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How Is a Stars Color Related to Its Temperature?

Name: _______________________ Hour: ________________________ On a clear night you have surely noticed that some stars are brighter than others. But stars also have different colors. Rigel is blue, and Betelgeuse is red. Capella and our sun are yellow. In this activity you will make your own Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. You will see how star brightness, color, temperature, and class are related. Materials: Computer with Excel, Colored pencils (red, orange, yellow, blue) Manual Procedure: 1. Study the star data charts below. Note that the sun, used as a standard of brightness, is given a value of 1. The brightness given for each other star shows how that star compares with the sun. 2. Plot the data from both charts on the graph on the next page. 3. Stars with surface temperatures up to 3,500oC are red. Shade a vertical band from 2000oC to 3500oC a light red. 4. Shade other color bands as follows: Stars up to 5000o C are orange-red, up to 6000oC yellow-white, up to 7500oC blue-white, and up to 40,000oC blue. 5. Look for patterns in your graph. Compare it to the following H-R diagram . 6. Label the main sequence, red super giants, and the white dwarf stars.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Star Name SUN ALPHA CENTAURI A ALPHA CENTAURI B BARNARDS STAR LALANDE 21185 SIRIUS A SIRIUS B ROSS 248 61 CYGNI A 61 CYGNI B PROCYON A PROCYON B EPSILON INDI CANOPUS ARCTURUS VEGA CAPELLA RIGEL BETELGEUSE ACHERNAR BETA CENTAURI ALTAIR ALDEBARAN SPICA ANTARES DENEB BETA CRUCIS Temperature (C ) 5300 5500 3900 2500 2900 10100 10400 2400 3900 3600 6200 7100 3900 7100 4200 10400 5600 11500 2900 14000 21000 7700 3900 21000 3100 9900 22000
o

Brightness (Luminosity) Sun = 1 1 1.3 0.36 0.0004 0.005 23 0.008 0.0001 0.08 0.04 7.6 0.0005 0.13 1500 90 60 150 40000 17000 200 3300 10 90 1900 4400 40000 6000

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
100000 50000 10000 5000 1000 500 100 50 10 5 1 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.005 0.001 0.0005 0.0001 Spectral Class 40000

Brightness

B 20000

A 10000

F 7000
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G 6000

M 4500 3000

Approximate Temperature (C )

Computer Procedure: 1. Open an Excel spreadsheet 2. In column A, you will list all your Temperatures. 3. In column B, you will list all your Luminosities. 4. Once these are listed, you will use your cursor to highlight both columns of numbers. 5. Once highlighted, you will left-click on the INSERT tab. 6. You will then go to CHARTS, then SCATTER and choose the first listed scatter plot. 7. Now you should see a graph listed next to your data. 8. Now some labeling. a. Go to LAYOUT, then CHART TITLE, and ABOVE CHART. Highlight and retitle H -R Diagram b. Next, AXIS TITLES, PRIMARY HORIZONTAL AXIS TITLE, TITLE BELOW AXIS. Title Temperature Kelvin c. Again, AXIS TITLES, PRIMARY VERTICAL AXIS TITLE, ROTATED TITLE. Title Luminosity d. LEGEND, NONE. 9. Next, right-click on the Luminosity data and click on FORMAT AXIS. This will pull up the FORMAT AXIS window 10. Under AXIS OPTIONS

a. Minimum = fixed 0.0001 b. Maximum = fixed 45000 c. Click LOGARITHMIC SCALE d. Close window 11. Next, right-click on the Temperature Kelvin data and click on FORMAT AXIS. This will pull up the FORMAT AXIS window a. Click on VALUES IN REVERSE ORDER box. 12. Now, even though your axis is in the middle of the graph, which is ok. 13. Now, go to FORMAT, then SIZE. Top value of 10 and bottom value of 8. 14. Right-click on one of your data points (the diamonds), FORMAT DATA SERIES, then go to MARKER OPTIONS, click BUILT-IN and change the size to 10. 15. Go to FILE, then PRINT and your graph should be the only object waiting to print. Hit PRINT. 16. Once you are done with both exercises, answer the questions below.
Questions 1. What is the general relationship between temperature and star brightness? 2. What relationship do you see between star color and temperature?

3. List the colors from coolest to hottest:

4. How does the sun compare to the other stars on the main sequence?

5. What spectral class does our sun belong to? ______________ 6. If a star is class B, what is its temperature ______________________ and color_____________________________? 7. Dwarf stars are smaller than our Sun. How can they be so bright?

8. Circle and label dwarf stars, red giants, blue giants and main sequence stars.