available, there is no singl e type of detector that responds to the ent ire
range of the UV spectrum, and even within its stated wavelength range , the response of a
portable meter is likely to depart significantly from linearity. As has been explained in Section
2.1, the spectra l sensitivities of museum materials are distinctly non-li near, so that no
correspondence can be expected between a UV detector response and the probable
photochemical respons e of a museum obj ect.
This document recommends UV elimination, and so the need is for reliabl e detection
of UV rather than accurate measurement. UV levels of less than 10 llW11 m are diff icult to
detect, and so this may be taken as the practical limit for control. Wh ere radiation has passed
through glass (not quartz) it is saf e to assume that all wavelengths shorte r than 315 nm have
been blocked, and the need is for a UV responsive instrument that can be reli ed upon to
detect even low levels of radiation throughout the UV-A spectral region, this being the range
315 nm - 400 nm.
It is recommended that wherever conservation is a concern, every source of light
should be equipped with an appropriate UV filter. The conservator should check the
eff ect iveness of these filters, whi ch involves not only checking new installations, but also
making periodi c checks that filters are in place and that their performances have not
deteriorated, as loss of performance as a consequence of ageing has been recorded (Ezr ati,
1987). Treatments on glazing that is exposed to sunlight are particul arly suscepti ble, and the
condition of these and other types of filter can be checked with a UV-A meter and a UV-
blocki ng filter of known performance. Meas urement s are taken with and without the filter in
question, and compared with "with" and "wi thout " measurements for the known filter. It may be
noted that it is not uncommon to find that portable UV meters have some response in the
visibl e spectrum (i.e. wavelengths longer than 400 nm).
It is recognised that many mus eums show little concern for controlling IR exposure,
and it is acknowledged that the radiant heat ing is generally a less serious source of dam age
than photoch emical action . Even so, the cycl ic eff ects of IR exposure are detrimental (Section
1.3) and are not easily distingui shed from the effects of photochemical action, so that museum
staff should be aware that this is a potent ial source of damage. Furt hermore , the main source
of conc ern is incande scent lamps, which are oft en thought of as being the saf e choice for
23

CIE  157:2004

museum  lighting.  Significant  radiant  heating  may  occur where  these  lamps  are  mounted  close 
to  museum  objects,  as  in  display  cabinets ,  or  where  a  spotlight  luminaire  con centrates  both 
visible  light  and  IR  onto  an  object.  Lamps  with  dichroic  reflectors  reduce  the  problem  byl 
allowing  more  than  50% of  the  IR  to  pass  through  the  reflector  so  that  it  is  not  reflected  into 
the  beam,  and  "hard"  dichroic  reflectors  should  be  specified  as  they  reta in  their  performance 
better  than  the  older  type  of  soft-coated  dichro ic  lamps .  If  "hard"  dichroic  reflector  lamps  of 
suitable  performance  are  not  ava lable,  glass  IR  filters  are  generally  recommended  for 
spotlighting  organic material s. 
Total  elimination  of  IR  is  not  practical,  and  dir ect  measurement  is  difficult.  It  is 
possible  to obt ain  a  measure  of  relative  radiant  heating  effect by  placing  sma ll  black  and  white 
metal  plates  at  the  display  location  for  a  short  time  and  measuring  their  temperatures  with  an 
infrared  thermometer.  The  temperature of the white  metal  plate  will  be  close  to  the  ambient air 
temperature  Ts. and  the  extent  to whi ch  the  temp erature  of the  black  plate  exceeds  this  value 
gives  an  indication  of  the  extent  to  whi ch  T
max
could  exceed  T
a
for  a  material  of  high 
absorptance  (Equation  1.7).  Alt ernat ively,  a  simple  test  is  to  place  one's  hand  between  the 
spotlight  and  the  obj ect  and  to  sense  the  heating  effect  on  the  skin.  Section  1.3 discusses 
materials  that  are most likely to  be affected  by cyclic radiant  heatin g,  and  museum staff should 
be aware  that there  are  means  of controll ing  IR exposure. 
3.2.2 Use of electronic flash
Many  museum  visitor s  like  to  record  their visits  by  taking  their  own  photographs,  and  most  of 
them use cameras that have  built-in flash devices that fire automatically in indoor lighting. This 
preferen ce of visitors  has to  be weighed  against  possible  damage to  museum objects. 
To  expose  phot ographic  film  of  ISO  100 rating  with  a  lens  aperture  of  f/8 , an 
electronic  flash  produc es  an  exposure  of  approximately  600 Ix s  (lux  seconds)  on  the  object 
being  photographed  (Saund ers,  1995). Thi s  energy  arrives  at  the  object  within  a  very  short 
period,  typically  in  the  order  of  0,001 s,  and  this  has  given  rise  to  concern  for  biphotoni c 
j ' 
processes,  which  occur  when  two  photons  arrive  at  the  same  molecule  in  such  rapi d 
succession  that  their  effect  is  combined.  The  possibility  of  such  two-photon  processes  being 
caused  by  photographi c flash  exposure  has  been  examined  by Schaeffer  (2001) and  found  to 
be very  unlikely.  Accordingly,  it  may  be  assumed  that  reciprocity  applies,  so  that  an  exposure 
of  600 Ix s is equivalent to 0,17 Ix  h. 
The  limiting  annual  exposure  for  a  medium  responsivity  object  is  150000 Ix  hly
(Tabl e 3.4) . and  one  flash  represents  approximately one  millionth  of  this  value.  It  can  be  seen 
that  a  ' .dle  electronic  flash  subjects  the  receiving  object  to  only  a  very  small  degree  of  0-
exposure, but  the  effect of  multi ple exposures  is  cumulative. For  a  medium responsivity object 
that  is  on  display for  3000 hly, the limiting  exposure  equals  300 fl ashes  per hour.  This  means 
that  if  the  display  lighting  is  already  subjecting  the  object  to  the  limiting  exposure,  just  30
flashes  per  hour  would  cause  the  total  exposure  of  the  object  to  exceed  the  limiting  level  by 
ten percent. 
High  responsivity  obj ects  should  not  be  exposed  to  more  than  15000 Ix  h/y . If  this  is 
achi eved  by  illuminating  to  30 Ix  for  500 hly, it  would  take  only  18 flashes  per  hour,  or  one 
flash  every  three  and  a  half  minutes,  to  cause  the  limit ing  exposure  to  be  exceeded  by  ten 
percent.  It would  seem very  likel y that this  flash  rate  would  be  exceeded  for popular exhibits  in 
public  museums. 
It  is  clear  that  a  museum's  effort s  to  control  the  light  exposure  of exhibits  risk  being. 
jeopardi sed  if  there  is  no  restri ction  on  the  use  of  photographic  flash.  While  this     
concerns  popular  exhibits  in  the  medium  or  high  responsivity  cat egories,  it  may  not  be 
practical  to  restri ct  flash  use  to  certain  objects  or  locations.  In  these  situations  it  is
J
I, 
recomm ended  that flash  use  not  be permitted  in  museums.  It may be  noted  that  other reason s 

i  
are  often  cited  for  enforcing  a  flash  ban. Flash  use  can  be  disturbing  to  other viewers,  and  in 
any  case,  for  obj ect s  that  are  displ ayed  behind  gl ass,  an  image  taken  wi th  a  built -in  flash  is 
likely  to be unsatisfactory due to  the reflected  image  of  the  flash. 
These  comments  refer  onl y  to  use  of  flash  by  museum  visitors.  Conservators  oft en 
recommend  use  of  flash  for  pr ofes sional  photography  of  museum  objects,  as  the  object  can 
be  set  up  under  normal  room  lighting  and  subjected  to  the  photographic  lighting  for  only  ve1 
short  durat ion  (Schaeffer, 2001 ; Sancho-Ar royo  and  Rioux , 1996).
I
24
CIE 157:2004
3.2.3 Exposure rate
Now the designer or conservator can turn their attention to the central issue: how to achieve
the display objectives with the minimum of radiant flux incident on the objects . By this stage of
the procedure, the necessary duration of exposure has been determined, and steps will have
been taken to eliminate UV and, if necessary, to control IR. The remaining decisions that
affect conservation concern display illuminances and the spectral distribution of the lighting.
It is common practice for museum lighting designers to select continuous spectrum
light sources of high colour rendering index, and to choose the correlated colour temperature
to suit the overall appearance of the display and its setting. The use of discontinuous
spectrum sources is discussed in Section 2.2. While colour rendering is an important design
decision, it does not affect conservation considerations. Generally CIE Colour Rendering
Group 1A will be specified (CIE, 1995), but if Group 'I B is specified for some locat ions, this
does not affect the exposure rate.
The effect of increasing damage potential with increasing correlated colour
temperature of lighting is shown in Figure 2.5, and this effect can lead museum staff to
discriminate against daylight and to justify general use of low colour temperature light sources as
the preferred choice for conservation. Such lighting can be very effective for some types of
display, notably rare books and old manuscripts where some yellowness of appearance is not
objectionable. However, a higher colour temperature must be provided where a whiter colour
appearance is required. It is recommended that decisions on the colour temperature of lighting
should be made with concern for the visible characteristics of the objects on display and the
setting in which they will be seen. Where the viewing conditions call for moderate or high colour
temperature lighting, conservation concerns should not override design objectives for the display.
If necessary, the duration of exposure should be restricted rather than the visual qualities of the
display be compromised. It should be borne in mind that low colour temperature artificial lighting
is likely to be judged unsatisfactory where it is seen in combination with daylight. This occurs
because the eye is adapted to the higher colour temperature of daylight. For an observer who
is fully adapted to the low colour temperature artificial lighting, the appearance may be quite
satisfactory.
The accepted practical measure of exposure rate is illuminance. Museum staff must
never overlook that lux readings can grossly understate the exposure rate where UV control is
lacking or ineffective. Also it can be seen from Figure 2.5 that even where UV is eliminated,
illuminance cannot be an entirely reliable indic ator of exposure rate.
The data in Table 3.4 take account of the recommendations of various authorities
(AFE, 1997; CIBSE, 1994; IESNA, 1996) and provide initial guidance on exposure rates .
Consider the limiting illuminances. There is no reason to restrict the exposure of irresponsive
materials on account of conservation concerns, but in practice illuminances have to be
considered in the context of exhibitions that include responsive objects. With proper control of
the surrounding environment, 200 Ix is generally sufficient to provide for adequate visibility and
for object appearances that will satisfy exhibition design objectives (Loe et al ., 1982), and it is
recommended generally that object illuminances should not exceed this value. In cases where
illuminances below 200 Ix are required, visibility of the exhibit can be enhanced by lighting the
background to a lower level. This has the effect of reducing visual adaptation and making the
exhibit the brightest part of the field of view. It has been suggested that a ratio of 3:1 for object
illuminance to background illuminance be used (Loe et aI., 1982).
Medium responsivity materials require more care . Sometimes satisfactory viewing can
be achieved with less than 50 lx, particularly if the object is light in colour and does not contain
fine detail, and advantage should be taken of these situations. However, for some objects,
particularly those that are dark in colour, it may not be possible to achieve a satisfactory
appearance at 50 Ix. Even so, the limiting illuminance should never be quoted as the
justification for unsatisfactory display. It is thoroughly bad policy to place an object on display,
where it inevitably will suffer some damage, and to fail to present it adequately. Where an
illuminance greater than 50 Ix is found to be necessary to provide for a satisfactory
appearance of an object that is composed, even in part , of a light-responsive material , the
duration of display should be restricted to comply with the limiting exposure value. It is
recommended that materials classified as having high responsivity are not placed on
permanent display .
25
CIE 157:2004 
It  is  easier  to  achieve  cont rol  over  liqhtinq  where  dayl ight  is  eliminated.   
there  are  some  museum  objects,  particularly  art  objects,  for  which  the  pre sence  of  daYligi 
forms  part  of  the  tot al  experien ce.  This  consideration  has  led  to  so me  elaborate  an 
technica lly  sophist icated  install ations  that  automatically  respond  to  dayli ght  vari ati ons.  Ther 
have  been report s of severe  operational probl ems  associated  with  such  installations  (Cannon-
Brookes , 2000),  and  some  desi gners  have  recently  advocated  hybri d  strategies  that  combi n. 
passive  control elements with  active  devi ces (Sedgwick  and  Shaw, 2000) .  For  damage     
procedures  to  be  eff ective,  it  is  necessary  not  only  that  they  are  based  on  sound  sci entifi c 
principles, but  also that  their  operation and  maintenance is  withi n the  technic al compet ence   
the museum staf f.  • 
Table  3.4  Limiting  illumi nance  (lux)  and  limiting  annual  exposure  (lux  hours  per  year)  f 
material responsivity cl assi fications. 
I  
II  
Material classificati on  Limiting  illuminance 
(IX) 
Limi ting  exposure 
(Ix  h/y) 
1. Irresponsive 
2. Low responsivity 
3. Medium  respo nsivity 
no  lim it 
200 
50 
no  lim it 
6000 00 
150000 
4.  High responsivity  50  15000 
   
3.2.4 Outline of procedure
It is  the  intenti on  of  this  document that  the conservator  and  the  exhi biti on  designer should  us 
Table  3.4  as  a  guide  for  ensuring  that  all  of  their  conc erns  are  taken  into  account.  Finall  , 
Table  3.5  gives  the  outline  for  a  practical  procedure  for  control  of  museum  lighting.  Mus eui 
staff  may  use  thi s  as  a  gUideline  for  establishing  working  procedures  and  ensuring  th 
responsibiliti es  are  appropriately al located.  In parti cular,  the procedures  to  occur during  the  Iif 
of the display will  be very  much dependant  upon  the  natur e of the museum obj ects, the  type  of 
lighting  being  used,  and  whether  the  life  of  a  di splay  is  measured  in  weeks  or  years. 
museu:  .s  are  encouraged  to  check  their  procedures  against  this  outline,  and  to  asses 
whe

.er they are taking  adequate steps  to  avoid  unnecessary damage to  their collection. 
26 

CIE 157:2004
Table 3.5 A practical procedure for control of museum lighting.
Wh en setting up lighting for a new displ ay:
(a) Classify all exhibits according to the four-categ ory scale given in Table 3.1 .
(b) Install UV filters on all light sources, including windows and skylights, and check
each source with a UV meter to ensur e that UV is below the detecti on thresh old
(UV <10 f,1W/lm).
(c) Focus the lighting, and visual ly assess the eff ect of reducing display illumination
with the aim of ensuring that illuminances are no greater than is necessary to
sat isfy display objectives. Check Illuminance values. The limiting illumi nance is the
max imum illuminance at any point on the exhibit' s surface .
(d) Check the radiant heating effect for each object, particularly where incandes cent
filam ent spotlighting is in use. If radiant heating effect seems to be significant ,
consider use of dichroic reflector lamps or IR filters .
(e) Check controls and procedures for restricting the durati on of display lighting .
Estimate annual hours of exposure.
(f) Measure and record illuminances for each object or group of objects. Calcu late
annual exposures and plan for the duration of display to be restr icted as
necessary, both for the exhibition and for individual objects at risk .
During the life of the display:
(g) Periodically check the light ing with a UV meter, and replac e filters where
necessary.
(h) Periodically check radiant heating effect and redu ce IR if necessary .
(i) Periodically check illuminances, and adjust if necessary.
U) Check that procedures for restricting the duration of displ ay are operating
satisfactorily, both for the exhibiti on and for individu al obj ects at risk.
27

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