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English Advanced Vocublary

Part II [ Sat Vocublary ,Phrasal Verbs ,& Idioms ]

Muhammad Rabea

M.M2014

jubilant (adj.) extremely joyful, happy (The crowd was jubilant when the firefighter carried the woman from the flaming building.) knell (n.) the solemn sound of a bell, often indicating a death (Echoing throughout our village, the funeral knell made the grey day even more grim.) lithe (adj.) graceful, flexible, supple (Although the dancers were all outstanding, Joannas control of her lithe body was particularly impressive.) lurid (adj.) ghastly, sensational (Barrys story, in which he described a character torturing his neighbour's tortoise, was judged too lurid to be published on the English Library's website.) maverick (n.) an independent, nonconformist person (John is a real maverick and always does things his own way.) maxim (n.) a common saying expressing a principle of conduct (Ms. Stones etiquettemaxims are both entertaining and instructional.) meticulous (adj.) extremely careful with details (The ornate needlework in the brides gown was a product of meticulous handiwork.) modicum (n.) a small amount of something (Refusing to display even a modicum of sensitivity, Magda announced her bosss affair to the entire office.) morose (adj.) gloomy or sullen (Davids morose nature made him very unpleasant to talk to.) myriad (adj.) consisting of a very great number (It was difficult to decide what to do on Saturday night because the city presented us with myriad possibilities for fun.) nadir (n.) the lowest point of something (My day was boring, but the nadir came when my new car was stolen.)

nominal (adj.) trifling, insignificant (Because he was moving the following week and needed to get rid of his furniture more than he needed money, Kim sold everything for anominal price.) novice (n.) a beginner, someone without training or experience (Because we were allnovices at archery, our instructor decided to begin with the basics nuance (n.) a slight variation in meaning, tone, expression (The nuances of the poem were not obvious to the casual reader, but the teacher was able to point them out.) oblivious (adj.) lacking consciousness or awareness of something (Oblivious to the burning smell emanating from the kitchen, my father did not notice that the rolls in the oven were burned until much too late.) obsequious (adj.) excessively compliant or submissive (Donald acted like Susans servant, obeying her every request in an obsequious manner.) obtuse (adj.) lacking quickness of sensibility or intellect (Political opponents warned that the prime ministers obtuse approach to foreign policy would embroil the nation in mindless war.) panacea (n.) a remedy for all ills or difficulties (Doctors wish there was a single panacea for every disease, but sadly there is not.) parody (n.) a satirical imitation (A hush fell over the classroom when the teacher returned to find Magdalena acting out a parody of his teaching style.) penchant (n.) a tendency, partiality, preference (Fionas dinner parties quickly became monotonous on account of her penchant for Indian dishes.) perusal (n.) a careful examination, review (The actor agreed to accept the role after a three-month perusal of the movie script.) plethora (n.) an abundance, excess (The wedding banquet included a plethora of oysters piled almost three feet high.)

predilection (n.) a preference or inclination for something (James has a predilection for eating toad in the whole with tomato ketchup.) quaint (adj.) charmingly old-fashioned (Mary was delighted by the quaint bonnets she saw in Romania.) rash (adj.) hasty, incautious (Its best to think things over calmly and thoroughly, rather than make rash decisions.) refurbish (v.) to restore, clean up (After being refurbished the old Triumph motorcycle commanded the handsome price of $6000.) repudiate (v.) to reject, refuse to accept (Tom made a strong case for an extension of his curfew, but his mother repudiated it with a few biting words.) rife (adj.) abundant (Surprisingly, the teachers writing was rife with spelling errors.) salient (adj.) significant, conspicuous (One of the salient differences between Alison and Helen is that Alison is a couple of kilos heavier.) serendipity (n.) luck, finding good things without looking for them (In an amazing bit ofserendipity, penniless Mark found a $50 bill on the back seat of the bus.) staid (adj.) sedate, serious, self-restrained (The staid butler never changed his expression no matter what happened.) superfluous (adj.) exceeding what is necessary (Samantha had already won the campaign so her constant flattery of others was superfluous.) sycophant (n.) one who flatters for self-gain (Some see the people in the cabinet as the Prime Ministers closest advisors, but others see them as sycophants.) taciturn

(adj.) not inclined to talk (Though Magda never seems to stop talking, her brother is quite taciturn.) truculent (adj.) ready to fight, cruel (This club doesnt really attract the dangerous types, so why was that bouncer being so truculent?) umbrage (n.) resentment, offence (He called me a lily-livered coward, and I took umbrage at the insult.) venerable (adj.) deserving of respect because of age or achievement (The venerable High Court judge had made several key rulings in landmark cases throughout the years.) vex (v.) to confuse or annoy (My boyfriend vexes me by pinching my bottom for hours on end.) vociferous (adj.) loud, boisterous (Im tired of his vociferous whining so Im breaking up with him.) wanton (adj.) undisciplined, lewd, lustful (Joannas wanton demeanor often made the frat guys next door very excited.) zenith (n.) the highest point, culminating point (I was too nice to tell Emily that she had reached the absolute zenith of her career with that one top 10 hit of hers.) A Idioms

about to (do something) - to be on the point of doing something I was about to leave when the phone rang. according to (someone or something) - as said or told by someone, in agreement with something, in the order of something, in proportion to something According to our teacher, there will be no class next week. We did everything according to the terms of our agreement.

We will dress for the hike, according to the weather. account for (something) - to provide an explanation or an answer for something The bad weather accounts for the fact that few people came to the meeting. after all - considering the fact that something happened or happens, something that is usually assumed "You don't need to phone him. After all, he never phones you." all of a sudden - suddenly, without advance warning All of a sudden, it became cloudy and began to rain. as a matter of fact - actually "As a matter of fact, we have been to the sports stadium many times." as far as - to the extent or degree of something As far as I know, the movie will start in a few minutes. as for - with regard to, concerning "As for myself, I think that I will return home now." as if - in the same way that something would be, that The drink tastes as if it were made with orange juice. It seemed as if the whole school came to the concert. as long as

- provided that, on condition that "As long as you promise to be careful, you can borrow my car." as soon as - just after something, when I phoned my friend as soon as I finished dinner. as to - with regard to, according to "As to your question, I will answer it tomorrow." The players were put into groups as to their ability. as well - in addition, also, too I plan to take swimming lessons this summer. I plan to take a computer course as well. as well as (someone or something) - in addition to someone or something "Please bring your swimming suit as well as your towel."

B Idioms

back and forth - backwards and forwards, first one way and then the other way The argument with the lawyer went back and forth before the judge made a decision. better off - to be in a better situation than before My friend would be better off if he sold his old car and bought a new one.

break down (something) or break (something) down - to divide something into parts, to separate something into simpler substances We tried to break down the problem for further study. The sugar began to break down soon after it was swallowed. break up or break up (something) or break (something) up - to separate, to divide into groups or pieces, to put an end to something I hope that my favorite band does not break up. The students did not want to break up their groups. The coach decided to break the team up into small groups. by the way - incidentally "By the way, could you please bring your laptop computer tomorrow."

C Idioms

carry out (something) or carry (something) out - to put something into action, to accomplish something, to do something The scientist wanted to carry out more experiments before discussing the new medicine. come on! - please, hurry, go faster "Come on, I only have a few minutes before I must go." "Come on, stop doing that." come up - to happen unexpectedly I will not be able to go to the party if something else comes up. come up with (something)

- to produce or find a thought or idea or answer I tried to come up with a name for the new magazine.

D Idioms

deal with (something) - to be concerned with something, to take action about something We will deal with the boxes tomorrow.

E Idioms

end up (doing something or going somewhere) - to do something that one had not planned to do, to go somewhere one had not planned to go We ended up watching a movie last night. We ended up going to a restaurant after the movie last night.

F Idioms

figure out (someone or something) or figure (someone or something) out - to try to understand someone or something, to solve something I finally figured out how to use the new computer software. fill in (something) or fill (something) in - to write words in blank spaces "Please fill in this form and give it to the receptionist." I filled the form in and gave it to the receptionist.

find out (something) - to learn or discover something My mother is angry with me because she found out that I had quit my French class. first of all - the very first thing First of all, we prepared the garden and then we planted the seeds. for good - permanently The city plans to close the public swimming pool for good. for sure - without doubt, certainly, surely "I will go to the movie with you for sure next week."

G Idioms

get back to (something) - to return to something I was happy to get back to my work after my holiday. get into (something) - to become interested or involved in something I do not want to get into an argument with my friend. We will get into the details of the plan tomorrow. get into (somewhere) - to enter somewhere

My friend wants to get into a good university. I bumped my head as I was getting into the car. get out of (somewhere) - to leave somewhere, to escape from somewhere I have an appointment and I want to get out of my house quickly. get rid of (something) - to give or throw something away, to sell or destroy something, to make a cold or fever disappear I bought a new television so I want to get rid of my old one. get through (something) - to complete something, to finish something My friend is having trouble getting through her final exams. I have much reading that I must get through before tomorrow. go ahead - to begin to do something "Let`s go ahead and start now. We can`t wait any longer." go on - to continue The game will probably go on for an hour after we leave. go over (something) - to examine or review something The accountant will go over our books tomorrow. We plan to go over that question tomorrow. go through (something) - to discuss something, to look at something, to do something The teacher decided to go through the exercise before the test.

go with (something) - to choose one thing rather than another We decided to go with the small rental car rather than the large one.

H Idioms

hang out (somewhere or with someone) - to spend one`s time with no great purpose, to spend leisure time with friends Recently, my friend has been hanging out with a bad group of people. have (something) to do with (something) - to be about something, to be on the subject of something, to be related to something "The book has something to do with cooking but I am not sure if you will like it." That problem has nothing to do with me. hold on - to wait a minute, to stop, to wait and not hang up the phone "Please hold on for a minute while I lock the door." "Hold on, don't say anything, I can't hear the speaker."

I Idioms

in a way - to a certain extent, a little, somewhat In a way, I want to go to the new restaurant, but in a way I do not really care. in case - if, if something should happen

I will take my umbrella in case it rains. in common - shared together or equally, in use or ownership by all I had nothing in common with the other members of the class. in detail - giving all the details, item by item The saleswoman explained the new product in detail. in effect - for practical purposes, basically The man's silence was in effect a way of disagreeing with the other people in the meeting. in fact - actually, the truth is The man has been to China before. In fact, he has been there three times. in favor of (someone or something) - to approve or support someone or something Everybody is in favor of the new police chief. My company is not in favor of changing our holiday schedule. in general - in most situations or circumstances In general, most of the people are happy with the new manager. in order to - for the purpose of They have decided to close down the school for the summer in order to do some major repairs. in other words

- in a different (usually more direct) way "In other words, if you do not finish the assignment by Wednesday, you will not pass the course." in place - in the proper place or location Everything in the room was in place when we arrived for the meeting. in some ways - in some unspecified way or manner, by some unspecified means In some ways, I know what my friend wants to say but in other ways, I do not. in terms of (something) - with regard to something In terms of our agreement with the other company, we are not allowed to sell the products online. in time - with enough time to do something, within a certain time, before a time limit expires I did not arrive home in time to meet my cousin. The girl is working hard to finish her homework in time to go to a movie.

K Idioms

keep (someone or something) in mind - to remember and think about someone or something I told my friend to keep the time that I must leave for work in mind. If I need someone to help fix my computer, I usually keep my friend in mind. kind of - somewhat, more or less, moderately

I was kind of tired when I arrived home last night.

L Idioms

look for (something) - to try to find something, to hunt or search for something My friend has been looking for her credit card all morning but she cannot find it. look up (something) or look (something) up - to search for something in a dictionary or other book I will look up my friend's name in the telephone book. I looked the word up in the dictionary.

M Idioms

make a difference - to cause a change in a situation, to change the nature of something It does not make a difference whether our boss comes to the meeting or not. If I study hard this weekend, it should make a difference in my test results next week. make sense - to seem reasonable The manager's new proposal makes sense. make sure - to make certain, to establish something without a doubt I want to make sure that my friend will meet me tomorrow. more or less

- somewhat, to some extent I more or less have decided to study business next year.

N Idioms

no matter - regardless No matter how hard that I try, my music teacher is never satisfied. not at all - certainly not, absolutely not I am not at all happy with my new computer.

O Idioms

of course - certainly, definitely, naturally "Of course you can use my car if you want to." on the other hand - however, in contrast, looking at the opposite side of a matter He is very intelligent but on the other hand he is lazy and always gets low marks at school. on time - at the scheduled time, exactly at the correct time, punctually Our train arrived exactly on time. once again

- again, one more time, once more I tried once again to phone my boss at his home . open to (something) - to be agreeable to learn or hear about new ideas or suggestions Most members of the class were open to the teacher's ideas. Our boss is always open to new ideas.

P Idioms

pick up (something) or pick (something) up - to get or receive something I will pick up my dry cleaning tomorrow. I picked up a copy of the newspaper at the station. point out (someone or something) or point (someone or something) out - to explain or call attention to someone or something My teacher was very kind when she pointed out the mistakes that I had made. put out (something) or put (something) out - to produce or make something (a product or brochure or report or CD or movie or paper) The company puts out a newsletter every month for the employees.

R Idioms

regardless of (something) - without considering or thinking about something, without regard to something, in spite of something Regardless of the weather, we are going to go fishing tomorrow morning.

right away - immediately "I forgot my book at home but I will go and get it right away." rule out (someone or something) or rule (someone or something) out - to decide against or eliminate someone or something The police ruled out the man as a possible bank robber. We decided to rule Monday out as the day to have our meeting. run into (something - a fact or trouble or problems or difficulty) - to experience something, to encounter something The mechanic ran into trouble when he was fixing my car. I ran into some interesting facts while I was researching my essay.

S Idioms

set up (something) or set (something) up - to establish something, to provide the money for something The newspaper company provided the money to set up the new travel magazine. The company set up a unique system to test the new product. show up - to appear, to arrive, to be present "What time did your friend show up for the party?" so far - until now So far, no one has entered the speech contest at the television station. so to speak - as one might or could say, this is one way to say something

We had a good time at the restaurant, so to speak, although the service was not very good. sort of (something) - to be almost something, to be similar to something, to be not quite something "Did you finish cleaning the kitchen?" "Sort of, but not really." stick with (something) - to continue doing something, to not quit something The boy has been able to stick with his music lessons since he was a child.

T Idioms

take advantage of (someone or something) - to use someone or something for one's own benefit We took advantage of the beautiful weather and went to the beach. take care of (someone or something) - to look after or give attention to someone or something It is good to take care of your health or you will become sick. take out (something) or take (something) out - to remove something from somewhere The teacher told us to take out our books. I took out some onions from the refridgerator. take over (something) or take (something) over - to take control of something, to take command of something The large company wants to take over the small company in our town. take place

- to happen, to occur The soccer game took place on the coldest day of the year. to the extent that - to the degree that, in so far as I plan to provide information about the new company policy, to the extent that I am familiar with it. turn in (something) or turn (something) in - to give something to someone, to hand something to someone I arrived at school early so that I could turn in my essay. turn out - to be found or known, to prove to be true It turned out that more people came to the meeting than we had expected.

U Idioms

up to - until, as far as a certain point, approaching a certain point Up to last week, I had never been inside a bowling alley. There were probably up to thirty people at the meeting. up to (someone) to decide (something) or do (something) - to be responsible to choose or decide something It is up to the company president to decide when the meeting will start. used to (something) - accustomed to something My friend is not used to living in such a big city.

W Idioms

with respect to (something) - referring to something, concerning something I do not know what the company will do with respect to the old computer system. work out - to end successfully I hope that everything will work out for my friend when she moves next month.

1. A penny for your thoughts 2. Add insult to injury 3. A hot potato 4. Once in a blue moon 5. Caught between two stools 6. See eye to eye 7. Hear it on the grapevine 8. Miss the boat 9. Kill two birds with one stone 10. On the ball 11. Cut corners 12. To hear something straight from the horse's mouth 13. Costs an arm and a leg 14. The last straw 15. Take what someone says with a pinch of salt 16. Sit on the fence 17. The best of both worlds 18. Put wool over other people's eyes

19. Feeling a bit under the weather 20. Speak of the devil! Meanings 1. This idiom is used as a way of asking someone what they are thinking about. 2. When people add insult to injury, they make a bad situation even worse. 3. This idiom is used to speak of an issue (especially in current affairs) which many people are talking about. 4. This is used when something happens very rarely. 5. When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives. 6. This idiom is used to say that two (or more people) agree on something. 7. This means to hear a rumour' about something or someone. 8. This idiom is used to say that someone missed his or her chance at something. 9. This means to do two things at the same time'. 10. When someone understands the situation well. 11. When something is done badly to save money. For example, when someone buys products that are cheap but not of good quality. 12. To hear something from the authoritative source. 13. When something is very expensive. 14. The final problem in a series of problems. 15. This means not to take what someone says too seriously. There is a big possibility that what he/she says is only partly true. 16. This is used when someone does not want to choose or make a decision. 17. All the advantages. 18. This means to deceive someone into thinking well of them. 19. Feeling slightly ill. 20. This expression is used when the person you have just been talking about arrives.

English Expression 1. as easy as pie means "very easy" (same as "a piece of cake") Example: He said it is a difficult problem, but I don't agree. It seems as easy as pie to me!

English Expression 2. be sick and tired of means "I hate" (also "can't stand") Example: I'm sick and tired of doing nothing but work. Let's go out tonight and have fun. English Expression 3. bend over backwards means "try very hard" (maybe too much!) Example: He bent over backwards to please his new wife, but she never seemed satisfied. English Expression 4. bite off more than one can chew means "take responsibility for more than one can manage" Example: John is so far behind in his studies. Besides classes, he plays sports and works at a part-time job. It seems he has bitten off more than he can chew. English Expression 5. broke means "to have no money" Example: I have to borrow some money from my Dad. Right now, I'm broke. English Expression 6. change one's mind means "decide to do something different from what had been decided earlier" Example: I was planning to work late tonight, but I changed my mind. I'll do extra work on the weekend instead. English Expression 7. Cut it out! means "stop doing something bad" Example: That noise is really annoying. Cut it out! English Expression 8. drop someone a line means "send a letter or email to someone" Example: It was good to meet you and I hope we can see each other again. Drop me a line when you have time. English Expression 9. figure something out means "come to understand a problem" Example: I don't understand how to do this problem. Take a look at it. Maybe you can figure it out. English Expression 10. fill in for someone means "do their work while they are away" Example: While I was away from the store, my brother filled in for me. English Expression 11. in ages means "for a very long time" Example: Have you seen Joe recently? I haven't seen him in ages.

English Expression 12. give someone a hand means "help" Example: I want to move this desk to the next room. Can you give me a hand? English Expression 13. hit the hay means "go to bed" (also "hit the sack") Example: It's after 12 o'clock. I think it's time to hit the hay. English Expression 14. in the black means "the business is making money, it is profitable" Example: Our business is really improving. We've been in the black all year. English Expression 15. in the red means "the business is losing money, it is unprofitable" Example: Business is really going poorly these days. We've been in the red for the past three months. English Expression 16. in the nick of time means "not too late, but very close!" Example: I got to the drugstore just in the nick of time. It's a good thing, because I really need this medicine! English Expression 17. keep one's chin up means "remain brave and keep on trying" Example: I know things have been difficult for you recently, but keep your chin up. It will get better soon. English Expression 18. know something like the back of your hand means "know something very, very well" Example: If you get lost, just ask me for directions. I know this part of town like the back of my hand English Expression 19. once in a while means "sometimes, not very often" Example: Have you been to the new movie theater? No, I only see movies once in a while. I usually stay home and watch TV. English Expression 20. sharp means "exactly at a that time" Example: I'll meet you at 9 o'clock sharp. If you're late, we'll be in trouble! English Expression 21. sleep on it means "think about something before making a decision" Example: That sounds like a good deal, but I'd like to sleep on it before I give you my final decision.

English Expression 22. take it easy means "relax" Example: I don't have any special plans for the summer. I think I'll just take it easy. English Expression 23. to get the ball rolling means "start something, especially something big" Example: We need to get this project started as soon as possible. I'm hoping you will help me get the ball rolling. English Expression 24. up to the minute means "the most recent information" Example: I wish I knew more about what is happening in the capital city. We need more up to the minute news. English Expression 25. twenty-four/seven means "every minute of every day, all the time" Example: You can access our web site 24/7. It's very convenient

Smart Idioms A hot potato Speak of an issue (mostly current) which many people are talking about and which is usually disputed A penny for your thoughts A way of asking what someone is thinking Actions speak louder than words People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say. Add insult to injury To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation. An arm and a leg Very expensive or costly. A large amount of money. At the drop of a hat

Meaning: without any hesitation; instantly. Back to the drawing board When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over. Ball is in your court It is up to you to make the next decision or step Barking up the wrong tree Looking in the wrong place. Accusing the wrong person Be glad to see the back of Be happy when a person leaves. Beat around the bush Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue. Best of both worlds Meaning: All the advantages. Best thing since sliced bread A good invention or innovation. A good idea or plan. Bite off more than you can chew To take on a task that is way to big. Blessing in disguise Something good that isn't recognized at first. Burn the midnight oil To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting. Can't judge a book by its cover

Cannot judge something primarily on appearance. Caught between two stools When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives. Costs an arm and a leg This idiom is used when something is very expensive. Cross that bridge when you come to it Deal with a problem if and when it becomes necessary, not before. Cry over spilt milk When you complain about a loss from the past. Curiosity killed the cat Being Inquisitive can lead you into an unpleasant situation. Cut corners When something is done badly to save money. Cut the mustard To succeed; to come up to expectations; adequate enough to compete or participate Devil's Advocate To present a counter argument Don't count your chickens before the eggs have hatched This idiom is used to express "Don't make plans for something that might not happen". Don't give up the day job You are not very good at something. You could definitely not do it professionally.

Don't put all your eggs in one basket Do not put all your resources in one possibility. Drastic times call for drastic measures When you are extremely desperate you need to take drastic actions. Elvis has left the building The show has come to an end. It's all over. Every cloud has a silver lining Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days. Far cry from Very different from. Feel a bit under the weather Meaning: Feeling slightly ill. Give the benefit of the doubt Believe someone's statement, without proof. Hear it on the grapevine This idiom means 'to hear rumors' about something or someone. Hit the nail on the head Do or say something exactly right Hit the sack / sheets / hay To go to bed. In the heat of the moment Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment.

It takes two to tango Actions or communications need more than one person Jump on the bandwagon Join a popular trend or activity. Keep something at bay Keep something away. Kill two birds with one stone This idiom means, to accomplish two different things at the same time. Last straw The final problem in a series of problems. Let sleeping dogs lie Meaning - do not disturb a situation as it is - since it would result in trouble or complications. Let the cat out of the bag To share information that was previously concealed Make a long story short Come to the point - leave out details Method to my madness An assertion that, despite one's approach seeming random, there actually is structure to it. Miss the boat This idiom is used to say that someone missed his or her chance Not a spark of decency

Meaning: No manners Not playing with a full deck Someone who lacks intelligence. Off one's rocker Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile. On the ball When someone understands the situation well. Once in a blue moon Meaning: Happens very rarely. Picture paints a thousand words A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words. Piece of cake A job, task or other activity that is easy or simple. Put wool over other people's eyes This means to deceive someone into thinking well of them. See eye to eye This idiom is used to say that two (or more people) agree on something. Sit on the fence This is used when someone does not want to choose or make a decision. Speak of the devil! This expression is used when the person you have just been talking about arrives. Steal someone's thunder

To take the credit for something someone else did. Take with a grain of salt This means not to take what someone says too seriously. Taste of your own medicine Means that something happens to you, or is done to you, that you have done to someone else To hear something straight from the horse's mouth To hear something from the authoritative source. Whole nine yards Everything. All of it. Wouldn't be caught dead Would never like to do something Your guess is as good as mine To have no idea, do not know the answer to a question

blow up bring up bring up

explode mention a topic raise children

The terrorists tried to blow up the railroad station. My mother brought up that little matter of my prison record again. It isn't easy to bring up children nowadays. They called off this afternoon's meeting Do this homework over.

call off cancel do over repeat a job

fill out fill up find out give away give back hand in hang up hold up hold up (2) leave out look over look up make up make out

complete a form fill to capacity discover give something to someone else for free return an object

Fill out this application form and mail it in. She filled up the grocery cart with free food. My sister found out that her husband had been planning a surprise party for her. The filling station was giving away free gas. My brother borrowed my car. I have a feeling he's not about to give it back.

submit something The students handed in their papers and left the (assignment) room. put something on hook or receiver delay rob omit She hung up the phone before she hung up her clothes. I hate to hold up the meeting, but I have to go to the bathroom. Three masked gunmen held up the Security Bank this afternoon. You left out the part about the police chase down Asylum Avenue. The lawyers looked over the papers carefully before questioning the witness. (They looked them over carefully.) You've misspelled this word again. You'd better look it up. She knew she was in trouble, so she made up a story about going to the movies with her friends. He was so far away, we really couldn't make out what he was saying.

examine, check

search in a list invent a story or lie hear, understand

pick out pick up point out put away put off put on put out read over set up take down take off talk over throw away try on

choose lift something off something else call attention to save or store postpone put clothing on the body extinguish peruse to arrange, begin make a written note remove clothing discuss discard

There were three men in the line-up. She picked out the guy she thought had stolen her purse. The crane picked up the entire house. (Watch them pick itup.) As we drove through Paris, Francoise pointed out the major historical sites. We put away money for our retirement. She put away the cereal boxes. We asked the boss to put off the meeting until tomorrow. (Please put it off for another day.) I put on a sweater and a jacket. (I put them on quickly.) The firefighters put out the house fire before it could spread. (They put it out quickly.) I read over the homework, but couldn't make any sense of it. My wife set up the living room exactly the way she wanted it. She set it up. These are your instructions. Write them down before you forget. It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt. We have serious problems here. Let's talk them over like adults. That's a lot of money! Don't just throw it away.

put clothing on to She tried on fifteen dresses before she found one see if it fits she liked.

try out turn down turn down (2)

test lower volume

I tried out four cars before I could find one that pleased me. Your radio is driving me crazy! Please turn it down. He applied for a promotion twice this year, but he was turned down both times. Grandpa couldn't hear, so he turned up his hearing aid. We turned off the lights before anyone could see us. It was a disgusting movie. It really turned me off. Turn on the CD player so we can dance. The gang members used up all the money and went out to rob some more banks.

reject

turn up raise the volume turn off turn off (2) turn on use up switch off electricity repulse switch on the electricity exhaust, use completely

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive) With the following phrasal verbs, the lexical part of the verb (the part of the phrasal verb that carries the "verb-meaning") cannot be separated from the prepositions (or other parts) that accompany it: "Who will look after my estate when I'm gone?" Verb call on Meaning ask to recite in class Example The teacher called on students in the back row.

call on (2) get over

visit recover from sickness or disappointment review

The old minister continued to call on his sick parishioners. I got over the flu, but I don't know if I'll ever get overmy broken heart. The students went over the material before the exam. They should have gone over it twice. They country went through most of its coal reserves in one year. Did he go through all his money already? My mother promised to look after my dog while I was gone. The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement. I ran across my old roommate at the college reunion. Carlos ran into his English professor in the hallway. My second son seems to take after his mother. It seemed strange to see my old boss wait on tables.

go over

go through

use up; consume

look after take care of look into run across run into take after wait on investigate find by chance meet resemble serve

Three-Word Phrasal Verbs (Transitive) With the following phrasal verbs, you will find three parts: "My brother dropped out of school before he could graduate." Verb Meaning Example

break in on catch up with check up on come up with cut down on drop out of get along with get away with get rid of get through with keep up with look forward to

interrupt (a conversation) keep abreast

I was talking to Mom on the phone when the operator broke in on our call. After our month-long trip, it was time to catch up with the neighbors and the news around town. The boys promised to check up on the condition of the summer house from time to time. After years of giving nothing, the old parishioner was able tocome up with a thousand-dollar donation. We tried to cut down on the money we were spending on entertainment. I hope none of my students drop out of school this semester. I found it very hard to get along with my brother when we were young. Janik cheated on the exam and then tried to get away with it. The citizens tried to get rid of their corrupt mayor in the recent election. When will you ever get through with that program? It's hard to keep up with the Joneses when you lose your job! I always look forward to the beginning of a new semester. It's typical of a jingoistic country that the citizens look down on their geographical neighbors.

examine, investigate to contribute (suggestion, money) curtail (expenses) leave school have a good relationship with escape blame eliminate

finish

maintain pace with anticipate with pleasure

look down despise on

look in on look out for look up to make sure of put up with run out of take care of talk back to think back on walk out on

visit (somebody) be careful, anticipate respect verify tolerate exhaust supply be responsible for answer impolitely recall abandon

We were going to look in on my brother-inlaw, but he wasn't home. Good instructors will look out for early signs of failure in their students First-graders really look up to their teachers. Make sure of the student's identity before you let him into the classroom. The teacher had to put up with a great deal of nonsense from the new students. The runners ran out of energy before the end of the race. My oldest sister took care of us younger children after Mom died. The star player talked back to the coach and was thrown off the team. I often think back on my childhood with great pleasure. Her husband walked out on her and their three children.

Intransitive Phrasal Verbs The following phrasal verbs are not followed by an object: "Once you leave home, you can never really go back again." Verb break down Meaning stop functioning Example That old Jeep had a tendency to break down just when I needed it the most.

catch on come back come in come to come over drop by eat out

become popular return to a place enter regain consciousness to visit visit without appointment dine in a restaurant survive

Popular songs seem to catch on in California first and then spread eastward. Father promised that we would never come back to this horrible place. They tried to come in through the back door, but it was locked. He was hit on the head very hard, but after several minutes, he started to come to again. The children promised to come over, but they never do. We used to just drop by, but they were never home, so we stopped doing that. When we visited Paris, we loved eating out in the sidewalk cafes. Uncle Heine didn't have much money, but he always seemed to get by without borrowing money from relatives. Grandmother tried to get up, but the couch was too low, and she couldn't make it on her own. It's hard to imagine that we will ever go back to Lithuania. He would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next. The cops heard all the noise and stopped to see what wasgoing on. Charles grew up to be a lot like his father. The judge warned the stalker to keep away from his victim's home.

get by

get up

arise

go back go on go on (2) grow up keep away

return to a place continue happen get older remain at a distance

keep on (with gerund) pass out

continue with the same lose consciousness, faint demonstrate haughtily arrive arouse from sleep

He tried to keep on singing long after his voice was ruined. He had drunk too much; he passed out on the sidewalk outside the bar. Whenever he sat down at the piano, we knew he was going toshow off. Day after day, Efrain showed up for class twenty minutes late. I woke up when the rooster crowed.

show off show up wake up

gather around If people gather around, they form a group or a small crowd around something or someone. get across to communicate something or make something understood by others get ahead If you get ahead, you make progress in your career. get along If two people get along, they like each other and are friendly. get around (1) to move from place to place get around (2) to find a way of avoiding something get at (1) to get hold of something get at (2) to mean or to imply something

get away to leave a place get away with to do something illegal or immoral and not get caught or punished get back (1) to return to a place get back (2) If you get something back, it is returned to you after you've lent it, lost it, or had it stolen. get by to have just enough of something, like money, knowledge or skills, to do what you want to do get down (1) to move close to the ground, or to move from a higher position to a lower position get down (2) to quickly write something, often so as not to forget it get down (3) to manage to swallow something that isn't easy to swallow get in (1) to enter a place or a vehicle get in (2) If a train or plane gets in, it arrives at its destination. get in (3) to submit or send something like a document, a form or a report get into (1) If you get into something like a university, a team, a club, etc., you have succeeded in joining it. get into (2) to become interested in something or focussed on something get off (1) to leave a means of transport such as a bus or a train get off (2)

to finish work, or have a break from work get on (1) to step onto a bus, train, ship, etc. get on (2) If two people get on, they have a good relationship and are friendly. get out (1) to move out of an enclosed space, such as a building or a car get out (2) If you get something out, you remove it from whatever it's in. get out of (1) If you get out of doing something that you don't want to do, you find a way to avoid doing it, such as by making up an excuse. get out of (2) to take off clothes because they're uncomfortable or inappropriate get over to recover from something like an illness or a shock get through (1) to complete a task get through (2) If you get through something, you use or eat all of it. get through (3) to reach the person you want to talk to when making a telephone call get together to meet and spend time together get up (1) to get out of bed after having been asleep get up (2) to stand up or to get to one's feet give away

If you give away something, you give it to someone without expecting anything in return. give back If you give something back, you return it to whoever you got it from. give in If somebody gives in, they stop trying to do something like win a game, a fight or an argument. give off to produce something like a smell, a gas, heat or light give out If you give something out, you distribute it to many people, usually by hand. give up (1) If you give up, you stop trying to do something because it's too hard or because it can't be done. give up (2) If you give up something, you stop doing it because it's bad for you. go about to do something in a certain way, or to deal with something in a certain way go after (1) to chase and try to catch someone or something go after (2) Informal to try to get something go against to oppose, or disagree with, something or somebody go ahead to start doing something, or to continue doing something, usually after being given permission or encouragement to do so go along with to agree with someone or to support something go around (1) to act or dress in a certain way go around (2)

to be enough for everyone go away (1) to leave or go to another place go away (2) to stop existing, or to stop being noticeable go back to return to a place, a person, a condition, etc. go beyond to be more than, better than, more advanced than, etc. go by to move past (in space), or pass (in time) go down (1) to become less go down (2) to be received in a certain way, or to create a certain reaction go down (3) When the sun or the moon goes down, it gets lower and lower in the sky until it disappears below the horizon. go down (4) to be remembered or recorded in some way go for (1) Informal to try to get something or achieve something go for (2) Informal to like a particular type of person, product, style, experience, etc. go for (3) to physically attack a person or an animal go for (4) to be sold for a certain amount of money go into

to talk about or discuss something in detail go off (1) If something goes off, it stops working because of a power cut. go off (2) If a bomb or a firework goes off, it explodes. go off (3) If foods or drinks go off, they go bad and aren't safe to eat or drink. go on (1) to happen go on (2) to keep happening as before, or to keep doing something go on (3) If something like a light or a heater goes on, it starts operating. go on (4) to talk for too long, or talk in such a way that it annoys or bores people go on (5) used when encouraging someone to do something go out to leave your home and go somewhere for enjoyment or entertainment go over (1) to look carefully at something like a report, essay, document, etc. to check for mistakes or to make improvements go over (2) to review something, or look at it again, in order to learn or memorize it go over (3) to cause a reaction of some sort, especially from an audience go through (1) to look through a collection of things like documents, books, clothes, etc. to find something or to sort them out

go through (2) to live through a bad time or a difficult situation go together (1) If two things go together, they look good together or they harmonize. go together (2) to happen together, or to often occur at the same time go under If a company goes under, it goes out of business and closes down. go up If something like a price or a rate goes up, it becomes higher. go with If one thing goes with another, they look good together or seems to work well together. go without to not have something that you used to have because conditions have changed and it's no longer available or affordable grow on If something grows on you, you gradually start to like it, even though you didn't like it much at first. grow out of If you grow out of something, you become too big for it or too old for it. grow up to change from being a child to being an adult, or from being an immature adult to being a mature adult

Verb ask someone out

Meaning invite on a date

Example Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie. I asked around but nobody has seen my wallet.

ask around

ask many people the same question

add up to something back something up

equal reverse

Your purchases add up to $205.32. You'll have to back up your car so that I can get out. My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job. The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence. We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party. Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm. The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died. Our teacher broke the final project downinto three separate parts. Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo. The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children. I need to break these shoes in before we run next week.

back someone up

support

blow up

explode

blow something up

add air

break down

stop functioning (vehicle, machine) get upset

break down

break somethingdown

divide into smaller parts

break in

force entry to a building

break into something

enter forcibly

break something in

wear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new interrupt

break in

The TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death. My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.

break up

end a relationship

break up

start laughing (informal)

The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking. The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking. I broke out in a rash after our camping trip. This sad music is bringing me down. My grandparents brought me up after my parents died. My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports. He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet. We called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed. I called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend. Jason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fianc. The professor called on me for question 1. We called on you last night but you weren't home. Give me your phone number and I will callyou up when we are in town.

break out

escape

break out insomething

develop a skin condition

bring someone down bring someone up

make unhappy raise a child

bring something up

start talking about a subject vomit

bring something up

call around

phone many different places/people return a phone call

call someone back

call something off

cancel

call on someone

ask for an answer or opinion visit someone

call on someone

call someone up

phone

calm down

relax after being angry

You are still mad. You need to calm downbefore you drive the car. I don't care for his behaviour.

not care forsomeone/something catch up

not like (formal)

get to the same point as someone else arrive and register at a hotel or airport leave a hotel

You'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty. We will get the hotel keys when we check in. You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM. The company checks out all new employees. Check out the crazy hair on that guy! She cheered up when she heard the good news. I brought you some flowers to cheer youup. If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon. Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside. I came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet. The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.

check in

check out

checksomeone/somethingout

look at carefully, investigate look at (informal) become happier

check outsomeone/something cheer up

cheer someone up

make happier

chip in

help

clean something up

tidy, clean

come acrosssomething

find unexpectedly

come apart

separate

come down withsomething

become sick

My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend. The woman came forward with her husband's finger prints. The art of origami comes from Asia. I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out. Please cross out your old address and write your new one. My doctor wants me to cut back onsweets and fatty foods. We had to cut the old tree in our yarddown after the storm. Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle. The bus driver got angry when that carcut in. The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22C.

come forward

volunteer for a task or to give evidence originate in rely on

come fromsomewhere count onsomeone/something

cross something out

draw a line through

cut back onsomething

consume less

cut something down

make something fall to the ground interrupt

cut in

cut in

pull in too closely in front of another vehicle start operating (of an engine or electrical device) remove with something sharp stop providing

cut in

cut something off

The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured. The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill. My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.

cut something off

cut someone off

take out of a will

cut something out

remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) do again (N.Amer.)

I cut this ad out of the newspaper.

dosomeone/somethingover

He's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang. My teacher wants me to do my essayover because she doesn't like my topic. It's time to do away with all of these old tax records. Do your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing! It's a fancy restaurant so we have todress up. Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike. I might drop in/by/over for tea sometime this week. I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.

do something over

do away withsomething

discard

do something up

fasten, close

dress up

wear nice clothing

drop back

move back in a position/group come without an appointment take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there quit a class, school etc

drop in/by/over

dropsomeone/somethingoff

drop out

I dropped out of Science because it was too difficult. I don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out. We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.

eat out

eat at a restaurant

end up

eventually reach/do/decide

fall apart

break into pieces

My new dress fell apart in the washing machine. The picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning. The money must have fallen out of my pocket. His hair started to fall out when he was only 35. I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room. Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number. The form must be filled out in capital letters. I always fill the water jug up when it is empty. We don't know where he lives. How can we find out? We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out. I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen. I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on. My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.

fall down

fall to the ground

fall out

separate from an interior

fall out

(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached understand, find the answer to write information in blanks (Br.E.) to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) fill to the top

figure something out

fill something in

fill something out

fill something up

find out

discover

find something out

discover

get somethingacross/over

communicate, make understandable like each other

get along/on

get around

have mobility

get away

go on a vacation

We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week. Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests. We got back from our vacation last week. Liz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate. My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat. I finally got back into my novel and finished it. We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus. I just got over the flu and now my sister has it. The company will have to close if it can'tget over the new regulations. I don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.

get away withsomething

do without being noticed or punished return

get back

get something back

receive something you had before retaliate, take revenge

get back at someone

get back intosomething

become interested in something again step onto a vehicle

get on something

get over something

recover from an illness, loss, difficulty overcome a problem

get over something

get round tosomething

finally find time to do (N.Amer.:get around to something) meet (usually for social reasons) get out of bed

get together

Let's get together for a BBQ this weekend. I got up early today to study for my exam.

get up

get up

stand

You should get up and give the elderly man your seat. His wife gave him away to the police.

give someone away

reveal hidden information about someone take the bride to the altar

give someone away

My father gave me away at my wedding. My little sister gave the surprise partyaway by accident. The library was giving away old books on Friday. I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game. My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in. They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store. I am giving up smoking as of January 1st. My maths homework was too difficult so Igave up. My brother tried to go after the thief in his car. I went after my dream and now I am a published writer.

give something away

ruin a secret

give something away

give something to someone for free return a borrowed item

give something back

give in

reluctantly stop fighting or arguing give to many people (usually at no cost) quit a habit

give something out

give something up

give up

stop trying

go after someone

follow someone

go after something

try to achieve something

go against someone

compete, oppose

We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight. Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold. I have to go back home and get my lunch. We're going out for dinner tonight.

go ahead

start, proceed

go back

return to a place

go out

leave home to go on a social event date

go out with someone

Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter. Please go over your answers before you submit your test. I haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two. When I was young, we went withoutwinter boots. My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools. My roses grew back this summer. When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman. Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones. This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.

go over something

review

go over

visit someone nearby

go without something

suffer lack or deprivation

grow apart

stop being friends over time regrow become an adult

grow back grow up

grow out ofsomething

get too big for

grow into something

grow big enough to fit

hand something down

give something used to someone else submit to distribute to a group of people give (usually unwillingly)

I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin. I have to hand in my essay by Friday. We will hand out the invitations at the door. The police asked the man to hand overhis wallet and his weapons. Hang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon. Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes! Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place. He didn't say goodbye before he hung up. I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park. Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral. Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department. Hold onto your hat because it's very windy outside. A man in a black mask held the bank upthis morning.

hand something in hand something out

hand something over

hang in

stay positive (N.Amer., informal) wait a short time (informal) spend time relaxing (informal) end a phone call

hang on

hang out

hang up

holdsomeone/somethingback

prevent from doing/going hide an emotion

hold something back

hold on

wait a short time

hold ontosomeone/something

hold firmly using your hands or arms rob

holdsomeone/somethingup

keep on doingsomething

continue doing

Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil. We kept our relationship from our parents for two years. Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room. If you keep those results up you will get into a great college. I need you to be on time. Don't let medown this time. Can you let the cat in before you go to school? I can't log in to Facebook because I've forgotten my password. If you don't log off somebody could get into your account. I have to look after my sick grandmother. Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me. I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding. I'm looking forward to the Christmas break. We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.

keep something fromsomeone

not tell

keepsomeone/somethingout

stop from entering

keep something up

continue at the same rate fail to support or help, disappoint allow to enter

let someone down

let someone in

log in (or on)

sign in (to a website, database etc) sign out (of a website, database etc) take care of

log out (or off)

look aftersomeone/something

look down onsomeone

think less of, consider inferior try to find

look forsomeone/something

look forward tosomething

be excited about the future investigate

look into something

look out

be careful, vigilant, and take notice be especially vigilant for

Look out! That car's going to hit you!

look out forsomeone/something look something over

Don't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail. Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes? We can look her phone number up on the Internet.

check, examine

look something up

search and find information in a reference book or database have a lot of respect for

look up to someone

My little sister has always looked up to me. Josie made up a story about why we were late. We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast. My sisters made me up for my graduation party. I mixed up the twins' names again!

make something up

invent, lie about something forgive each other

make up

make someone up

apply cosmetics to

mix something up

confuse two or more things die

pass away

His uncle passed away last night after a long illness. It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out. The professor passed the textbooks outbefore class.

pass out

faint

pass something out

give the same thing to many people

pass something up

decline (usually something good) return owed money

I passed up the job because I am afraid of change. Thanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay youback on Friday. That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother. I picked out three sweaters for you to try on. I'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by. You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter. The students put the substitute teacherdown because his pants were too short. We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane. The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived. I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives. I don't think I can put up with three small children in the car. Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.

pay someone back

pay for something

be punished for doing something bad choose

pick something out

pointsomeone/somethingout

indicate with your finger

put something down

put what you are holding on a surface or floor insult, make someone feel stupid

put someone down

put something off

postpone

put something out

extinguish

put somethingtogether

assemble

put up withsomeone/something put something on

tolerate

put clothing/accessories on your body

run intosomeone/something

meet unexpectedly

I ran into an old school-friend at the mall. I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway. Let's run over/through these lines one more time before the show. The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days. We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap. My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp. Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera. I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots. He always shows off on his skateboard

run oversomeone/something

drive a vehicle over a person or thing rehearse, review

run over/throughsomething

run away

leave unexpectedly, escape have none left

run out

send something back

return (usually by mail)

set something up

arrange, organize

set someone up

trick, trap

shop around

compare prices

show off

act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) stay somewhere for the night (informal) organize, resolve a problem

sleep over

You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home. We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.

sort something out

stick to something

continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing stop the energy flow, turn off start the energy flow, turn on resemble a family member purposely break into pieces return an item

You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.

switch something off

The light's too bright. Could you switch itoff. We heard the news as soon as weswitched on the car radio. I take after my mother. We are both impatient. He took the car brakes apart and found the problem. I have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work. My plane takes off in five minutes. Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake! Can you take the garbage out to the street for me? My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie. I tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him. When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.

switch something on

take after someone

take something apart

take something back

take off take something off

start to fly remove something (usually clothing) remove from a place or thing pay for someone to go somewhere with you rip into pieces

take something out

take someone out

tear something up

think back

remember (often + to, sometimes + on)

think something over

consider

I'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision. We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery. Please turn the TV down while the guests are here. I turned the job down because I don't want to move. Your mother wants you to turn the TV offand come for dinner. It's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on. Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song. Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood. I'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit. I am going to try this new brand of detergent out. The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more. We have to wake up early for work on Monday.

throw somethingaway

dispose of

turn something down

decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) refuse

turn something down

turn something off

stop the energy flow, switch off start the energy, switch on increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) appear suddenly

turn something on

turn something up

turn up

try something on

sample clothing

try something out

test

use something up

finish the supply

wake up

stop sleeping

warmsomeone/somethingup

increase the temperature

You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace. I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run. Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party. I work out at the gym three times a week. Our plan worked out fine. We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

warm up

prepare body for exercise

wear off

fade away

work out

exercise

work out work something out

be successful make a calculation

The Top 250 Most Difficult SAT Words [NOTE: PRINT BOOK, USE OVERRIDE 185200} A abjure (v.) to reject, renounce (To prove his honesty, the president abjured the evil policies of his wicked predecessor.) abrogate (v.) to abolish, usually by authority (The Bill of Rights assures that the government cannot abrogateour right to a free press.) acerbic (adj.) biting, bitter in tone or taste (Jill became extremely acerbic and began to cruelly make fun of all her friends.) acrimony (n.) bitterness, discord (Though they vowed that no girl would ever come between them, Biff and Trevor could not keep acrimony from overwhelming their friendship after they both fell in love with the lovely Teresa.) acumen

(n.) keen insight (Because of his mathematical acumen, Larry was able to figure out in minutes problems that took other students hours.) adumbrate (v.) to sketch out in a vague way (The coach adumbrated a game plan, but none of the players knew precisely what to do.) alacrity (n.) eagerness, speed (For some reason, Chuck loved to help his mother whenever he could, so when his mother asked him to set the table, he did so with alacrity.) anathema (n.) a cursed, detested person (I never want to see that murderer. He is an anathema to me.) antipathy (n.) a strong dislike, repugnance (I know you love me, but because you are a liar and a thief, I feel nothing but antipathy for you.) approbation (n.) praise (The crowd welcomed the heroes with approbation.) arrogate (v.) to take without justification (The king arrogated the right to order executions to himself exclusively.) ascetic (adj.) practicing restraint as a means of self-discipline, usually religious (The priest lives an asceticlife devoid of television, savory foods, and other pleasures.) aspersion (n.) a curse, expression of ill-will (The rival politicians repeatedly cast aspersions on each others integrity.) assiduous (adj.) hard-working, diligent (The construction workers erected the skyscraper during two years ofassiduous labor.) B blandish (v.) to coax by using flattery (Rachels assistant tried to blandish her into accepting the deal.) boon (n.) a gift or blessing (The good weather has been a boon for many businesses located near the beach.)

brusque (adj.) short, abrupt, dismissive (The captains brusque manner offended the passengers.) buffet 1. (v.) to strike with force (The strong winds buffeted the ships, threatening to capsize them.) 2. (n.) an arrangement of food set out on a table (Rather than sitting around a table, the guests took food from our buffet and ate standing up.) burnish (v.) to polish, shine (His mother asked him to burnish the silverware before setting the table.) buttress 1. (v.) to support, hold up (The column buttresses the roof above the statue.) 2. (n.) something that offers support (The buttress supports the roof above the statues.) C cacophony (n.) tremendous noise, disharmonious sound (The elementary school orchestra created a cacophonyat the recital.) cajole (v.) to urge, coax (Freds buddies cajoled him into attending the bachelor party.) calumny (n.) an attempt to spoil someone elses reputation by spreading lies (The local officials calumnyended up ruining his opponents prospect of winning the election.) capricious (adj.) subject to whim, fickle (The young girls capricious tendencies made it difficult for her to focus on achieving her goals.) clemency (n.) mercy (After he forgot their anniversary, Martin could only beg Maria for clemency.) cogent (adj.) intellectually convincing (Irenes arguments in favor of abstinence were so cogent that I could not resist them.) concomitant (adj.) accompanying in a subordinate fashion (His dislike of hard work carried with it a concomitantlack of funds.)

conflagration (n.) great fire (The conflagration consumed the entire building.) contrite (adj.) penitent, eager to be forgiven (Blakes contrite behavior made it impossible to stay angry at him.) conundrum (n.) puzzle, problem (Interpreting Janes behavior was a constant conundrum.) credulity (n.) readiness to believe (His credulity made him an easy target for con men.) cupidity (n.) greed, strong desire (His cupidity made him enter the abandoned gold mine despite the obvious dangers.) cursory (adj.) brief to the point of being superficial (Late for the meeting, she cast a cursory glance at the agenda.) D decry (v.) to criticize openly (The kind video rental clerk decried the policy of charging customers late fees.) defile (v.) to make unclean, impure (She defiled the calm of the religious building by playing her banjo.) deleterious (adj.) harmful (She experienced the deleterious effects of running a marathon without stretching her muscles enough beforehand.) demure (adj.) quiet, modest, reserved (Though everyone else at the party was dancing and going crazy, she remained demure.) deprecate (v.) to belittle, depreciate (Always over-modest, he deprecated his contribution to the local charity.) deride (v.) to laugh at mockingly, scorn (The bullies derided the foreign students accent.) desecrate

(v.) to violate the sacredness of a thing or place (They feared that the construction of a golf course would desecrate the preserved wilderness.) desiccated (adj.) dried up, dehydrated (The skin of the desiccated mummy looked like old paper.) diaphanous (adj.) light, airy, transparent (Sunlight poured in through the diaphanous curtains, brightening the room.) diffident (adj.) shy, quiet, modest (While eating dinner with the adults, the diffident youth did not speak for fear of seeming presumptuous.) discursive (adj.) rambling, lacking order (The professors discursive lectures seemed to be about every subject except the one initially described.) dissemble (v.) to conceal, fake (Not wanting to appear heartlessly greedy, she dissembled and hid her intention to sell her ailing fathers stamp collection.) dither (v.) to be indecisive (Not wanting to offend either friend, he dithered about which of the two birthday parties he should attend.) E ebullient (adj.) extremely lively, enthusiastic (She became ebullient upon receiving an acceptance letter from her first-choice college.) effrontery (n.) impudence, nerve, insolence (When I told my aunt that she was boring, my mother scolded me for my effrontery.) effulgent (adj.) radiant, splendorous (The golden palace was effulgent.) egregious (adj.) extremely bad (The student who threw sloppy joes across the cafeteria was punished for hisegregious behavior.) enervate

(v.) to weaken, exhaust (Writing these sentences enervates me so much that I will have to take a nap after I finish.) ephemeral (adj.) short-lived, fleeting (She promised shed love me forever, but her forever was only ephemeral: she left me after one week.) eschew (v.) to shun, avoid (George hates the color green so much that he eschews all green food.) evanescent (adj.) fleeting, momentary (My joy at getting promoted was evanescent because I discovered that I would have to work much longer hours in a less friendly office.) evince (v.) to show, reveal (Christophers hand-wringing and nail-biting evince how nervous he is about the upcoming English test.) exculpate (v.) to free from guilt or blame, exonerate (My discovery of the ring behind the dresser exculpatedme from the charge of having stolen it.) execrable (adj.) loathsome, detestable (Her pudding is so execrable that it makes me sick.) exigent (adj.) urgent, critical (The patient has an exigent need for medication, or else he will lose his sight.) expiate (v.) to make amends for, atone (To expiate my selfishness, I gave all my profits to charity.) expunge (v.) to obliterate, eradicate (Fearful of an IRS investigation, Paul tried to expunge all incriminating evidence from his tax files.) extant (adj.) existing, not destroyed or lost (My mothers extant love letters to my father are in the attic trunk.) extol (v.) to praise, revere (Violet extolled the virtues of a vegetarian diet to her meat-loving brother.) F fallacious

(adj.) incorrect, misleading (Emily offered me cigarettes on the fallacious assumption that I smoked.) fastidious (adj.) meticulous, demanding, having high and often unattainable standards (Mark is so fastidiousthat he is never able to finish a project because it always seems imperfect to him.) fatuous (adj.) silly, foolish (He considers himself a serious poet, but in truth, he only writes fatuouslimericks.) fecund (adj.) fruitful, fertile (The fecund tree bore enough apples to last us through the entire season.) feral (adj.) wild, savage (That beast looks so feral that I would fear being alone with it.) fetid (adj.) having a foul odor (I can tell from the fetid smell in your refrigerator that your milk has spoiled.) florid (adj.) flowery, ornate (The writers florid prose belongs on a sentimental Hallmark card.) fractious (adj.) troublesome or irritable (Although the child insisted he wasnt tired, his fractious behavior especially his decision to crush his cheese and crackers all over the floorconvinced everyone present that it was time to put him to bed.) G garrulous (adj.) talkative, wordy (Some talk-show hosts are so garrulous that their guests cant get a word in edgewise.) grandiloquence (n.) lofty, pompous language (The student thought her grandiloquence would make her sound smart, but neither the class nor the teacher bought it.) gregarious (adj.) drawn to the company of others, sociable (Well, if youre not gregarious, I dont know why you would want to go to a singles party!) H hackneyed

(adj.) unoriginal, trite (A girl can only hear I love you so many times before it begins to soundhackneyed and meaningless.) hapless (adj.) unlucky (My poor, hapless family never seems to pick a sunny week to go on vacation.) harangue 1. (n.) a ranting speech (Everyone had heard the teachers harangue about gum chewing in class before.) 2. (v.) to give such a speech (But this time the teacher harangued the class about the importance of brushing your teeth after chewing gum.) hegemony (n.) domination over others (Britains hegemony over its colonies was threatened once nationalist sentiment began to spread around the world.) I iconoclast (n.) one who attacks common beliefs or institutions (Jane goes to one protest after another, but she seems to be an iconoclast rather than an activist with a progressive agenda.) ignominious (adj.) humiliating, disgracing (It was really ignominious to be kicked out of the dorm for having an illegal gas stove in my room.) impassive (adj.) stoic, not susceptible to suffering (Stop being so impassive; its healthy to cry every now and then.) imperious (adj.) commanding, domineering (The imperious nature of your manner led me to dislike you at once.) impertinent (adj.) rude, insolent (Most of your comments are so impertinent that I dont wish to dignify them with an answer.) impervious (adj.) impenetrable, incapable of being affected (Because of their thick layer of fur, many seals are almost impervious to the cold.) impetuous (adj.) rash; hastily done (Hildas hasty slaying of the king was an impetuous, thoughtless action.) impinge

1. (v.) to impact, affect, make an impression (The hail impinged the roof, leaving large dents.) 2. (v.) to encroach, infringe (I apologize for impinging upon you like this, but I really need to use your bathroom. Now.) implacable (adj.) incapable of being appeased or mitigated (Watch out: Once you shun Grandmas cooking, she is totally implacable.) impudent (adj.) casually rude, insolent, impertinent (The impudent young man looked the princess up and down and told her she was hot even though she hadnt asked him.) inchoate (adj.) unformed or formless, in a beginning stage (The countrys government is still inchoate and, because it has no great tradition, quite unstable.) incontrovertible (adj.) indisputable (Only stubborn Tina would attempt to disprove the incontrovertible laws of physics.) indefatigable (adj.) incapable of defeat, failure, decay (Even after traveling 62 miles, the indefatigable runner kept on moving.) ineffable (adj.) unspeakable, incapable of being expressed through words (It is said that the experience of playing with a dolphin is ineffable and can only be understood through direct encounter.) inexorable (adj.) incapable of being persuaded or placated (Although I begged for hours, Mom was inexorableand refused to let me stay out all night after the prom.) ingenuous (adj.) not devious; innocent and candid (He must have writers, but his speeches seem so ingenuousits hard to believe hes not speaking from his own heart.) inimical (adj.) hostile (I dont see how I could ever work for a company that was so cold and inimical to me during my interviews.) iniquity (n.) wickedness or sin (Your iniquity, said the priest to the practical jokester, will be forgiven.) insidious

(adj.) appealing but imperceptibly harmful, seductive (Lisas insidious chocolate cake tastes so good but makes you feel so sick later on!) intransigent (adj.) refusing to compromise, often on an extreme opinion (The intransigent child said he would have 12 scoops of ice cream or he would bang his head against the wall until his mother fainted from fear.) inure (v.) to cause someone or something to become accustomed to a situation (Twenty years in the salt mines inured the man to the discomforts of dirt and grime.) invective (n.) an angry verbal attack (My mothers irrational invective against the way I dress only made me decide to dye my hair green.) inveterate (adj.) stubbornly established by habit (Im the first to admit that Im an inveterate coffee drinkerI drink four cups a day.) J jubilant (adj.) extremely joyful, happy (The crowd was jubilant when the firefighter carried the woman from the flaming building.) juxtaposition (n.) the act of placing two things next to each other for implicit comparison (The interior designer admired my juxtaposition of the yellow couch and green table.) L laconic (adj.) terse in speech or writing (The authors laconic style has won him many followers who dislike wordiness.) languid (adj.) sluggish from fatigue or weakness (In the summer months, the great heat makes peoplelanguid and lazy.) largess (n.) the generous giving of lavish gifts (My boss demonstrated great largess by giving me a new car.) latent

(adj.) hidden, but capable of being exposed (Sigmunds dream represented his latent paranoid obsession with other peoples shoes.) legerdemain (n.) deception, slight-of-hand (Smuggling the French plants through customs by claiming that they were fake was a remarkable bit of legerdemain.) licentious (adj.) displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints (Marilee has always been fascinated by thelicentious private lives of politicians.) limpid (adj.) clear, transparent (Mr. Johnsons limpid writing style greatly pleased readers who disliked complicated novels.) M maelstrom (n.) a destructive whirlpool which rapidly sucks in objects (Little did the explorers know that as they turned the next bend of the calm river a vicious maelstrom would catch their boat.) magnanimous (adj.) noble, generous (Although I had already broken most of her dishes, Jacqueline wasmagnanimous enough to continue letting me use them.) malediction (n.) a curse (When I was arrested for speeding, I screamed maledictions against the policeman and the entire police department.) malevolent (adj.) wanting harm to befall others (The malevolent old man sat in the park all day, tripping unsuspecting passersby with his cane.) manifold (adj.) diverse, varied (The popularity of Dantes Inferno is partly due to the fact that the work allows for manifold interpretations.) maudlin (adj.) weakly sentimental (Although many people enjoy romantic comedies, I usually find themmaudlin and shallow.) mawkish (adj.) characterized by sick sentimentality (Although some nineteenth- century critics viewed Dickenss writing as mawkish, contemporary readers have found great emotional depth in his works.)

mendacious (adj.) having a lying, false character (The mendacious content of the tabloid magazines is at least entertaining.) mercurial (adj.) characterized by rapid change or temperamentality (Though he was widely respected for his mathematical proofs, the mercurial genius was impossible to live with.) modicum (n.) a small amount of something (Refusing to display even a modicum of sensitivity, Henrietta announced her bosss affair in front of the entire office.) morass (n.) a wet swampy bog; figuratively, something that traps and confuses (When Theresa lost her job, she could not get out of her financial morass.) multifarious (adj.) having great diversity or variety (This Swiss Army knife has multifarious functions and capabilities. Among other things, it can act as a knife, a saw, a toothpick, and a slingshot.) munificence (n.) generosity in giving (The royal familys munificence made everyone else in their country rich.) myriad (adj.) consisting of a very great number (It was difficult to decide what to do Friday night because the city presented us with myriad possibilities for fun.) N nadir (n.) the lowest point of something (My day was boring, but the nadir came when I accidentally spilled a bowl of spaghetti on my head.) nascent (adj.) in the process of being born or coming into existence (Unfortunately, my brilliant paper was only in its nascent form on the morning that it was due.) nefarious (adj.) heinously villainous (Although Dr. Meanmans nefarious plot to melt the polar icecaps was terrifying, it was so impractical that nobody really worried about it.) neophyte

(n.) someone who is young or inexperienced (As a neophyte in the literary world, Malik had trouble finding a publisher for his first novel.) O obdurate (adj.) unyielding to persuasion or moral influences (The obdurate old man refused to take pity on the kittens.) obfuscate (v.) to render incomprehensible (The detective did not want to answer the newspapermans questions, so he obfuscated the truth.) oblique (adj.) diverging from a straight line or course, not straightforward (Martins oblique language confused those who listened to him.) obsequious (adj.) excessively compliant or submissive (Mark acted like Janets servant, obeying her every request in an obsequious manner.) obstreperous (adj.) noisy, unruly (Billys obstreperous behavior prompted the librarian to ask him to leave the reading room.) obtuse (adj.) lacking quickness of sensibility or intellect (Political opponents warned that the prime ministers obtuse approach to foreign policy would embroil the nation in mindless war.) odious (adj.) instilling hatred or intense displeasure (Mark was assigned the odious task of cleaning the cats litter box.) officious (adj.) offering ones services when they are neither wanted nor needed (Brenda resented Allansofficious behavior when he selected colors that might best improve her artwork.) opulent (adj.) characterized by rich abundance verging on ostentation (The opulent furnishings of the dictators private compound contrasted harshly with the meager accommodations of her subjects.) ostensible (adj.) appearing as such, seemingly (Jacks ostensible reason for driving was that airfare was too expensive, but in reality, he was afraid of flying.)

P palliate (v.) to reduce the severity of (The doctor trusted that the new medication would palliate her patients discomfort.) pallid (adj.) lacking color (Dr. Van Helsing feared that Lucys pallid complexion was due to an unexplained loss of blood.) panacea (n.) a remedy for all ills or difficulties (Doctors wish there was a single panacea for every disease, but sadly there is not.) paragon (n.) a model of excellence or perfection (The mythical Helen of Troy was considered a paragon of female beauty.) pariah (n.) an outcast (Following the discovery of his plagiarism, Professor Hurley was made a pariah in all academic circles.) parsimony (n.) frugality, stinginess (Many relatives believed that my aunts wealth resulted from her parsimony.) pathos (n.) an emotion of sympathy (Martha filled with pathos upon discovering the scrawny, shivering kitten at her door.) paucity (adj.) small in quantity (Gilbert lamented the paucity of twentieth-century literature courses available at the college.) pejorative (adj.) derogatory, uncomplimentary (The evenings headline news covered an international scandal caused by a pejorative statement the famous senator had made in reference to a foreign leader.) pellucid (adj.) easily intelligible, clear (Wishing his book to be pellucid to the common man, Albert Camus avoided using complicated grammar when composing The Stranger.) penurious

(adj.) miserly, stingy (Stella complained that her husbands penurious ways made it impossible to live the lifestyle she felt she deserved.) perfidious (adj.) disloyal, unfaithful (After the official was caught selling government secrets to enemy agents, he was executed for his perfidious ways.) perfunctory (adj.) showing little interest or enthusiasm (The radio broadcaster announced the news of the massacre in a surprisingly perfunctory manner.) pernicious (adj.) extremely destructive or harmful (The new government feared that the Communist sympathizers would have a pernicious influence on the nations stability.) perspicacity (adj.) shrewdness, perceptiveness (The detective was too humble to acknowledge that hisperspicacity was the reason for his professional success.) pertinacious (adj.) stubbornly persistent (Harrys parents were frustrated with his pertinacious insistence that a monster lived in his closet. Then they opened the closet door and were eaten.) petulance (n.) rudeness, irritability (The nanny resigned after she could no longer tolerate the childs petulance.) pithy (adj.) concisely meaningful (My fathers long-winded explanation was a stark contrast to his usuallypithy statements.) platitude (n.) an uninspired remark, clich (After reading over her paper, Helene concluded that what she thought were profound insights were actually just platitudes.) plethora (n.) an abundance, excess (The wedding banquet included a plethora of oysters piled almost three feet high.) polemic (n.) an aggressive argument against a specific opinion (My brother launched into a polemic against my arguments that capitalism was an unjust economic system.) portent

(n.) an omen (When a black cat crossed my sisters path while she was walking to school, she took it as a portent that she would do badly on her spelling test.) precocious (adj.) advanced, developing ahead of time (Derek was so academically precocious that by the time he was 10 years old, he was already in the ninth grade.) prescient (adj.) to have foreknowledge of events (Questioning the fortune cookies prediction, Ray went in search of the old hermit who was rumored to be prescient.) primeval (adj.) original, ancient (The first primates to walk on two legs, called Australopithecus, were theprimeval descendants of modern man.) probity (n.) virtue, integrity (Because he was never viewed as a man of great probity, no one was surprised by Mr. Samsons immoral behavior.) proclivity (n.) a strong inclination toward something (In a sick twist of fate, Harolds childhood proclivity for torturing small animals grew into a desire to become a surgeon.) promulgate (v.) to proclaim, make known (The film professor promulgated that both in terms of sex appeal and political intrigue, Sean Connerys James Bond was superior to Roger Moores.) propensity (n.) an inclination, preference (Dermit has a propensity for dangerous activities such as bungee jumping.) propitious (adj.) favorable (The dark storm clouds visible on the horizon suggested that the weather would not be propitious for sailing.) prosaic (adj.) plain, lacking liveliness (Heathers prosaic recital of the poem bored the audience.) proscribe (v.) to condemn, outlaw (The town council voted to proscribe the sale of alcohol on weekends.) protean (adj.) able to change shape; displaying great variety (Among Nigels protean talents was his ability to touch the tip of his nose with his tongue.)

prurient (adj.) eliciting or possessing an extraordinary interest in sex (Davids mother was shocked by the discovery of prurient reading material hidden beneath her sons mattress.) puerile (adj.) juvenile, immature (The judge demanded order after the lawyers puerile attempt to object by stomping his feet on the courtroom floor.) pugnacious (adj.) quarrelsome, combative (Aarons pugnacious nature led him to start several barroom brawls each month.) pulchritude (n.) physical beauty (Several of Shakespeares sonnets explore the pulchritude of a lovely young man.) punctilious (adj.) eager to follow rules or conventions (Punctilious Bobby, hall monitor extraordinaire, insisted that his peers follow the rules.) Q quagmire (n.) a difficult situation (Wed all like to avoid the kind of military quagmire characterized by the Vietnam War.) querulous (adj.) whiny, complaining (If deprived of his pacifier, young Brendan becomes querulous.) quixotic (adj.) idealistic, impractical (Edward entertained a quixotic desire to fall in love at first sight in a laundromat.) R rancor (n.) deep, bitter resentment (When Eileen challenged me to a fight, I could see the rancor in her eyes.) rebuke (v.) to scold, criticize (When the cops showed up at Sarahs party, they rebuked her for disturbing the peace.) recalcitrant (adj.) defiant, unapologetic (Even when scolded, the recalcitrant young girl simply stomped her foot and refused to finish her lima beans.)

rectitude (n.) uprightness, extreme morality (The priests rectitude gave him the moral authority to counsel his parishioners.) replete (adj.) full, abundant (The unedited version was replete with naughty words.) reprobate (adj.) evil, unprincipled (The reprobate criminal sat sneering in the cell.) reprove (v.) to scold, rebuke (Lara reproved her son for sticking each and every one of his fingers into the strawberry pie.) repudiate (v.) to reject, refuse to accept (Kwame made a strong case for an extension of his curfew, but his mother repudiated it with a few biting words.) rescind (v.) to take back, repeal (The company rescinded its offer of employment after discovering that Janes resume was full of lies.) restive (adj.) resistant, stubborn, impatient (The restive audience pelted the band with mud and yelled nasty comments.) ribald (adj.) coarsely, crudely humorous (While some giggled at the ribald joke involving a parsons daughter, most sighed and rolled their eyes.) rife (adj.) abundant (Surprisingly, the famous novelists writing was rife with spelling errors.) ruse (n.) a trick (Oliver concocted an elaborate ruse for sneaking out of the house to meet his girlfriend while simultaneously giving his mother the impression that he was asleep in bed.) S sacrosanct (adj.) holy, something that should not be criticized (In the United States, the Constitution is often thought of as a sacrosanct document.) sagacity

(n.) shrewdness, soundness of perspective (With remarkable sagacity, the wise old man predicted and thwarted his childrens plan to ship him off to a nursing home.) salient (adj.) significant, conspicuous (One of the salient differences between Alison and Nancy is that Alison is a foot taller.) sanctimonious (adj.) giving a hypocritical appearance of piety (The sanctimonious Bertrand delivered stern lectures on the Ten Commandments to anyone who would listen, but thought nothing of stealing cars to make some cash on the side.) sanguine (adj.) optimistic, cheery (Polly reacted to any bad news with a sanguine smile and the chirpy cry, When life hands you lemons, make lemonade!) scurrilous (adj.) vulgar, coarse (When Bruno heard the scurrilous accusation being made about him, he could not believe it because he always tried to be nice to everyone.) serendipity (n.) luck, finding good things without looking for them (In an amazing bit of serendipity, penniless Paula found a $20 bill in the subway station.) servile (adj.) subservient (The servile porter crept around the hotel lobby, bowing and quaking before the guests.) solicitous (adj.) concerned, attentive (Jim, laid up in bed with a nasty virus, enjoyed the solicitous attentions of his mother, who brought him soup and extra blankets.) solipsistic (adj.) believing that oneself is all that exists (Colettes solipsistic attitude completely ignored the plight of the homeless people on the street.) somnolent (adj.) sleepy, drowsy (The somnolent student kept falling asleep and waking up with a jerk.) spurious (adj.) false but designed to seem plausible (Using a spurious argument, John convinced the others that he had won the board game on a technicality.) staid

(adj.) sedate, serious, self-restrained (The staid butler never changed his expression no matter what happened.) stolid (adj.) expressing little sensibility, unemotional (Charless stolid reaction to his wifes funeral differed from the passion he showed at the time of her death.) stupefy (v.) to astonish, make insensible (Veronicas audacity and ungratefulness stupefied her best friend, Heather.) surfeit (n.) an overabundant supply or indulgence (After partaking of the surfeit of tacos and tamales at the AllYou-Can-Eat Taco Tamale Lunch Special, Beth felt rather sick.) surmise (v.) to infer with little evidence (After speaking to only one of the students, the teacher was able tosurmise what had caused the fight.) surreptitious (adj.) stealthy (The surreptitious CIA agents were able to get in and out of the house without anyone noticing.) sycophant (n.) one who flatters for self-gain (Some see the people in the cabinet as the presidents closest advisors, but others see them as sycophants.) T tacit (adj.) expressed without words (I interpreted my parents refusal to talk as a tacit acceptance of my request.) taciturn (adj.) not inclined to talk (Though Jane never seems to stop talking, her brother is quite taciturn.) tantamount (adj.) equivalent in value or significance (When it comes to sports, fearing your opponent istantamount to losing.) temerity (n.) audacity, recklessness (Tom and Huck entered the scary cave armed with nothing but their owntemerity.)

tenuous (adj.) having little substance or strength (Your argument is very tenuous, since it relies so much on speculation and hearsay.) timorous (adj.) timid, fearful (When dealing with the unknown, timorous Tallulah almost always broke into tears.) torpid (adj.) lethargic, dormant, lacking motion (The torpid whale floated, wallowing in the water for hours.) tractable (adj.) easily controlled (The horse was so tractable, Myra didnt even need a bridle.) transient (adj.) passing through briefly; passing into and out of existence (Because virtually everyone in Palm Beach is a tourist, the population of the town is quite transient.) transmute (v.) to change or alter in form (Ancient alchemists believed that it was possible to transmute lead into gold.) trenchant (adj.) effective, articulate, clear-cut (The directions that accompanied my new cell phone weretrenchant and easy to follow.) truculent (adj.) ready to fight, cruel (This club doesnt really attract the dangerous types, so why was that bouncer being so truculent?) turgid (adj.) swollen, excessively embellished in style or language (The haughty writer did not realize how we all really felt about his turgid prose.) turpitude (n.) depravity, moral corruption (Sir Marcuss chivalry often contrasted with the turpitude he exhibited with the ladies at the tavern.) U ubiquitous (adj.) existing everywhere, widespread (It seems that everyone in the United States has a television. The technology is ubiquitous here.) umbrage

(n.) resentment, offense (He called me a lily-livered coward, and I took umbrage at the insult.) unctuous (adj.) smooth or greasy in texture, appearance, manner (The unctuous receptionist seemed untrustworthy, as if she was only being helpful because she thought we might give her a big tip.) undulate (v.) to move in waves (As the storm began to brew, the placid ocean began to undulate to an increasing degree.) upbraid (v.) to criticize or scold severely (The last thing Lindsay wanted was for Lisa to upbraid her again about missing the rent payment.) usurp (v.) to seize by force, take possession of without right (The rogue army general tried to usurp control of the government, but he failed because most of the army backed the legally elected president.) V vacillate (v.) to fluctuate, hesitate (I prefer a definite answer, but my boss kept vacillating between the distinct options available to us.) vacuous (adj.) lack of content or ideas, stupid (Beyonc realized that the lyrics she had just penned were completely vacuous and tried to add more substance.) vapid (adj.) lacking liveliness, dull (The professors comments about the poem were surprisingly vapid and dull.) variegated (adj.) diversified, distinctly marked (Each wire in the engineering exam was variegated by color so that the students could figure out which one was which.) venerate (v.) to regard with respect or to honor (The tribute to John Lennon sought to venerate his music, his words, and his legend.) veracity (n.) truthfulness, accuracy (With several agencies regulating the reports, it was difficult for Latifah to argue against its veracity.)

verdant (adj.) green in tint or color (The verdant leaves on the trees made the world look emerald.) vex (v.) to confuse or annoy (My little brother vexes me by poking me in the ribs for hours on end.) vicarious (adj.) experiencing through another (All of my lame friends learned to be social through vicariousinvolvement in my amazing experiences.) vicissitude (n.) event that occurs by chance (The vicissitudes of daily life prevent me from predicting what might happen from one day to the next.) vilify (v.) to lower in importance, defame (After the Watergate scandal, almost any story written about President Nixon sought to vilify him and criticize his behavior.) viscous (adj.) not free flowing, syrupy (The viscous syrup took three minutes to pour out of the bottle.) vitriolic (adj.) having a caustic quality (When angry, the woman would spew vitriolic insults.) vituperate (v.) to berate (Jack ran away as soon as his father found out, knowing he would be vituperated for his unseemly behavior.) W wanton (adj.) undisciplined, lewd, lustful (Vickys wanton demeanor often made the frat guys next door very excited.) winsome (adj.) charming, pleasing (After such a long, frustrating day, I was grateful for Chriss winsomeattitude and childish naivete.) wistful (adj.) full of yearning; musingly sad (Since her pet rabbit died, Edda missed it terribly and waswistful all day long.) wizened

(adj.) dry, shrunken, wrinkled (Agathas grandmother, Stephanie, had the most wizenedcountenance, full of leathery wrinkles.) Z zenith (n.) the highest point, culminating point (I was too nice to tell Nelly that she had reached the absolute zenith of her career with that one hit of hers.) zephyr (n.) a gentle breeze (If not for the zephyrs that were blowing and cooling us, our room wouldve been unbearably hot.) obstreperous noisy, loud

contumacious insubordinate, rebellious

mettlesome courageous, high-spirited. Don't confuse with "meddlesome," meaning inclined to interfere.

cadge to beg, to get by begging

pith heart of the matter, basic trait. Also force, strength, or vigor

supine lying on the back. Also slow to act, passive.

remonstrate to protest, object

inveigh to attack verbally, denounce, deprecate

precepts rules establishing standards of conduct

impute to attribute to a cause or source, ascribe

feckless lacking purpose or vitality; ineffective; careless

decorum propriety, properness.

penchant strong inclination, a liking.

appropriate (verb) take for one's own use, acquire, set aside. Don't confuse with "appropriate (adjective)," which means fitting or suitable.

truculence aggressiveness, ferocity

garrulity talkativeness. Adjective is garrulous--talkative

arabesque

a complex, ornate design. Also a dance position.

beatify to bless, make happy, or ascribe a virtue to. Regard as saintly. Don't confuse with "beautify," which means to make beautiful.

forbearance patience, willingness to wait.

veritable unquestionable, true.

pragmatic practical, favoring utility.

arrant in every way, being completely such.

consequential pompous, self important. Also having consequence, important. Also following as a result, or being an effect of some cause.

malinger to fake illness or injury, in order to shirk a duty.

paucity scarcity, a lacking of

striated

striped, grooved, or banded. Having stripes.

seminal like a seed; constituting a source, originative.

attenuate make thin. weaken, enervate.

precarious uncertain, risky, dangerous.

enervate weaken, deprive of strength, attenuate.

partisan one-sided, committed to a party, biased or prejudiced.

equivocate lie, mislead, conceal the truth.

assiduous diligent, hard-working, sedulous.

anachronism something out of place for its time

lassitude weariness, tiredness

phlegmatic calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional

sycophant flatterer, parasite; a suck-up

perfunctory superficial, listless, not thorough

impair worsen, diminish in value

transient temporary, fleeting

qualify to limit

nascent coming into existence, emerging

Quixotic extravagantly chivalrous, romantically idealistic, impractical

reprobate person hardened in sin; one devoid of decency

libertine immoral person

tractable easily influenced, obedient, docile

craven cowardly

picaresque involving clever rogues or adventurers. Don't confuse with "picturesque," which means picture-like, charming, or quaint.

sedulous diligent, assiduous, devoted to a task

aver affirm, assert, prove, justify

intrepid fearless, brave, undaunted

impassive without feeling, not affected by pain

salient conspicuous, highly relevant, prominent

morose gloomy, sullen

raffish low, vulgar, base, tawdry

loquacious talkative, garrulous

piquant agreeably pungent, stimulating

demur to hesitate, raise objections

equipoise equal distribution of weight; equilibrium

abysmal extreme; low, like an abyss

tawdry cheap, gaudy, showy, tacky

dross waste product, sludge; something worthless, common, or trivial

ardor warm interest, passion, enthusiasm, zeal

insouciant unconcerned, carefree

volubility fluency, verbosity, easy use of spoken language

dulcet melodious, harmonious

mellifluous sweetly flowing; usually used to describe use of words (sweetly flowing words, as when the speech is characterized by high volubility.

desiccate to dry up, dehydrate

harrow to distress, create stress or torment

pellucid transparent, easy to understand

pariah an outcast, a rejected and despised person

taciturn untalkative, silent

pique resentment at being slighted

turgid excessively ornate; swollen or bloated

]pillory to punish, hold up to public scorn

adamant hard and inflexible; unyielding

multifarious varied, motley, greatly diversified

torpor lethargy, sluggishness, dormancy

imprecation an invocation of evil; a curse

audacious daring; bold

hirsute hairy, shaggy

tenacity firmness, persistency, adhesiveness, tending to hang on

apostate one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions

lachrymose causing tears, tearful

welter turmoil; a bewildering jumble

discomfit to defeat, put down

laconic brief, to the point, terse

venal corruptible, bribable, unprincipled

ossify to turn to bone; to settle rigidly into an idea or practice, become closed-minded

disingenuous sophisticated, artful, trying to deceive, cunning

insensible unconscious, unresponsive, unaffected

turbid muddy, having the sediment stirred up

erudite

learned, scholarly

saturnine gloomy, dark, sullen, morose

abeyance suspended action

diaphanous transparent, gauzy

epitome representative, a summary or abstract, a typical example

squalid foul, filthy

quiescent at rest, dormant, torpid

recreancy cowardice, a cowardly giving up

misanthrope one who hates mankind

misogynist one who hates women/females

castigate to chastise, correct by punishing

apprehension misgiving, dread. Also a stopping or arrest. Also an understandingprosaic--dull, tedious, commonplace

gainsay deny

pungency sharpness; stinging quality

approbation approval

refractory stubborn, unmanageable, intractable

contentious quarrelsome, competitive, quick to fight, pugnacious

antipathy aversion, dislike

hapless unlucky, unfortunate

prevaricate stray from or avoid the truth; equivocate

countenance (n) mien, face (v) approve of

dogmatic positive, certain, arbitrary, without room for discussion

strut a supporting bar

felicitous apt; suitably expressed, well chosen, apropos

apropos appropriate to the situation; apt

implacable incapable of being placated, unpleasable

raffish disreputable; tawdry

guileless without deceit, honest

resigned unresisting, submissive

vituperate

berate, rail against, attack verbally

render deliver, provide, represent

diffidence shyness

sophistry fallacious reasoning, faulty logic

fulminate berate, vituperate, to thunder out, to explode,

dynamo a generator, something that produces electric current; an energetic person

assay an analysis, examination, test. To put to a test

hallow to make holy; consecrate

disabuse to undeceive, correct a false impression

boisterous loud, noisy, rough, lacking restraint

inveigle wheedle, led astray

sodden soaked, saturated

perfidious violating good faith, treacherous, dishonest

conundrum a riddle, dilemma, enigma

denouement an outcome or solution; the unraveling of a plot

stolid showing no emotion; impassive

dissemble present false appearance; deceive

desuetude cessation of use; disuse

indefatigability not easily exhaustible; tirelessness

dilatory causing delay, procrastinating

garner to gather and save; to store up

intractable unruly, refractory, stubborn

delineate to portray, depict, sketch out

ascetic practicing self-denial, austere, stark

fervid intense, zealous

daunt intimidate, make fearful

burgeon grow forth, send out buds

anomalous unexpected, not normal, odd abase (v.) - to lower, demean, degrade

abate (v.) - to lessen, to reduce in severity

abbreviate (v.) - to shorten, reduce

abduct (v.) - to kidnap

aberration (n.) - a deviation from the expected course

abhor (v.) - to hate, loathe

abide (v.) - to put up with, tolerate

abject (adj.) - of the most miserable or contemptible kind

abort (v.) - to give up unfinished

abridge (v.) - to shorten, cut down

abrogate (v.) - to abolish, often by authority

abscond

(v.) - to sneak away and hide

abundant (adj.) - in great numbers

accede (v.) - to agree

accentuate (v.) - to emphasize, to highlight

accommodating (adj.) - obliging, helpful

accost (v.) - to approach or confront aggressively

acumen (n.) - keen insight

acute (adj.) - sharp, severe

affable (adj.) - friendly, amiable

affluent (adj.) - rich, wealthy

aggrandize (v.) - to increase or make greater

aggregate (v.) - to gather, amass

aghast (adj.) - struck by amazement or terror

agoraphobia (n.) - an abnormal fear of open or public places

akimbo (adj.) - with hands on hips and elbows extending outward

alacrity (n.) - speed, readiness

algid (adj.) - frigid, cold

allay (v.) - to sooth, assuage

alleviate (v.) - to relieve

aloof (adj.) - reserved, distant

altercation (n.) - an argument, dispute

amalgamation (n.) - a union, a merger

ambivalent (adj.) - having contradictory feelings

amble (v.) - to stroll, walk

ameliorate (v.) - to improve, to make better

amend (v.) - to change for the better, improve

amiable (adj.) - friendly, affable

amorous (adj.) - relating to or showing love

amorphous (adj.) - without shape or borders

anomaly

(n.) - something that does not fit into the normal order

antechamber (n.) - a waiting room

anxiety (n.) - uneasiness

aphorism (n.) - a short saying

apocalypse (n.) - total devastation, the end of the world

apparitional (adj.) - ghostly, spectral

arbitrator (n.) - one who settles controversy between two sides

ascetic (n.) - one who practices restraint as a means of self-discipline, usually religious

assuage (v.) - to ease, pacify

atone (v.) - to apologize, make amends

audacious (adj.) - excessively bold

augment (v.) - to increase or make larger

austere (adj.) - very bare, bleak, simple

baleful (adj.) - harmful, threatening

bard (n.) - a poet, often a singer as well

battery (n.) - an assault or an array of similar things intended for use together

belligerent (adj.) - contentious, ready to fight

benevolent (adj.) - kind, good, caring

benign (adj.) - non-threatening, innocuous

berate (v.) - to scold severely

bereft (adj.) - without, devoid of

bide (v.) - to wait, or remain in a condition

bilk (v.) - to cheat, to swindle

blandish (v.) - to coax through flattery

bloated (adj.) - swollen, bigger than desired

boisterous (adj.) - loud, energetic

bourgeois (adj.) - middle class

brash (adj.) - hasty or lacking in sensitivity

brazen (adj.) - excessively bold, brash

brumal

(adj.) - wintry, relating to winter

brusque (adj.) - short, abrupt, dismissive

buffet (n.) - a spread of food involving choices

buffet (v.) - to hit or strike

burgeon (v.) - to come forth, blossom

cacophony (n.) - noise, discordant sound

cadence (n.) - rhythm

cajole (v.) - to urge, coax

callous (adj.) - harsh, cold, unfeeling

calumny (n.) - an attempt to defame another's reputation

camaraderie (n.) - cheerful unity among a group

canvas (n.) - a piece of cloth on which an artist paints

capricious (adj.) - impulsive, unpredictable, subject to whim

captivate (v.) - to hold the interest of, to gain the attention of

carouse (v.) - to revel, to party

cavity (n.) - a hole

cavort (v.) - to frolic, leap, prance

celestial (adj.) - relating to the sky or the heavens

chastise (v.) - to criticize, to scold

choreographed (adj.) - arranged, as in dance

circumlocution (n.) - indirect language

circumspect (adj.) - cautious

clairvoyant (adj.) - able to see things that others cannot

claustrophobia (n.) - an abnormal fear of closed or crowded spaces

clich (n.) - a trite, overused expression

coalesce (v.) - to combine into one

cogent (adj.) - intelligent, viable

collusion (n.) - a conspiracy, a secret agreement

colossus (n.) - an enormous structure

comatose

(adj.) - lethargic

commendable (adj.) - worthy of praise

commodious (adj.) - spacious, roomy

compel (v.) - to force

complicit (adj.) - being an accomplice in a wrongful act

compliment (n.) - an expression of esteem or approval

concede (v.) - to give in, to accept

conciliatory (adj.) - agreeable, friendly

concoct (v.) - to make up or invent

concord (n.) - agreement

conduit (n.) - a pipe, passage, channel

confluence (n.) - a convergence, a coming together

confound (v.) - to frustrate

connotation (n.) - a meaning or association suggested by a word beyond its definition

contusion (n.) - bruise, injury

convalescence (n.) - the gradual return to health after illness

copious (adj.) - abundant, plentiful

corpulent (adj.) - very fat

cosmopolitan (adj.) - worldly, sophisticated

credulity (n.) - readiness to believe

cursory (adj.) - brief to the point of being superficial

daft (adj.) - insane, foolish

daunting (adj.) - intimidating

dearth (n.) - a lack, scarcity

defame (v.) - to destroy the reputation of

deft (adj.) - skilled, adept

defunct (adj.) - no longer used or existing

deleterious (adj.) - harmful

delude (v.) - to deceive, to mislead

deluge

(n.) - a great flood or something that overwhelms like a flood

derelict (adj.) - run-down, abandoned

desolate (adj.) - deserted, lifeless

despondent (adj.) - discouraged, hopeless, depressed

destitute (adj.) - impoverished

diaphanous (adj.) - transparent, light, airy

dictate (v.) - to pronounce, command, prescribe

differentiate (v.) - to distinguish, to make different

dilapidated (adj.) - in a state of disrepair

diligent (adj.) - careful, showing care

diminish (v.) - to decrease or make smaller

diminutive (adj.) - miniature, small

discreet (adj.) - prudent or inconspicuous

discrete (adj.) - separate, distinct, individual

disparage (v.) - to criticize, degrade, belittle

dissonance (n.) - lack of harmony or agreement

divergent (adj.) - different, deviating, contrary

diverse (adj.) - varied

divisive (adj.) - causing conflict, opposition

domicile (n.) - a residence, a home

doppelganger (n.) - a ghostly double of a living person

douse (v.) - to drench, saturate dutiful (adj.) - careful to fulfill obligations

dynamic (adj.) - characterized by continuous change or activity

elocution (n.) - the art of public speaking

elucidate (v.) - to clarify

empathetic (adj.) - feeling another's pain as one's own

empathy (n.) - the experience of another's feelings as one's own

enervate (v.) - to weaken, make weary

enervated (adj.) - lacking energy, weakened, exhausted

entity (n.) - something that exists as a discrete unit

entomology (n.) - the study of insects

envious (adj.) - jealous

erect (v.) - to construct, to raise

erroneous (adj.) - mistaken, incorrect

espouse (v.) - to support, or to marry

espy (v.)- - catch sight of, glimpse

ethereal (adj.) - heavenly, exceptionally delicate or refined

euphoric (adj.) - elated, overjoyed

exacerbate

(v.) - to make more violent, intense

excursion (n.) - a trip, an outing

exemplary (adj.) - serving as an example

exigent (adj.) - critical, urgent

existential (adj.) - relating to existence

exorbitant (adj.) - excessive

extol (v.) - to praise

extravagant (adj.) - excessive, over-the-top

fabricate (v.) - to invent, make-up, concoct

fabulist (n.) - a teller of fables; a liar

facile (adj.) - easy

fallacious (adj.) - incorrect, misleading

familial (adj.) - relating to family

fatuous (adj.) - silly, foolish

fecund (adj.) - fertile, fruitful

feign (v.) - to fake or pretend to

feral (adj.) - savage, wild, untamed

fetter (v.) - to restrain, chain, tie

fey (adj.) - magical

fickle (adj.) - characterized by changeableness, whimsical

figurative (adj.) - symbolic

firmament (n.) - the sky, the heavens

flabbergasted (adj.) - astounded, stupefied

flaccid (adj.) - limp

flattery (n.) - compliments, sycophancy

flout (v.) - to scorn, ignore, show contempt for

fluctuate (v.) - to vary irregularly

flux (n.) - a state of constant change or a flow

forage (v.) - to rummage, scavenge, graze for food

forestall

(v.) - to delay, impede

forlorn (adj.) - lonely, hopeless

formidable (adj.) - arousing fear or alarm

forsake (v.) - to abandon, forget

fortify (v.) - to strengthen

fortitude (n.) - strength, bravery

fortuitous (adj.) - lucky, occurring by chance

foster (v.) - to stimulate, promote, encourage

frenetic (adj.) - frenzied, hectic, frantic

gape (v.) - to open the mouth and stare stupidly

gay (adj.) - happy, cheery, or homosexual

gluttonous (adj.) - insatiable in appetite

goad (v.) - to urge, to provoke into action

gourmand (n.) - one who likes eating and drinking

grandiose (adj.) - extraordinary, grand in scope

gregarious (adj.) - sociable, outgoing

grotto (n.) - a small cave or cavern

guile (n.) - deceitful actions or behavior

hail (v.) - to come from

hapless (adj.) - unlucky

harmony (n.) - agreement, often of sound

harrowing (adj.) - agonizing, distressing

hedonist (n.) - one whose primary pursuit is pleasure

henchman (n.) - a trusted follower, goon

hiatus (n.) - an interruption in continuity, a break

hiemal (adj.) - wintry, relating to winter

hierarchy (n.) - a ranking system of groups or individuals

histrionic (adj.) - excessively dramatic or emotional

idolatrous (adj.) - worshiping excessively an object or person

illusory

(adj.) - deceptive, produced by an illusion

immaculate (adj.) - impeccably clean, spotless, pure

immutable (adj.) - not susceptible to change

impecunious (adj.) - excessively poor

impervious (adj.) - unable to be penetrated, unaffected

impudent (adj.) - rude, improper

incessant (adj.) - without interruption

incisive (adj.) - clear, sharp, direct

inclement (adj.) - stormy, bad, severe

inclination (n.) - a tendency, propensity

indictment (n.) - accusation of wrongdoing

indignation (n.) - anger due to an unfair situation

inextricable (adj.) - hopelessly confused or tangled

infuse (v.) - to inject

ingenious (adj.) - marked by special intelligence

inimical (adj.) - hostile, threatening

iniquity (n.) - a wicked act, a sin

innate (adj.) - inborn, native, inherent

innocuous (adj.) - harmless

inquisitor (n.) - someone who asks questions or makes an inquiry

inundate (v.) - to flood

invariable (adj.) - not susceptible to change

invective (n.) - a verbal attack

inveterate (adj.) - habitual, natural

irascible (adj.) - easily angered

jubilant (adj.) - joyful, happy

judicious (adj.) - of sound judgment

juvenile (adj.) - young or immature

juxtapose (v.) - to put next to each other

labyrinthine

(adj.) - intricate, maze-like

laceration (n.) - a cut, a rip

lachrymose (adj.) - tearful

latent (adj.) - present but hidden

laud (v.) - to applaud or praise

laudatory (adj.) - admiring, praising

lavish (adj.) - extravagant

lethargic (adj.) - sluggish, weary, apathetic

lewd (adj.) - vulgar, offensive, rude

libel (n.) - a statement that gives an unjust or unfavorable representation of a person or thing

licentious (adj.) - amoral, lawless, lewd

limber (adj.) - bending or flexing readily, pliable

limpid (adj.) - clear, easily understood

linchpin (n.) - something that holds separate things together

lithe (adj.) - graceful, flexible, supple

loquacious (adj.) - talkative

lull (n.) - a relatively calm interval, as in a storm

luminescence (n.) - light from non-thermal sources

magnanimous (adj.) - generous, noble

malaise (n.) - vague feeling of discomfort

malevolent (adj.) - having intent to harm others

malicious (adj.) - malevolent, harmful

malign (v.) - to slander, to smear, to libel, to defame, to speak evil of

malleable (adj.) - easily shaped or formed

mandatory (adj.) - required, not optional

manifest (v.) - to show clearly

manifold (adj.) - many

masticate (v.) - to chew

matrimony (n.) - marriage

maudlin

(adj.) - sentimental

maxim (n.) - a common saying of advice or virtue

meager (adj.) - lacking in quality stature

mediate (v.) - to intervene, to arbitrate, to sort out

melodramatic (adj.) - exaggeratedly emotional or sentimental; histrionic

mendacious (adj.) - inclined to lie or mislead

mercurial (adj.) - quick and changeable in temperament

meritorious (adj.) - deserving of praise or merit

metamorphosis (n.) - a change of form, shape, substance

mimic (v.) - to imitate, to copy

misogyny (n.) - hatred of women

modicum (n.) - a small amount of something

mollify (v.) - to soften in temper

monogamy (n.) - having only one spouse at a time

mores (n.) - moral attitudes

morose (adj.) - gloomy or sullen

munificent (adj.) - generous, benevolent

mutability (n.) - capability of change

myopic (adj.) - short-sighted

myriad (adj.) - consisting of a very great number

narrate (v.) - to tell a story

nebulous (adj.) - indistinct, hazy

nefarious (adj.) - horribly villainous

neologism (n.) - the creation of new words, or a new word

neonate (n.) - a newborn baby

noisome (adj.) - foul, offensive, particularly to the sense of smell

notoriety (n.) - infamy, known in bad regard

novel (adj.) - strikingly new, unusual, or different

noxious (adj.) - harmful, toxic

obdurate

(adj.) - unyielding to persuasion or moral influences

obfuscate (v.) - to render incomprehensible

obsequious (adj.) - excessively compliant or submissive

odious (adj.) - meriting strong displeasure

officious (adj.) - offering unwanted help or service

olfactory (adj.) - relating to the sense of smell

ominous (adj.) - foreboding or foreshadowing evil, portentous

oration (n.) - a dignified and formal speech

ostracize (v.) - to exclude from a community

pacify (v.) - to sooth, ease

paragon (n.) - model of perfection

pariah (n.) - an outcast

parody (n.) - a satirical imitation

patent (adj.) - clear, apparent

pedagogue (n.) - a schoolteacher

pellucid (adj.) - clear

penchant (n.) - a tendency, partiality, preference

peregrinate (v.) - to travel from place to place on foot

perfunctory (adj.) - showing little enthusiasm, done as duty

permeate (v.) - to spread out, to pervade

persevere (v.) - to persist, remain constant

pertinacious (adj.) - stubbornly persistent, holding to a belief or position

peruse (v.) - to examine carefully

pervasive (adj.) - to spread throughout

petulance (n.) - irritability, impoliteness

physiognomy (n.) - the art of judging human character from facial features

pique (v.) - to provoke or to cause indignation

pithy (adj.) - succinctly meaningful

pittance (n.)- - very small amount

placate

(v.) - to soothe, appease

placid (adj.) - calm, tranquil

plethora (n.) - a great number, an abundance

pliable (adj.) - flexible, bendable

poach (v.) - to hunt or fish illegally

poised (adj.) - balanced, readied

polygamy (n.) - having more than one spouse at a time

portentous (adj.) - foreboding or foreshadowing evil, ominous

portly (adj.) - fat, chubby, round

precarious (adj.) - dangerously lacking in security or stability

predestination (n.) - the concept of destiny or fate

premonition (n.) - a presentiment of the future

preponderance (n.) - a great amount or frequency

presage (n.) - an omen

prestidigitation (n.) - a sleight of hand

presumptuous (adj.) - disrespectfully bold

profane (adj.) - indecent, blasphemous

profuse (adj.) - abundant, lavish, prolific

propensity (n.) - an inclination, preference

propriety (n.) - decency, state of being proper

protean (adj.) - readily taking on various shapes or forms

prudent (adj.) - cautious, careful

puerile (adj.) - immature

pugnacious (adj.) - belligerent

pulchritude (n.) - physical beauty

punctilious (adj.) - eager to follow rules

pungent (adj.) - having a sharp, strong quality especially related to smell

purport (v.) - to present an intention that is often FALSE

putrid (adj.) - rotten, rancid, foul

quaint

(adj.) - old-fashioned

quid pro (n., latin) - a mutually beneficial exchange

quotidian (adj.) - daily, everyday

radiant (adj.) - bright, beaming

rancid (adj.) - rotten, spoiled, disgusting in smell or taste

ratiocinate (v.) - to think, contemplate

raze (v.) - to demolish

recalcitrant (adj.) - defiant

recalibrate (v.) - to readjust or make corrections to

recapitulate (v.) - to repeat, reiterate

rectify (v.) - to set right, correct

redact (v.) - to revise, edit

redoubtable (adj.) - formidable, commanding respect

redress (v.) - to set right or remedy

reel (v.) - to be thrown off balance or feel dizzy

refrain (v.) - to hold oneself back, forbear

reiterate (v.) - to repeat

relish (v.) - to take zestful pleasure in, enjoy the flavor of

remiss (adj.) - negligent, exhibiting carelessness

render (v.) - to say, or to make

renovate (v.) - to restore, return to original state

repose (n.) - rest, sleep

reprehensible (adj.) - deserving criticism

repudiate (v.) - to reject, turn down

repulse (v.) - to cause disgust or distaste, or to drive back, repel

requisition (n.) - a demand for goods, often by an authority

restitution (n.) - compensation, reimbursement

retaliation (n.) - revenge, punishment

retract (v.) - withdraw

retribution

(n.) - vengeance, revenge, payback

revel (v.) - to enjoy

rife (adj.) - abundant

ruddy (adj.) - having a healthy, reddish color

ruse (n.) - a trick

rustic (adj.) - relating to country life

saccharine (adj.) - overly sweet

sacrosanct (adj.) - sacred, holy

sagacious (adj.) - shrewd, showing sound judgment

salient (adj.) - significant, conspicuous

salutation (n.) - a greeting

sanguine (adj.) - cheery, optimistic, hopeful

sate (v.) - to satisfy;(an appetite) fully.

satiate (v.) - to satisfy excessively

savor (v.) - to appreciate fully, enjoy

scathing (adj.) - hurtful, critical

scourge (n.) - a plague

scurrilous (adj.) - crude, vulgar

sedate (v.) - to calm, soothe

sedentary (adj.) - sitting

seer (n.) - a fortune teller

seminal (adj.) - original, ground-breaking

serendipity (n.) - the act of finding things not sought, luck

slander (n.) - a FALSE statement to damage the reputation of another

sobriety (n.) - moderation from excess, calm, tranquility

somnolent (adj.) - sleepy

soothsayer (n.) - a fortune teller

sordid (adj.) - dirty

spectral (adj.) - ghostly

spurious

(adj.) - FALSE but intended to seem believable or possible

stagnant (adj.) - still, not flowing

stagnate (v.) - to be idle, to be still

static (adj.) - not moving, being at rest

steadfast (adj.) - fixed or unchanging

strenuous (adj.) - requiring tremendous strength or energy

strife (n.) - conflict

stupefy (v.) - to astound

submissive (adj.) - easily yielding to authority

subsist (v.) - to live, exist

succinct (adj.) - marked by compact precision

suffice (v.) - to meet needs

supplant (v.) - to displace and substitute for another

surfeit (n.) - an excess, a surplus, an overabundance

surmise (v.) - to guess, infer, suppose

surreptitious (adj.) - done in a secret, or stealthy way

swarthy (adj.) - of dark color or complexion

sybarite (n.) - someone devoted to pleasure and luxury, a voluptuary

sycophant (n.) - a self-serving flatterer

sympathetic (adj.) - compassionate

sympathy (n.) - an expression of pity for another, compassion

synopsis (n.) - a summary

taciturn (adj.) - not inclined to talk

tantamount (adj.) - equivalent in value or significance

tedious (adj.) - boring, dull

telepathic (adj.) - capable of reading minds

tenuous (adj.) - having little substance or strength

terrestrial (adj.) - relating to the land

terse (adj.) - abrupt, short, brief

timorous

(adj.) - fearful, timid

tome (n.) - a large book

toothsome (adj.) - delicious, luscious

torpid (adj.) - lazy, lethargic, moving slowly

torrid (adj.) - giving off intense heat, passionate

tortuous (adj.) - winding, twisted

tragedy (n.) - a disastrous event, or a work of art in which the hero meets a terrible fate

tranquil (adj.) - calm, serene, peaceful

travesty (n.) - a grossly inferior imitation

trek (v.) - to walk, travel by foot

trite (adj.) - overused, hackneyed

truculent (adj.) - eager to fight, violent

ubiquitous (adj.) - existing everywhere, widespread

ultimate (n.) - the last part, or a fundamental element

umbrage (n.) - anger, offense, resentment

uncanny (adj.) - of supernatural character or origin

undulate (v.) - to move in a smooth wavelike motion

uniform (adj.) - unvarying, conforming to one principle

unilateral (adj.) - having only one side

unique (adj.) - being the only one of its kind

upbraid (v.) - to criticize, scold, reproach

vacillate (v.) - to sway from one side to another

variance (n.) - a difference between what is expected and what actually occurs

variegate (v.) - to diversify

vast (adj.) - enormous, immense

veneer (n.) - a superficial or deceptively attractive appearance, faade

veracious (adj.) - honest, truthful

verbose (adj.) - wordy

vicarious (adj.) - experienced through another's actions

vicissitudes

(n.) - the unexpected changes and shifts often encountered in one's life

vigor (n.) - vitality and energy, vim.

vim (n.) - and energy, vigor.

vivacious (adj.) - lively, spirited, full of life

vocation (n.) - one's work or professional calling

volition (n.) - a conscious choice or decision

voluminous (adj.) - large, ample

voluptuary (n.) - someone devoted to sensory pleasure and luxury, a sybarite

wane (v.) - to decrease gradually in size or degree

wax (v.) - to increase gradually in size or degree

weather (v.) - to withstand or survive a situation

whet (v.) - to make more keen, stimulate

winsome (adj.) - charming, attractive

Zeitgeist (n.) - the spirit of the time

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