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.8 , .
.9 .
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.11 ,
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.13 .
.14 , .70%
.15 .
.16 , ().
.17 !
.18 , .
.19 . .
.21 :
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.1

.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
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Vibrio cholerae
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( ,)1999 ( )1999 ...
( - 1999 ) (- Israeli et al. 1999
).

;
. " , .
," ( 11 ):
, )2117( . Vibrio cholerae
.Aeromonas ,
( 97').
Benitez, J. A., Silva, A. J. and Finkelstein, R. A. (2001) Environmental signals
controlling production of Hemagglutinin/Protease in Vibrio cholerae. Infec.
Immun. 69: 65496553.

( ) . "
.

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.2 .
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.6 31.
.7 31.
.8 .
.9 ( ) .
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.1
.2
.3
.4
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3% KOH .
.

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- . +
.

4 '

1".

1.1" , 111

( .)111 m 5m .
( ' )0
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, .
, . 1.1
. , ,
251 , , 411
.
( ) Limit of Resolution = LR:
. (.)
.
= n
( ).

LR

2 n sin
,1.003 ,1.33 ,1.4 .1.43


. : = 112" = 113" = 116 ( 119 = )m ()nm

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( )contrast .
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11

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11

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- . . -
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4.3
.
0.85% NaCl . ?

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.3

( ) .
, .
.
.
. :
.1 : ( ,)coccus ( ,)rod,bacillus ( )vibrio (.)spirilum
.2 : , , , .
:

.1 ' .
.2 41 X"
.111 X
.3 .
.4 ( )
' .KOH
.KOH -
.
:

12

' 3
:
( (MPN
:

()
,
.
.
( .)Coliforms ,
. , , ,
, 48 .35C -
() .
( .)Enterobacteriaceae -
( ,E. coli )( Klebsiella pneumoniae , ) , .
, , .
( )( , ) . ,
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,
.
( . : , , , D.N.A.
, )
:

.1 .
.2 :
.2 .
.2.

Pour Plate

.2.

( :)Miles and Misra


3 . ,
( .)MPN( )Most Probable Number

13

.0 ()

, Petroff-Hausser Mallette
( .(A.H.Thomas, Philadelphia .

2X107/" ,
.

.3 ()

, , , .
" ,
.

,
.

, ,
, .

21-311 .

108-109 -/" .
.

( , ) , .

," ,
.

14

4 . ()

( 1.1-") ,
.

, .

4 . ( Pour Plate)

.
21( .") . .50C

, , ,
, . .

4 . ( ( )Miles and Misra)

, , .

6 - .

( .)10l , , ,
.

, .

()
( ) ,
.
3 . (.)MPN( )Most Probable number

,
.

E. coli -.

:
. . .
. , .
. BCP -
pH . .

15

, ' - + ,
( . - , ).
HCOOHCO2+H2
. :-glucuronides E. coli (MUG) :
4-methylumbelliferyl--D-glucuronide
methylumbelliferyl
. E. coli .
E. coli .

.2 ()
.
.
" - .
, .
, .
, " .

( .
"")


11 , 4.5" .
:
.1 11 , 4.5".
-11

.2 ( .)10 10-1
.3 1.5" .
.4 . .10-1 .
.5 1.5" ( )10-1 .
.6 . .10-2 .
.7 .

16

.0 ()
.1 ( . 2 ,
. ).
.2 411X.
.3 5 - . ,
( 5X10-8") , 2X107/" .
4. ()
.1 6 .
.2 , , .
.10-5, 10-6, 10-7 : 2( ,).
.3 0.1" .
.4 , , .
.5 , .
.6 48, 37 C-.
4 . ( Pour Plate)
.1 7 ( , , ).
-6

.2 : ,10-5 1.1" ( 2) . ,10


0.1, 0.2, 0.5" ( 3) ,10-7 1.5" ( 2)
.3 : ,
.
.4 . ,
.
.5 8 .
.6 . 48 ,37C -.
4 . (( )Miles and Misra)
.1 6 .
.2
-4

-5

-6

-7

10l

-8

10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 , 10-3 ( . )
.3 " 48 ,37C -.

17

3 . (( )MPN( )Most Probable number)


.1 , ( EC+MUG ) ,
. () :
10-6 - ( .10-11" 6 3= 18)
.2 , 1" .
()
.3 48 ,37C -.

:
.1 ,.
.2 .
.3 .MPN-
.4 " ,
( ,
)
.5 " .
:
.1 , , .
.
.2 /" , .
.
.3 .
MPN
: , , .U.V.
:

10-11

10-10

10-9

10-8

10-7

10-6

.
:

,
( . )
18

, ,
(.)MPN

( . 3
) .
: MPN"

10-11

' 0
+

10-10

10-9

10-8

10-7

10-6

. 321
.15.0 -

().
( 15*108 )108" 1.5*109/" .
3.2*108-7*109/".

E. coli -
UV MPN ,E. coli .

-0
-

.
:
. :
. E. -
0.1N HCl
coli MUG + Ec
Bacto tryptone
. : 1- ( )
Bacto lactose
5.0 g
Tryptone
5.0 g
Bacto bile salts No.3
1.5 g
Yeast extract
2.5 g
K2HPO4
4.0 g
Glucose
1.0 g
KH2PO4
1.5 g
Agar
23.0 g
NaCl
5.0 g
pH 7.0
4-methylumbelliferyl - 0.075g
-D-Glucoronide
. ( :(Nutrient agar- (
)
pH 6.90.2
agar
20.0 g
BCP
Beef extract
3.0 g

Tryptone
5.0 g

pH 7.0
-
.BCP
15 -
.
.

.
19

4
Most Probable-Number of Organisms with Three Tubes Per Dilution
Significant
number

Probable
number

Significant
number

Probable
numb
er

Significant
number

Probable
number

Confidence
limits

000

0.0

201

1.4

0.30

6.6

302

6.5

1.4

30

001

0.3

0.064

1.4

202

2.0

0.45

9.4

310

4.5

0.96

21

010

0.3

0.084

1.4

210

1.5

0.21

7.0

311

7.5

1.6

35

011

0.6

0.13

2.8

211

2.0

0.43

9.4

312

11.5

2.5

54

020

0.6

0.13

2.8

212

3.0

0.64

14

313

16.0

3.4

75

100

0.4

0.085

1.9

220

2.0

0.43

9.4

320

9.5

2.0

44

101

0.7

0.15

3.3

221

3.0

0.64

14

321

15.0

3.2

70

102

1.1

0.24

5.2

222

3.5

0.75

16

322

20.0

4.3

94

110

0.7

0.15

3.3

223

4.0

0.85

19

323

30.0

6.4

140

111

1.1

0.24

5.2

230

3.0

0.64

14

330

25.0

5.3

120

120

1.1

0.24

5.2

231

3.5

0.75

16

331

45.0

7.6

200

121

1.5

0.32

7.0

232

4.0

0.86

19

332

110.0

24

520

130

1.6

0.34

7.5

300

2.5

0.53

12

333

140.0

30

660

200

0.9

0.19

4.2

Confidence
limits

21

Confidence limits


pour plate :
'

(")

10-5

1.1

251

10-5

1.1

211

10-6

1.1

23

10-6

1.2

25

10-6

1.2

115

10-7

1.5

11

10-7

1.5

/" .
( ,
).
.

21

2
: ( )
:
:
.
":
() .
:
-
.
-

.
-
(
) .
.
(-) - .
:
- (
).
- .
:
.1 .
.1 .
.1 . .
.1 .1. ()Pyrogallol
.1 .2. ()Thioglycolate
.1 .3. ( )Anoxic jar
.2 .
.2 . ()Catalase
.2 . ()Oxidase

22

.0 . ()

. .
.
. .
.0 0 . ()
" .
,Na2CO3 , (
.)O - , .

.0 .4. ()
" .
) )S-S SH + SH
" ( ).
, , .
/ .resazurin
( ).

.
, .
.
.0 .3. ()
, .
.
"
,H2 + CO2 . , ,
.
, .
( ) ,
. () .
23

.4 . ()
- -
. -
.

H2O2---->2H2O + O2

-.
.
.4 . ()
,C
.
,C
( .)E.coli
tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine" .C
.
.
Enterobacteriaceae .C

- (
) .

.1 4 .
.2 1.5" .
.3 (
).
.4 ( )
" .
.5
11.
.0 . ( )
.1 () ' .50C
3
Escherichia coli
Micrococcus luteus
Clostridium sporogenes

24

.

.
.2
.
.3 , 30C - 24.

.0 0. ( )
.1 4 .
.2 2 .Micrococcus luteus
.3 ,
.
.4 2 .Clostridium sporogenes .
.5 ,
. - Clostridium sporogenes .
. ( ) ,
: . - ,
.
. .
. 0.5" 20%.Na2CO3.
. .
. 4 30C- 24
.
.0 4 . ( )

:
Clostridium sporogenes
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
30C - 48.

25

.0 3. (( )GasPak )
( )
, ( ):
( 5 )
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enterococcus fecalis

Clostridium sporogenes

Escherichia coli
Micrococcus luteus

( )
( ) .
, .
/ .
. 30C - 24.
.0'
: Clostridium sporogene
0 .0 ( )
:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enterococcus fecalis

Clostridium sporogenes

Escherichia coli
Micrococcus luteus

:
.1 3%- .
.2 3% -
.
.3 , - -
.
0 .4 ( )
:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enterococcus fecalis

Clostridium sporogenes

Escherichia coli
Micrococcus luteus

26

:
.1 " 1% tetramethyl-p-:
phenylenediamine
.2 ,
.
.3 -
11 - ".
'
.
.
( )
?
.
.
.
.

:
)(LB agar+0.5%Glucose
- !! ( 3)
.
: ()Thioglycolate

Pancreatic Casein hydrolysate 15.0g
L-cystine
5.0g
Yeast extract
5.0g
NaCl
2.5g
Sodium Thioglycolate
0.5g
Glucose
5.0g
Agar
1.0g
resazurin
0.002g
pH 7.2

27

2
:
* .

:

, .

, :
( , ,).

, , , "
(( )enrichment ) .
.

," ,
( ,)Repressive selection
, .

.
(( ,(Differential media ),
.

, "
.

,
.

:
/:
()MacConkey agar
- ()Mannitol-salts
()Azide agar
- ()ADA-V
/ ()
/ ,
,
, (
).
( : )

28

/
/


Bile salts/ Nadeoxy-cholate


()Beef extract

()Yeast extract

( NaCl ( )
)7.5%


)(Crystal violet

()Sodium azide

(-)


()Neutral red
Brom cresol
purple
Phenol red
Tetrazolium
chloride
Bromothymol
blue

():
.1 ( )bile salts or sodium desoxycholate -,
.

.
. E. coli
, ,
, .
.2 ( NaN3 )Azide , .
. .
.
.3 ( )Crystal violet ,
.
.4 NaCl .
7.5% .
.5 Ampicillin, Vancomycin : "
. ( .

, .
).

29


. ()
( )1% - .
pH- . pH -
, .pH -
.1 .
pH -.
.2 .
.pH
.3 - .
.pH
.4 - 1-4
.1-6 . pH

pH-
pH
8.0

pH
6.8



Neutral red
Phenol red

8.4
6.8

6.8
5.2

Brom cresol purple


7.6

Bromothymol blue

6.1

/
- Tetrazolium chloride - ,/
. ,
/.

:
5 - .
E. coli

Micrococcus luteus

Enterococcus fecalis

Staphylococcus aureus
Aeromonas caviae

31

:
1" .
. " .
" .
/
5 :
.1 ) (Nutrient agar
.2 )(Mackonkey agar
.3 - ()Mannitol-salts
.4 ( )Azide agar
.5 - ()ADA-V
5-.
.
.
37C - 24.

"

.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
.11
.11
.12

.
" ,
.
" .
. .
.
.
.
.
" ( .
, , ).
.
".
" .3
, .


,LB ,

.1 "
37C - 24.

31



.4
.
:
.1

.2

.3

.4

(
)KOH

.5

.
? ( " )


.
?

32


/
-
)ADA-V(

Agar azide
Salnetz Bartley Agar

Tryptose
Dextrin
Yeast extract
Sodium chloride

1.5
1.14
1.2
1.3

Peptone casein
Peptone soymeal
Yeast extract
Glucose

1.5
0.5
1.5
1.2

Potassium chloride

1.2

1.4

Magnesium sulfate
Iron chloride

1.11
1.116

Di-Potassium
hydrogen phosphate
Sodium Azide
Tetrazolium Chloride

Bromothymol blue

1.118

Agar

1.5

Sodium desoxycholate

1.11

Ampicillin(10mg)
Vancomycin (2mg)
agar

1*10-3
2*10-4
2.1


Mannitol salts agar

MacConkey agar

Peptone
Proteose peptone
Lactose
Bile salts
NaCl
Crystal Violet
Neutral Red
Agar

1.14
1.11

%
1.7
0.3
1.0
0.14
0.5
0.0001
0.003
2.1


Beef extract
Proteose peptone
NaCl
Mannitol
Phenol Red
Agar

33

%
0.1
1.0
7.5
1.0
0.0025
2.0

6
:
:
.1
.2 .API
.3 .API
.4 .API
.5 - .Bergey
.6 "
:

,Enterobacteriaceae

: ,
, , ,
. Proteobacteria -
.-Proteobacteria -
. ,
.
5 Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, :
Proteus, Citrobacter
.
. ""API
. () ( ,
)

.
,
, , ' ( .
, ,
, NH3' .
). NaCl
.
, .Crystal-Violet-
,
.
,pH
34

- ' .
CO2 , pH-.
.
pH - pH .-
.
:
.1
.2 XLD
.3 (Triple Sugar Iron) TSI
.4 (Lysine Iron Agar) LIA
5 (Christensen Urea Agar) Urea
.6 )(Simmons Citrate Agar
.7 (Motility Indole Ornithine) MIO
.8 )(MR-VP broth
. "("API)
.
. 21 .
. 18-24
. .
. .
.

35

Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar - XLD

:
XLD Agar

MacConkey Agar

Yeast extract 0.3%


L-Lysine 0.5%
Xylose 0.375%
Lactose 0.75%
Sucrose 0.75%
Na-deoxycholate 0.25%
Ferric Ammonium Citrate 0.08%
Na-thiosultafe 0.68%
NaCl 0.5%
Phenol red 0.008%
Agar 1.5%
Sterilize by boiling, pH=7.4

Peptone 1.7%
Proteose peptone 0.3%
Lactose 1.0%
Bile salts 0.14%
NaCl 0.5%
Neutral red 0.003%
Crystal violet 0.0001%
Agar 2%
)(Difco B 75
`pH=7.0, sterilize 121oC 15

.0

NaCl

bile salts

Crystal violet

(-)


( Neutral
)red

.4 XLD

( Yeast
)extract
NaCl

(-)
,/ (-

Na) /( deoxycholate- 5
)
Na-thiosulfate
Ferric
Ammonium
Citrate

*
** H2S-

36

Phenol
red

H2S-
*FeS

Fe

**FeS
-

(Lysine Iron Agar) - LIA ( Triple sugar Iron) TSI


Triple Sugar Iron Agar

Lysine Iron Agar

Beef extract
0.3%
Yeast extract
0.3%
Peptone
1.0%
Proteose peptone
1.0%
Dextrose
0.1%
Lactose
1.0%
Sucrose
1.0%
Ferrous sulfate
0.02%
(or ferrous ammonium sulfate)
NaCl
0.05%
Sodium thiosulfate 0.03% (Difco B30)
Agar
1.2%
Phenol red
0.0024%
o
pH=7.3, sterilize 121 15

Bactopeptone
Yeast extract
Dextrose
L-Lysine
Ferric Ammonium Citrate
Sodium thiosulfate
Brom cresol purple
Agar

0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
1.0%
0.05%
0.004%
0.002%
1.5%

pH=6.7, sterilize 121c

15

TSI .3

Phenol red

FeS (H2S
)

Ferrous-Sulfate
(
)H2S-

)- (
)- (,/

Na-thiosulfate


)Yeast extract(


(Beef extract)


)Dextrose(
NaCl
(Lysine Iron Agar) LIA .2

* - Brom Cresol
Purple
Lysine decarboxylase LDC
H2S-
**FeS

Fe
*** FeS

Na-thiosulfate
Ferric- Ammonium
-Citrate


)Yeast extract(
)Dextrose(

PH -*
**
H2S-***

37


0.5%
0.02%
0.1%
0.2%
0.008%
2.0%

Simmons citrate agar


NaCl
MgSO4
NH4H2PO4
Na-Citrate
Brom thymol blue
Agar
pH=6.9, sterilize 121, 15

Cristensen Urea agar


A. Urea agar base:
Peptone
NaCl
Dextrose
KH2PO4
Phenol red
Agar
pH=6.9,sterilize 121c

final
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0012%
2.0%
15
2.0%

B. Urea
(Prepare 20% urea
solution &sterilize by
)filtration
Add 10 ml of B to 90 ml
of A.

.2 Christenen Urea agar


Urea -

Phenol Red

"
*Urease

NaCl
()Dextrose
* ( )NH3 pH
.6 Simmons Citrate agar

NaCl

Na
Citrate

Brom thymol
blue



(

)*

MgSO4
NH4H2PO4
* pH CO2 () .CO2 -
Na - Na2CO3 pH - 7.6
( Na - Na - )

38

MIO MR-VP


Motility Indole Ornithine
Agar Pancreatic digest of

MR-VP broth
KH2PO4
0.5%
Buffered peptone (or
0.7%
)polypeptone
Dextrose,
0.5%
pH=6.9, sterilize 121,15

1.4%
0.5%

casein USP
Pancreatic digest of gelatin

0.3%
0.1%
0.5%
0.002%
0.2%

Yeast extract
Dextrose
L-Ornithine
Brom cresol purple
Agar

.7 )Motility Indole Ornithine( - MIO -



Pancreatic digest of
casein

)(Ornithine

Brom cresol
purple


-
Ornithine
*decarboxylase
)(ODC
**


( ')

Pancreatic digest of
gelatin
Yeast extract


()0.2%

()
* - .PH
** " .
( (Kovacs .

.2 MRVP

KH2PO4


*Methyl red
**KOH+


pH
*

**

()
* . pH .
** .
.

39


:
.1 - ,
.
.
.
E.coli ,
, ,
.
.2 ( )Crystal violet ,
.
:
() .
( )1% - .
pH- . pH -
, .pH -
:
.1 ( ) .
pH -.
.2 .
.pH
.3 - -
, .pH -
.4 - 5 . .pH
-:
.
( )0.5%-1% . ( ,)CO2
, pH- .
pH ,
. pH -
, pH ' .
pH - .

41

.1 - . Lysine Decarboxylase
)( (LDC ) , pH - .
.2 - . Ornithine
)( Decarboxylase (ODC ) pH -
.

.
.

. .


pH-

pH

pH

Neutral red -

8.0

6.8

Phenol red

8.4

6.8

Brom cresol purple -

6.8

5.2

Brom thymol blue -

7.6

6.1

Methyl red

6.8

*4.4

* pH 5 .

H2S
- Fe ( )Ferrous sulfate H2S
. ( Ferric
,)ammonium citrate "
.H2S

41


.
:

Voges-Proskauer
(--) . "
KOH .

42

:
' : ( )
.
( 6' .)59
.
, .
. ,
" ( ).
.
:
.1 () ( )
.2 ( XLD) )
.3 (Triple Sugar Iron) TSI
.4 (Lysine Iron Agar) LIA
5 (Christensen Urea Agar) Urea
.6 )(Simmons Citrate Agar
.7 (Motility Indole Ornithine) MIO
.8 )(MR-VP broth
37C- 24.
' : ""API
,
.
.
" ( )5ml .
.
,130l - - , .
ICITI IVPI IGELI 130l
.
ADH, LDC, ODC, URE, H2S : 130l
.
. 24 .37C-

43

:
' :
.1 , ,
.
( . ).
.2 . ,
.
-MIO .3 . .
- ' ,
( . ).
-MR-VP .4 - :
1" 2 . 1.5
" 1.2 -" .40% KOH 31 -
. . Voges
Proskauer ).)VP +

Methyl Red .pH

pH .)Methyl red = MR +( .
! : .
, ( + )-
, .
: ( API )
- . .
. ! - .
-VP .1 VP1 .VP2
11 . .
-TDA .2 .TDA
.
- IND .3 ' 2-
. .
- NO2 .4 Glu- .
NIT1 .NIT2 GLU - 3-
. NO3 .NO2 -
( NO2 ) NO3
.N2 , .Zn NO3

44

.) NO3 ( .N2- .-
NO3 NO2 N2 .

.0

Kovacs Reagent-
Amyl or Isoamyl alcohol

150 ml

p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde

10 g

conc. Hcl

50 ml

protect from light at 4


-Naphtol Reagent

Methyl red indicator


Methyl red
Ethyl Alcohol
dilute to 500ml with H2O

0.1g
300ml

45

-Naphtol
Ethyl alcohol

6.0g
100ml

' .4 ( API )

ONPG

--
-

LDC

ODC

ICITI

H2S

ADH

URE
*TDA


H2S

**IND
***IVPI

'

'

GLU

MAN

IGELI

/ NO2
NO3
N2

-/

/

/
*

**
***

**
***/



(
'
)
/-

/-

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
****



(
'
)

****

INO
SOR
RHA
SAC
MEL
AMY
ARA
NO3****NO2
****
****
NO3****NO2
* TDA
** 2
*** VP1+VP2 11
**** NIT1+NIT2 3 .
Zn

46

47

.3 API 20E-

48

API .2 '
Citobacter
freundii

Salmonella
spp

Salmonella
arizonae

Proteus
vulgaris

Proteus
mirabilis

Klebsiella
oxitoca 2

Klebsiella
pneumoniae

Escherichia
vulneris

Escherichia
coli

ONPG

+/-

+/-

+/-

ADH

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

LDC

+/-

ODC

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

CIT

H2 S

+/-

URE

TDA

IND

+/-

VP

+/-

+/-

GEL

GLU

MAN

-/+

+/-

INO

+/-

SOR

+/-

RHA

-/+

+/-

+/-

SAC

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

MEL

+/-

+/-

+/-

AMY

+/-

ARA

49

API

Providencia

rertgeri

) (" .2 '
Bergey`s Manual of Determination Bacteriology- -

TEST

Gram stain
Oxidase
Indole production

Escherichia
vulneris
-

coli
+

Kebsiella
pneumonia
-

Proteus

oxytoca
+

vulgaris
+

Salmonella

Citrobacter

mirabilis
-

diarizonae
-

choleraesuis
-

diversus
+

freundii
-

Methyl red
Voges-Proskauer
(VP)

+
-

+
-

(-)
+

(-)
+

+
-

+
d

+
-

+
-

+
-

+
-

Citrate simmons
Hydrogen sulfide
production

+
-

+
-

(-)
+

d
+

+
+

+
+

+
-

+
(+)

(+)

+
+

+
+

+
-

+
-

d
-

d
-

(-)

+
(-)
+

+
+
d
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

+
(-)
+

+
(+)
+

+
+

+
d
d
+

+
d
d
+

Urea hydrolysis
Lysine
decarboxylase
Ornithine
decarboxylase
Motility
Lactose
*Sucrose
*Xylose

. 76-89% )+(
. 11-25% )-(
. 11-89% d

51

. XLD *
. 91% - +
. 11%- -

' .6

51

7
: ("")
:
.1 ( - ),
.2 ,
.3
:
" . ( ,),
( ,) , (' , ,
) . ,
.
.
:
.1 " :Kirby-Bauer
.2 MIC-Minimum Inhibitory
.Concentration

. " ( Kirby-Bauer)
.
.
, , .
, ,
.
.
, .
,
.
.
.

/ .
. "
, , , .

52

. MIC-Minimum .-
Inhibitory Concentration
, ,
. MIC ,
,
. 11 MIC- .
, ( .)Bactericidal" MBC- Minimal ( MBC -
)Bactericidal Concentration ,MIC
, .
,MBC ,
. .
, , ,
. 1% -
( 99%-) , .
-MIC - ( microtiter
.)plates .
, BCP .
) (BCP
. , , ,pH- .
, .

. " Kirby-Bauer
2- .
:
.1

E. coli

Staphylococcus aureus .2
.1

,0.1ml : " .

.2

, , 5 , 1-
" , ( . 2-)
5 2 .

.3

, , .

.4

48 ,37C -.

53

. MIC-Minimum .-
( Inhibitory Concentration )
, .A,B,C,D
:
.1 2 : 128 g/ml
128 g/ml
.2 9 .
.3" 9 .
.4 1.5" .
.5 " 1.5" .
. .1/2
.6 .
.
.7 128 g/ml .2
3- .11
.8 1 12 A ,D 1.1" .
.9 12 , A ,D 1.1" . 2X
.11 A ,C , 2-11 1.1" ( . .)1
.
.11 B ,D ,2-11 1.1" ( .
( .)1 ")
0:
12
-

11
1.25

11
1.5

8
1

7
2

6
8

16

32

64

2
128

1
-

'
*g/ml

* !!!
.12 A ,B ,1-11 1.1" ,E. coli .2X
( 114 -/").
.13 C ,D ,1-11 1.1" Staphylococcus aureus
( .2X 114 -/").

54


.
.1. . " . ,
.2
.2. / .
. MIC

,
( . ).

. .

.1. .
.2. .
.

55

56

12

11

11

E.coli
X2

Staphylococ
cus aureus
X2

.0 MIC D-A

)Kirby-Bauer) .4
Antibiotic
Ampicillinb
Ampicillinc
Cephoxitin
Cephalotin
Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Erytromycin
Gentamycin
Kanamycin
Methicillinc
Neomycin
Nitrofurantoin
Penicillin Gd
Penicillin Ge
Polymyxin B
Streptomycin
Tetracycline
Tobramycin
Novobiocin
TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole
(SXT)

Amount on
disc
10 g
10 g
30 g
30 g
30 g
2 g
15 g
10 g
30 g
5 g
30 g
300 g
10 units
10 units
300 units
10 g
30 g
10 g
30g
1.25/23.75 g

Resistant

Intermediate

Sensitive

11 or less
28 or less
14 or less
14 or less
12 or less
14 or less
13 or less
12 or less
13 or less
9 or less
12 or less
14 or less
28 or less
11 or less
8 or less
11 or less
14 or less
12 or less
17 or less
10 or less

12-13
15-17
15-17
13-17
15-16
14-17
13-14
14-17
10-13
13-16
15-16
12-21
9-11
12-14
15-18
13-14
18-21
11-15

14 or more
29 or more
18 or more
18 or more
18 or more
17or more
18 or more
15 or more
18 or more
14 or more
17 or more
17 or more
29 or more
22 or more
12 or more
15 or more
19 or more
15 or more
22 or more
16 or more

b-For gram negative organisms and Enterococci


c- For Staphylococci and highly penicillin-sensitive organisms.
d- For Staphylococci.
e- For organisms other than Staphylococci. Including some organisms such as Enterococci and
some gram negative rods, that may cause some systemic infections treatable with high doses of Penicillin
G.

57

.3
: X4 2X
4 .2
. (Nutrient broth) :
( -
:)LB
( )Beef extract
0.3%
Tryptone
0.5%
Glucose
0.5%
Bromo cresol purple
0.003%
pH 7.0

. ( (Nutrient agar
:
- ( )
agar 20.0 g
Beef extract
3.0 g
Tryptone
5.0 g
Glucose
5.0 g
pH 7.0

58