You are on page 1of 38

TRNG I HC XY DNG

BI BI GING GING MN MN HC HC
KT KT CU CU THP THP KT KT CU CU THP THP
((Phn Phn cu cu kin kin c c bn bn)) ((Phn Phn cu cu kin kin c c bn bn))
Ging vin: TS Nguyn nh Ha Ging vin: TS. Nguyn nh Ha
Email: hoarus0010@gmail.com
Tel: 0906. 655. 553
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
CHNG 5. GIN THP
5.1. I CNG V GIN THP
5.2. TNH TON GIN THP
5.3. NT GIN THP
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
2
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
1. Phn loi gin thp
2. Hnh dng gin thp g g p
3 H thanh bng ca gin 3. H thanh bng ca gin
4. Cc kch thc chnh ca gin
5. H ging khng gian
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
3
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Gin Gin thp thp l l
g g??
So snh So snh
gin thp
vi dm vi dm
thp ?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
4
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Cc khi nim v gin thp:
nh ngha.
g p
Cc thanh gin: g
Thanh cnh trn,
Thanh bng xin g
Thanh
xin u
Thanh cnh di
xin u
gin
Thanh ng
Lin kt ti nt gin: cc thanh gin c th lin kt trc tip vi nhau; hoc

g
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
thng thng chng lin kt vi nhau thng qua cc bn thp (hay bn m).
5
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Chi tit nt gin thp: Lin kt gia cc thanh gin v bn m thng dng Chi tit nt gin thp: Lin kt gia cc thanh gin v bn m thng dng
l lin kt hn (l ph bin nht), hoc lin kt bulng, hoc lin kt inh tn.
1
0
1
0
1
0
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
6
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
1. Phn loi gin
1.1 Theo cng dng:
Gin mi nh cng nghip, gin mi nh dn dng (v ko).
Gin cu, gin cu trc, gin thp khoan,
1.2 Theo cu to ca cc thanh gin
Gin nh: khi ni lc trong cc thanh cnh N < 200 tn; ti trng tc
dng nh v vt khu nh.
Cc thanh gin c to thnh t mt thp gc L hay mt thp trn;
Gin thng: g
S dng khi ni lc trong cc thanh cnh l kh ln N < 5000 kN; ti trng
tc dng khng ln v vt khu kh ln. tc dng khng ln v vt khu kh ln.
Cc thanh gin c to thnh t 2 thp gc, c dng hnh ch T, ch thp
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
7
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Gin nng:
Ni lc trong thanh cnh rt ln N 5000 kN; c s dng lm gin
cu, gin cu chy,...
Cc thanh gin c dng t hp t cc thp hnh hoc thp bn, c dng
ch I, hnh hp, .
a) b) c)
1.3 Theo s kt cu:

: cu to n gin d dng lp; t chu nh hng ca nhit v
Gin kiu dm n gin:
: cu to n gin, d dng lp; t chu nh hng ca nhit v
ln lch gia 2 gi ta.
N: c cng un nh chiu cao gin yu cu ln tn vt liu N: c cng un nh, chiu cao gin yu cu ln, tn vt liu.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
8
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
1.3 Theo s kt cu: 1.3 Theo s kt cu:
Gin kiu dm lin tc:
l h i i : cng un ln hn so vi gin
n gin, chiu cao gin nh hn, tit
kim vt liu thp hn kim vt liu thp hn.
N: ch to v dng lp phc tp
hn; chu nh hng ca nhit v hn; chu nh hng ca nhit v
ln lch gia cc gi ta.
)
Gin kiu dm c mt tha:
: Ni lc phn b trong cc thanh gin hp l hn so vi gin
khng c mt tha, c th cn bng biu mmen gia gi v nhp
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
dm.
9
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Gin kiu khung:
)
e)
Gin kiu khung:
: S dng lm khung chu
lc chnh cho cc cc cng lc chnh cho cc cc cng
trnh c khu nhp ln
Gin kiu vm: Gin kiu vm:
: S dng lm kt cu chu lc cho cc cng trnh
kh l h 60 h h i vt khu rt ln, vt nhp 60 m ; nh nh trin
lm, nh th thao,
k ) k )
Gin kiu thp tr:
: S dng cho cc cng trnh thp tr ngten ct in vt
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
: S dng cho cc cng trnh thp, tr ngten, ct in vt
sng,
10
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
2. Hnh dng gin
Cc yu cu chnh khi la chn gii php kt cu gin:
a) Yu cu vt nhp: L b hay ln a) Yu cu vt nhp: L b hay ln.
b) Yu cu thot nc mi: dc mi i ln hay b, hay mi dc hay mi thoi l
ph thuc vo loi vt liu lp mi ph thuc vo loi vt liu lp mi.
c) Yu cu v lin kt gia gin mi v ct: lin kt khp hay cng, nhm m bo h
kt cu mi v ton h cng trnh c cng cn thit kt cu mi v ton h cng trnh c cng cn thit.
d) Yu cu v v p hnh khi kin trc: to ra cc ng mi thng, cong, hay un
ln cu k ln cu k.
e) Yu cu v kinh t: d ch to v dng lp, tit kim vt liu.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
11
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
a) Gin tam gic (a, b):
)
b)
d
h
h
=

4
5
0
a)
b)
0
,
2
0
,
2
8
8
L
L
h
0
Gin lin kt khp Gin lin kt khp
vi ct
b) Gin hnh thang (c): b) Gin hnh thang (c):
d
i
1
/
8
c)
L
h
h
o
i

c im cu
to, chu lc v
Gin lin kt ngm vi ct
L
s dng ca cc
loi gin?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
12
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
c) Gin cnh song song (d):
d
c) Gin cnh song song (d):
h
L
d) Gin a gic, gin cnh cung (h, k):
d
d
h)
k)
d
d
h
h
)
k)
L L
c im cu c im cu
to, chu lc v
s dng ca cc
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
loi gin?
13
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
3. H thanh bng ca gin

Yu cu v cu to cc nt gin: n gin, c nhiu nt ging nhau => d
th ht t h t
Cc yu cu khi b tr thanh bng:
thng nht trong ch to.
Yu cu tng chiu di thanh bng: nh .
Yu cu gc gia thanh bng v thanh cnh: khng qu nh Yu cu gc gia thanh bng v thanh cnh: khng qu nh.
Yu cu thanh cnh trn: khng b un cc b do ti t ngoi nt gin.
a) H thanh bng tam gic a) H thanh bng tam gic
a) b)
d
d
o
c im
b) H thanh bng xin
d)
d
c im
cu to, s
dng?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
g
14
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
c) H thanh bng phn nh:
d )
Ti trng tp trung tc dng ti nt gin
M c ch Mc ch
s dng?
L
d) H thanh bng khc: d) H thanh bng khc:
g)
h)
i) k) i) k)
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
15
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
4. Kch thc chnh ca gin (thng) g ( g)
a) Nhp gin L :
Khi gin k ln u ct (lin kt khp vi ct): thng ly L = khong cch tm ca 2 gi Khi gin k ln u ct (lin kt khp vi ct): thng ly L = khong cch tm ca 2 gi
ta.
Khi gin lin kt vi cnh bn ca ct (lin kt cng): ly L = khong cch mp trong ca Khi gin lin kt vi cnh bn ca ct (lin kt cng): ly L = khong cch mp trong ca
2 u ct.
i vi gin thng thng (cc thanh gin l 2 thp gc) => nhp hp l ca gin L = 18 i vi gin thng thng (cc thanh gin l 2 thp gc) => nhp hp l ca gin L = 18 ~
36 m.
Nhp gin c ly theo mun 3 m: L = 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 m; Nhp gin c ly theo mun 3 m: L = 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 m;
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
16
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
b) Chiu cao gia gin h, chiu cao u gin h0:
Gin hnh thang, Gin cnh song song:
a) b)
d
d
Th i ki ki h t
|
|

|
1 1
o
Theo iu kin kinh t:
Theo iu kin vn chuyn :
L h
|
.
|

\
|
=
6
1
5
1
L h
|
.
|

\
|
=
9
1
7
1
. \
9 7
Gin hnh tam gic:
d
5
0
a)
b)
0
,
2
0
,2
8
8
L
h
L
h
h
0
=

4
5
chiu cao h ph thuc vo loi vt liu lp.
Khi d h t i 22 40 th th l
L h
|
|

|
=
1 1
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
Khi gc dc cnh trn ca gin 22 ~ 40o th thng ly
C th ly chiu cao u gin h0 = 450 mm d lin kt.
L h
|
.

\
=
4 3
17
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
4. Kch thc chnh ca gin (thng)
c) Khong cch tm cc nt gin d:
thanh cnh trn : d = 3 m hoc 1,5 khi s dng h gin phn nh, , g g p ,
bng khong cch gia cc x g.
thanh cnh di ca gin: d = 3; 4,5 v 6 m.
Ti sao d
cnh di c
thanh cnh di ca gin: d 3; 4,5 v 6 m.
d
1
/
8
c)
th ln hn
cnh trn?
h
h
o
i

1
/
8
c)
L
d) Bc gin : g
Khong cch gia cc gin (bc gin) ph thuc vo yu cu cng
ngh, kin trc.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
Thng ly B = 6 m.
18
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
5. H ging khng gian 5. H ging khng gian
Nguyn tc cu to:
Kt cu gin phng c tnh ton thit k chu cc ti trng tc dng trong mt phng Kt cu gin phng c tnh ton, thit k chu cc ti trng tc dng trong mt phng
gin. Kt cu gin phng d mt n nh theo phng ngoi mt phng ca gin.
Khi chu ti trng TT v HT tc dng theo phng ng => cc thanh cnh trn, v mt
s thanh bng chu nn => Cn b tr cc thanh chng dc nh tt c cc nt gin thuc
thanh cnh trn (v chu nn) ngn cn (hay c kt) cc nt gin khng cho chuyn
dch ra ngoi mt phng gin;
- i vi kt cu mi panen BTCT th cc tm panen cng c tc dng nh cc thanh
chng cho cc nt gin thuc thanh cnh trn ca gin khi cng trnh trong giai on s chng cho cc nt gin thuc thanh cnh trn ca gin khi cng trnh trong giai on s
dng.
- Cn b tr cc thanh chng dc nh trong tt c cc khoang v tr nt nh gin, nt u
gin nt di chn ca tri => n nh gin khi thi cng lp dng gin, nt di chn ca tri => n nh gin khi thi cng lp dng.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
19
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
Khi ti trng gi tc dng vung gc vi mt phng gin => Ti trng gi truyn g g g g g p g g g g y
vo cc nt gin ca c thanh cnh trn v cnh di ca gin u hi.
- Cn lin kt 2 gin phng thuc ca cc khoang u hi vi nhau => s dng
cc thanh cho ch thp => nhm to ra mt khi kt cu khng gian n nh
2 pha u hi nh chu ti trng gi ngang. p g g g g
- Bng cch b tr cc thanh ch thp v thanh chng dc lin kt gia cc nt
gin 2 gian u hi (2 khoang u hi).
Gi l h ging khng gian nhm lin kt cc gin phng li vi nhau => to
khi kt kh i h cc khi kt cu khng gian n nh.
H ging khng gian gm c 3 loi:
- H ging cnh trn nm trong MP thanh cnh trn;
- H ging cnh di nm trong MP thanh cnh di;

B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
- H ging ng nm trong MP cc thanh ng.
20
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
a) H ging cnh trn:
H ging cnh
trn l g, cu
to, b tr v
b'
'
tc dng?
b
a
c
e'
g'
a'
a'
c'
d
g
e
Cc gin
gia c gia c
gi nh th
no?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
no?
21
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
b) H ging cnh di:
H ging cnh
di l g, cu
to, b tr v
'
b'
c'
tc dng?
b
a
c
e'
g'
a'
a'
c
d
g
e
Khi no cn
b tr h
ging dc?
Ti sao
cn gi l
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
gin gi?
22
5.1. I CNGV GIN THP
c) H ging ng:
H ging ng
b
c
e'
g'
'
a'
b'
c'
g g g
l g, cu to,
b tr v tc
a
c
d
g
e
e
g
a'
dng?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
23
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
1 S t h i 1. S tnh gin
2. Ti trng tc dng ln gin g g g
3. Ni lc trong gin
4. Chiu di tnh ton cc thanh gin
5 Tit di h l th h i 5. Tit din hp l ca cc thanh gin
6. Chn v kim tra tit din thanh gin g
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
24
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
1. S tnh gin 1. S tnh gin
- Gm cc thanh gin c xp t c cc trc thanh ng qui ti mt im
(gi l nt gin hay mt gin) (gi l nt gin, hay mt gin).
- Cu to cc ti trng t tp trung ti nt gin.
- Trnh ti trng tc dng lm cong cc b cho cc thanh gin.
T h i h i h h 2 h L - Tnh ton gin thng vi cc thanh gm 2 thp gc L.
- Ni lc trong cc thanh gin gm ch yu N ko hoc nn => Xem nt - Ni lc trong cc thanh gin gm ch yu N ko hoc nn > Xem nt
gin l lien kt khp v s dng cc phng php trong CHKC tnh.
- i vi gin nng c thanh gin tit din hnh hp, ch I, th c M kh
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
g g g p
ln.
25
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
2. Ti trng tc dng ln gin
Ti trng thng xuyn (tnh ti)
3. Ni lc trong gin
Cn tnh ring r cho tng trng hp ti trng:
Ti trng tm thi
g g
Tnh ti:
Hot ti sa cha mi: xt 3 trng hp: Tc dng ln ton gin; Tc dng
Cn tnh ring r cho tng trng hp ti trng:
Hot ti sa cha mi: xt 3 trng hp: Tc dng ln ton gin; Tc dng
na tri gin (gy bt li cho thanh bng chu ct); v Tc dng na phi
gin.
Ti trng gi: Tc dng t tri, Tc dng t phi. => Gi gy bt li cho nh
mi nh.
Ti trng cn trc treo (nu c): Tc dng vai ct; tc dng vo nt gin Ti trng cn trc treo (nu c): Tc dng vai ct; tc dng vo nt gin
thanh cnh di. => Tnh gi tr ti trng ln nht ca cn trc treo tc
dng ln nt gin.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
g g
26
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
4. Chiu di tnh ton cc thanh gin
a) i vi cc thanh chu N ko:
- B ph ho v bn, vt liu t ti
- Cn xc nh mnh kim tra v mnh ln nht, m bo
thanh khng b cong vnh khi vn chuyn v dng lp

cng chy ca thp.


thanh khng b cong vnh khi vn chuyn v dng lp.
Th h i h d b t t h i h b h
b) i vi cc thanh chu N nn:
Thanh gin chu nn d b cong trong mt phng gin hoc b cong vnh
ra ngoi mt phng gin;
Thanh b ph hoi do mt n nh tng th => tnh ton nh thanh
f
N
s
Thanh b ph hoi do mt n nh tng th. > tnh ton nh thanh
chu nn ng tm
c
f
A

s
min
Cn xc nh mnh ln nht ca cc thanh:
) ; (
max y x
Max =
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G

max y x
27
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
Tit din thanh gin:
x
y
x
z
t d t a g :
Cn xc nh mnh ln nht ca cc thanh gin:
) ; (
max y x
Max =
y
x x x
i l =
l l
x x
=
A I i
x x
=
i l l l
A I i
trong :
y y y
i l = l l
y y
=
A I i
y y
=
Cn xc nh chiu di tnh ton ca cc thanh gin lx v ly, hoc h s
hi di h chiu di tnh ton.
x

Cc h s ny Cc h s ny
cng ca bn m
khi b
Cc h s ny Cc h s ny
ph thuc vo ph thuc vo
yu t no? yu t no?
khi b un trong v
ngoi mt phng c
khc nhau khng?
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
yu t o? yu t o?
khc nhau khng?
28
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
Chiu di tnh ton khi thanh gin b un x
y
Chiu di tnh ton khi thanh gin b un
cong trong mt phng gin lx.
x
l
Nt gin c l
khp l tng
khng, ti sao?
x
y
z
Mc xoay ca
l
Mc xoay ca
nt gin ph thuc
yu t no?
_
_
b
c
d
l
=

l
x
yu t no?
_
_
_
+
b
l


x
_
_
Nt gin no c
+ +
a
e
Nt gin no c
xem l lin kt
khp, ngm n

B mn Cng trnh Thp - G


l
hi?
29
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
i vi gin khng c h bng phn
l
V d:
nh:
- Thanh xin u gin: lx = l.
_
_
_
b
c
d
l


=

l
x
g
-Thanh xin th 2: lx = 0,8 l

_
_
+
+ +
a
_
_
-i vi gin c h bng phn nh:
thanh xin u gin : lx = 0,5l
+ +
a
e
l
Thanh xin th 2: lx = 0,5l
Chiu di tnh ton ngoi mt phng gin ly:
Bn m khi b un ra ngoi mt phng => c cng ngoi mt phng
rt b c th b qua
Chiu di tnh ton ngoi mt phng gin ly:
rt b, c th b qua.
Thanh xin u gin: ly = l .
i vi thanh gin khng c h bng
phn nh:
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
Thanh xin th 2: ly = l .
phn nh:
30
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
i vi thanh gin c h bng phn nh:
l
N | |
N2
- Cc thanh xin (thanh xin u gin): C ni lc nn N1 v
N2 vi N1 > N2.
l l
N
N
l
y
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1
2
25 , 0 75 , 0
x
y
z
N1
- Thanh cnh trn v thanh cnh di: ly = khong cch gia 2 im c kt ngn cn thanh
cnh chuyn v ra khi mt phng gin
. Thanh cnh trn: ly = khong cch gia cc x g, thanh chng dc nh, khong
cch chn panen,
h h h d i l kh h i h d i . Thanh cnh di : ly = khong cch cc ging cnh di,
c) mnh gii hn ca cc thanh gin:
h h h Thanh chu nn
Thanh chu ko
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
31
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
5. Tit din hp l ca cc thanh gin
Tit din ca cc thanh gin thng bao gm 2 thp gc ghp li, thp gc u cnh hay
khng u cnh.
Thanh gin chu nn ng tm. Mt n nh theo phng c mnh ln nht max

Tiu ch lm vic hp l ca cc thanh gin l (iu kin ng n nh):


l
l
y x
=
y
y
x
x
i
l
i
l
=
y
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
32
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
5. Tit din hp l ca cc thanh gin
) b) ) d)
Cc dng tit din ca thanh gin:
a) b)
x
y y
x
c)
d)
y
x
y
x
a) b) c) d)
C t l bn knh qun tnh ca tit din:
y x
i i ~
y x
i i 5 , 0 ~
y x
i i 75 , 0 ~
y x
i i ~
S dng thch hp khi ct c chiu cao tnh ton:
y x
l l ~
y x
l l 8 , 0 ~
y x
l l ~
y x
l l 5 , 0 ~
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
33
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
a. Nguyn tc chn tit din:
- Tit din nh nht l L50 5.
- Khng chn qu 6~8 loi thp trong 1 gin L s 36 m.
- Khi L s 24 m : khng cn thay i tit din thanh cnh.
- Khi L > 24 m : khng qu 2 loi tit din khi 24 36 m.
- dy bn m chn theo ni lc ln nht ca thanh xin u gin, (> 6 mm)
b) Chn v kim tra tit din thanh chu nn:
Din tch tit din yu cu:
c
yc
f
N
A

>
min
min

cha bit, s b gi thit


gt

= 60 80 i vi thanh cnh ;
gt

= 100 120 i vi thanh bng.


T Ayc , tra bng thp hnh chn s hiu tit din v cc c trng hnh hc ca
tit din: ix, iy, Ag
Kim tra tit din chn: c
f
A
N

min
( )
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
min

theo
( )
y x
; max
max
=
34
5.2 TNHTON GIN THP
6. Chn v kim tra tit din thanh gin
c) Chn v kim tra tit din thanh chu ko:
Din tch tit din yu cu:
N
A > Din tch tit din yu cu:
c
yc
f
A

>
T Ayc , tra bng thp hnh chn s hiu, v cc c trng hnh T Ayc , tra bng thp hnh chn s hiu, v cc c trng hnh
hc: ix, iy, Ag
Kim tra tit din chn:
c
f
A
N
o s =
| | s
v
n
A
d) Chn tit din thanh theo mnh gii hn:
] [
,

x
yc x
l
i =
] [
,

y
yc y
l
i =
] [
] [
Tra bng thp hnh chn s hiu.
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
35
5.3 NT GIN THP
1. Nguyn tc chung g y g
Cc thanh gin c chn theo tit din hp l.
Khi thanh cnh khng c thay i tit din m: im hi t
ca cc thanh gin nm trn trc ca thanh cnh.
24 s L
Khi thanh cnh c thay i tit din (khi ni thanh cnh)
m: im hi t ca cc thanh gin nm trn trc trung bnh hoc trn
36 24 s < L
m: im hi t ca cc thanh gin nm trn trc trung bnh, hoc trn
trc ca thanh ln nu khong cch gia 2 trc thanh khng ln hn
1,5% chiu cao ca cnh thp gc.
Bn m nn chn c hnh dng n gin v m bo truyn lc tt:
H h h ht h h th t i i li Hnh ch nht, hnh thang, tam gic, a gic li.
Gc gia mp bn m v trc thanh 15o, nhm m bo truyn
> o
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
Gc gia mp bn m v trc thanh 15o, nhm m bo truyn
lc gia thanh v bn m.
> o
36
5.3 NT GIN THP
1. Nguyn tc chung g y g
B dy ca bn m c chn theo ni lc ln nht trong cc thanh
bng (thanh xin u gin) tra Bng 5 1 bng (thanh xin u gin), tra Bng 5.1.
Khe h gia cc u thanh bng v thanh cnh: g g
20 6 >
bm
t c
50 > c
mm
mm
50 > c
80 s c
mm
mm
Khe h gia 2 thanh cnh khi ni ly bng 50 mm.
ng hn gia thanh gin v bn m c chiu cao yu cu
> h
4 mm
ng hn gia thanh gin v bn m c chiu cao yu cu
>
f
h
chiu di
4 mm
> l
50 mm (cho c ng hn khng lin tc).
C th h th
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
C th hn c u thp gc.
37
5.3 NT GIN THP
2. Nt trung gian
a)
b)
B mn Cng trnh Thp - G
38