CFS 106 Mid-Term Exam

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Please read each off the following multiple choice items and choose the best possible answer.

1. The author of your t~t refers to the "unwritten curriculum." What is she referencing?

A. the lesso)l"Plans made by the teacher before the formal classroom time

@the interface between adult and children, where the greatest learning takes place

c. the lesson plans teachers make "on the fly," responding to changes in the classroom environment D. plans for addressing each child as a "whole child"

2. Which of the following is NOT one of the four themes in early childhood teacher training presented in your text?

A. multiculturalism

B. holism @deductivethinking D. professionalism

3. Who has been primarily responsible for bringing the concepts and specifics of childhood stage development to the general public?

~BenjamiryS(ock and T. Barry Brazelton

B. Arnold Gesell

C. Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson

D. Maria Mpmessori

4. Ofthe following types of programs, which is LEAST likely to be funded by government fees?

A. kindergarten

B. Head Start preschool

C. surround care @family child care

5. Four-~-old Hilary goes to a parent-participation nursery school. . arent cooperative preschool.

. Montessori school.

C. parent-based kindergarten. d. home-based visitor program.

Hilary's educational setting is also called a

6. Two college students debate the nature-nurture question. What is the topic oftheir debate?

A. the extent to which childr.¢"a,re extraverted (outgoing) or introverted (quiet)

B. whether children primarffy,Jjfefer an indoor or outdoor environment (~ the benefits and disadvanyt-{es of emergent curriculum

~the relative influence of heredity and environment in a child's development

7. Regarding early philosophical views of children, Rousseau is to __ as Locke is to .

A. little ~/ little devil ®little angel/blank slate

C. little d~ / blank slate

D. little ;(evil / little angel

8. Whose contribution to child development includes the identification of the physical milestones of children's develop~nt?

® Arnold Gesell

B. Je~aget

C. Abrahli!JYMaslow

D. B. F. ~inner

9. If early childhood educator Monica Monez wishes to be consistent with Piaget's ideas about child development, which of the following should she do with her students?

A. Monez should emphasize the right ~rs to particular problems and activities.

B. Monez should mold and shape her s!itfents' behaviors through a system of rewards.

© Monez should provide a rich environment and let the children interact in an exploratory way.

D. Monez should de-emphasize play, especially of the dramatic variety.

10. USin~he theories of Pia get, Freud, and Erikson, an 8-year-old child would best be described as

A. oncrete operational, in a period oflatency, and dealing with issues of industry versus inferiority . . preoperational, in a pha.llic.petiod,-ancLdealingwitirisstteS'oHniti:ati¥e.~guilt. <;_gw.crete""&pet'atienal,-ifr&-pet'ioti"oBateney;~llnd,dealing.~tteS"'()fffitst-'veFSY!Fmistrttst. D~~r.imotor,inltn-t:)l:al.,perioo,deal~with-issues-efaut()nom.)LllefSU!Hloubt";"

11. Caitlyn teaches Sunday School for ine-year-ol children. Having recently studied Erikson's theory, Caitlyn predicts that most of her students will be in WhlC psychosocial stage of development?

A. concrese'Sperations

B. ini~ve versus guilt C.lat~

®industry versus inferiority

12. Among developmental theorists, is to social learning theory as is to sociocultural theory.

@) Sigmund Freud / Erik-Erikson

B. Albert Bandura / Lev Vygotsky

C. Urie Bronfenbrenner I B.Ji~

D. Abraham Maslow I J'MB Piaget

13. Because of his/her beliefs that young children are like seeds that need a gardener (i.e. an educator), created an

institution that came to be known as kindergarten.

A. J. H. Pestalozzi

B. Emmi Pikler

C. Rudolf Steiner ® Friedrich Froebel

14. Regarding brain development, which of the following statements is FALSE?

A. social and emotional development are intimately connected to learning and cognition. /

B. babies are born with many more brain cells than they actually need, so unused connections ~ eliminated through a pruning process.

©using flashcards with infants is a developmentally appropriate practice.

D. scientific research on the brain is proving the idea that the early years matter.

15. Your professor states, "Early childhood education should focus on all aspects of the child from her body to her mind." Which theme of early childhood teacher training is your professor addressing?

A. reflective thinking ®holism

C. multiculturalism

D. professionalism

16. Early childhood education is a branch of education that deals with children from

@birth to age eight.

B. birth to age twelve.

C. preschool age to age eight.

D. preschool age to age twelve.

17. Which organization focuses on preschool and elementary education, publishing books and journals, and sponsoring international study conferences?

A.~

B. NatiooaH?ertref1Or1iif'iii1tS7TOctdlet s, ftftd-FaIflilies

C. Ghihlrell's Defense Fund-

@ Association for Childhood Education International

18. Maintaining confidentiality, engaging in lifelong learning, respecting the requirements of regulating agencies, and adhering to ethical codes are all components of being

A. an elementary teacher

r1t an early childhood P~Qf!?,s~i~nal

C. a quality ratings monitor ~

D. a researcher in human development

19. According to the text, the two key elements in keeping children safe are A,. observation and supervision.

\!!} supervision and a safe environment.

C. redirection and dual focus.

D. self-reflection and a safe e¥onment.

20. Learning theory suggests that obs~~ati;?~s ajole in all ~h of the following?

A. analyzing the behaviors of the learner v

B. identifying the rewards that a learner will find reinforcing

5<.. making a match between the learner and the rewards and environment to create behavioral change ® understanding the internal motivations that influence the learner's behavior V

2 I . Francesca is working on her early childhood education degree. As part of her degree requirements, Francesca will observe a first-grade classroom for three different periods. As an observer, Francesca should do all but which ofthe following?

@assistthe teacher by interacting with the children when they respond to Francesca's presence.

B. make arrangements to observe ahead of time, and check in with the person in charge when she arrives.

C. write down what she sees during the observation without trying to determine the children's or teacher's motives.

D. pay attention to her inner responses and reactions to the observations.

22. According to Magda Gerber, early childhood professionals should approach children with

A. a well-honed set of observation skills.

B. an open heart. @an open mind.

D. a dual-focus.

23. In a story reported in the text, a group of researchers observed that newborn boys cried more often than newborn girls for no apparent reason. The researchers did not think about the fact that the boys had recently been circumcised. What does this story demonstrate about the nature of observation?

A. during observation, the observer may have different reactions to different children.

B. observation is difficult without having dual focus skills.

C. adults can sometimes learn as much about themselves as they do about the children during observations.

~ observation is not easy; sometimes even skilled observers miss the obvious.

24. Julia is a student teacher at Cloud Nine Day Care Center. While the children eat their snacks, her co-worker has to change an infant's diaper. Since her co-worker is gone, Julia moves to the edge of the room in order to keep an eye on things. Now Julia can see what's going on, but has no interaction with the children. Julia's behavior is an example of which type of focus?

A. dual focus

B. narrow focus @ broad focus

D. self-reflective focus

25. What is the most important factor in building cooperation with children and getting them to listen?

A. projecting a professional appearance and attjitfde

B. getting on their level when communicating.9fl d following ~one foot for each year" rule of thumb ~ developing a relationship with the child ,j

D. always smiling and being friendly, avoiding ~ssing negative emotions

26. Regarding e~ye .. C.QJ!l~ with children, all but which of the following are re.<:o~ended? o always look children in the eye, and make certain that they maintain eye conta:rwith you.

B. squat down so that you are at eye level with the child.

C. allow no more than one foot between you and the child for each year of the child's life.

D. reserve shouting for emergency situations only.

27. As a preschool teacher, you observe two children tugging over the same plastic gardening hoe. Given what you have learned about handling conflict, what is your best response?

A. tell the children, "If you can't both play with it nicely, then neither one of you gets to play with it." Then take the toy away, and place it out of sight.

@ get at the children's level, and help them put their feelings into words, while emphasizing that you will not let them hurt each other.

C. approach the children, and ask who had it first. If they do not tell the truth, ask another nearby child to

tell you who had the hoe first.

D. unless they are physically hurting each other, ignore the situation so that they can figure out how to solve problems without adult intervention.

28. Each of the following preschool teachers is dealing with a three-year-old child who is biting other children on the playground. Which teacher is using the best strategy?

o Mr. Abdul removes the child from the playground and explains why he is doing so.v

B. Ms. Barrington bites the child lightly - so slhe can see what it feels like. "

C. Mr. Cravey spanks the child firmly while explaining why biting is wrong.'

D. Ms. Dougherty reprimands the child in front of the group and then places himlher in "time out.'~

29. Sarah Farraday owns a child care center. Sarah would like to help teach her 3-year-old children about proper health and sanitary procedures. Sarah should try all but which of the following?

A. teach the children skiIIs for proper hand-washing

@ teach the children how to help clean the center's bathrooms

C. teach the children rules about not sharing personal items like toothbrushes and food utensils

D. teach the children about caring for personal possessions

30. Four early childhood education students are observing children in a 2-year-old preschool program. Based on the guidelines presented in your text, which student observation is the best?

@"Guillermopicks up a toy and throws it at Rodney."

B. "Guillermo, obviously frustrated with Rodney, picks up a toy and tIlrQws it at Rodney."

C. "Rodney aggravates Guill~o, and Guillermo throws a toy at him."

D. "Guillermo picks up a toy and throws it at Rodney. Guillermo's tendency toward violence has been previously noted."

31. The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale is a tool designed to

A. help children learn ho~o respect the environment

B. rate the environmentel'awareness of school personnel ® rate aspects of quality in early childhood programs

D. research the impact of glopal warming on children

32. All of the following are ECERS-R subscales except:

A. Space and furnishings)

B. Program structure/ @ Accountability standards D. Language-Reasoning

33. Developmentally Appropriate Practice involves teachers making decisions about educating young children based upon all but which of the following

What is known about the typical development of the group of childrenV'

< What is known about the weaknesses of the child's parents What is known about the individual child V

D. What is known about the child's cultural context V

34. According to Gallagher and Mayer, at the heart of what it means to have a relationship are:

A. Respect, Obedience, Happiness, and Trust

B. Modeling, Trust, Acknowledgement, and Respect tel Recognition, Familiarity, Respect, and Commitment '1f None of the above

35. An example of one of the important aspect of respecting infants is

A. keeping them on a schedule

B. being aware of their diapering schedule

);. keeping them off the pacifier after age 18 months ~ being attentive to their cry

36. In the article, "Relationships at the Forefront of Effective Practice," the authors describe the practice of knowing a person's abilities, preferences, contexts, and history as

A. commitment

B. social profiling De) familiarity

"'1J. none of the above

37. All of the following are examples of high quality early education except ~ all children learning to read

'13. children working on projects over long periods of time

C. children playing outside

D. teachers reading books to children throughout the day

38. Which of the following is not a reason given in support of children attending preschool

A. better performance in school

B. having better jobs as adults and paying more taxes

C. being better parents (9 none of the above

39. The guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice are published by which organization?

A. Zero to Three

B. The National Association for the Advancement of Appropriate Practice @ The National Association for the Education of Young Children

D. The National Education Association

40. The suggestion to get down on a child's level and seeing a child's perspective when observing an early childhood environment is advice offered by

~Magda Gerber

1:( Ronald Lally

C. Fred Rogers

D. Jean Piaget

41. Short written descriptions of events or behaviors written down soon after they occur are called

A. meaningless details

B. running records @anecdotal records D. incident reports

42. A way of documenting the movement and behaviors of a particular child within a play environment is called A. positioning

(!i) mapping

C. checklists

D. none of the above

TruelFalse

43. Emergent curriculum describes an approach to early childhood education in which projects are allowed to flow from one into another.

o True

B. False

44. The Children's Defense Fund is the largest and best-known early childhood education organization, and it has taken on responsibility for setting standards in the field of early childhood education.

A. True @False

45. The church's view of children in early Western society can best be summarized as, "Children are blank slates to be shaped by experience."

A. True (!) False

46. According to your text, stimulation of young children's cognitive development and promotion of their academic skills is second~o the development of their emotional health and relationships.

WTrue B. False

47. Upon returning to kindergarten after the weekend, Sarah discovers that the class rabbit has died and begins crying uncontrollably. Sarah's teacher takes Sarah out of the room to comfort her, while the student teacher puts the rabbit in a box and hides it in the closet. The student teacher then puts in a music tape and begins circle time with the other children. The teachers in this example have handled this uncomfortable situation effectively .

. k: True ~False

48. Psychological and sociological researchers have found that smiles have fairly consistent meanings across different cultures.

A. True @False

49. Since crying is not a form of communication, the early childhood professional should focus on making the crying go away when faced with a crying child .

. True

False

50. Dr. Phillips, an early childhood education professor, encourages his students on internship to occasionally "step out of themselves" and view their work experiences from an objective point of view. Phillips' advice will help his students develop dual-focus.

mlTrue )( False

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