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Level 1 - Fundamental Training

Flow

Level 1 Fundamental Training

Level 1 - Flow

Contents
Topics: Why measure flow? Flow terminology Flowmeter selection DP flowmeters Velocity flowmeters Mass flowmeters Displacement meters Flow products summary Exercise Slide No: 3-4 5 - 18 19 - 24 25 - 46 47 - 55 56 - 61 62 63 64 - 65

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Why measure flow?


5 Common Reasons Safety
Uncontrolled flow rates may cause temperature & pressure to reach dangerously high levels turbines & other machinery to overspeed tanks to spill
3

Flow

Custody Transfer
the measurement of fluid passing from a supplier to a customer cash register of the system example a local gas station measures how much gas being pumped into the vehicle for billing requires high measurement accuracy

Product Integrity
ensuring right amount of blended materials in for example processed food & gasoline
Level 1 - Flow

Why measure flow?


5 Common Reasons Efficiency Indication
to determine efficiency of process by measuring the amount of each input that has gone into the product comparing the above measurement to the amount of product producedl
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Process Variable Control


Flow rate is measured & controlled during energy transfer application, for example heat exchanger fluid temperature controlled by varying the flow rate of steam

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Flow Control Loop Flow Loop Issues: May be a Very Fast Process
Noise in Measurement Signal May Require Filtering May Require Fast-Responding Equipment Typically Requires Temperature Compensation
I/P FIC
5

Flow

FT

TT

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties
6

Density: (rho) = m/V = mass/volume Mass per unit volume at given operating conditions. Common units: kg/m3 or lb/ft3 Density of a liquid varies with temperature Density of a gas varies with temperature and pressure

Liquids Temperature = Density Temperature = Density Pressure = No change Pressure = No change

Gases Temperature = Density Temperature = Density Pressure = Density Pressure = Density

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Fluid Properties
7

Flow

For Liquids, Specific Gravity =


Density of liquid at process temperature Density of water at 15.6C

For Gases, Specific Gravity =


Molecular Weight of gas Molecular Weight of air

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties Gas Compressibility Factor: Z-factor Used to correct gas equations for real-gas effects. Accounts for the deviation from the ideal situation.
Absolute pressure Absolute temperature
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PV = nRT
Volume Universal gas constant Molecular weight

For an ideal gas Z=1 and PV=nRT(Ideal Gas Law). The True Gas Law: PV=ZnRT Z & n Can be found in engineering tables. R is dependant on units chosen for P, T & V

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Fluid Properties Viscosity Measure of a fluids tendency to resist a shearing force, or to resist flow
9

Flow

Area Fluid Thickness Fixed Plate

Force

Water is 1cP, peanut butter is 10,000 cP

A greater force is required to shear high viscosity fluids than low viscosity fluids (viscosity = shear stress/shear rate). Viscosity normally decreases with an increase in temperature for a liquid, but increases with an increase in temperature for a gas
Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties
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Fluid Type Clean Fluid A fluid that is free from solid particles, e.g. clean water. Dirty Fluid A fluid containing solid particles, e.g. muddy water. Slurry A liquid with a suspension of fine solids, e.g. pulp and paper, or oatmeal. Steam Water vapour Gas Natural gas
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Fluid Properties Flow Profile
Lower velocity at the edge

Flow

11

Pipe Wall

Higher velocity in the middle

Lower velocity at the edge

Laminar Flow Transition Flow

Turbulent Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties Reynolds number defines the state of fluid flow Dimensionless number Indicates flow profile
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Laminar 0

Transition 2000 4000

Turbulent

m/s

kg/m3

Reynolds Number

(Pipe I.D.) ( Velocity) (Density) Viscosity kg/ms


Level 1 - Flow

Rd = ( x v x D)/

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Fluid Properties Example:
Flow conditions; RD = Velocity = 0.5 m/s density = 995.7kg/m V.d. / Temperature = 25C = 0.7 / 1000 kg/ms Viscosity = 0.7cP 0.5 x 0.06 x 995.7 x 1000 /0.7 Pipe ID = 60mm (1 Poise = 0.1 kg/m s) 42,673
13

Flow

= =

i) ii)

Find the Reynolds number for the fluid. Identify the type of flow.
(a) (b) (c) Laminar Transitional Turbulent
Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Fluid Properties
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Pressure & Temperature changes inside process pipe determines which state the steam is in Saturated steam (all vapor)
Steam exactly at its saturation point (SP) temperature & pressure at which liquid turns to vapor (as pressure increases, saturation temperature increases)

Superheated steam
Steam when pressure drop below SP Steam when temperature rise above SP e.g. at 350 psia, saturation temperature for water is 222C. Steam at 350 psia & 278C includes 56C of super heat

Quality steam ( mixture of water liquid & vapor)


Condensed steam when pressure rise above SP Condensed steam when temperature drop below SP
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Pipe Geometry & Conditions Texture of inner walls smooth wall slightly increase fluid velocity rough wall slightly decrease fluid velocity Inside diameter e.g., doubling the diameter increase flow rate by as much as 4 times Vol. flow rate(Qv) = Cross-section area * Velocity = D2/4 * Velocity = D2(/4 x Velocity)
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Flow

Qv
Qv

=
=

(2 2D)2 * (/4 x Velocity) 4 (D2 * (/4 x Velocity))


Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Pipe Geometry & Conditions
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Flow Profile Disturbance factors that cause flow profile to become irregular symmetrical profile
caused by reducers or expanders pipe sections eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

asymmetrical profile
caused by elbows, valves and tees eliminated by inserting appropriate length of straight pipes

swirl
caused by pumps, compressors, or two pipe elbows in different planes eliminated by inserting flow conditioners
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flow terminology


Engineering Units Volumetric Flow Rate Metric Unit Others
StdCuft/s StdCuft/min StdCuft/h StdCuft/d StdCum/h StdCum/d NmlCum/h NmlCum/d
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Flow

m3/s
- Standard Cubic feet per second - Standard Cubic feet per minute - Standard Cubic feet per hour - Standard Cubic feet per day - Standard Cubic meter per hour - Standard Cubic meter per day - Normal Cubic meter per hour - Normal Cubic meter per day

Std Nml

- reference to 14.696 psi Atm. at 68 deg.F - reference to 101.325 Atm. At 0 deg.C


Level 1 - Flow

Flow terminology
Engineering Units Mass Flow Rate Metric Unit Others
lbs/sec lbs/min lbs/hour lbs/day gram/sec grams/min grams/hour kg/min kg/hour
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kg/s
- Pounds per second - Pounds per minute - Pounds per hour - Pounds per day - grams per second - grams per minute - grams per hour - kilograms per minute - kilogram per hour

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flowmeter selection


Specification Accuracy % of rate uncertainty of flow proportional to flow rate
Rate of Flow 100 gpm 50 gpm 20 gpm % of Rate Accuracy 2% of 100 gpm 2% of 50 gpm 2% of 20 gpm Uncertainty Range 98-102 gpm 49-51 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm
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Flow

% of full scale uncertainty of flow remains constant


Rate of Flow 100 gpm 50 gpm 20 gpm % of Rate Accuracy 2% of 100 gpm 2% of 50 gpm 2% of 20 gpm Uncertainty Range 98-102 gpm 49-51 gpm 19.6-20.4 gpm
Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Specification Rangeability (Turndown) Meter maximum maximum flow rate that a flowmeter is capable of reading
commonly used for magnetic, vortex and Coriolis meters
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Application maximum maximum flowrate that occurs in the process flow of a particular application
commonly used for orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes

Repeatability the ability of a flowmeter to produce the same measurement each time it measures a flow
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flowmeter selection


Classes of Flowmeters
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Flow

Flow Technologies
Mass
Coriolis Meter Thermal Meter

Volumetric
Positive Velocity Meter Displacement Meter Oval Nutating disc Gear Gerotor

Head
DP Flow Target Meter Meter

Magnetic Vortex Ultrasonic Turbine

Annubar Orifice Venturi Nozzle Elbow Taps


Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters
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. Displacement Meters measure volume flow rate Qv directly by repeatedly trapping a sample of the fluid. total volume = sample volume * number of samples
High pressure loss

Head Meters (DP Flow Meters) measures fluid flow indirectly by creating & measuring a differential pressure by means of a restriction to the fluid flow

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Flowmeter selection


Classes of Flowmeters
23

Flow

Velocity Meters FLOW is measured inferentially by measuring VELOCITY through a known AREA. With this indirect method, the flow measured is the volume flow rate, Qv. Stated in its simplest term QV = A * v where
A: v: cross-sectional area of the pipe fluid velocity

m3/s = m2 * m/s
A reliable flow measurement is dependent upon the correct measurement of A and v.

Level 1 - Flow

Flowmeter selection
Classes of Flowmeters Mass Meters Infer the mass flow rate via the equation; Qm = Qv * where,
Q m: Qv : : the mass flow rate the volume flow rate fluid density
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kg/s = m3/s * kg.m3 Consist of 2 devices; One device will measure fluid velocity The other device will measure fluid density

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


DP Flow Equation Flow Restriction in Line cause a differential Pressure
Line Pressure (Primary Element) Orifice Plate
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Flow

H.P.

L.P.

QV= K

DP
Constant
Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation
Pressure Transmitter
FT
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Flow Controller
FIC

DP volumetric flow Control


Valve

Primary Element

FE

QV= K

DP

Outputs represent true flow only under specified conditions. Using constants in flow equations assumes a static flow environment. For DP flowmeter output to represent true flow, the following fluid properties must be constant: Fluid density Fluid viscosity,
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


DP Flow Equation For varying fluid density and viscosity Compensation is required to represent TRUE flow
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Flow

QM= K

DP*(P/T)
Takes care of Density only

Partial Compensation

Mass Flow, QM

= = =

Volumetric flow * Density m3/s * kg/m3 kg/s

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation Traditionally way of partially compensated DP mass flow has been accomplished using a system.
Pressure Transmitter (DP) FT Flow Computer FC FIC Flow Controller Control Valve
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Pressure Transmitter PT (AP)

TT Temperature Transmitter + Sensor FE Primary Element

QM= K

DP*(P/T)
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient (Cd) Cd is a correction factor to the theoretical equation.
QM= K DP*(P/T)
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Flow

Cd

Actual_flow Theoretical_flow

Equations for calculating Cd are derived from experimental data. Cd is a function of beta ratio and Reynolds number, and is different for each primary element. (Beta ratio = restriction diam. / pipe diam.)

Gas Expansion Factor (Y1) Density is NOT constant for gases.


Y 1 f , k , P , P 1
for Liquids:

Y1 1
Cp Cv
=<1
Level 1 - Flow

k is the isentropic exponent, a property of gases:

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient vs. RD Cd
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Concentric Square-edge Orifice

CONSTANT 102 103 104 105 GASES


Level 1 - Flow

RD

LIQUIDS

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


DP Flow Equation Discharge Coefficient vs. RD &
Orifice Plate Discharge Coefficients
0.66 0.65 0.64

Flow

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( 4 Flange Taps )
Beta Values are almost constant

Discharge Coefficient

0.63 0.62 0.61

0.6 0.59 0

4 5 10

5 1 10

5 1.5 10

5 5 5 2 10 2.5 10 3 10 Pipe Reynolds Number

5 3.5 10

5 4 10

5 4.5 10

5 5 10

Beta = .75 Beta = .6 Beta = .5 Beta = .4 Beta = .2

Orifice Diam. / Pipe Diam. = Beta d/D =


Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
DP Flow Equation Gas Expansion Factor vs. DP
1 Gas Expansion Factor Gas Expansion Factors 32

0.95

0.9

The higher the line pressure, the more constant Gas Expansion Factor for a variety of DP
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Differential Pressure (inH2O)

0.85

Line Pressure

1000 psi 250 psi 100 psi 50 psi 20 psi

( k=1.3, beta = 0.6 )


Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


Components DP Flow Meters consist of two main components:
Primary 33

Flow

placed in the pipe to restrict the flow. Orifice, Venturi, nozzle, Pitot-static tube, elbow, and wedge. measures the differential pressure.
Using well-established conversion coefficients which depends on the type of head meter used and the diameter of the pipe, a measurement of the differential pressure may be translated into a volume rate. PRIMARY
Level 1 - Flow

Secondary -

SECONDARY

DP flowmeter
Orifice Plate

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Simplest and least expensive. Constrict fluid flow to produce diff. pressure across the plate. Produce high pressure upstream and low pressure downstream. Flow proportional to square of the flow velocity. Greater overall pressure loss compared to other primary devices. Cost does not increase significantly with pipe size (advantage).

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


Venturi Tube

35

Flow

Gradually narrows the diameter of pipe. Resultant drop in pressure is measured. Pressure recovers at the expanding section of the meter. For low pressure drop and high accuracy reading applications Widely used in large diameter pipes.
High Pressure Side
P1 P2

Low Pressure Side

Cross section Area A1 Flow

Cross section Area A2

Q (Actual) =

C x A1 x A 2 x ( A12 - A22 )

2 x ( P1 -P2 )

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Flow Nozzle

High velocity flow meter. Elliptical restriction of flow at nozzle opening. No outlet area for pressure recovery. For application where turbulence is high (Re > 50000) eg.,stream flow at high temperatures. Pressure drop falls betw. That of venturi tube and orifice plate (30-95%)
D D/2 36

High Pressure

Low Pressure

FLOW
D d

NOZZLE
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


Pitot Tube Bernoullis energy balance for an incompressible, non-viscous fluid:
Pf 1
Vf 1 37

Flow

Pf 2

Pf 1

V f 12 2 gc

Pf 2

Stagnation Pressure Sensing - measures a point velocity.

Theoretical Point Velocity

Vf 1 =

2 gc Pf 2 Pf 1

In order to measure accurate flow rate, a pitot traverse is required.


Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
Pitot Tube
High (Impact) Pressure Tap Low (Static) Pressure Tap
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Fluid Flow

High pressure port

Static pressure port

One-point velocity measurement accuracy affected by changes in velocity profile tube must be moved back & forth in the flow stream for average measurement
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


Averaging Pitot Tube (Annubar ) (Annubar)
High Pressure Tap Low Pressure Tap
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Flow

Sharp Edge Blunt Front


Cross section of Annubar H.P. L.P.

Blunt Rear

Fluid Flow

Include several measurement ports over the entire diameter of the pipeline more accurate flow measurement than the regular pitot tube
Level 1 - Flow

DP Flowmeter
Pitot Tube Advantages: Can be inserted through a small opening. Can sample the velocity at many points. Low pressure drop, non-obstrusive. Disadvantages: Pitot traverse requires a technician, and is timeconsuming. Pitot tube is fragile (not suited for industrial app.) DP signal is low. Accuracy depends on the velocity profile. Easily plugged by foreign material in the fluid.
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Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training DP flowmeter


Wedge Flow Element inserted in the process pipe forms a wedged obstruction on the inner wall of the pipe usually used with remote seals for measuring dirty fluids, slurries & fluids at high viscosity (low RD) that tends to build up or clog orifice plates
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Flow

Level 1 - Flow

DP flowmeter
V-Cone
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high accuracy normally lab-calibrated work equally well with short and long straight pipes for customers who have limited room for straight piping requirements can be used with some dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Head Meter


Rotameter Variable-area flowmeters
float inside the tapered tube rises in response to fluid flow rate pressure is higher at the bottom than the top of the tapered tube float rests where the dp between upper & lower surfaces of the float balances the weight of the float flowrate read direct from scale or electronically
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Flow

commonly used for indication only

Level 1 - Flow

Head Meter
Target Meter
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A disc is centered in the pipe with surface positioned at right angle to the fluid flow. Force of the fluid acting against the target directly measures the fluid flow rate. Requires no external connections, seals or purge systems. Useful for dirty or corrosive fluids.

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Head Meter


Target Meter Advantages: Low cost Easily installed and/or replaced No moving parts Suitable for most gases or liquids Available in a wide range of sizes and models
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Flow

Disadvantages: Square-root head/flow relationship High permanent pressure loss Low accuracy Flow rage normal 4:1 Accuracy affected by wear and/or damage of the flow primary element especially with corrosive fluids.
Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Magnetic Flowmeter
Faradays Law of electromagnetic Conductive induction. Process A voltage will be induced in a Medium conductor moving through a Lining magnetic field. Sensing E = kBDV
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D
D

Variable Flow Rate (Feet Per Second) SST Tube Flange

E = magnitude of induced voltage



V = velocity of the conductor D = width of the conductor E B = strength of the magnetic field k = proportionality constant
Magnetic Field B (Constant Strength)

Electrodes

Field Coils

As the conductive process liquid moves through the field with average velocity V, the electrodes sense the induced voltage.
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Velocity Meter


Magnetic Flowmeter Advantages: Obstructionless flow Unaffected by viscosity, pressure, temperature and density Good accuracy No RD constraints Suitable for slurries and corrosive, nonlubricating, or abrasive liquids Wide rangeability (30:1)
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Flow

Disadvantages: Liquid must be electrically conductive Not suitable for gases Can be expensive, particularly in small sizes Must be installed so that the meter is always full

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Turbine Meter
Consist of multi-blade rotors supported by bearings and enclosed in a pipe section. perpendicular to fluid flow. Fluid flow drives the rotor. Rotor Blades Rotor velocity is proportional to overall volume flow rate. Magnetic lines of flux created by a magnetic coil outside the meter.
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Pickup Probe

FLOW

An alternating voltage is produced as each blades cuts the magnetic lines of flux. Each pulse represents a discrete volume of liquid.

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Velocity Meter


Turbine Meter Advantages: High accuracy Rangeability 10:1 Very good repeatability Low pressure drops Can be used on high viscosity fluids (but with lower turndowns)
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Flow

Disadvantages: Moving parts subject to wear Can be damaged by overspeeding High temperature, overspeeding, corrosion, abrasion and pressure transient can shorten bearing life Rather expensive Filtration required in dirty fluids

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Vortex Flowmeter von karman effect (vortex shedding)
As fluid pass a bluff body, it Sensor Force on separates and generates Sensor small eddies/vortices that are shed alternately along and FLOW behind each side of the bluff Vortex Pivoting body. Shedder Axis Force This vortices cause areas of fluctuating pressure that are Shedder Bar detected by a sensor. The frequency of vortex Shedder Bar generation is directly proportional to fluid velocity. FLOW
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Vortices
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Velocity Meter


Vortex Flowmeter Advantages: Good accuracy Usually wide flow range Used with liquids, gases and steam Minimal maintenance (no moving parts) Good linearity over the working range
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Flow

Disadvantages: Not suitable for abrasive or dirty fluids Straight upstream pipe required equal to 30 times pipe diameter or longer Limited by low velocity (RD < 10,000)

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.
Transit-Time Method 2 piezoelectric transducers mounted opposing, to focus sound waves between them at 45 angle to the direction of flow within a pipe. In a simultaneous measurement in the opposite direction to fluid flow, a value (determined electronically) is linearly proportional to the flow rate.
Transmitter Upstream Transducer Receiver 52

FLOW

Downstream Transducer
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Velocity Meter


Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Doppler Effect Method One of the 2 transducer mounted in the same case on one side of the pipe transmits sound waves (constant frequency) into the fluid. Solids or bubbles within the fluid reflect the sound back to the receiver element. Frequency difference is directly proportional to the flow velocity in the pipe.
53

Flow

uses sound waves to determine flow rates of fluids.

Level 1 - Flow

Velocity Meter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters Advantages: Non-intrusive, obstructionless Wide rangeability (10:1) Easy to install (especially for clamp-on version) Cost virtually independent of pipe size The flow measurement is bi-directional
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Disadvantages: Maximum temperature 150C Particular fluid conditions are required (TOF-type: clean liquids; Doppler-type: particles or impurities in the stream) Not very high accuracy (about 2%) Doppler flowmeter clamp-on type requires a pipe of homogeneous material (cement or fibreglass linings must be avoided)
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Mass Meter


Coriolis Meter Operating Principle

Uses a obsructionless U-shaped tube as a sensor Applies Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to determine flow rate. Force = mass x acceleration The flow tube vibrates at its natural frequency by an electromagnetic drive system.
55

Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter Coriolis Effect
Fluid flowing through the upward moving tube, pushes downward against the tube. Fluid flowing out through the downward moving tube, pushes upward against the tube. The combination of upward and downward resistive forces causes the sensor tube to twist (coriolis effect).
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Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Mass Meter


Coriolis Meter Signal Transmission
The amount the tube twist is proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through it. Electromagnetic sensors located at each side of the tube measures the respective velocity of the vibrating tube at these points. The sensor sends this information to the transmitter which gives an output signal directly proportional to mass flow rate.
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Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Coriolis Meter Advantages: High accuracy: 0.25% Relatively low pressure drops Suitable for liquid and gas flow Easy to install Flow range (10:1)
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Disadvantages: Expensive Mounting is critical (no vibration) Heat-tracing is required in some applications

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Mass Meter


Thermal Meter
59

Flow

Works on the principle of heat transfer by the fluid flow


Made up o 3 elements arranged along the direction of motion. high accurate temperature sensor at upstream an electrical heater in between high accurate temperature sensor at downstream The difference between the two temperature readings is proportional to the mass flow rate. (if the thermal properties of the fluid being metered are constant and known).

Level 1 - Flow

Mass Meter
Thermal Meter Advantages: No moving parts Suitable for large size pipe (insertion type) Good rangeability (50:1) Accuracy: 1% FS Low permanent pressure losses
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Disadvantages: Meter sensitive to fluid heat conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat Mostly gas service (only rare liquid service) Specific heat of the fluid must be known and constant i.e. the gas must have a constant composition Proper operation requires no heat losses due to conductive exchanges though the pipe walls
Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training Displacement flowmeter


Oval Gear Meter An example of positive displacement meter
Two meshing oval gears rotate as fluid flows through them Gears trap a known quantity of fluid as they rotate Each complete revolution of both the gears = 4 * amount of fluid that fills the space between the gear and the meter body volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the rotational velocity of the gears
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Flow

Level 1 - Flow

Flow products
Summary Table
Meter Fluids Dirty Fluids No No Some Viscosity Pipe Size Maximum Maximum Pressure Pressure Temp. Loss 6000psig 6000psig Medium-High Medium-High Low 175C Very Low Low 200C 200C High* High 62

DP/Orifice MV/Orifice

Liquid,Gas,steam Liquid,Gas,steam

Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in Low-Medium 0.5 - 40in Low Any

MV/Annubar Liquid,Gas,steam Magmeter Vortex Coriolis Turbine

0.5 - 72+in 6000psig 0.2 - 36in 1400psig 1400psig 4000psig 6000psig

Conductive Fluids Yes Liquid,Gas,steam All Liquid,Gas,steam Some Yes No

Low-Medium 0.5 - 8in Any 0.5 - 6in

Low-Medium 0.5 - 24in

Level 1 - Flow

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Level 1 - Fundamental Training

Flow

Exercise
1. Which of the following would generally provide the best turndown ? (A) DP - Orifice Plate (C) Magnetic Flowmeter (B) V.A.Meter (D) Turbine Meter
Which of the following directly measures mass flow rate, and which volume flow rate. Indicate M or V 2. Magnetic Flowmeter [ ] 3. Vortex Meter [ ] 4. Coriolis Meter [ ] 5. Non-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ] 6. Fully-compensated DP Flowmeter [ ]

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Level 1 - Flow

Exercise
7. The following flowmeters all create some pressure loss. Number them in order, beginning with that which create the least loss. (A) Venturi tube [ ] (B) Positive displacement meter [ ] (C) Magnetic flowmeter [ ] (D) Vortex Meter [ ] (E) Annubar [ ] (F) Orifice plate [ ]

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Level 1 - Flow

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