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T

. -

Low Data Rate-WPAN


IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee
: 225/2009
:. -
: Ad-hoc

Ad-hoc

2013



IEEE 802.15.4
IEEE 802.15.4 MAC
IEEE 802.15.4

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4


ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4

Ad-hoc

2013

IEEE 802.15.4
,
,
(WPAN)

Low Data Rate - Wireless Personal Area Networks

Ad-hoc

2013

(1/2)
Full function device (FFD)




FFD: Network Device, Coordinator,
PAN Coordinator
Reduced function device (RFD)
PAN

, end device
peer-to-peer


Ad-hoc

2013

(modes of operation) (2/2)


Network device - RFD FFD

IEEE802.15.4 MAC

Coordinator - FFD
beacon ,
PAN Coordinator

PAN Coordinator FFD

PAN ,

Ad-hoc

2013

(1/2)
Star Topology peer-to-peer topology

Ad-hoc

2013

(2/2)
Cluster-tree topology

Ad-hoc

20137

IEEE 802.15.4 (1/5)

Ad-hoc

2013

IEEE 802.15.4 (2/5)

Ad-hoc

2013

IEEE 802.15.4 (3/5)

Ad-hoc

2013

10

IEEE 802.15.4 (4/5)


(Energy Detection-ED)

(LQI)
Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)
Channel Frequency Selection

Ad-hoc

2013

11

IEEE 802.15.4 (5/5)



PHY Packet
Preamble (32 bits) synchronization
Start of Packet Delimiter (8 bits)
PHY Header (8 bits) PSDU length
PSDU (0 to 1016 bits) Data field

Sync Header
Preamble
4 Octets

Start of
Packet
Delimiter
1 Octets

Ad-hoc

PHY Header
Frame
Length
(7 bit)

Reserve
(1 bit)

PHY Payload
PHY Service
Data Unit (PSDU)

1 Octets

0-127 Bytes

2013

12

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (1/16)


Beacon-enabled mode
Non-Beacon-enabled mode

Ad-hoc

2013

13

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (2/16)

superframe

Ad-hoc

2013

14

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (3/16)

superframe

Ad-hoc

2013

15

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (4/16)


MAC
Octets:2
Frame
control

0/2
0/2/8
0/2
Destination
Source
Destination
Sequence
PAN
PAN
address
number
identifier
identifier
Addressing fields

0/2/8
Source
address

MAC header

variable

Frame
payload

Frame
check
sequence

MAC
payload

MAC footer

Bits: 0-2

7-9

Frame type

Sequrity
enabled

Frame
pending

Ack. Req.

Intra PAN

Reserved

Ad-hoc

2013

10-11
Dest.
addressing
mode

12-13
Reserved

14-15
Source
addressing
mode

16

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (5/16)


Beacon Frame

beacons
MAC Command Frame
MAC peer entity

Data frame

Acknowledgement Frame

Ad-hoc

2013

17

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (6/16)

Beacon

Octets:2

4 or 10

variable

variable

Frame
control

Beacon
sequence
number

Source address
information

Superframe
specification

GTS
fields

Pending
address
fields

MAC header

MAC payload

variable

Beacon payload

Frame
check
sequence
MAC
footer

Bits: 0-3
Beacon
order

4-7
8-11
Superframe Final CAP
order
slot

Ad-hoc

12
Battery life
extension

13
Reserved

2013

14
15
PAN
Association
coordinator
permit

18

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (7/16)


MAC Command Frame
Octets:2
Frame
control

4 to 20

Data
Address Command
sequence
information
type
number
MAC header

Command Frame Types


Association request
Association response
Disassociation notification
Data request
PAN ID conflict notification
Ad-hoc

variable

Command payload

Frame
check
sequence

MAC payload

MAC
footer

Orphan Notification
Beacon request
Coordinator realignment
GTS request

2013

19

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (8/16)

data frame
Octets:2
Frame
control

1
Data
sequence
number

4 to 20

variable

Address
information

Data payload

MAC header

MAC Payload

2
Frame
check
sequence
MAC
footer

acknowledgement frame

Octets:2

1
2
Data
Frame
Frame
sequence
check
control
number sequence
MAC
MAC header
footer

Ad-hoc

2013

20

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (9/16)


IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA :

- CSMA/CA : backoff
, idle ,
backoff
. Nonbeaconenabled .
- CSMA/CA : Backoff
beacon .
, backoff
backoff .
,
backoff . Beacon-enabled
CAP (Contention Access Period).

Ad-hoc

2013

21

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (10/16)


PAN (Personal Area Network)

,
GTS(Guaranteed Time Slot)

Ad-hoc

2013

22

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (11/16)


PAN (Personal Area
Network)

FFD ,
(ED)
PAN ID,

FFD PAN

ON
MAC beacon


PAN

Ad-hoc

2013

23

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (12/16)



.
.
PAN .
beacon

MAC


,

, PAN

Ad-hoc

2013

24

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (13/16)

,

,
.
,
.

,
PAN
. ,

.

Ad-hoc

2013

25

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (14/16)




.

.

Ad-hoc

2013

26

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (15/16)



beacon-enabled ,
,
beacon
CSMA/CA CAP,
GTS.
Non beacon-enabled ,

CSMA/CA
.


idle .
MAC ,
.
Ad-hoc

2013

27

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC (16/16)


GTS

GTS(Guaranteed Time Slot)


,
. GTS
.
QoS (
, )
PAN
PAN .
GTS ,
PAN
GTS .
PAN
, GTS .
PAN GTS,

GTSs

Ad-hoc

2013

28

IEEE 802.15.4
IEEE 802.15.4a (WPAN Low Rate Alternative PHY)
: UWB Pulse Radio (oe
UWB ) Chirp Spread
Spectrum (j 2.4GHz )
IEEE 802.15.4b (Revision and Enhancement)
IEEE 802.15. 4e (MAC Amendment for Industrial Applications)
MAC

IEEE 802.15. 4f (PHY and MAC Amendment for Active RFID)
() ()
MAC ,
RFID System
,
IEEE 802.15. 4g (PHY Amendment for Smart Utility Network)
Ad-hoc

2013

29

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4


OSI .
ZigBee 4 :

Extra Encription services


Association and authentication
Routing protocol
Application Services

Ad-hoc

2013

30

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4


IEEE 802.15.4


MAC
LR-WPAN
ZigBee

,
,
o
,


Ad-hoc

2013

31

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4


= 1001000


( 65.536 )
QoS

Ad-hoc

2013

32

Ad-hoc

2013

33

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4

Ad-hoc

2013

34

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4

Ad-hoc

2013

35

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4

Ad-hoc

2013

36

ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4

Ad-hoc

2013

37

http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2011.pdf
http://www.zigbee.org/Standards/Overview.aspx
Jose A. Gutierrez, Edgar H. Callaway, Jr., and Raymond L. Barrett, Jr., LowRate Wireless Personal Area Networks: Enabling Wireless Sensors with IEEE
802.15.4. New York: IEEE Press. 2003.
Jose A. Gutierrez et al. IEEE 802.15.4: A developing standard for low-power,
low-cost wireless personal area networks, IEEE Network, v. 15, n. 5,
September/October 2001, pp. 1219.
Ed Callaway et al., Home networking with IEEE 802.15.4: a developing
standard for low-rate wireless personal area networks, IEEE Commun. Mag.,
v. 40, n. 8, August 2002, pp. 7077.
Edgar H. Callaway, Jr., Wireless Sensor Networks: Architectures and
Protocols. New York: Auerbach Publications (an imprint of CRC Press). 2003.

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