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Training - Flow

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Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Contents

Topics: Why measure flow? Flow terminology Flowmeter selection DP flowmeters Velocity flowmeters Mass flowmeters Displacement meters Flow products summary Exercise Slide No: 3-4 5 - 18 19 - 24 25 - 46 47 - 55 56 - 61 62 63 64 - 65

Level 1 - Flow

5 Common Reasons Safety

Uncontrolled flow rates may cause temperature & pressure to reach dangerously high levels turbines & other machinery to overspeed tanks to spill

3

Flow

Custody Transfer

the measurement of fluid passing from a supplier to a customer cash register of the system example a local gas station measures how much gas being pumped into the vehicle for billing requires high measurement accuracy

Product Integrity

ensuring right amount of blended materials in for example processed food & gasoline

Level 1 - Flow

5 Common Reasons Efficiency Indication

to determine efficiency of process by measuring the amount of each input that has gone into the product comparing the above measurement to the amount of product producedl

4

Flow rate is measured & controlled during energy transfer application, for example heat exchanger fluid temperature controlled by varying the flow rate of steam

Level 1 - Flow

Flow Control Loop Flow Loop Issues: May be a Very Fast Process

Noise in Measurement Signal May Require Filtering May Require Fast-Responding Equipment Typically Requires Temperature Compensation

I/P FIC

5

Flow

FT

TT

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Fluid Properties

6

Density: (rho) = m/V = mass/volume Mass per unit volume at given operating conditions. Common units: kg/m3 or lb/ft3 Density of a liquid varies with temperature Density of a gas varies with temperature and pressure

Level 1 - Flow

Fluid Properties

7

Flow

Density of liquid at process temperature Density of water at 15.6C

Molecular Weight of gas Molecular Weight of air

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Fluid Properties Gas Compressibility Factor: Z-factor Used to correct gas equations for real-gas effects. Accounts for the deviation from the ideal situation.

Absolute pressure Absolute temperature

8

PV = nRT

Volume Universal gas constant Molecular weight

For an ideal gas Z=1 and PV=nRT(Ideal Gas Law). The True Gas Law: PV=ZnRT Z & n Can be found in engineering tables. R is dependant on units chosen for P, T & V

Level 1 - Flow

Fluid Properties Viscosity Measure of a fluids tendency to resist a shearing force, or to resist flow

9

Flow

Force

A greater force is required to shear high viscosity fluids than low viscosity fluids (viscosity = shear stress/shear rate). Viscosity normally decreases with an increase in temperature for a liquid, but increases with an increase in temperature for a gas

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Fluid Properties

10

Fluid Type Clean Fluid A fluid that is free from solid particles, e.g. clean water. Dirty Fluid A fluid containing solid particles, e.g. muddy water. Slurry A liquid with a suspension of fine solids, e.g. pulp and paper, or oatmeal. Steam Water vapour Gas Natural gas

Level 1 - Flow

Fluid Properties Flow Profile

Lower velocity at the edge

Flow

11

Pipe Wall

Turbulent Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Fluid Properties Reynolds number defines the state of fluid flow Dimensionless number Indicates flow profile

12

Laminar 0

Turbulent

m/s

kg/m3

Reynolds Number

Level 1 - Flow

Rd = ( x v x D)/

Fluid Properties Example:

Flow conditions; RD = Velocity = 0.5 m/s density = 995.7kg/m V.d. / Temperature = 25C = 0.7 / 1000 kg/ms Viscosity = 0.7cP 0.5 x 0.06 x 995.7 x 1000 /0.7 Pipe ID = 60mm (1 Poise = 0.1 kg/m s) 42,673

13

Flow

= =

i) ii)

Find the Reynolds number for the fluid. Identify the type of flow.

(a) (b) (c) Laminar Transitional Turbulent

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Fluid Properties

14

Pressure & Temperature changes inside process pipe determines which state the steam is in Saturated steam (all vapor)

Steam exactly at its saturation point (SP) temperature & pressure at which liquid turns to vapor (as pressure increases, saturation temperature increases)

Superheated steam

Steam when pressure drop below SP Steam when temperature rise above SP e.g. at 350 psia, saturation temperature for water is 222C. Steam at 350 psia & 278C includes 56C of super heat

Condensed steam when pressure rise above SP Condensed steam when temperature drop below SP

Level 1 - Flow

Pipe Geometry & Conditions Texture of inner walls smooth wall slightly increase fluid velocity rough wall slightly decrease fluid velocity Inside diameter e.g., doubling the diameter increase flow rate by as much as 4 times Vol. flow rate(Qv) = Cross-section area * Velocity = D2/4 * Velocity = D2(/4 x Velocity)

15

Flow

Qv

Qv

=

=

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Pipe Geometry & Conditions

16

Flow Profile Disturbance factors that cause flow profile to become irregular symmetrical profile

caused by reducers or expanders pipe sections eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

asymmetrical profile

caused by elbows, valves and tees eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

swirl

caused by pumps, compressors, or two pipe elbows in different planes eliminated by inserting flow conditioners

Level 1 - Flow

Engineering Units Volumetric Flow Rate Metric Unit Others

StdCuft/s StdCuft/min StdCuft/h StdCuft/d StdCum/h StdCum/d NmlCum/h NmlCum/d

17

Flow

m3/s

- Standard Cubic feet per second - Standard Cubic feet per minute - Standard Cubic feet per hour - Standard Cubic feet per day - Standard Cubic meter per hour - Standard Cubic meter per day - Normal Cubic meter per hour - Normal Cubic meter per day

Std Nml

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology

Engineering Units Mass Flow Rate Metric Unit Others

lbs/sec lbs/min lbs/hour lbs/day gram/sec grams/min grams/hour kg/min kg/hour

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kg/s

- Pounds per second - Pounds per minute - Pounds per hour - Pounds per day - grams per second - grams per minute - grams per hour - kilograms per minute - kilogram per hour

Level 1 - Flow

Specification Accuracy % of rate uncertainty of flow proportional to flow rate

Rate of Flow 100 gpm 50 gpm 20 gpm % of Rate Accuracy 2% of 100 gpm 2% of 50 gpm 2% of 20 gpm Uncertainty Range 98-102 gpm 49-51 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm

19

Flow

Rate of Flow 100 gpm 50 gpm 20 gpm % of Rate Accuracy 2% of 100 gpm 2% of 50 gpm 2% of 20 gpm Uncertainty Range 98-102 gpm 49-51 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection

Specification Rangeability (Turndown) Meter maximum maximum flow rate that a flowmeter is capable of reading

commonly used for magnetic, vortex and Coriolis meters

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Application maximum maximum flowrate that occurs in the process flow of a particular application

commonly used for orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes

Repeatability the ability of a flowmeter to produce the same measurement each time it measures a flow

Level 1 - Flow

Classes of Flowmeters

21

Flow

Flow Technologies

Mass

Coriolis Meter Thermal Meter

Volumetric

Positive Velocity Meter Displacement Meter Oval Nutating disc Gear Gerotor

Head

DP Flow Target Meter Meter

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection

Classes of Flowmeters

22

. Displacement Meters measure volume flow rate Qv directly by repeatedly trapping a sample of the fluid. total volume = sample volume * number of samples

High pressure loss

Head Meters (DP Flow Meters) measures fluid flow indirectly by creating & measuring a differential pressure by means of a restriction to the fluid flow

Level 1 - Flow

Classes of Flowmeters

23

Flow

Velocity Meters FLOW is measured inferentially by measuring VELOCITY through a known AREA. With this indirect method, the flow measured is the volume flow rate, Qv. Stated in its simplest term QV = A * v where

A: v: cross-sectional area of the pipe fluid velocity

m3/s = m2 * m/s

A reliable flow measurement is dependent upon the correct measurement of A and v.

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection

Classes of Flowmeters Mass Meters Infer the mass flow rate via the equation; Qm = Qv * where,

Q m: Qv : : the mass flow rate the volume flow rate fluid density

24

kg/s = m3/s * kg.m3 Consist of 2 devices; One device will measure fluid velocity The other device will measure fluid density

Level 1 - Flow

DP Flow Equation Flow Restriction in Line cause a differential Pressure

Line Pressure (Primary Element) Orifice Plate

25

Flow

H.P.

L.P.

QV= K

DP

Constant

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

DP Flow Equation

Pressure Transmitter

FT

26

Flow Controller

FIC

Valve

Primary Element

FE

QV= K

DP

Outputs represent true flow only under specified conditions. Using constants in flow equations assumes a static flow environment. For DP flowmeter output to represent true flow, the following fluid properties must be constant: Fluid density Fluid viscosity,

Level 1 - Flow

DP Flow Equation For varying fluid density and viscosity Compensation is required to represent TRUE flow

27

Flow

QM= K

DP*(P/T)

Takes care of Density only

Partial Compensation

Mass Flow, QM

= = =

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

DP Flow Equation Traditionally way of partially compensated DP mass flow has been accomplished using a system.

Pressure Transmitter (DP) FT Flow Computer FC FIC Flow Controller Control Valve

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QM= K

DP*(P/T)

Level 1 - Flow

DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient (Cd) Cd is a correction factor to the theoretical equation.

QM= K DP*(P/T)

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Flow

Cd

Actual_flow Theoretical_flow

Equations for calculating Cd are derived from experimental data. Cd is a function of beta ratio and Reynolds number, and is different for each primary element. (Beta ratio = restriction diam. / pipe diam.)

Y 1 f , k , P , P 1

for Liquids:

Y1 1

Cp Cv

=<1

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient vs. RD Cd

30

Level 1 - Flow

RD

LIQUIDS

DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient vs. RD &

Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficients

0.66 0.65 0.64

Flow

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( 4 Flange Taps )

Beta Values are almost constant

Discharge Coefficient

0.6 0.59 0

4 5 10

5 1 10

5 1.5 10

5 3.5 10

5 4 10

5 4.5 10

5 5 10

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

DP Flow Equation Gas Expansion Factor vs. DP

1 Gas Expansion Factor Gas Expansion Factors 32

0.95

0.9

The higher the line pressure, the more constant Gas Expansion Factor for a variety of DP

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Differential Pressure (inH2O)

0.85

Line Pressure

Level 1 - Flow

Components DP Flow Meters consist of two main components:

Primary 33

Flow

placed in the pipe to restrict the flow. Orifice, Venturi, nozzle, Pitot-static tube, elbow, and wedge. measures the differential pressure.

Using well-established conversion coefficients which depends on the type of head meter used and the diameter of the pipe, a measurement of the differential pressure may be translated into a volume rate. PRIMARY

Level 1 - Flow

Secondary -

SECONDARY

DP flowmeter

Orifice Plate

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Simplest and least expensive. Constrict fluid flow to produce diff. pressure across the plate. Produce high pressure upstream and low pressure downstream. Flow proportional to square of the flow velocity. Greater overall pressure loss compared to other primary devices. Cost does not increase significantly with pipe size (advantage).

Level 1 - Flow

Venturi Tube

35

Flow

Gradually narrows the diameter of pipe. Resultant drop in pressure is measured. Pressure recovers at the expanding section of the meter. For low pressure drop and high accuracy reading applications Widely used in large diameter pipes.

High Pressure Side

P1 P2

Q (Actual) =

C x A1 x A 2 x ( A12 - A22 )

2 x ( P1 -P2 )

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

Flow Nozzle

High velocity flow meter. Elliptical restriction of flow at nozzle opening. No outlet area for pressure recovery. For application where turbulence is high (Re > 50000) eg.,stream flow at high temperatures. Pressure drop falls betw. That of venturi tube and orifice plate (30-95%)

D D/2 36

High Pressure

Low Pressure

FLOW

D d

NOZZLE

Level 1 - Flow

Pitot Tube Bernoullis energy balance for an incompressible, non-viscous fluid:

Pf 1

Vf 1 37

Flow

Pf 2

Pf 1

V f 12 2 gc

Pf 2

Vf 1 =

2 gc Pf 2 Pf 1

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

Pitot Tube

High (Impact) Pressure Tap Low (Static) Pressure Tap

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Fluid Flow

One-point velocity measurement accuracy affected by changes in velocity profile tube must be moved back & forth in the flow stream for average measurement

Level 1 - Flow

Averaging Pitot Tube (Annubar ) (Annubar)

High Pressure Tap Low Pressure Tap

39

Flow

Cross section of Annubar H.P. L.P.

Blunt Rear

Fluid Flow

Include several measurement ports over the entire diameter of the pipeline more accurate flow measurement than the regular pitot tube

Level 1 - Flow

DP Flowmeter

Pitot Tube Advantages: Can be inserted through a small opening. Can sample the velocity at many points. Low pressure drop, non-obstrusive. Disadvantages: Pitot traverse requires a technician, and is timeconsuming. Pitot tube is fragile (not suited for industrial app.) DP signal is low. Accuracy depends on the velocity profile. Easily plugged by foreign material in the fluid.

40

Level 1 - Flow

Wedge Flow Element inserted in the process pipe forms a wedged obstruction on the inner wall of the pipe usually used with remote seals for measuring dirty fluids, slurries & fluids at high viscosity (low RD) that tends to build up or clog orifice plates

41

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter

V-Cone

42

high accuracy normally lab-calibrated work equally well with short and long straight pipes for customers who have limited room for straight piping requirements can be used with some dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

Rotameter Variable-area flowmeters

float inside the tapered tube rises in response to fluid flow rate pressure is higher at the bottom than the top of the tapered tube float rests where the dp between upper & lower surfaces of the float balances the weight of the float flowrate read direct from scale or electronically

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Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Head Meter

Target Meter

44

A disc is centered in the pipe with surface positioned at right angle to the fluid flow. Force of the fluid acting against the target directly measures the fluid flow rate. Requires no external connections, seals or purge systems. Useful for dirty or corrosive fluids.

Level 1 - Flow

Target Meter Advantages: Low cost Easily installed and/or replaced No moving parts Suitable for most gases or liquids Available in a wide range of sizes and models

45

Flow

Disadvantages: Square-root head/flow relationship High permanent pressure loss Low accuracy Flow rage normal 4:1 Accuracy affected by wear and/or damage of the flow primary element especially with corrosive fluids.

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter

Magnetic Flowmeter

Faradays Law of electromagnetic Conductive induction. Process A voltage will be induced in a Medium conductor moving through a Lining magnetic field. Sensing E = kBDV

46

D

D

V = velocity of the conductor D = width of the conductor E B = strength of the magnetic field k = proportionality constant

Magnetic Field B (Constant Strength)

Electrodes

Field Coils

As the conductive process liquid moves through the field with average velocity V, the electrodes sense the induced voltage.

Level 1 - Flow

Magnetic Flowmeter Advantages: Obstructionless flow Unaffected by viscosity, pressure, temperature and density Good accuracy No RD constraints Suitable for slurries and corrosive, nonlubricating, or abrasive liquids Wide rangeability (30:1)

47

Flow

Disadvantages: Liquid must be electrically conductive Not suitable for gases Can be expensive, particularly in small sizes Must be installed so that the meter is always full

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter

Turbine Meter

Consist of multi-blade rotors supported by bearings and enclosed in a pipe section. perpendicular to fluid flow. Fluid flow drives the rotor. Rotor Blades Rotor velocity is proportional to overall volume flow rate. Magnetic lines of flux created by a magnetic coil outside the meter.

48

Pickup Probe

FLOW

An alternating voltage is produced as each blades cuts the magnetic lines of flux. Each pulse represents a discrete volume of liquid.

Level 1 - Flow

Turbine Meter Advantages: High accuracy Rangeability 10:1 Very good repeatability Low pressure drops Can be used on high viscosity fluids (but with lower turndowns)

49

Flow

Disadvantages: Moving parts subject to wear Can be damaged by overspeeding High temperature, overspeeding, corrosion, abrasion and pressure transient can shorten bearing life Rather expensive Filtration required in dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter

Vortex Flowmeter von karman effect (vortex shedding)

As fluid pass a bluff body, it Sensor Force on separates and generates Sensor small eddies/vortices that are shed alternately along and FLOW behind each side of the bluff Vortex Pivoting body. Shedder Axis Force This vortices cause areas of fluctuating pressure that are Shedder Bar detected by a sensor. The frequency of vortex Shedder Bar generation is directly proportional to fluid velocity. FLOW

50

Vortices

Level 1 - Flow

Vortex Flowmeter Advantages: Good accuracy Usually wide flow range Used with liquids, gases and steam Minimal maintenance (no moving parts) Good linearity over the working range

51

Flow

Disadvantages: Not suitable for abrasive or dirty fluids Straight upstream pipe required equal to 30 times pipe diameter or longer Limited by low velocity (RD < 10,000)

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.

Transit-Time Method 2 piezoelectric transducers mounted opposing, to focus sound waves between them at 45 angle to the direction of flow within a pipe. In a simultaneous measurement in the opposite direction to fluid flow, a value (determined electronically) is linearly proportional to the flow rate.

Transmitter Upstream Transducer Receiver 52

FLOW

Downstream Transducer

Level 1 - Flow

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Doppler Effect Method One of the 2 transducer mounted in the same case on one side of the pipe transmits sound waves (constant frequency) into the fluid. Solids or bubbles within the fluid reflect the sound back to the receiver element. Frequency difference is directly proportional to the flow velocity in the pipe.

53

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters Advantages: Non-intrusive, obstructionless Wide rangeability (10:1) Easy to install (especially for clamp-on version) Cost virtually independent of pipe size The flow measurement is bi-directional

54

Disadvantages: Maximum temperature 150C Particular fluid conditions are required (TOF-type: clean liquids; Doppler-type: particles or impurities in the stream) Not very high accuracy (about 2%) Doppler flowmeter clamp-on type requires a pipe of homogeneous material (cement or fibreglass linings must be avoided)

Level 1 - Flow

Coriolis Meter Operating Principle

Uses a obsructionless U-shaped tube as a sensor Applies Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to determine flow rate. Force = mass x acceleration The flow tube vibrates at its natural frequency by an electromagnetic drive system.

55

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter

Coriolis Meter Coriolis Effect

Fluid flowing through the upward moving tube, pushes downward against the tube. Fluid flowing out through the downward moving tube, pushes upward against the tube. The combination of upward and downward resistive forces causes the sensor tube to twist (coriolis effect).

56

Level 1 - Flow

Coriolis Meter Signal Transmission

The amount the tube twist is proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through it. Electromagnetic sensors located at each side of the tube measures the respective velocity of the vibrating tube at these points. The sensor sends this information to the transmitter which gives an output signal directly proportional to mass flow rate.

57

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter

Coriolis Meter Advantages: High accuracy: 0.25% Relatively low pressure drops Suitable for liquid and gas flow Easy to install Flow range (10:1)

58

Disadvantages: Expensive Mounting is critical (no vibration) Heat-tracing is required in some applications

Level 1 - Flow

Thermal Meter

59

Flow

Made up o 3 elements arranged along the direction of motion. high accurate temperature sensor at upstream an electrical heater in between high accurate temperature sensor at downstream The difference between the two temperature readings is proportional to the mass flow rate. (if the thermal properties of the fluid being metered are constant and known).

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter

Thermal Meter Advantages: No moving parts Suitable for large size pipe (insertion type) Good rangeability (50:1) Accuracy: 1% FS Low permanent pressure losses

60

Disadvantages: Meter sensitive to fluid heat conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat Mostly gas service (only rare liquid service) Specific heat of the fluid must be known and constant i.e. the gas must have a constant composition Proper operation requires no heat losses due to conductive exchanges though the pipe walls

Level 1 - Flow

Oval Gear Meter An example of positive displacement meter

Two meshing oval gears rotate as fluid flows through them Gears trap a known quantity of fluid as they rotate Each complete revolution of both the gears = 4 * amount of fluid that fills the space between the gear and the meter body volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the rotational velocity of the gears

61

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flow products

Summary Table

Meter Fluids Dirty Fluids No No Some Viscosity Pipe Size Maximum Maximum Pressure Pressure Temp. Loss 6000psig 6000psig Medium-High Medium-High Low 175C Very Low Low 200C 200C High* High 62

DP/Orifice MV/Orifice

Liquid,Gas,steam Liquid,Gas,steam

Level 1 - Flow

Flow

Exercise

1. Which of the following would generally provide the best turndown ? (A) DP - Orifice Plate (C) Magnetic Flowmeter (B) V.A.Meter (D) Turbine Meter

Which of the following directly measures mass flow rate, and which volume flow rate. Indicate M or V 2. Magnetic Flowmeter [ ] 3. Vortex Meter [ ] 4. Coriolis Meter [ ] 5. Non-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ] 6. Fully-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ]

63

Level 1 - Flow

Exercise

7. The following flowmeters all create some pressure loss. Number them in order, beginning with that which create the least loss. (A) Venturi tube [ ] (B) Positive displacement meter [ ] (C) Magnetic flowmeter [ ] (D) Vortex Meter [ ] (E) Annubar [ ] (F) Orifice plate [ ]

64

Level 1 - Flow

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