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McHenry 1 Annotated Bibliography Homework Assignment:

Koff, Elissa, Connie L. Bauman. Effects of Wellness, Fitness, and Sport Skills Programs on Body Image and Lifestyle Behaviors. Perceptual and Motor Skills 84.2 (1997): 555-562. Ammons Scientific. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. In their article, Elissa Koff and Connie L. Bauman explore the relationship between participating in the three part domain of healthy behaviors; Fitness, Wellness, and Sports Skills, and the ways in which this participation affects an individuals outlook on personal body image and other secular features. Throughout the analysis, the authors examine the ways in which their individual subjects develop their own perceptions about themselves, as well as the physical and mental transitions that the entities experienced, both inward and outward. Finally concluding that there is a, particularly strong case for the positive physical and psychological benefits of wellness courses (561). Overall, I was capable of finding several pertinent quotes throughout the paper, both to support my argument, as well as validate some of the key points I made within my ethnography. Conclusive with the research that I had conducted, as well as the information that was presented in Koffs article, it is quite apparent that women get involved in working out for reasons revolving around the idea that they, want to learn to control their weight through exercise and healthy eating (556). Though, it also brought forth the idea that fitness has become a way to, acquire better strategies for managing stress (556). Never drawing on this notion while I was working on my own ethnography, it helped to stimulate the idea that there may, or may not be, other underlying reasons as to why certain individuals decide to take to the gym. Whether its due to influences by society and media culture, or simply to relieve some stress, it appears that fitness has entered the market in a manner that is radically changing the ways in which it has been previously perceived. Also in the article, I was able to concretely define a psychoanalytical response that our bodies give off once we are done working out. Although it appears to be quite logical at this point in my research, it never made sense why individuals, perceived themselves to be thinner (561). Evident in almost every comment individuals made in Koffs case study, as well as the primary research I did on UNCCs campus, it appears to be a growing ideal in self-perception. That one must reach a point in their fitness level where they can undoubtedly see and feel satisfaction with their bodies and physical appearances, perceiving themselves to be more physically fit, and reporting that they are more actively involved in making health conscious life style changes. This being said, I wish the two authors would have been more detail oriented when they described the characteristics that were involved in each of the three domains of healthy behaviors. Having done primary research, and getting a taste of what might be involved in these areas, it would have been beneficial, and more reasonable, to see how the authors scaled their
Commented [B1]: Make sure that your sources are organized alphabetically according to authors last names.

Commented [B2]: Nice. I think this is a really strong (yet concise) summary.

Commented [DM3]: Do I need to spell out UNCC???

Commented [B4]: Strong, strong analysis so far. And, as for the comment above, you should probably spell it out once and put UNCC in parenthesis after. From that point forward you could just use UNCC.

McHenry 2 research and what variables they utilized when studying each of the individuals. By providing this information, it wouldnt solely enhance the items I found, but also help to validate the depth and logic behind these tests, and the various manners in which they were administered throughout the studies

Commented [B5]: Wonderful work, David. Your summary and analyses are incredibly strong, and I become more and more impressed with your mastery of language by the day

Moore, Justin B., Nathaniel G. Mitchell, Wendy S. Bibeau, John B. Bartholomew. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82.2 (2011): 291-301. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. Justin Moore and colleagues, administered an in-depth study of one hundred and twenty college students, each voluntarily participating in a weight training class, hoping to find a relationship between strength training and ones physical perception of self. Utilizing their various backgrounds in health professions, as well as their extensive research skills, the individuals were able to comprise a complete and comprehensive statistical analysis of those students, as well as pave a forefront of data into the minds of those individuals, and their complex psychological standpoints on societal demands. To my surprise, much of the data gathered through Moores study was of little relevance to my topic, but rather, focused on an in-depth view of how the individuals utilized their time in the gym. Throughout their research, Moore and his contemporaries were able to do a full scale study on how resistance training affected the various muscle groups of the individuals. Despite this set back in research, their was one point that was made, physical acceptance is the amount of regard one holds for a given physical ability (291), leading to an astounding fact found in my research. While studying the men and women who exploited our gyms resources here on campus, I realized that the individuals in Moores study werent any different than those here at UNCC. Rather, it became apparent that through both studies, resistance exercise appeared not sufficient enough to produce feelings of increased acceptance (296). Regardless of the reoccurring concept that resistance training was applied as a medium to increase external physicality, it appeared to have little effect on the overall acceptance of an individual in society. This lead me to the conclusion that many individuals may participate in resistance exercises to the extent of social acceptance, and dont give way to this notion until they reach the point of complete societal recognition and approval. That people respond to success by raising the bar as they increase their ideal strength (297), looking to be accepted by all. Never once looking at whether or not they accepted themselves, and their new found image on the inside. Discounting the single facet of information that I was able to apply to the piece, I feel that this piece lacks so many key pieces of information. With regards to the participants, Moore never

Commented [B6]: Really nice summary, David.

McHenry 3 once supplied his audience with information relevant to the diversity of his sample, but rather with only gender implications. I feel that if the study would have provided the audience with an explication of the diversity of the sample population, Moore would have had a higher reception to his piece, and his conclusive results would be more applicable to comparisons with other articles and studies.

Kersey, Robert D., Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among California Community College Student-Athletes. Journal of Athletic Training 31.3 (1996): 236-245. PMC: United States National Library of Medicine. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. Kersey, in his article, Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among California Community College Student Athletes, resonates a message that is music to athletic departments and drug divisions throughout California, causing a ripple effect to the rest of the United States. In his survey of California college students, Kersey explores the usage, ethnicity, and gender of student athletes, while also trying to figure out the reasons and causes which have been rooted in this underground drug arena. Concluding that, the usage of anabolic-androgenic steroid appears to have declined (240). Corresponding with the data that I had collected, there were several pertinent quotes that would help validate various areas of my paper; especially the portion that deals with drugs and various artificial body supplements. Included in his analysis, Kersey brings up a very important point: the primary source of information concerning anabolic-androgenic steroids among student-athletes came from their instructors/coaches (239). Without proper knowledge about the drugs and the various effects that they can have on a users body, it ultimately results in illconceived ideas that, anabolic-androgenic steroids are drugs that increase athletic performance (237). Also, conclusive with the information presented in my ethnography, as well as Kerseys piece, it appears that these steroids are considered a deep rooted solution for athletic pressures. That these illicit advantages are utilized as a means to, maintain competitive ability against others, as well as mainstream means to gain advantage over the competition. This being said, there was one comment that I had to disagree with. In the conclusion of the study, Kersey states that, more minorities than Caucasians were users (239). In regards to the information that I had acquired through my study, I concluded that in fact, Caucasian males appeared to be the distinct group of individuals who appeared to illicitly acquire and use the steroids. In truth, from what I could see in the weight room and had deemed illicit or not, their was but one black male who even used any form of supplements or vitamins. I feel that if Kersey had performed this on an area outside of the state of California, and on a sample population that went beyond the scope of this study, then he would have acquired data that matched what I had found.

Commented [B7]: This is an incredibly thorough, wellthought out, and interesting analysis. Im so glad that even when you disagree with your scholars youre able to stay in conversation with them.

Commented [B8]: This sentence confuses me a little. Is there a word missing?

Commented [B9]: Make sure that youre always using page numbers with in-text citations.

McHenry 4 Davis, Caroline, Kristina Karvinen, Donald R. McCreary. Personality Correlates of a Drive for Muscularity in Young Men. Elsevier: Personality and Individual Differences 39.1 (2005): 349-359. Science Direct. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. Davis and colleagues, with an extensive collection of data, are able to properly formulate the reasoning behind why men strive to acquire perfection in muscularity, and what ways in which these traits relate to women, as well as affect the whole female population. Through an stimulating and intriguing manner, the authors explore the various social and psychological diseases that females have acquired, and then relate them back to the various psychological disorders that the male population falls under, when participating in resistance training exercises. Eventually acquiring a conclusion that, many of the same personality traits that predict the drive for thinness in young women, also predict the drive for muscularity in young men (356). Often overlooked when talking about why women put so much time and energy into perfecting their appearance, Davis concludes that it is in part societies fault because, they are socialized to view and treat themselves as physical objects, often associated with emotional and behavioral costs (351). Never personally understanding why this was, I sought an even deeper amount of information, realizing that, media often provides benchmarks that help to cultivate unrealistic expectations about muscularity and thinness (356). That women, as well as men, are trained and raised on this narcissistic ideal of being magazine cover perfect, a leading cause in mental disorders such as anorexia nervosa, or supplemental enhancers such as Creatine and Nitrous Oxide boosters. Concluding this for myself, and widening the scope of my explanation, I also realized that men arent very different than their female counterparts. That, rather than voicing their opinions and feelings on their body sizes, men keep them to themselves and find it more mentally stabilizing to fight this battle inside, rather than exposing themselves to the rest of society. Also in this article, Davis and his colleagues performed a study that will be very beneficial in my paper. As a part of their entire research experiment, the scholars asked various questions and proposed false situations in order to make the individuals in the experiment anxious. They believed that by making a male anxious and worrisome about their physical appearance, these individuals would be the ones who would have the largest, drive for muscularity. When finished with the experiment it was found that they received strong support for their prediction. We found that men who were easily made anxious, had strong perfectionistic tendencies, and were highly focused on their physical appearance and their body fitness, tended to report the highest drive for muscularity (355). Finding Davis article interesting, as well as informative, it helped me to once again construct a reliably stable platform to build an argument off of. This being said, I didnt agree with a lot of his opinions and personal conclusions, but did concur with a lot of the findings and research studies that were performed and resolved during the experiment. I felt that if Davis and his colleagues would have tested their opinions, rather than relying on them as true facts, then

McHenry 5 their research would have been much more conclusive, and they would have been able to formulate a narrower scope of facts for the population, rather than assumptions based of their sample data.

Commented [B10]: So far this is an incredibly strong annotated bibliography.

Weisgarber, Krissy D., Darren G. Candow, Emelie S.M. Vogt. Why Protein Before and During Resistance Exercise Has No Effect on Muscle Mass and Strength in Untrained Young Adults. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 22.6 (2012): 463-470. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. In their article, Wesigarber and his co-authors address a question that is always on trial: whether or not Whey protein before and during resistance exercise, has any effect on muscle growth. To test the question, the scholars utilized the assistance of twenty males and females who varied in diet, weight, level of exercise, and strength, and had them complete a variety of resistance drills, each individual monitoring their own growth. At the end of the study, all participants submitted their data and a statistical analysis was performed. In conclusion, it was found that, the ingestion of Whey protein immediately before the start of exercise, and again after each training set, has no effect on muscle mass and strength in untrained young adults (463). Overall, I was able to find a few quotes that will not only be pertinent in my ethnography, but serve as defense and support to the arguments present in both my research, as well as the paper itself. Irrefutable based on the research conducted, it is undoubtedly true that young adults utilize the, additive effects of protein and carbohydrates together (468). That these young people crave the supposed, muscle protein accretion (463). With these groundbreaking results, it opened my eyes to another indisputable notion that corresponds with the results of my study. Whey protein, sold at vitamin stores and other market retailers, is promoted with little to no medical evidence like so many of the other muscle enhancers. Rather, the reason why these protein supplements are sold on such a large scale basis is because of their popularity and wide variety of concentrations and tastes; each manipulating the minds of the consumer. Unknowledgeable of the true results of the Whey protein, consumers push themselves farther both mentally and physically, due to a false apparition that these supplements promote. In reality though, these individuals are causing a psychological reaction in their brains which doesnt tell them to quit when they are tired, leading to the rapid growth in muscle size and strength. They are removing the mental capacity which regulates lack of strength, and implementing this internal chemical reaction, which bypasses the bodies message of weakness. Weisgarber also points out the fact that, diet and exercise alone can lead to muscle growth and development, as long as you consume the proper amount of protein recommended for your daily intake (467). In other words, rather than flocking to supplements and other vitamin or protein mixes, simply eating right and exercising properly can further strengthen and

McHenry 6 increase muscle mass within the individual. This is something that I would also have to agree with, not only because it has been proven throughout the ages, in an uncountable number of studies, but also because, as stated above, Whey protein consumption is in part linked to a growing trend of popularity. The human population evolved and thrived without the extra doses of whey protein, so why all of the sudden do we require such a necessity in the lives of young adults, particularly those who work out. Without lack of agreement with the information that was contained within the journal, I feel that Weisgarber and his fellow scholars performed and articulated their information in a fashion unequitable. The only thing I could see that they could do in order to better themselves, would to have compared the effects of ingestion of whey protein before, during, and after acute and longer term resistance exercises in young and older adults. This way, not only would it validate the information to a larger extent, but it would also add a notion that would be considered unassailable in studies to come.

Commented [B11]: Im a little confused as to how youre going to use this particular article in your own research.

David, This is an incredibly strong draft. Truth be told, I have a hard time finding many points for revision. Your summaries are clear and concise, yet detailed enough to really give your reader a feel for the article at hand. Your analyses are amazing. Not only are you consistently in conversation with your scholars, but you are able to both agree and disagree with them in ways that are relevant to your own research. Further, the language used throughout is both formal and engaging. Its been a pleasure to watch you grow as a writer over this last year. All that being said, I only have two points for revision. First, make sure that youre always including page numbers with in-text citations. You do it for the most part, but there were a few spots where it seems like you may have forgotten. Second, you may want to be more explicit about how youre going to use the information from your final annotated bib entry in your own research. I can sort of see how the information correlates with what youre doing, but Im not quite sure I see how you can use this information to your advantage. Wonderful, wonderful work on the whole.