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3. Relative clause formation in Mandarin In Chinese the relative clause precedes its head in the surface structure. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive: not a clear distinction Relativization in Chinese exhibits a very close relation to topicalization. • First, the conditions for the deletion or pronominalization of the relativized NP are nearly identical with those for the deletion and pronominalization of the topicalized NP.
(17) a. Nèi-ge xiǎoháizi hen xǐhuān nǐ. (subject) that-CL child very like you ‘The child likes you very much.’ b. Nèi-ge xiǎoháizi, (ta) hen xǐhuān nǐ. (topic) the-CL child he very like you ‘The child (topic) (he) likes you very much.’ c. hen xǐhuān nǐ-de nèi-ge xiǎoháizi … like like you-DE that-CL child ‘The child who likes you very much …’ d. ?ta hen xǐhuān nǐ-de nèi-ge xiǎoháizi … he very like you-DE that-CL child ‘The child who likes you very much …’ (18) a. Zhèi-ge nǚhái hen xǐhuān nèi-wei xiānsheng. (object) this- CL girl very like that-CL man ‘This girl likes the man very much.’ b. Nèi-wei xiānsheng, zhèi-ge nǚhái hen xǐhuān (ta). that-CL man this-CL girl very like him ‘That man (topic) this girl likes (him) very much.’ c. Zhèi-ge nǚhái hen xǐhuān (ta)-de nèi-wei xiānsheng … this-CL girl very like him-de that-CL man ‘The man whom the girl likes very much … ’ • The conditions on the deletion of the genitive NPs that are relativized: If the genitive NP can become a topic in a so-called “double nominative” construction, then it can also be relativized. For example, it has been observed that only the possessor NP can become a topic, the possessed NP cannot. The same phenomenon is found with relativization.
(19) a. Nèi-wei xiǎojie, yǎnjīng hen piàoliàng that-CL lady eyes very beautiful ‘That lady (topic) (her) eyes are very beautiful.’ 1
Nèi-ge nǚhái-de tóufa hen cháng.b. nèi-ge nǚhái. Nèi-wei yǎnjīng hen piàoliàng-de xiǎojie … that-CL eyes very beautiful-DE lady ‘The lady whose eyes are very beautiful …’ b.’ b. nèi-wei xiǎojie hen piàoliàng eyes that-CL lady very beautiful ‘Her eyes (topic) the lady is beautiful’ (20) a. tóufa hen cháng-de nèi-ge nǚhái … hair very long-DE that-CL girl ‘The girl whose hair is very long …’ • Double nominative construction: (22) a. Nǐ hen xiàng nèi-ge nǚhái. *tā-de tóufa hen chāng-de nèi-ge nǚhái …. (21) a. *nèi-ge nǚhái. Nèi-zhong zhǐ.’ b. that-kind paper every-sheet ten-cents money ‘That kinds of paper (topic) a sheet is worth ten cents. that-CL girl-DE hair very long ‘That girl’s hair (topic and subject) is very long. měi-zhang yì-mao qián. you very like that-CL girl ‘You look very much like the girl. tóufa hen chāng that-CL girl hair very long ‘The girl (topic) (her) hair is very long. *Nèi-wei xiǎojie hen piàoliàng-de yǎnjīng … that-CL lady very beautiful-DE eyes When relativization does occur.’ b.’ 2 . *yǎnjīng. (23) a. her hair very long-DE that-CL girl ‘The girl whose hair is long …’ c.’ d. nor can they be relativized. měi-zhang yì-mao qián-de nèi-zhong zhǐ… every-sheet ten-cents money-DE that-kind paper ‘The kind of paper that is worth ten cents a sheet …’ • Fourth. nǐ hen xiàng that-CL girl you very like ‘The girl (topic) you look very much like (her). predicate nominals after classificatory verbs may not be topicalized. the relativized genitive NP does not leave any pronominal copy behind as in the case of topicalization.
now phone come-DE person ‘Who was the person that just called?’ (27) nǐmen méiyou wǒ xǐhuān-de you not.’ c. when the head NP of a relative clause refers to any of the general categories such as dongxi ‘things’ or ren ‘person/people.as rent-DE good ‘Things bought are not as good as things rented.’ (26) Gāngcái dǎ-diànhuà lái-de (rén) just. resulting in a ‘beheaded’ or headless relative clause. *wǒ rènshi nèi-ge shícháng mà (tā)-de rén-de nèi-ge nǚhái … I know that-CL often scold her-DE man-DE that-CL girl ‘The girl whom I know the man who often scolds …’ In Chinese.’ then it can often be deleted. Wǒ rènshi nèi-ge shícháng mà nèi-ge nǚhái-de rén. (25) Wǒ men jīnnián dōngtiān chī-de (dōngxi) we this winter eat-DE things ‘We have all the food for this winter. wǒ rénshi nèi-ge shícháng mà tā-de rén that-CL girl I know that-CL often scold her-DE man ‘The girl (topic) I know the man who often scolds her. ?nèi-ge nǚhái. *nèi-ge nǚhái. I know that-CL often scold that-CL girl-DE man ‘I know the man who often scolds the girl.c.’ dou all yǒu have le. but in English.’ (28) mǎi-de bùrú zù-de hǎo buy-DE not. PART shì was shéi? who 3 .have I like-DE ‘You don’t have what I like. *nǐ hen xiàng-de nèi-ge nǚhái … you very like-DE that-CL girl ‘The girl whom you look like …’ e. ?nǐ hen xiàng tā-de nèi-ge nǚhái … you very like her-DE that-CL girl ‘The girl whom you look like …’ • Finally.’ d.’ d. nǐ hen xiàng tā that-CL girl you very like her ‘The girl (topic). wǒ rènshi nèi-ge shícháng mà-de rén that-CL girl I know that-CL often scold-DE man ‘The girl (topic) I know the man who often scolds. you look very much like her. ?nèi-ge nǚhái. (24) a. no noun phrases contained in a complex NP can be relativized or topicalized.’ b.
(33) Zhuō-dào-(le) tōu-(le) wǒ shàngxīngqī mǎi-de caught-(ASP) stole-(ASP) I last. 4 .” When this happens.’ qiwei ‘odor. the relative clauses will end up in English in either a self-embedded structure as in (31) or a right-branching structure in (32).cat catch-DE mouse run-PERF ‘The mouse that the small spotted cat that the person that Zhangsan waited for liked caught ran away.’ (= He heard someone playing the piano) Relative Clause Stacking: When a relative clause is used to modify any NP contained in another relative clause.’ (= I smelt something burning) (30) tā tīng-dao yǒu rén tán gāngqín-de shēngyín he heard EXIST person play piano-DE sound *‘He heard the sound that someone was playing the piano. small spotted.A few head NPs such as shengyin ‘sound.’ Way to express what is conveyed by an English non-restrictive relative clause: Instead of using a corresponding relative clause in Chinese. (32) This is the policeman who caught the thief who stole the watch that I bought last week.’ etc. may have no syntactically identical NP in the relative clause. we have what is called “stacked relative clause. the stacked relatives will form either a self-embedded structure as in (33) or a left-branching structure as in (34). (29) wǒ wén-dao yǒu dōngxi shāo-jiāo-de wèidao I smelt EXIST things burning-DE odor *‘I smelt the odor that something was burning. (31) The girl that the boy that the cow chased kissed blushed. In Chinese.week bought-DE shǒubiǎo-de xiāotōu-de jǐngyuán … watch-DE thief-DE policeman ‘The policeman who caught the thief who stole the watch that I bought last week …’ (34) Zhāngsān dēng-de nà-ge rén xǐhuan-de Zhangsan wait-DE that-CL person like-DE xiǎo huāmǎo zhuā-de lǎoshǔ pǎo-le. the relative clause is recast as a comment clause in a topic chain.
jiāo shū-de ‘one who teaches books’ c. he devoted to revolutionary-DE grandiose great enterprise zǎoyǐ jiāng shēngsǐ zhì-zhī-dù-wài long. she fry-ASP one-CL dish very good eat ‘She fried a dish which was very good to eat.ago JINAG life not. huì shuō Zhōngguóhuà Zhangsan meet-arrive-ASP one-CL foreigner know. xiànshēn yú gémìng-de zhuàngliè dà yè.’ Referring Function (38) a. ?xiànshēn yú gémìng-de zhuàngliè dà yè-de tā.’ b.ago JINAG life not.about ‘He.’ (OR ‘He (topic) is devoted to the grandiose enterprise of revolution (and) ceased to care about his own life long ago. jiàoshī ‘teacher’ b. who is devoted to the grandiose enterprise of evolution.care.’ (37) tā chǎo-le yí-ge cài.care. hen hǎo chī. ta.) The construction that corresponds to the type of restrictive relative clause involving an indefinite NP as head as in (11) and (12): “realis descriptive clause” or “elaborative clause” (36) Zhāngsān pèng-dao-le yí-ge wàiguorén. jiāo Xiǎohuá dìlǐ-de nà-ge rén teach Xiaohua geography-DE that-CL person ‘The person who teaches Xiaohua geography’ 5 . who is devoted to the grandiose enterprise of evolution.how speak Chinese ‘I met a foreigner who can speak Chinese.(35) a. ceased to care about his own life long ago. devoted to revolutionary-DE grandiose great enterprise-DE he zǎoyǐ jiāng shēngsǐ zhì-zhī-dù-wài long. ceased to care about his own life long ago.about ‘He.
explain. and illustrate at least two similarities OR two differences OR one similarity and one difference between English and Mandarin in terms of the order of the head and its complement and/or the order of the head and the adjunct. When giving examples. 6 . 2. Please provide relevant examples.Homework 3 (Due 4/23) 1. Please name and explain at least two similarities AND two differences between English and Mandarin in terms of question formation. please make it clear which part is the head. Please name. and which part is the adjunct. which part is the complement.
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