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G

R R + O2 Oxide Oxide
oxide formula,
example
normalized to 1 mol O2
2 R2O
= R4O2
Na2O
2 RO

= R2O2

CaO

2/3 R2O3

= R4/3O2

Al2O3

1 RO2

= R1O2

SiO2

2/5 R2O5

= R4/5O2

1/2 R3O4
2/3 RO3

ox O2

4/3 2/3

P2O5

4/5 2/5

= R3/2O2

Fe3O4

3/2 1/2

= R2/3O2

WO3

2/3 2/3

Principle of RichardsonEllingham diagram:


abscissa starts with
absolute 0 K
ordinate represents
Gibbs energie of oxidation
reactions for a turnover
of 1 mol O2
the O2 partial pressure is fixed
by O2 concentration directly,
or by pivot equilibria:
H2/H2O,
CO/CO2,
H2/H2S, etc.

log [CO]/CO2]
log [H2]/[H2O]

G in kJ per mol O

0
-100

log [O2]
-4

-2
-2

-4

-400

3
e2O 3O4
F
6
0
2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O
Fe
2=
2
O
+
0
2=
4
O
O
+
3
e
eO
4F
2
6F
2

-500

-200
-300

-8

-12
2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

-600
O2
Si +

-700

l+O
A
3
/
4

-900

-16

2
= SiO

-800

4
6

2 O3
l
A
3
= 2/

8 8

-20

1010 -24

-1000
12 12 -28

-1100
-1200

300

600

900 1200 C

log [CO]/CO2]
log [H2]/[H2O]

G in kJ per mol O

Ag2O

-3 -2 -2

-100
CuO

-200
-300

-1 0 -6

O
Cu2
NiO CoO
3
Fe2O

-400

FeO
ZnO
5
V2O

-600

VO2
3
Cr2O
3
V2O

-700

-2 -1 -4

4
Pb3O

3
CrO
PbO

-500

log [O2]
0
-4 -3

4
Fe3O

0 1 -8
1 2 -10
2
3
4
5

VO

6
7

-800

300

600

900 1200 C

3 -12
4 -14
5 -16
6 -18
7 -20

00

0
-4 -3

Ag2O

-2 -1 -4

4
Pb3O
CuO 2O
Cu

-200
-300

3 e3O
Fe2O F

-400
-400

FeO
ZnO
5
V2O

-600

VO2
3
Cr2O
3
V2O VO

-700

0 1 -8
1 2 -10
2
3
4
5
6
7

-800

300

600

shift for GMIX = RT ln a(oxide)

-1 0 -6

NiO CoO

3
CrO
PbO

-500

-3 -2 -2

-100
4 eV

log[O
[ O] 2]
log

900 1200 C

3 -12
4 -14
5 -16
6 -18
7 -20

600 C 1200 C
log a(oxide)

G
G inin kJ per
per mol
molOO2 2

log[CO]
[CO]/CO
log
/ CO2]]
2
loglog
[H[H
]
/
[H
O]
]/[H
O]
2
2

0
-5
-10

0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

log [CO]/CO2]
log [H2]/[H2O]

G in kJ per mol O

0
-100

log [O2]
-4

-2
-2

-4

-400

3
e2O 3O4
F
6
0
2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O
Fe
2=
2
O
+
0
2=
4
O
O
+
3
e
eO
4F
2
6F
2

-500

-200
-300

-8

-12
2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

-600
O2
Si +

-700
-800

l
4 /3 A

-900

+ O2

4
6

2 O3
l
A
3
= 2/

8 8

Al + 2FeO 23 Al2O 3 + 2Fe

C
1500
1200
900

12 12 -28

300

fcc

600

900 1200 C

highFeSi2

953

Fe4Si3

lowbcc FeSi FeSi2

600

1214

1010 -24

-1100

liquid

Fe2Si

-20

-1000
-1200

Sperical Si-Fe particle in a


glass generated at 1400 C
by to the reactions:
4
Al + SiO 2 23 Al2O 3 + Si
3
4
3

-16

2
= SiO

40 m

Fe

wt. %

Si

Si

G in kJ per mol O

log [CO]/CO2]
log [H2]/[H2O]

log [O2]

0
-100
-200

2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O

-300

O
F e3

-400

2
+O

=6

eO
6F

O
Fe 2
O2

F
=2

e3

-4

-2
-2

-4

O4

0
0

oxide scales on steel:


-8

2
2

-500
-700

Si

+ O2

2
= Si O

-900

-16

Cr2O3

-20

Al2O3

4
2O 3
r
C
/3

2=2
O
+
r
2O3
l
A
4/3 C
3
= 2/
2
O
l+
4 /3 A

-800

SiO2

2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

-600

-12

8 8

1010 -24

-1000

steel
12 12 -28

-1100
-1200

300

600

900 1200 C