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Botkin & Keller: Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet 8th Edition Guided Reading Assignment: Energy Unit-

Chapters 14-15 Chapter #1 ! Energ": Some Basics 1: How does the energy crisis in Ancient Greece and Rome compare to the oil crisis today? E#plain$ The ancient Greece and rome use to use natural ossil uels li!e coal and wood" #ut they ran into pro#lems so they turned to solar energy #y using glass windows to increase the e ecti$eness o solar heat" they also de$eloped greenhouses to raise ood during the winter% &hich is what we are starting to do today with oil lessening% Energ" Basics ': &hat is (work? The product o a orce times a distance %e&inition and mathematical e'uation$ The strength o a orce can #e measured #y how much it accelerates an o#)ect% Define the following: ( Chemical Energ": the potential o a chemical su#stance to undergo a trans ormation through chemical reaction or to trans orm other chemical su#stances% ( Kinetic Energ": energy that #ody possesses #y $irtue o #eing in motion ( )eat Energ": The le$el o acti$ity or the molecules in an o#)ect% ( *otential Energ": energy possessed #y a #ody o $irtue o its position relati$e to others" stresses within itsel " electric charge" and other actors% *: &hat is the (first law of thermodynamics? +rincipal that energy cannot #e created or destroyed #ut is always consered% 4: &hat does it mean to ha$e a (higher quality of energy? ,t-ll #e easier to con$ert to wor!% 5: &hat is the (second law of thermodynamics? Energy always tends to go rom a more usa#le .high /uality0 orm to a less usa#le .lower /uality0 orm% Energ" E&&icienc" 1: 2e ine: +irst!,a- E&&icienc" it deals with the amount o energy without any consideration o the /uality or a$aila#ility o the energy% 3: 2e ine: Second!,a- E&&icienc" re ers to how well matched the energy ed use is with the /uality o the energy source%

Energ" .nits 4: &hat is the fundamental energy unit in the 5etric 6ystem? How is it defined? ,s the )oule one )oule is de ined as a orce o 1 newton% 7: &hat is */0ER? How is it expressed? The rate o energy use which is energy di$ided #y time%it is e8pressed as )oules per second or watts: 1 )oule per second is e/ual to 1 watt% 19: &hat is thermal e&&icienc"? The ma8imum possi#le e iciency o a heat engine% 11: &hat is electrical resistivit"? &hat does it cause? The wires that transport electricity .power lines0 ha$e a natural resistance to electrical low% ,t con$erts some o the electric energy in the transmission lines to heat energy which is radiated into the en$ironment surrounding the lines% Energ" Sources and Consumption 1': What percentage of the energy in the United 6tates is deri$ed rom ossil uels? 79: 1*: &hat percentage o the energy use in the United 6tates is used e iciently? '9: Energy Conser$ation" ,ncreased E iciency and Cogeneration 2e ine the ollowing: 14: Conservation: re ers simply to using less energy and ad)usting our energy needs and uses to minimi;e the amount o high e/uality energy necessary or a gi$en tas!% 15: Cogeneration define and give an exa!ple": includes a num#er o processes designed to capture and use waste" heat" rather than simply releasing it into the atmosphere" water or other parts o the en$ironment as a thermal pollutant% E<: natural gas com#ined cycle power plant that produces electricity in two ways: gas cycle and steam cycle% 11: ,n the United 6tates" space heating and cooling o homes and o ices" water heating" industrial processes and automo#iles account or nearly 112311114 o the total energy use Building %esign 13: &hat is a passi$e solar energy system? #ive exa!ples$ Collects solar heat without using mo$ing parts li!e windows and o$erhanging structures to #e positioned so that the o$erhangs shade the windows rom solar energy in summer there#y !eeping the house cool% 14: &hat are some ways that older ho!es can #e modi ied to #e more energy e icient? ,nsulation" caul!ing" weather stripping" installation o window co$ering and storm windows and regular maintenance%

5ndustrial Energ" 17: U%6% ,ndustry consumes a#out 1111671111 o the energy produced% =alues" Choices and Energy Conser$ation '9: 8ame 7 -a"s that people could modi y their #eha$ior to help sa$e energy uel e iciency smaller cars with engines constructed o lighter materials hy#rid cars > com#ine a uel #urning engine and electric motor% '1: &hat is the concept o 5ntegrated9 Sustaina:le Energ" ;anagement< ?ot a single energy source" #ut a mi8ture o energy sources that are relia#le and sustaina#le% ;icropo-er '': &hat is the concept o micropower? @ smaller" distri#uted systems or production o electricity the use is or emerging in #oth de$eloped and de$eloping countries% Critical =hinking 5ssue: .se o& Energ" =oda" and in >?7? '*: How much energy in e8a)oules" did the world use in '919 and what would you pro)ect glo#al energy use to #e in '9*9? The use was '59 e8a)oules in '919% , wouldn-t #e surprised i it dou#led or may#e e$en tripled #y '9*9% '4: The a$erage person emits as heat 199 watts o power% , we assume that '5: o it is emitted #y the #rain" how much energy does your #rain emit as heat in a year? 199 watts A %'5 B '5 watts '5 watts A *15 days B 71'5 watts o energy rom the #rain '5: Can the world supply one-third more energy #y '9*9 without unaccepta#le en$ironmental damage? How? ?o #ecause as o now we are o$erusing the small amount we ha$e le t% 5y guess is #y '9*9 some i not most o the resources we use daily now will #e gone which will lead us to ha$ing to loo! or some other way to get our resources resulting in harming the planet e$en more% '1: ,n what speci ic ways could energy #e used more e iciently in the United 6tates? Education is always !ey% , more people !new a#out the pro#lems and were gi$en solutions they would #e willing to help% @nother is starting groups and spea!ing out in pu#lic to ma!e people aware o the cause% @ third one could #e the go$ernment ta!ing control and passing energy conser$ing laws%

Chapter #13: +ossil +uels and the Environment 1: &hat is *eak /il? &hat is predicted to happen when we reach pea! oil? The time when one hal o Earth-s oil has #een e8ploited% &hat is predicted is the need to ind alternati$es and ind a smooth way to transition to other energy sources% +ossil +uels ': How were fossil f%els created? They are orms o stored solar energy% *: The ma)or ossil uels- crude oil" natural gas and coal- are our primary energy sourcesC they pro$ide appro8imately 11@?411111 o the energy consumed worldwide% Crude /il and 8atural Gas 4: 0here were crude oil and natural gas deposits created? They deri$e rom organic material that were #uried with marine or la!e sediments in what are !nown as depositional #asins% Dil and gas are ound primarily along geologically young tectonic #elts at plate #oundaries " where large depositional #asins are more li!ely to occur% 5: &hy do we not ind oil and gas in geologically old rocks? Dil and gas are light" i their upward mo#ility is not #loc!ed then they will escape to the atmosphere which is why they are generally ound in old roc!s% 1: &hat the favora&le rock str%ct%re to trap oil and gas deposits? @ cap roc!" it is usually a $ery ine grained sedimentary roc!% They li!e it there #ecause the roc! helps orm the trap which is the migration o the oil and gas to the sur ace that is interupted% *etroleum *roduction 3: How much oil can #e reco$ered rom wells #y primar" production? '5: 4: &hat are enhanced recovery techni'%es o oil and gas deposits? 6team" water" or chemicals li!e car#on dio8ide are in)ected into the oil reser$oir to push the oil toward the wells wherer it can #e more easily reco$ered #y pumping% 7: Where are 19: o the total !nown reser$es ound? 5iddle East 19: &hen will world oil production li!ely to pea!? ?e8t ew decades%

8atural Gas 11: How is natural gas primarily transported? Ey pipelines% 1': &hy is natural gas considered to #e a clean f%el? Eurning produces ewer pollutants than #uringin oil or coal so less en$ironmental pro#lems compared to other ossil uels% Coal!Bed ;ethane 1*: &hat is coal!:ed methane and how !%ch is estimated to e8ist? .How !any years does this represent?" it-s methane stored on the sur aces o organic matter in coal% '9 trillion cu#ic meters is estimated to e8ist represents 5 years% 14: &hat are the *R/S and C/8S o drilling or and using coal-#ed methane? +FD6: drilling in shallow depths" com#ustion produces less methane" a good energy source CD?6: not enough money to co$er damage" methane can mo$e away rom well sites Black Shale 8atural Gas 15: &hat are some o the concerns o h"drologic &racturing or #lac! shale natural gas? &ater pollution" contaminated water could migrate upward and lea! rom the wells to pollute water supply% ;ethane )"drates 11: &hat are methane h"drates composed o ? How were they for!ed? @ white ice li!e compound made up o molecules o methane gas molecular cages o ro;en water% They are ormed as a result o micro#ial digestion o organic matter in the sediments o the sea loor and has #ecome trapped in these ice cages% 13: Where do methane hydrates orm? They orm are ound in the oceans and are widespread in #oth the +aci ic and @tlantic oceans% They are also ound on land% =he Environmental E&&ects o& /il and 8atural Gas 14: &hat are some o the en$ironmental e ects o recovery o oil and gas? +ollution o sur ace waters and groundwater rom lea!s rom #ro!en pipes or tan!s containing oil or other oil ield chemicals" and salty water #rought to the sur ace in large $olumes with the oil% 17: &hat are some o the en$ironmental e ects o refining o oil and gas? @ccidental spills and slow lea!s o gasoline and other products rom storage tan!s and pipes%

'9: &hat are some o the en$ironmental e ects o delivery and %se o oil and gas? The danger o oil spills% '1: &hat are some arguments +/R and AGA58S= drilling in the A80R AAlaskan 8ational 0ildli&e Re&ugeB? GDF: U%6 needs oil leads us to #e more independent" oil acilities will #ring )o#s" new drilling practices ha$e less impact on the en$ironment CD?6: ice roads are constructed rom water rom tundra ponds to #uild a road 1! long will re/uire a#out *"149m* o water" hea$y $ehicles used in e8ploration permanently scar the ground e$en i the ground is ro;en hard when the $ehicles tra$el across the open tundra% Coal '': &hat is C/A,? How is it created? &hen partially decomposed $egetation is #uried in sedimentary en$ironment it will slowly trans orm into the solid #rittle car#onaceous roc! called coal% '*: 0hich t"pe o coal has the greatest energy content? &hich type has the lowest? The greatest is anthracite and the lowest is lignite% Coal ;ining and the Environment '4: &hat is strip mining? @ sur ace mining process in which the o$erlying layer o soil and roc! is stripped o to reach the coal% '5: &hat are some o the environ!ental i!pacts o strip mining? @cid mine drainage polluting streams and groundwater as well as drains rom underground mines and rom roads cut in areas wehre coal and pyrie are a#undant% ;ountaintop Removal '1: &hat are some o the environ!ental i!pacts o mountaintop remo$al? Coal dust" lung disease% 5ountain tops get destroyed and $alleys are illed with waste roc! and lood ha;ard increase% '3: &hat does the ((%rface )ining *ontrol and +ecla!ation ,ct of -.// re/uire? ,t re/uires that mined lands #e restored to support the pre-mining use% .nderground ;ining '4: Underground 5ining accounts or appro8imately 11 ?111: o the coal mined in the United 6tates '7: &hat are the dangers to miners in underground mining? Collapses o mine sha t" respiratory illnesses" and e8plosions%

*9: &hat are the environ!ental i!pacts o underground mining? Hand su#sidence" coal ires and acid mine drainage =ransporting Coal *1: How is most o the coal transported in the United 6tates? 5ostly #y train% =he +uture o& Coal *': The #urning o coal produces nearly 113?114 o the electricity used and a#out I1>3II: o the total energy consumed in the United 6tates today **: How much air emissions are created using coal to create electricity in the U%6%? 39: sul ur dio8ide" *9: nitrogen and *5: car#on dio8ide is what is used to create coal% *4: &hat did the Clean Air Amendment o& 1@@? mandate? That sul ur dio8ide emissions rom coal #urning power plants e$entually #e cut to 39-79: *5: &hat is allo-ance trading? @n approach to manage U%6 coal resources and reducing pollution% /il Shale and =ar Sands *1: &hat is oil shale? How is it created and where is it fo%nd? ,s a ine grained sedimentary roc! containing organic matter% ,t-s ormed #y syn uels and ound in U%6 Green Fi$er ormation and the 5iddle East% *3: &hat are the environ!ental i!pacts o de$eloping oil shale? &aste disposal =ar Sands *4: &hy canJt petroleum #e reco$ered rom tar sands rom con$entional methods? The oil is too thic! to low easily% *7: How are tar sands processed? Ey mining the sands then you wash the oil out with water%