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Clauses

By: Ishani Singh and Cam Pine

Definition
Subordinate clause- also known as a dependent clause, does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence
Functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb

Independent clause- also known as a main clause, expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Sentence Structure
Simple- one independent clause Compound- two independent clauses Complex- one independent clause and one subordinate clause Compound-Complex- two independent clauses and one subordinate clauses

Simple sentence Example


S V

I like peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. In this sentence there is only one independent clause so it is a simple sentence

Compound sentence example


The children went to the movie, but it was canceled.
This is a compound sentence because there are two independent clauses meaning they can stand on their own.
S V Prep Phrase S V

Complex sentence example


When I am bored, I draw cartoon characters.
~~~SUBORDINATE CLAUSE~~~ S V S V

When I am bored is a subordinate clause because it cannot stand as a sentence by itself. It is acting as an adverb modifying the verb draw because it is telling when. This is a complex sentence because it has one subordinate clause and one independent clause.

Complex sentence Example


S ~~~~~~~~~~SUBORDINATE CLAUSE~~~~~~~~~~ S S

Whoever gets the most votes will be president.


Whoever gets the most votes is a noun clause because the sentence talks about the person who gets the most votes and not just about any person. Whoever gets the most votes is acting as the subject. This is a complex sentence because it is an independent clause that has a subordinate clause in it.

Compound Complex Sentence


S ~~~~~SUBORDINATE CLAUSE~~~~~ V V

The movie that I watched last night was scary, but it S was very good. That I watched last night is a subordinate clause acting as an adjective modifying the word movie because it is telling which movie. This is a compound complex sentence because it has two independent clauses which are connected, and in one of the independent clauses thre is a subordinate clause.

Tricky Sentences
The winner will be whichever candidate wins the ~~~~~~~~~~SUBORDINATE CLAUSE~~~~~~~~~~ election. In this sentence, whichever candidate wins the election is a noun clause acting as a predicate nominative because it is one single thing that the sentence is talking about. This sentence is a complex sentence because it is an independent clause with a subordinate clause in it.
S V S V

Tricky Sentences
Call me if you need help organizing the project.
~~SUBORDINATE CLAUSE~~ V S S

In this sentence, if you need help is a subordinate clause acting as an adverb modifying the verb call, because it is telling why. This sentence is a complex sentence because it has one independent clause and one subordinate clause.

Ways to Remember
If you see the words, because, if, since, that, until, which, and who, there is a subordinate clause following. The words, because, if, when, and since, show that the clause is acting as an adverb. The words, that , which, whom, and who show that the clause is acting as an adjective. Noun clauses will act as the subject, predicate adjective, direct object, or object of preposition

Five Practice Sentences


1. Whoever scores the most points will win the game. 2. Did you see the person who stole the mans satchel. 3. Would you like the mans satchel, or would you prefer the womans purse. 4. If she goes to the store, she needs to buy wine for the party, and she needs to get ice cream for dessert. 5. The cat sat on the hat.

Answers
1. Whoever scores the most points will win the ~~~~~~~SUBORDINATE NOUN CLAUSE~~~~~~~ game. COMPLEX SENTENCE S V V 2. Did you see the person who stole the mans SUBORDINATE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE satchel. COMPLEX SENTENCE V S V V S 3. Would you like the mans satchel, or would you V COMPOUND SENTENCE prefer the womans purse. S V S V 4. If she goes to the store, she needs to buy wine ADVERB CLAUSE S V forSUBORDINATE the party, and she needs to get ice cream for COMPOUND SENTENCE SENTENCE dessert. S V 5. The cat sat on the hat. SIMPLE SENTENCE
S V