# Analyzing quantitative data

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all were in the wrong. One grasps the tail and thinks it is like a rope. One feels the knee and thinks the elephant is like a tree. One touches the squirming trunk and thinks the elephant is like a snake. They argue long and loud and though each was partly in the right. One feels the tusk and thinks the elephant is a like a spear. For a detailed version of this fable see: http://www. One touches the ear.Indian fable Things aren‟t always what we think! Six blind men go to observe an elephant.info/words/index/info/view_unit/1/?letter=B&spage=3 2 .wordinfo.Blind men and an elephant . One feels the side and thinks the elephant is like a wall. and thinks the elephant is like a fan.

3 .Common myths • Complex analysis and big words impress people. • Quantitative analysis is the most accurate type of data analysis. – We think about analysis upfront so that we HAVE the data we WANT to analyze. • Analysis comes at the end after all the data are collected. – Some think numbers are more accurate than words but it is the quality of the analysis process that matters. – Most people appreciate practical and understandable analyses.

hand tabulation may be more efficient. it is more honest and responsible to acknowledge them. Numbers do not speak for themselves. – It depends upon the size of the data set and personal competencies. – Data must be interpreted. • Stating limitations to the analysis weakens the evaluation.Common myths cont… • Data have their own meaning. – All analyses have weaknesses. 4 . For small sets of information. • Computer analysis is always easier and better.

interpreting the information • lessons learned 4. organizing the data 2.Quantitative data analysis is making sense of the numbers to permit meaningful interpretation It involves: 1. doing the calculations 3. explaining limitations 5 .

1. Organizing the data • Organize all forms/questionnaires in one place • Check for completeness and accuracy • Remove those that are incomplete or do not make sense. keep a record of your decisions • Assign a unique identifier to each form/questionnaire 6 .

Enter your data • By hand • By computer – Excel (spreadsheet) – Microsoft Access (database mngt) – Quantitative analysis: SPSS (statistical software) 7 .

uwex.edu/pdf/G3658-6.pdf 8 .2. Do the calculations – – – – – – – – – – Count (frequencies) Percentage Mean Mode Median Range Standard deviation Variance Ranking Cross tabulation See the booklet. Analyzing Quantitative Data for help with how to do each of these calculations http://learningstore.

Do you want to know how many individuals checked each answer? Do you want the proportion of people who answered in a certain way? Do you want the average number or average score? Frequency Percentage Mean Do you want the middle value in a range of values Median or scores? Do you want to show the range in answers or scores? Do you want to compare one group to another? Do you want to report changes from pre to post? Do you want to show the degree to which a response varies from the mean? Range Cross tab Change score Standard deviation 9 .Which calculation do I use? It depends upon what you want to know.

Or. What do these numbers mean? Interpretation is the process of attaching meaning to the data. 25% of participants rated the program a 5 and 75% rated it a 4.3. what does it mean that 55 youth reported a change in behavior. Interpreting the information Numbers do not speak for themselves. For example. 10 .

So. hold a meeting with key stakeholders to discuss the data.Interpretation demands fair and careful judgments. ask individual participants what they think 11 . Often the same data can be interpreted in different ways. Think of ways you might do this…for example. it is helpful to involve others or take time to hear how different people interpret the same information.

This helps ensure that the results are used.Part of interpreting information is identifying the lessons learned What did you learn? – about the program. 12 . – Are there any „ah-has‟? What is new? What was expected? – Were there findings that surprised you? – Are there things you don‟t understand very well – where further study is needed? We often include recommendations or an action plan. about the participants. about the evaluation.

. <60% response rate on a survey) 13 .g.4. Discuss limitations Written reports: • Be explicit about your limitations Oral reports: • Be prepared to discuss limitations • Be honest about limitations • Know the claims you cannot make – Do not claim causation without a true experimental design – Do not generalize to the population without random sample and quality administration (e.

see the pdf file.Common errors in analyzing quantitative data • Incorrect denominator when calculating the percentage • Do not average percentages • Using a single average that distorts or misrepresents the range of information For explanations. “Tips for quantitative data analysis” on the web site 14 .

Have fun analyzing your quantitative data!! 15 .