Art History

ISSN 0141-6790 Vol. 24

No. 5

November 2001 pp. 621±645

Dialektik des Monstrums: Aby Warburg and the symptom paradigm
Georges Didi-Huberman
In 1923 Aby Warburg defined the aim of his library, but also his work in general, as eine Urkundensammlung zur Psychologie der menschlichen Ausdruckskunde.1 What else, then, is the `science without a name' invented by Warburg, if not a living metamorphosis of traditional art history ± this ostensible history of objects ± into a history of the psyche, as embodied in styles, forms, `pathos formulae', symbols, fantasies, beliefs; in short, all that Warburg intended by the term Ausdruck (`expression')?2 A metamorphosis in which `historical psychology' profoundly modifies the positivist point of view of history and `expression' profoundly modifies the idealist point of view of art. `Historical psychology'? This means that the time of the after-life is a psychic time; a hypothesis that must be situated on several levels all at once. First, the chosen motifs of Nachleben are the great psychic powers: pathetic representations, dynamogrammes of desire, moral allegories, figures of mourning, astrological symbols, etc.3 Next, the domains of Nachleben are style, gesture and the symbol, as vectors of exchange between heterogeneous spaces and times.4 Finally, the processes of Nachleben can only be understood from the basis of their `connaturality' with psychic processes in which the actuality of the primitive manifests itself. Thus Warburg's interest for the latent or critical aspects of the Pathosformel, as well as those that pertain to the drives and to fantasy. It is highly significant that Warburg undertook a vast, never finished, and never published `foundational' project on the psychology of art while working on his dissertation on Botticelli, a work through which dream motifs, themes of unconscious desire, of the erotische Verfogungscene (`erotic chase'), of sacrifice and death discretely, yet confidently, make their way. In the three hundred or so folios of this manuscript, written between 1888 (when he was just twenty-two years old) and 1905, Warburg devised an entire psychological and philosophical vocabulary (we would not want to call it a system) aimed at working out such formidable problems as `art and thought', the relationship between `form and content', the `theory of the symbol', the status of `anthropomorphism', the `association of ideas', `images of thought', etc.5 A vocabulary of `expression' remains omnipresent in all his attempts to formulate a psychology of art, continuing up to the 1927 Allgemeine Ideen.6 If all history falls within the realm of a psychology then, for Warburg, the entire history of images necessarily falls within the realm of a psychology of expression. As I
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have started to indicate, what is being formulated here is a psyche unconfined to the familiar, heroic tales of artistic `personality'. This formulation points toward a more basic and transversal, impersonal and trans-individual psyche; a psychic condition common to what we customarily call body and soul, image and word, representation and movement, and anthropologically central to what has been somewhat impoverished by classical aesthetics under the concept of imitation.7 This not only means that Nachleben should be thought of as a psychic time, it means that the Pathosformel should be thought of as a psychic gesture. Gertrud Bing recognized this fundamental trait. According to her, `pathos formulae' make visible `not a quality of the external world like movement, distance or space, but a state of the emotions'.8 Bing, the historian slightly alarmed by the swampy psychic terrain she has just touched on, concluded: `We are here treading on dangerous ground.'9 Yet, the Warburgian demand, dangerous or not, lies therein: the Pathosformel must not be translated in terms of a semantics or semiotics of corporeal gestures, but in terms of a psychic symptomatology. Pathos formulae are the visible symptoms ± corporeal, gestural, presented, figured ± of a psychic time irreducible to the simple thread of rhetorical, sentimental, or individual turns. But, where does one find the theoretical paradigm for this demand? This was Warburg's lengthy and obstinate quest. Its vocabulary would undoubtedly remain that of expression, but its point of view was that of the symptom. For expression, according to Warburg, is not the reflection of an intention, but is instead the return of the repressed in the image. This is why Nachleben appears as the time of a contretemps in history (thought of in terms of the development of styles), and Pathosformel as the gesture of a counter-movement in history (thought of in terms of the storia that an image represents). `Expression', then. But symptomatic expression. [Translator's note: The word Georges Didi-Huberman uses in French is `symptomale'. He wants to make a distinction between symptomale, which is a critical term, and symptomatic, which is a clinical term.] What kind of symptom? Symptom of what? And, above all, symptom how? Without being certain what he would find, Warburg first turned to medicine for answers. As early as 1888, it was the medical metaphor that sprang to mind when he tried to express his hope for an epistemological breakthrough, his desire to finish with the `aestheticising history of art' of connoisseurs and sogennanten Gebildeten (`so-called cultured') specialists: We of the younger generation want to attempt to advance the science of art so far that anyone who talks in public about art without having specially and profoundly studied this science should be considered just as ridiculous as people are who dare to talk about medicine without being doctors.10 When Warburg spoke of his desire for epistemological displacement, it was again medicine, along with anthropology, that would dismantle the judgements of taste proper to the `aestheticizing history of art'. He needed ethnology ± via his voyage to Hopi country ± to teach him the meaning of the primitive, and medicine to teach him the meaning of the symptom, so that traditional art history could cede to an anthropology of images capable of `organically' grasping the stylistic and symbolic phenomena of the Florentine Renaissance and the German Reformation: 622
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as a psychopathology. In order to break through this censure. It evokes movements of artistic creation. It was a question of providing the. of the German Reformation. as well as ß Association of Art Historians 2001 623 . evolutionist Tito Vignoli as evidence for Warburg's recourse to the pyschopathological paradigm is equally insufficient. The Warburgian history of images attempts to analyse the pleasure of formal invention. then. henceforth Anglo-Saxon. or rather the indestructibility of primitive man who remains eternally the same throughout all epochs (die Unzersto È rbarkeit des primitiven Menschen zu [der] allen Zeiten). is even more unjustified. in such a way that I could demonstrate that he was as much an organ of the Florentine Renaissance as he was. calling upon the obscure.15 Only from 1918 onwards.12 from this moment on the question remains as to which psychological or. the theoretical foundation for his anthropology of images. we must try to re-imagine the path that brought Warburg to Freud.14 And. psychopathological framework Warburg needed to found his stylistic analysis and symptomatology of renascent culture. To claim that he was trying to get at the `symptoms of a collective spirit' is far too imprecise. rather.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Amongst other things. By glossing over this episode. later. It seems clear. if original. from the very pit of his own psychological collapse. as well as the `culpability' of repressed memory that can be manifest there. Gombrich effected a considerable act of epistemological censure.' as Gombrich attempted.11 In fact. did Warburg begin to see the proximity between his intellectual project and psychoanalysis. I was sincerely disgusted with the aestheticizing history of art (der a È sthetisierenden Kunstgeschichte).13 Reducing the question of the symptom to one of a Hegelian `meaning of history. as well as `auto-destructive' compulsions at work in the very exuberance of forms. during the Renaissance for example. above all. I had no idea that after my trip to America the organic relationship between the art and religion of `primitive' peoples would appear with such clarity that I plainly saw the identity. bolstered by a `positive' psychology (Gombrich traded Freud and fantasy for Popper and perception). As nearly every connoisseur of Warburg's work would attest. was envisaged. that for the young historian of images medicine signified medicine of the soul above all.16 Once more. It highlights the coherence of aesthetic systems. `Warburgian tradition' with the return to order of a philosophy of the faculties (Panofsky traded Nietzsche and the eternal return for Kant and the a priori). It seemed to me that the formal contemplation of the image ± which does not consider it a biologically necessary product (als biologisch notwendiges Produkt) between religion and art practice (which I only understood later) ± led to such sterile prattling that after my trip to Berlin in the summer of 1896 I decided to switch to medicine. * * * Warburg's dreamed-of `historical psychology of expression'. it was a question of burying the demons of the Freudian unconscious ± as well as of the Nietzschean Dionysiac ± under the ancient ramparts of a Mitteleuropa in ruins. between 1891 and 1892 Warburg had already taken preparatory courses in psychology for medical students.

Bologna: Santa Maria della Vita. it was not there as an abstract synthesis of reason and unreason. Photo: Antonio Guerra. the theoretical archaeology of this vocabulary requires examination. as well as the `conflicts' and the `formation of compromises' that can traverse and dissociate them. When Warburg rests his eyes on a pathetic Mary 624 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . It already reveals that if the symbol was at the centre of Warburg's preoccupations. Naturally. It considers the beauty and charm of masterpieces. of form and matter. etc. says Warburg. The Lamentation of Christ. It studies the unity of stylistic epochs. the sometimes `irrational' nature of the beliefs upon which they are founded. c. as well as the `anxiety' and the `phobia' for which. 1480.17 but as a concrete symptom of a cleavage ceaselessly at work in the `tragedy of culture'. they provide a kind of `sublimation'. Detail of Mary Magdelene. Terracotta.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 1 Niccolo Á dell'Arca.

which appears. a paganism that is duly ignored by the entire symbolic content ± the sacrifice of the incarnate Word. Magdelene by Niccolo Á dell'Arca. Donatello. Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Therefore. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 625 . as a veritable rupture in the symbolic order of evangelical history. c. 1485. Crucifixion (Detail). above all.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 2 Bertoldo di Giovanni. or Bertoldo di Giovanni (plates 1 and 2). It is the moment of a contretemps in which the unbridled desire of Antique maenads is repeated in Mary Magdelene's body.18 It is the gesture of a counter-movement which recalls. in Mary Magdelene's body. it seems to be a question of something like a symptom. Photo: the author. Here. it becomes clear that gestural `expression' is only symbolic in that it is first symptomatic. the gestural formula `expresses' solely to crystallize a moment of intensity for the female saint. Bronze relief.

As early as 1889.24 Forty years later. The ecstatic (manic) nymph on the one side. he preferred. .ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM One could say that Warburgian art history. the freedom they promote leaves the constraining drives they try to break intact.21 Each time we witness the extent to which `the necessity to confront the formal world of predetermined expressive values ± whether they come from the past or present ± represents the decisive crisis (die entscheidende Krisis) . the Freudian concept of the unconscious was at the `psycho-historian's' disposal. and on the other. for each artist'. sovereign and un-nameable thing. the `psychic drama' (Seelendrama) of culture as a whole. I have tried to diagnose the schizophrenia of Western culture (die Schizophrenie des Abendlandes) through its images. . the fundamental and `uncanny duality' (unheimliche Doppelheit) of all cultural facts was as follows: the logic they set allows the chaos they combat to overflow. sought to apprehend its objects from their critical effects: from Botticelli's and Polliauolo's `erotic chases' (where Savonarola justly saw the insolence of an `orgiastic desire at work')19 to the `superlatives of gesticular language' in Donatello or others where surged a `perfectly inopportune mobility of expression'. directly linked to his therapy with Ludwig Binswanger). in 1929. as an autobiographical reflex.25 The order of causes is thus the eternal conflict with a formidable. in fact.27 Warburg liked to repeat the adage Per monstra ad astra (to which Freud's Wo es war. For the symptom accounts 626 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . before its time) or manic-depressive psychosis (an observation. as a psycho-historian (ich als Psychohistoriker). The omnipresent themes of Warburg's last years were: the `combat with the monster' (Kampf mit dem Monstrum) in ourselves.23 Underlying critical effects is an order of causes that Warburg grasped. and at first hand: Sometimes it seems that. Warburg had referred to this order of causes in terms of unnatural `un-motivated ' (ohne Motivierung) movements linked to desire (Zusammenhang met dem Wunsch). as if he feared that the substantive notion (das Unbewuûte) distanced him from the dynamic he sought to characterize. using the psychopathological vocabulary of schizophrenia (a Deulezian observation. soll Ich werden seems to offer a variant): but how are we to understand this.22 In the dance of these decisive crises. Warburg saw all of Western culture shaken by a symptomatic oscillation that he himself experienced in its full force. the (depressive) river god in mourning (die ekstatische Nympha [manisch] einerseits und der trauernde Flussgott [depressiv] anderseits). to seek out the heap of moving serpents: he preferred to speak of a `dialectic of the monster' (Dialektik des Monstrums). the beauty they invent lets the horror they repress burst through. in any event. the `complex and dialectical' (Complex und Dialektik) knot of the subject with this mysterious Monstrum. be confronted with the powers of the monster? Critical effects and unconscious causes: the `dialectic of the monster' describes nothing less than the structure of a symptom. once more. just before his death. defined in 1927 as the `original causal form' (Urkausalita È tform).20 from the irruption of Arab astrology in a fifteenth-century Ferrara fresco to the German Reformation's obscure dealings with astrological beliefs. Yet. in its temporal models (Nachleben) as well as in its models of sense (Pathosformel).26 To Warburg's mind. it seems. if it is not that one must.

they are unaware that they unleash an unconscious truth (Wahrheit) through the bias ± the visual figure ± of these legendary (Sage) composite-bodied monsters. the French psychological school could also have served Warburg's designs. but a history of prophecies and symptoms too. Indeed. details nothing else but symptom-movements. It is also why art history must not only be a history of phantoms.30 It seems possible to read his expression on the two levels called for by such a double-sided discipline as `historical psychology'. the expressive Pathosformeln of crisis and the Nachleben of a latent trauma that returns in the intensity of effected movements meet in the hysterical symptom (it should be noted that the participle nach of the verb nachleben can refer to ß Association of Art Historians 2001 627 . For had The  odule Ribot not formulated a theory of unconscious memory. Symptom-moments of the anthropomorphic image.28 Later. it was above all the hysteria clinic at the end of the nineteenth century ± as triumphant as it was spectacular ± that furnished the most pertinent symptomatological model for Warburg's `dialectic of the monster'. in which the psyche was to be apprehended from the angle of a `latent motor activity' that left its `motor residues' at every level of psychic life?35 However. a `psychological heritage' ± his own Nachleben of `faculties' and `instincts' ± by seeking all in the way into cultural history for his examples?34 And had Ribot not offered an explanation for expressive gestures ± his own notion of the Pathosformeln ± by elaborating an entire theory of the unconscious of movement. the Pathosformeln must henceforth be understood as corporeal crystallizations of the `dialectic of the monster'. But. This is why these are exemplary `prophetic' (wahrsagenden) objects for Warburg.31 In any case. and the return of the repressed in the `crisis' (Krisis) and the `symptomatic' (symptomatisch) figure that surge with a `maximal degree of energy tension' (ho È chsten energetischen Anspannung). visual incarnations of the `dialectic of the monster' would be incarnated in Du È rer's engraving of the eight-legged Sow of Landser or in the horrible composite figures of anti-Catholic propaganda wood engravings.29 In reference to these figures Warburg spoke of a `region of prophetic monsters' (Region der wahrsagenden Monstra). `maximum degree of tension'). On the psychological side. attempts to analyse the pathological recesses of `movements of expression' were far from lacking: beginning with the `physiognomic mechanism' studied by Theodor Meynert in his Psychiatrie (1844).33 Undoubtedly. moving on to Cassirer's `pathology of symbolic consciousness' (1929).ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM simultaneously for repression and the return of the repressed: repression in the `plastic formulae of compensation' (plastische Ausgleichsformel) that barely cross the `threshold of consciousness' (Schwelle seines Bewuûtseins). the pathos formulae were envisaged by Warburg according to the dialectical perspective of repression (`plastic formulae of compromise') and of the return of the repressed (`crisis'. The image in movement32 to which Warburg wanted to devote an atlas. according to what paradigm should we understand them? In Warburg's own time. an occidental genealogical album. the monsters of Lutheran propaganda are `prophetic' of a politico-religious defeat of the Papacy. Warburg compressed this vocabulary into just four lines of his article on Francesco Sassetti. after taking in Karl Jasper's analysis of expressive disorders in his General Psychopathology (1913). In 1907. On the historical side.

For example. London. Mnemosyne. of the `grande attaque hysterique comple Á te and re  gulie Á re'.38 One could conceivably imagine Warburg's atlas of pathos formulae as an equivalent to Richer's famous synoptic table. and that since the eighteenth century alienists had approached hysteria from this very angle). both forms of knowledge present themselves as explorations of a clinical archive. created under his master's guidance.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 3 Aby Warburg. art history has 628 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . the great virtue of this rapprochement is that it responds to a censure ± a `blind spot' ± in the Warburgian tradition. 36 Sigrid Schade has recently defended and argued for an affinity between Charcot's conception of the hysterical body and Warburg's Pathosformeln. both relied on an abundant use of photography. According to Schade. The Warburg Institute. Aside from the fact that there were two works by Charcot and his collaborator Paul Richer in Warburg's library. At the end of the nineteenth century Charcot emerged as the uncontested mastermind of the workings of the symptom. 1928±29. and the uncontested ballet master of the hysterical spectacle. simulation.40 Indeed. and both resulted in the creation of iconographic repertories.39 (plates 3 and 4).37 there are several other essential links between Charcot's psychopathology and Warburg's Kulturwissenschaft. panel 6 (detail).

of passion.  tudes cliniques sur la grande E  rie ou hyste  ro-e  pilepsie. and even of Dionysiac madness. from J.M. Christian mystics. Antique maenads ± finds its historical and aesthetic justification in the Warburgian analysis of Nachleben. Charcot and P. Paris. on the same themes in their work on Les De How.43 (plates 5 and 6). However. to the dance of Saint-Guy and to the small possessed figure in Raphae È l's Transfiguration find their exact pendants in Richer and Charcot's panels  moniaques dans l'art. Richer.41 Sigrid Schade is therefore right to speak of Charcot as Warburg's predecessor when it comes to interdisciplinarity. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 629 .ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 4 Tabular overview of the `whole and regular major hysterical fit'. it seems that the ground on which this analogy rests is not only sown with traps.42 It must also be noted that Nietzsche's allusions. but that it crumbles with each further step. hyste 1881. can one not be struck by the analogy between the Warburg's Dionysian Ninfa and Richer's drawings of hysterics at the Salpe à trie Á re? (plates 7 and 8). It is tempting to claim that the regressive path adopted by Charcot's `retrospective medicine' ± modern hysterics. iconographic collection. in the Birth of Tragedy. plate V. in the end. It has refused to see that it owes its very status as a `humanist discipline' to Warburg's creation of something like a `pathological discipline'. the observation of the body during moments of pathos. upon closer scrutiny. wanted nothing to do with the pathological repercussions of Warburg's understanding of pathos.

Paris. Richer. c'est formellement une ``se  rie de se  ries''? En tout cas. to which was added an iconographic sophism in which real. Therefore. Guy's Dance. From J. p. suffering bodies were forced to create themselves in the image of figures collected in atlases as `proofs' of a definitively established clinical tableau. Paris. Richer. the utilization of figures always relates to a epistemic operation that aims to reduce the essentially proto-form. And this was only concretely possible by making the hysterics themselves more mad. p. Charcot's stake remained the same: he wanted to master the differences of the symptom. experimentation with electric-shock therapy or through the establishment of an `iconography'. rather than chart or table. St. [Translator's note. Foucault writes: `Aux derniers fla L'Arche à neurs. Didi-Huberman insists on the word tableau. qui. Charcot and P. Les  moniaques dans l'art. a Á leur a à ge. Whether by recourse to hypnosis. mutable and metamorphic character of the hysteric symptom ± this moving heap of serpents traversing the body ± to the simple level of an ordered tableau with temporal and visual force of law. 1887. making them conform to the images that preceded them in his `artistic iconography'. 630 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . ce n'est point une petite image fixe qu'on place devant une lanterne pour la plus grande de  ception des enfants.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM  tudes cliniques sur la 5 (left) Raphae È l. Possessed figure.M. faut-il signaler qu'un ``tableau'' (et sans doute dans tous les sens du terme). From J. in reference to Michel Foucault in  ologie du savoir. 29. De For Charcot. 1881. Charcot and P. grande hyste 6 (right) After Peter Breughel. 35.M. E  rie ou hyste  ro-e  pilepsie. the symptom's differences could only be mastered through the development of an historical sophism.

n. 1. fig. (Berlin. 8 (bottom right) Prodromes de la grande  tudes  rique. 1969). this is above all because Richer wanted to draw his hysterics just as an archaeologist would graphically reproduce an antique sculpture. In the end.7 (right) Anon. 21. p. (Greek). Ninfa remains a floating signifier traipsing from one incarnation to another without anything trying to draw her limits. it introduces a temporal unity within the unfolding of a `whole and regular major hysterical fit'. For Charcot. 19. For Warburg. Dancing Maenad. e pre  fe Á rent bien su à r la vivacite  du  ologie du savoir cine  ma. the hysteric is a master signifier to which everything ± from the represented maenad to the present patient ± must be reduced. on the contrary. Paris. the symptom is a clinical category reducible to a regular tableau and a well-defined nosological criterion. Nothing of this sort with Warburg: the montage of the Mnemosyne atlas respects discontinuities and differences. E attaque hyste  rie ou hyste  rocliniques sur la grande hyste  pilepsie. From P. For Charcot. it does not efface temporal hiatuses (for example. fig.' L'Arche (Paris. Warburg. 1888. 1923. 1988). 1. Graphic rubbing from a relief at the Louvre. between an archaeological sketch and a contemporary photograph). Warburg's `science without a name' subverts the entire premise of Charcot's medical iconography. it must be recognized that Charcot's and Warburg's symptomatologies oppose each other on almost every level. Accordingly. Charcot's tableau aims at continuities and resemblances. whereas for Warburg the symptom is a critical category ß Association of Art Historians 2001 631 . Richer.] If there is a striking resemblance between Richer's hysteric and Warburg's maenad. Bilder aus dem Gebiet der Pueblo-Indianer in Nord-Amerika. from A.

neurological. Indeed. On the one hand. and it is not without reason that Mr. this period consists of two phases: the illogical attitudes or contortions.44 One final remark makes the distance between these two epistemological models of the symptom palpable. cast into the senseless depths of the attack during this famous. can only respond with the double qualification that the hysteric is `illogical' (she is just doing whatever) and `clownish' (she is just making fun of us). Whereas Charcot always wanted to bring the symptom back to its (traumatic. figs 39. during the time of the Saint632 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . on the other. overtaken by the event. which Richer schematized (plates 9±14) because photography was often useless for capturing the blur of movements that were either too reckless. In Charcot's model of the hysterical symptom. constantly open work of over-determination. there is no place for Darwin's famous `general principles of expression'. Displacement and antithesis appear only negatively. This is known as the period of contortions. 40 and 45. detested moment when the hysteric defies the master and when the master. both requiring flexibility. agility and muscular strength such as to bewilder the spectator and which. Richer. or hidden under the straight-jacket ultimately forced on the patients:47 It is. From P. Warburg made the symptom a constant. that these two Darwinian principles  tudes cliniques sur la grande hyste  rie ou E require is absent from Charcot and  ro-e  pilepsie.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM that explodes the `regular tableau' of stylistic history as well as art's academic criteria. hyste Richer's conception of `plastic poses'. an erratic intertwining. toxic) determination.46 But what about displacement?  rique: contorsions 9±11 Grande attaque hyste What about antithesis? The plasticity ou mouvements illogiques. Charcot has given it the picturesque name `clownism.' in reference to acrobats' muscular exercises. concentrated in the moment known as `passionate attitudes' or `plastic poses'. the period of tours de force. we have the quasitotalitarian protocol of the `complete and regular' attack. whose importance for Warburg has been noted. if one will forgive the vulgar expression. a heap of moving serpents whose coordinates one would be hard pressed to pin down as on Charcot's tableau.45 Imprinting certainly registers a traumatic memory at work in the hysterical attack. and the great movements.

the hysterical symptom. As for antithesis. The hysterical symptom is neither tableau (representative or standardizing). Freud took up the problem of the symptom exactly where Charcot had left off: in the very crux of `illogical movements' ± this negative moment in the `dialectic of the monster'. in the symptom.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Me  dard convulsionnaires. From P. unexpected. to the Darwinian principles of imprinting or `commemorative repetition'. Importantly. of displacement or `derivation'. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 633 . the patient assumed the most varied. . Freud developed dynamogrammes of multiple polarities heaped or erratically fitted together. the unconscious dupes or ignores logical contradiction and the time of commonplace biomorphisms.] There.hyste  ro-e  pilepsie. nor `reflection' (even of a trauma). appeared to be so beyond nature's resources that only divine intervention could seem to account for them. figs 43. Instead.48 And here is the decisive turn: it will be Freud's accomplishment to have worked out an understanding of the hysterical symptom capable of surpassing the rigid model of the clinical tableau. and unlikely positions. [. sometimes swarming like serpents: touches with taboos. this `maximal degree of tension' in the Pathosformeln. and of respecting the essential plasticity of the processes engaged. facilitations with defences. finally. desires with censures.49 The imprint enabled Freud to understand the ways in which the symptom actualizes an unconscious memory  rique: contorsions at work.50 ceased to depend on an iconography. 44 and 46. explain the constant interplay of figural ou  tudes cliniques sur la grande hyste  rie ou E entanglements and signifying metamor. . as Lucille Ritvo has admirably shown. capable of taking stock of the moving complexities or over-determinations. phoses: a dynamic way of envisaging the complexity of phenomena. `formation of the unconscious' in the fullest sense. * * * With Freud. of `antithesis' or the possible reversal into the opposite. it enabled him to describe how. Richer. as Warburg might have said. How did Freud go beyond Charcot's iconographism? Firstly by returning. Displacement allowed him to 12±14 Grande attaque hyste mouvements illogiques. and. the royal road of psychoanalysis.

while she tried to tear it off with the other (as the man). a `dynamogramme' of mixed polarities. and it touches our soul. This happens because the `situation' figured in the attack seems destined toward Unversta È ndlichkeit (`incomprehensibility'). which is otherwise so plastically portrayed in the attack. in this `body transformed into image'.53 This structure is worth considering in detail. extreme movement becomes counter-movement. Pierre Fe  dida uses the same expression for approaching the question of the symptom. We view it. for instance. that is. `represents the realization of two contradictory desires'. most unlikely positions' ± thus. the robe's drapery torn by the male half from the female half. Freud managed to recognize an exemplary structure in this tangle of disorderly movements. a labour that is both organic and transgressive at the same time. and is thus well suited to conceal the unconscious phantasy that is at work. Admirable lesson in looking. or even Charcot's amphitheatre): In one case which I observed. most unexpected. as impossible to understand in an iconography ± Freud was able to release the formula for this corporeal pathos. What results will be an entanglement in movement. Let us not forget that Goethe began with the same observation with regard to the desperate gestures of the Laocoo È n (plate 15): the active intensity of the sculpted group `will never reveal all its mysteries to the human mind.56 634 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . the patient pressed her dress up against her body with one hand (as the woman). Here.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM crises with compromises. The hysteric in crisis offers the spectator a `situation so plastically figured' (so plastisch dargestellten Situation) that the gaze is at once transfixed (captured. It speaks to our mind.' wrote Freud in 1899. Freud first observed it in a context that was likely not that of the cure (one can imagine a common room at the Salpe à trie Á re. for the lesson in looking goes hand in hand with a profound anthropological lesson on the `dialectic of the monster'. yet we cannot comprehend it totally. Freud describes this dialectic ± exactly as Warburg would have for a Magdelene by Niccolo Á dell'Arca ± with his observation of the fate of the `accessory in movement'. held back by the female half from the aggression of the male half. What takes place? Two contradictory motions confront each other in the same body. `The symptom. the formula for this gestural chaos exploding in the attack. fascinated) and relinquished (taken aback). as evident to his eyes but as difficult to interpret as the Dionysiac intensity of the dishevelled Magdelene standing at the foot of a crucifix was to Warburg. fusions with defusions. The visual intensity of corporeal forms and effected movements is the first element of this structure. where Richer spoke of hysterical contortion in terms of the `most varied.55 which are reconsidered here according to terms that reveal the law of the double constitution of each formation of the unconscious ± a law that Warburg certainly acknowledged in the domain of images in general. Freud begins with an undeniable phenomenological given.'54 The second essential element in this structure (and the second motive for making the situation `incomprehensible') is contradictory simultaneity.52 There. Intensity becomes its antithesis.51 This simultaneity of contradictory actions serves to a large extent to obscure the situation. The moment of the symptom as such appears at the dialectical crux of these polarities.

ß Association of Art Historians 2001 AD 50. 300 BC. (Roman). Rome. c. 635 . Photo: the author. Marble.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 15 Anon. Laocoon and his sons. after a Greek original from c. The Vatican Museum.

or turning a thing into its opposite. by the compromise of the symptom that has been constructed. that the vocabulary of conflict and compromise was as necessary to the Warburgian definition of the Pathosformeln as it was to the Freudian Symptombildung? We already know that neurotic symptoms are the outcome of a conflict which arises over a new method of satisfying the libido. and this has a positively paralysing effect. Is it any surprise. on any attempt to understand the 636 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 .60 This reads like a description of all that interested Warburg about the survival of antique Pathosformeln: for example. too. the Antique maenad only `survives' as well as she does because pain and desire are maintained in their conflict. that the symptom is so resistant: it is supported from both sides. In Bertoldo di Giovanni's Magdelene (plate 2). Etymologically. the Freudian symptom takes into account exactly what Warburg was trying to get at in the constant oscillation between `extreme polarizations' and `depolarizations' productive of `ambivalences'. Reaktionsbildungen (`reaction formations') and Ersatzbildungen (`substitute formations') coexist and respond to one another. It is for that reason. Freud pointed to a process in dreaming. conflict and compromise. Thus.57 With the symptom. as it were. like a sculpture. as Nachleben. it produces a mass of distortion in the material which is to be represented. and then collapse before another set of fireworks goes off. . to begin with. the desperate gesture of the antique Pedagog surviving inversed in the triumphant Renaissance David. and not what signifies.58 In short. is one of the means of representation most favoured by the dream-work . . representations that are repressed coexist and exchange with representations that repress. Here. the symptom plays with the antithesis: it creates `incomprehensible situations' because it knows how to impart to the most complex workings of contradictory simultaneity a plastic intensity ± that is. Here. tense but tangled in a skilfully selected ambiguity.59 This capacity for `resistance' can also be understood as a capacity for survival. an ambiguity that makes possible the compromise between the pagan dancer in a trance and the tearful Christian saint. reversal. signs themselves fly into pieces: they spurt forth in sparks. The historical tenacity of Pathosformeln would thus express itself metapsychologically. Freud had already shown this when he explained how a symptom is over-determined both synchronically (the symptom meaning several things at the same time) and diachronically (each symptom modifying itself over time). through the internal entanglement of `maintained' conflicts and ever possible compromises. then. Freud wrote that the symptom is an `ingeniously chosen piece of ambiguity with two meanings in complete mutual contradiction'. a phenomenal evidence presented in its entirety to the spectator. equally observable in the symptom. The two forces which have fallen out meet once again in the symptom and are reconciled. the symptom refers to what falls away.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Here the Darwinian principle of antithesis is given such a radical extension that the very idea of `pathetic expression' seems to explode. which he called Verkehrung ins Gegenteil (`reversal into the opposite'): Incidentally.

Without a doubt Charcot's clinic ± where `hemi-sensitivities' and `hemianaesthesia' abounded ± had prepared Freud for this particular observation. yet ever present in the very crux of the gestural chaos distributed by each part of its ungraspable geometry. . fig. which. Hysterical attacks sometimes make use of the same kind of chronological reversal in order to disguise their meaning from observers. the disorder of `illogical movements' makes impossible. to borrow another Freudian expression ± simultaneously manifests their work of transformation and their tenacity. 1988). as Richer did.61 Now. Nor would he attempt to create a structure out of iconographic detail. without renouncing his quest for a structure. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 637 . He did not pinpoint this structure by diminishing or schematizing what he saw. Instead. he would discern suddenly a formal line of tension. Bilder aus dem Gebiet der Pueblo-Indianer in Nord-Amerika. their capacity for eternal return. 79. he accepted the complexity of the phenomenon (the heap of moving serpents [plate 16] that constitutes the `incomprehensible situation' of the hysterical attack).ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 16 Heap of serpents at Oraibi. what Freud says here about the hysterical contortion is exactly what Warburg says of figurative formulae capable of survival: their interaction with antithesis ± that is their insensitivity to logical contradiction. From A. or even by looking for an idea `behind' what he saw.62 In his 1908 article Freud offered us another great lesson in looking when. sinuous or broken with the alternately slackening or coiling body. Dancing or explosive. a sort of symmetry in movement line. there is more: Warburg and Freud share a particular attention to what I would call the formal pivots of all of these reversals of sense. 1923 (Berlin. dream . as Richer tried to do. Warburg. in any case. . However.

. that is. in Goethe's aesthetic and morphology. one brushes against it in the very rhythm of the moving complexities issued by the image. beauties with terrors. * * * One last remark about the visual work of `contradictory simultaneity' is called for. The source for Freud and Warburg's common intuition is to be found. dance around these visual pivots: harmonies with ruptures. over-determined. it organizes it and diffuses it spatially and rhythmically. But it exists.65 Finally. the knotted antithesis of movement and paralysis: The artist's choice of subject is one of the best imaginable. was now organized around an axis which orients masculine fantasy on one side and feminine fantasy on the other. Goethe insisted straightaway on the importance of antitheses: `[.' (eine doppelte Handlung).'64 Everything doubles over. .63 I would suggest that all the contradictions. in addition to all its other merits. It is the pivot ± itself agitated. all that was disorder in Charcot's eyes. . . The morphological law of the heap of serpents is no doubt complex. resemblances with dissemblances. so that all the degrees of complexity endow every level of formal organization. It was a matter of sculpting multiple forces and demonstrating the anthropological significance of the contortion itself (whether due to madness or pain. in the Laocoo È n sculpture. When referring to another heap of serpents. This symmetry in movement offers a formula for the critical pathos exploding in the attack. . is at one and the same time a model of symmetry and diversity. . one approaches it. It does not dissolve their complexity. the sculptor has `portrayed a physical effect together with its physical cause'. The viewer perceives these varied qualities as whole that is partly physical. or Ghirlandaio's portraits? Warburg observed the structural power of visual pivots everywhere: the organic border of the body and its `accessories in movement'. Moreover. Human beings are battling against dangerous creatures which do not have to rely on large numbers of tremendous strength. lives with deaths. We can see the three tangled figures `participating in extremely varied activities'. According to Goethe. tranquillity and motion. hair or drapery and with Ghirlandaio the architectural border of the floor and basement at Santa Trinita from which the Medici children's genealogical portraits emerge so strangely. impossible to schematize. with Botticelli. contrasts and gradations. clashes and melds together in the Laocoo È n.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM However. the `incomprehensible' and `illogical' character of the situation. all the conflicts at work in the image. but rather attack separately on separate 638 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 .] this work. once more. partly spiritual . I insist ± around which all the turmoil of contortion is unleashed. or in a sculptural masterpiece). `all three figures are engaged in a two-fold action. it allows itself to be glimpsed. . How can we not be reminded of Warburg's particular way of distinguishing the structure of pathos at work in Botticelli's paintings. This hinge abuts and confronts the two contradictory terms at the same time. Goethe considered the very choice of the theme represented ± human bodies contorting under the contracting pressure of reptilian bodies ± an exemplary solution for representing human form. One never captures it entirely.

ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM fronts (als augeteilte Kra È fte). as Nietzsche wrote with regard to . over all.' ß Association of Art Historians 2001 639 . a certain sense of tranquillity and unity pervades the group despite all movement. Nietzsche himself took care to define the Dionysiac using the example of `enigmatic creatures' capable of all kinds of metamorphoses. . because of their elongated bodies. capable of knowing how to play all the roles at the same time.] the entire emotional system is alerted and intensified: so that it discharges all its powers of representation. acting doubly. violent and immediate as it is ± proceeds from a veritable work of dissimulation. and it metamorphoses because it moves. Such is its phenomenological basis. There is a gradation in the activity of the snakes. Hence. concentrated resistance is ineffective. The symptom veils itself because it metamorphoses. without hiding anything ± sometimes to the point of obscenity ± but it offers itself as a figure.66 Driven by multiple forces. the `genital mucous membrane' (embrace. from the centre (her nude body) to the border (her hair in the wind).67 That he was thinking of the Nietzschean Dionysiac rather than the hysteria clinic is undeniable. genitality) to the top. giving in to conflicts that suspend it between movement and immobility. As a result of the figures' immobility. the image becomes this ra È tselhafter Organismus (`enigmatic organism') that Warburg confronted in each of his studies of Renaissance culture. transfiguration. indeed. as a detour.71 And this is how the organism becomes `enigmatic'. that is. He sought. are capable of rendering three people almost defenceless without injuring them.68 So. to understand why symptomatic expression ± as spectacular. and capable of reacting with a variety of gestures. the snakes. imitation. The essential thing remains the facility of the metamorphosis.70 Freud will note Dora's displacement of sensation (Verschiebung der Empfindung) ± concomitant with an Affektverkehrung (`reversal of affect') ± from the bottom. orality). It certainly offers itself entirely. Here. the incapacity not to react (± in a similar way to certain types of hysterics. displaces itself: it can only be grasped in the dimension of the equivocal. In short. `certain hysterics': In the Dionysian state [. But. The symptom moves.69 And. its `incomprehensible situation. from the Verhu È llung der wirksamen unbewuûten Phantasie (`veiling of the unconscious fantasy at work'). an enigmatic organism. creatures capable of being moved by a variety of forces. . metamorphosis ± every kind of mimicry and play-acting ± conjointly. as Freud concluded his magisterial description of the hysterical event. forming compromises. it is this very displacement that authorizes what is repressed to return. The enigma ± `the incomprehensible situation' of which Freud spoke ± stems from the symptom's third structural element: displacement. who also assume any role at the slightest instigation). Freud entirely reformulated Darwin's principle of `association'. . one only coiling itself around the victims. . the other provoked and causing injury. Where Warburg demonstrated a displacement of pathetic intensity in Botticelli's Venus. `the oral mucous membrane' (disgust.

it must be thought of in terms of movements and displacements ± the migrations that Warburg considered the end of all Pathosformeln. transgressing the limits off its proper semiotic field. would like to decipher `symbolic forms'). heirs to Panofsky's legacy. return of the repressed ± that the symbol does not inevitably entail. they become richer. 640 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . Freud called this a regression of symbolic thought toward `pure sensory images' in which representation.76 The symptom needs to be interpreted and not deciphered (as the iconologists. if an organization exists. of displacement. for example. Is this not what Rudolf Wittkower. in a certain way. taking off one's hat in the street is a symbol in the order of social convention (politely acknowledging someone). endowed as it is with the powers of the wirksamen unbewuûten Phantasie (`unconscious fantasy at work'): plastically intensified. for the symptom carries within itself a condition of inaccessibility and intrusion ± repression.] In regression the fabric of the dream-thoughts is resolved into its raw material.75 The symptom. . All it tells us is that there are numerous doors to be opened and that. becomes symptom the moment it displaces itself and loses its primary identity. The symbol. `A relation between a symbol and a symptom'.72 The symptom displaces: it migrates and metamorphoses. who thought he was taking from Warburg. Neither regression nor the sensory image prevented Freud from posing ± on a metapsychological level ± the problem of unconscious inscription and of the `mnemic' trace. of dissimulation. their combination attains a sort of exuberance.74 In short. capable of `contradictory simultaneity'. to their vocation to formlessness. as it is to `deciphering'. when its proliferation suffocates its signification. It becomes a symptom when. What is the work of fantasy? It consists in attracting symbols into a register that literally exhausts them. This inaccessibility is structural: it cannot be resolved with another `key' provided by the iconological dictionary. put in another way. a `symbol written on the sand of the flesh'. a part that can be removed. among other things. appears accordingly as inaccessible to `exhaustive' notation or to `synthesis'. but this exuberance exhausts them too. . called the migration of symbols?73 Not exactly. the Mnemosyne Atlas attempts to reconstitute. ordinarily made to be understood. whose moving geographies. We call it `regression' when in a dream an idea is turned back into the sensory image from which it was originally derived [. The `attraction' to which they submit amounts to their deformation. Freud established this in his short article from 1916.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM The symptom only gives us access ± immediately and intensely ± to the organization of its very inaccessibility. returns to its `raw material'. as well as surviving histories. deploying a whole network of significations likely to infect ± displacement is a kind of epidemic ± everything that surrounds it. Therefore. The symptom is first a `silence in the subject supposed to speak' or. a kind of paradoxical writing. or even in oniric folklore (the hat as genital organ). the symptom is a symbol that has become incomprehensible. the obsessive performs the casuisitry of the salutation ad infinitum. We have done no more than give a name to an inexplicable phenomenon.78 Here we touch on the fourth structural element of the model. with the head itself becoming. and therefore. the symbol become incomprehensible.77 Thus.

what Warburg. It demonstrates that the symptom is an afterlife. Rougemont. Not only does this process afford a clearer understanding of the early Renaissance as a universal category of European civilization: it lays bare certain phenomena. pp. Bing and F. This led Lacan to bring le geste (the gesture) and la geste (the gest. Allgemeine Ideen (1927). and between North and South. cit. Wind. Warburg Institute Archive. Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. 2 The psychological aspect of Warburg's art history has frequently been noted (but its epistemological consequences rather neglected). Paris: Minuit. A variant of the title is: Grundlegende Bruchstu È cke zu einer pragmatischen Ausdruckskunde (monistischen Kunstpsychologie). how are we to understand the memory resurfaced by this gesture. that cast a more general light on the circulation and exchange of expressive forms in art (ku È nstlerischer Ausdrucksformen). (note 2). science sans nom' (1984) in Image et Me trans. `Souvenirs d'un voyage en pays Pueblo'.' (1908). 27-32. London. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity: Contributions to the Cultural History of the European Renaissance. K. `Die antike Go È tterwelt und die Fru È hrenaissance im Su È den und im Norden. ß Association of Art Historians 2001 451±4. E. vol. Agamben. Baltimore. incessant displacements and indestructible imprints. `this gesture that comes back from the depths of time'? Isn't this the Pathosformeln as the movement of an afterlife? Yet. forces of transformation and forces of repetition. 130. Die Erneuerung der heidnischen Antike. p. `Du È rer und die italienische Antike' (1905). Myths and the Historical Method. what about this memory? Closer to home. Doesn't Mnemosyne constitute the cornerstone of the Warburgian anthropology of images? But. 1998. Perhaps this is what is most important with regard to our subject. pp. III. though hitherto barely formulated: the interchange of artistic culture in the fifteenth century. 265. 51. 1932. Ausgewa È hlte Schriften une Wu È rdigungen. trans. Forster. a memory formation. `Introduction. David Britt. Warburg speaks of the problem of a `psychology of style' (stilpsychologische Frage) `that is far wider. 558. op. `Du È rer and Italian Antiquity'.H. trans. Warburg Institute Archive. unpublished notes for Warburg's Kreuzlingen conference on the Serpent Ritual (1923). Leipzig-Berlin. Los Angeles. Gombrich: A Problem of Method' (1966) in Clues. p. this image imprinted with time to which it gives life and movement? Georges Didi-Huberman EHESS. in P. pp. Warburg. `From Aby Warburg to E. D. p. 7 Cf. See C. 1999.C. would call the engramme. Dell'Omodarme. London. III. Paris. Grundlegende Bruchstu È cke zu einter monistischen Kunstpsychologie (1888±1905). 17±59. and of formations of the unconscious in general. pp. Gesammelte Schriften. hitherto unnoticed. eds C.' 5 Warburg. Wuttke. J. forthcoming 2001. `Aby Warburg et la  moire. Michaud. Paris Notes This text is a fragment of an extensive study of Warburg's notion of Nachleben: L'image survivante. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. p.79 And. Muller. a single instant endowed with an epic depth (a long story). 1±2 of typed manuscript. 43. 4 Warburg. 2. 6 Warburg. `Warburg's Concept of 641 . Lacan looked for a response to the double requisite of the symptom. Paris. dir. M. Ginzburg. 1980.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM which reformulates the Darwinian principle of imprinting. or epic poem) together as a carnel immediacy. Ginzburg.-A. S. Histoire à mes. G.W. between past and present. 102. 1 A. and A.1.' in Aby Warburg. 3 Cf. Kulturwissenschaftliche Beitra È ge zur Geschichte der Europa È ischen Renaissance. Translated from the French by Dr Vivian de l'art et temps des fanto Rehberg. 1992. Tedeschi. for his part. eds G. is this not what Rilke meant by the gesture. 1988. in particular Warburg. in the notion of the signifying chain combining masking effects and truth effects. Baden-Baden.

op. 21 and 30±5. p. 27 March 1889. p. Barta-Fliedl and C. pp. 36±53. A. `Mnemosyne (Introduction). Bing. 303. pp. 18. to a certain degree. (note 10). The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. (note 22). Cf. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und ``Fruhling''. and `Heidnisch-antike Weissagung in Wort und Bild zu Luthers Zeiten. op. `In the years following his university training the graph of Warburg's life shows some odd deflections. 125±30. 1990. cit. 1979. 48. Gombrich. p. 39-111 and `Le concept de forme symbolique dans l'e  dification des sciences de l'esprit. cit. 77±9. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. p. pp. Studies in Humanist Art. Warburg. G. (note 8). p. Mesnil. Cf. cit. op. Dal Lago. p. Fischer. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity op. 14. 3 April 1929. Aby Warburg. cit. Warburg. Carro and J. 303. cited by Gombrich. 47±9. op. (note 4). vol. pp. dir. p. `The Emergence of the Antique as a Stylistic Ideal in Early Renaissance Painting'. Wegbereiter der historischen Psychologie. Warburg. pp. Zur Ko È rpersprache in der Kunst. (note 10). pp. Warburg'. Warburg. I. Trois essais sur le symbolique. 563±93.' The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. Cf. 252. 1983. dir. ibid. (`Symptoms and Syndromes') Ideals and Idols: Essays on Values in History and Art. Salzburg. p. Iena. Ausgewa un Wu È rdigungen. Quoted from E. what he was looking for was a key not so much to the workings of the body as to those of the mind. Gombrich `The Ambivalence of the Classical Tradition. cit.. cited by Gombrich. Ausgewa È hlte Schriften. Paris. p. (note 4). I will return to them further on in the text. Warburg. Warburg. are worth reading. trans. `On a Recent Biography of Warburg'. p. The Cultural Psychology of Aby Warburg'. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus''. `Francesco Sassetti's Last Injunctions to His Sons'. pp. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne Atlas. 49. op. 254±5. 1988. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne-Atlas'. 199200. 638 and 646±7. (note 10). Warburg. Raulff. Warburg a recherche  et reconnu dans les oeuvres d'art moins l'expression d'une esthe  tique que le sympto à me d'un e  tat d'a à me collectif. Geissmar-Brandi. Warburg. pp. Gaubert. 107. 1997.' E. 173±98. J. 70±3. (note 1). Warburg.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Kulturwissenschaft and its Meaning for Aesthetics' (1931). pp.' (1907). eds I. Cf. 173±6.' Cf. F. pp. 7-37. n.cit. 223± 18 8 9 19 10 11 12 20 21 13 14 22 15 23 24 25 26 27 28 16 17 642 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . Trafic 9. op. Translated from the complete Italian text by J. Gazette des Beaux-Arts vol. (note 2). Saxl. (1969). Warburg. `Souvenirs d'un voyage en pays Pueblo'. published in the Studien and the Vortra È ge der Bibliothek Warburg. cit. E. (note 6). (note 2). (note 10). Gombrich. cit. `La Bibliothe Á que de Warburg et ses publications'. 149. 251±2.' in A. 1994. 89±156. op. The first was an abortive attempt to study medicine. Gombrich. 39±40. Cf. `Aby Warburg: Ikonische Pra È gung und Seelengeschichte'. (note 4). U. Gombrich. Belfagor vol. Munich-Weinheim. Unpublished note 3 August 1888. Aby Warburg: An Intellectual Biography. 271±5. Aby Warburg e l'antropologia'. Tributes: Interpreters of our Cultural Tradition. 1932. quoted from Gombrich. `Die Ausdrucksgeba È rden der bildenden Kunst'. cit. Warburg. Oxford. op. cit. op. pp. op. 119±20. 67-68. pp. Hincker. 1926. Gombrich. Oeuvres VI. `In Search of Cultural History'. cit. pp. 597-697. J. E. 41. pp.H. 40±1. `La forme du concept dans la pense  e mythique'. pp.' art. as `sythesizing' responses to (or interpretations of) Warburg's understanding of the symbol. (1922). Aut aut. 1984. Cassirer. (note 10). `L'entre  e du style ide  al antiquisant dans la peinture de la Renaissance. pp. (note 3).' (1920). Ausgewa È hlte Schriften. Bing. p. pp. 1992. Fragmente. 1986). Briefmarke. 1983. Wind. 1965. Antal and E. 309±10. op. Essais Florentin. `Pagan-Antique Prophecy in Words and Images in the Age of Luther. 24. The Eloquence of Symbols. Notes dated 30 and 31 May 1927. `Italian Art and International Astrology in the Palazzo Schifanoia. G. Allgemeine Ideen.' Journal of the Warburg Institute. cit. Warburg. `En somme. p. pp. Eine Untersuchung u È ber die Vorstellungen von der Antike in der Italienischen Fru È hlte Schriften È hrenaissance' (1893). Ferrara'.H. cit.M. pp.' (1914) Gesammelte Schriften. p. Oxford. op. (1971) The Eloquence of Symbols: Studies in Humanist Art. in Die Beredsamkeit des Leibes. London. (1929). These two texts. pp. 20±21. cit. Oxford. `A. pp. Warburg. G. also E. `Italienische Kunst und internationale Astrologie im Palazzo Schifanoja zu Ferrara' (1912).H. 199-303. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Aby Warburg. op. 238. Bericht u È ber den XII Kongress der deutschen Gesellschaft fu È r Pscyhologie in Hamburg. 1994. pp. pp. op. F. cit. (note 22). `Aby Warburg e l'evoluzionismo ottocentesco'. 1984. Wind. Tagebuch. 14±16. 1970 (Chicago. 1937. vol. Paris.H. 172. In this way he may have been yielding to a misplaced hope. `Der Eintritt des anitkisierenden Idealstils in die Malerie der Fru È hrenaissance. cit. `L'arcaico e il suo doppio. `Francesco Sasettis letztwillige Verfu È hlte Schriften und È gung. pp.' (1923). Kafka. op. pp. cit. `The Maenad under the Cross. E. London. 172. (note 2). Ju È tteman. Ausgewa Wu È rdigungen. 13±25. `Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus and Spring: An Examination of Concepts of Antiquity in the Italian Early Renaissance'. op. und ``Fru È hling''. cit. (note 2). trans. Translated into French by P. cit. Rusch.

ibid. also P.  ridite  psychologique. P. pp. Paris. 1965.  rie. but also the possible influences of Bergson. P. Cf. Freud.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM 64. eds. pp. `Sur les the  ories freudiennes Á se de de l'e  volution. Mendousse. who underlines not only the influence of Charcot. Psychiatrie. Lacoste. pp. p. See Freud `Vorlesungen zur Einfu È hring in die Psychoanalyse' as `Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis' (1916±1917) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis. 499±517. Paris. `Charcot and the Spectacle of the Hysterical Body. 1889. pp. Cassirer. 1928. ibid. Amongst the most recent Salpe studies. art . J-M Charcot et P. Lacoste. cit. especially J. See Darwin. pp. `Heidnisch-atike Weissagung in Wort und Bild zu Luthers Zeiten'. L'He (re-edition 1890). 1884.. 1881 T. Art History vol. 1977. `L'histoire de l'art a Á rebrousse-poil. trans. cf. pp. Scenes of Seduction: Prostitution. Ritvo. 632±41. Baldwin. Invention de l'hyste 36). she functions as an iconic formula of reconciliation between the 'medieval trust in God and the Renaissance trust in self. E. It is important to note that Britt's translation omits the word `symptomatisch'. S. cit. 4±29. Koyre  . Ventriloquized Bodies: Narratives of Hysteria in NineteenthCentury France. 1984. Jaspers.' Les Evolutions. (note Huberman. Temps de l'image et `travail au sein des choses' selon Walter Benjamin'. p. Cahiers du Muse 72. Les  e national d'Art moderne vol. Le Proble  canique. Ribot. trans. 1900. 1920. `Etude sur la pathologie de la conscience symbolique'. (note 39). Schade. 103-118 ('L'he  re  dite  dans l'histoire' which refers to the Medici family).) Cf. G. J. Paris. G. Ithaca and London. Klinik der Erkrankungen des Vorderhirns. La Vie inconsciente et les mouvements. Etudes cliniques sur  rie ou hyste  ro-e  pilepsie.  rie. 18. trans. Phylogene l'individuation. 23. 1914. L'Evolution de la me temps. à le de la 113±39 and 269±89. op. pp. Ribot. Cf. pp. 1907. Etudes clinques sur la grande hyste op. Paulhan. Cf. `L'observation de Ce  lina'.  rie. T. 1902.. P. cit. 1994. Etudes cliniques sur la grande hyste op. J-M Charcot and P. Derieg. Cf. Warburg. vol. la grande hyste 1881 (re-edition 1885). Richer. of course. (1929). including: P. 26. 138. in his manuscript Schemata Pathosformeln (1905±1911). G. L'Ascendant de Darwin sur Freud (1990). (note 21). d'Eichthal. P. `Savoir-mouvement (l'homme qui parlait aux papillons)'. New York. Montinar. Richer. `La psycho-me me  moire affective: nouvelles remarques. T. Fe  dida and D. op. la me S. Matlock.'. cit. Cf. (note 36). 1992. Paris. `We now feel why the wind goddess. Michaud. LXXIII. (note 1). (note 38). 499±501. Warburg Institute Archive. 7-20. 44±54. V. op.. Les De G. Schade. (note 38).cit. Didi-Huberman.  rie. Didi-Huberman. 1912. Schade. 244±55. A.  ne  rale 251±62. Princeton. cf. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). P. Paris.. pp. Paris. 1909. 246±272. P. Kastler et J. Hysteria. Nietzsche. dirs. 113±19. 227-173. Paris. Widlo È cher. (note ??). Oeuvres philosophiques comple I. 1982. J.1. op. The ``Pathos Formula'' as an Aesthetic Staging of Psychiatric Discourse ± a Blind Spot in the Reception of Warburg'. pp.. F. Richer. `La me  moire affective et l'art'. 267±80. Didi rie. (Benjamin avec Warburg: `L'histoire de l'art est une histoire de prophe  ties'. ibid. Fortune. Bernheim and. T.  die (1872). 21±43. (note 39). 89±116. vols 15 and 16. L'art et  decine. trans. pp. 1998. P. F. Didi-Huberman and P. op. Invention de l'hyste 161±162. cit. La Naissance de la trage eds G. Chicago. 1994. pp. Fe  dida. Paris. 503. Colli and M. esthe  moire et la notion de Janet. Didi-Huberman. L. Psychopathologie ge (1913). E. pp. cit. Richer. Paris. and G.  monaiques dans l'art (1887). trans.' ibid. p.B. cit. 449±60. Didi-Huberman. cit. 69. 1994. p. and Reading Difference in NineteenthCentury France.' Revue philosophique. pp. me  tiques. Labarthe. Translated from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey. A. III. Beizer. Paris. P. (note 1).  moire. 264±73. Du ro  moire dans nos conceptions metaphysique. Cf. A. pp. Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. Les Difformes et les malades dans l'art. Essai de Á me de la me Sollier. 1995. 1929. For an analysis of this phase and Charcot's texts. came into Francesco Sassetti's mind in the crisis of 1488 as a measure of his own tense energy: for Ruccellai and for Sassetti alike. pl. etc.-A. The Knotted Subject: Hysteria and Its Discontents. cit. used by Warburg in the original German to describe how the wind goddess Fortuna functioned for Sassetti. Paris. pp. reprint 1995 (first pub'd 1959) and `Hemmung. but left undeveloped. Cf. 637. 242. preface to P-A Michaud. trans. pp. pp. 289±336 and 523±66. Bronfen. K. Vienna. Ribot. actives. Meynert. P. Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique. LXIV. Didi-Huberman. Richer. 28±38. especially pp. Paris. 2000. Recalling the tables Warburg traced. London. pp. p. pp. Warburg was to acquire many other works by the French school concerning the question of `unconscious memory'. Symptom und 37 38 29 30 31 39 40 41 32 33 42 43 34 44 45 46 47 48 49 35 36 50 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 643 . LacoueÁ tes vol. Paris. 1928. Paris. 588-613. op. Richer. 502. Invention de l'hyste Charcot et l'iconographie photographique de la à trie Á re. passionnelles.M. cit. vol. art. (1993). E. `La substitution psychique. Aby Warburg et l'image en mouvement. S.

Fe  dida. J. cit. 2. Trans cit. there are no limits to the further determinants that may be present ± to the overdetermination of the [hysterical] symptoms. SE. pp. pp. 20±1. cit. vol. trans. Invention de l'hyste cit. cit. p. Paris.' as `Some general remarks on Hysterical Attacks'. cit. Ausgewa È hlte Schriften. `Introductory Lectures on PsychoAnalysis'. J. 60 ibid.  minaire. 558: `[. E. pp.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM Angst' as `Inhibitions. p. 24. (note 36). I. 1998. A.] a symptom has more than one meaning and serves to represent several unconscious mental processes simultaneously. . With Breuer `Zur Theorie des hysterischen Anfalls' (1892. 1998. Gene histoire vol. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und `'`Fruhling''. Symptoms.' (1889). 72 Warburg. `Hysterical phantasies and their relationship to bisexuality'. Bonaparte. M. 328. also J. p. `Bru È chstuck einer Hysterie-Analyse' as `Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria. Cf. trans. 15. 165.'(1927) SE. E. 69 This is why one must always go beyond the iconographical approach with a figural approach which takes into account the overdeterminations of sense and time presupposed by such a 'detour'. and on the other hand of a feminine one. pp. 67 Warburg. As `The Art of Portraiture and the Florentine Bourgeoisie. L'interlocuteur').' op. 151±4. 3±5 and `Allgemeines u È ber den hysterischen Anfall. eds M. Kris. Crise et contre-transfert. pp. Figura (1938). Domenico Ghirlandajo in Santa Trinita. op.' (1905 [1901]). 200±202. cit. p. 358±9. Alferi. p. P. 65 ibid. 64 Goethe. 76. cit. op.. op.' (1902). pp.' A more thorough analysis would require a discussion of the È ber den following: Freud with Breuer. Auerbach. Cf. 193: `Lorenzo's startled gesture has a different.  miotique M. pp. 227-265 (`Structure the  orique du symptome. etc. (note 18). `Hysterical symptoms are the expression on the one hand of a masculine unconcious sexual phantasy. `On the Laocoon Group' (1798).J. 63 Warburg. (note 4). (note 63). SE. Schapiro. p. trans cit. SE. trans. And I should like to add that in my estimation a single unconscious mental process or phantasy will scarcely ever suffice for the production of a symptom. pp.  rie. Cf. `A Case of Hysteria. SE. 130. Freud. 1973). cit. 77.. Freud. The Hague. 71 Freud. 54±63. 20±1. 1996.47: `[. pp. Warburg. p. pp. 166. 190. op. Essais sur l'apparition. Paris. 11±63. 1993 and on another level. p.' A sentence worth mulling over in today's context of gender. 246. pp. J-A Miller. pp. in The Twilight of the Idols. Les Mots et les images. . 92±98. p. Paris. vol. pp. Fe  dida. `Hysterische Phantasien und Ihre Beziehung zur Bisexualita È t' as `Hysterical Phantasies and their Relation to Bisexuality. `The Interpretation of Dreams'. 61 Freud. p. cit. vol. 1992. cit. The Antichrist. 1956 (re-edition 1973). (note 53). 68 Nietzsche. 74. Geary. `Pour une anthropologie des singularite  s formelles.. SE.' as `Interpretation of Dreams. pp. 173. cit. 133±42. Goethe. 229±34. 145±63. as `On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena: Preliminary Communication. . vol. 62 Didi-Huberman. 247. p. Se du langage visuel (1969±1976). p.W. Collected Works in 12 Volumes. `Une ravissante blancheur' (1986). Crise et contre-transfert. p. `Dialogue sur le symptome'. Les formations de Lacan. Paris.v. and often trivially. In this text I will only discuss the article `Hysterical Phantasies and their Relation to Bisexuality. (note 58). Didi-Huberman. Hollingdale. Domenico Ghirlandaio in Santa Trinita: The Portraits of Lorenzo de'Medici and His Household'.' 59 Freud. `Du È rer und die italienische Antike'. in La Naissance de la psychanalyse (1887±1902). p. R. Le Se l'inconscient (1957±1958). Bernier. Paris. ed.' and `Die Traumdeutung. pp. Remarque sur l'invention Á ses. (note 50). op. trans. op. 9 (1906± 1908). cit. op.' op. 29±30. and Anxiety. 19 February 19 1899. Cf. 373±90.. 569: `As in the case of dreams. 360. (note 58).. in which iconography is often polarised. 66 ibid. op. (note 2). vol.' SE.' (1908) SE. `Bildniskunst und florentinisches Bu È rgertum. op. 70 Warburg. 231±2.A.' The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity op. V. vol. SE. 17. vol. .' Here we see the relationship between the notion of the symptom and what Warburg referred to as the `the exterior cause of the image (die a È ussere Veranlassung der Bilder)'. p. 1994. pp. `Sandro Botticellis ``Geburt der Venus'' und ``Fru È hling''. `Bildniskunst und florentinisches Bu È rgertum. (note 54). `On the Laocoon Group'. Die Bildnisse des Lorenzo de'Medici und seiner Angeho È rigen. pp. London. (note 4). 161±2. p. Phasmes. The Renewal of Pagan Antiquity. first publication in 1940) as `On the Theory of Hysterical Attacks'. 5. `The Twilight of the Idols. (note 50). 9. 1968. pp. A Berman. part 3 `General Theory of the Neuroses' (1917). Princeton. `U psychischen Mechanismus hysterischer Pha È nomene: Vorla È ufige Mitteilung (1893). 3: Essays on Art and Literature. on which three men and three children are climbing up towards him. 319±34. Freud and E. Sciences sociales et warburgienne'.' op. `The Art of Portraiture and the Florentine Bourgeoisie. 7. cit.' art. (note 2). trans. Paris. letter to Fliess.] a 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 644 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 . motivation: the hard stone pavement of the Piazza della Signoria has opened up beneath his feet to reveal a stairway. ed. and much more overtly surprising.' and `The Paths to the Formation of Symptoms'. cit. 1990 (Words and Pictures: On the Literal and the Symbolic in the Illustration of a Text. especially. Freud. von Nardoff. p. 20.

op. cit. p. 372. pp. 518. `The Interpretation of Dreams'. Paris. Le  minaire. Lacan. 76 77 78 79 ß Association of Art Historians 2001 645 . 533-549. Fe  dida.' Interpretation of Dreams. V. (1975). Ecrits. D. (note 76). Ecrits. 339±40. pp. Paris. Hechter. 1996. Paris. (1916) SE. 74 Freud. 358. `The Psychology of the Dream Processes. 689. 16. (note 22). l'e 1995. 6. 1992. Lacan. 475. 1973. and Lacan `Le sinthome'. p. `Einleitung zum Mnemosyne-Atlas'. pp. cit. (note 50). 1976. On the relation between this example and Panofsky's paradigm of the `removal of the hat'. La Migration des symboles (1977). Georges Didi-Huberman. J-A Miller. pp. Le Se l'inconscient. Paris. Les quatre concepts fondamentaux Se de la psychanalyse (1964). 221±44. pp. Devant  e aux fins d'une histoire l'image. Wittkower. cf.ABY WARBURG AND THE SYMPTOM PARADIGM record of some initial excavations along the route of the long migration that brought antique superlatives of gesture.  minaire. Paris. p. op. 75 Freud. Les formations de Lacan.' Warburg. cit. p. no. La situation psychanalytique. 3-20. On Regression. XI. 43±4. 542±3 Cf.' as `A Connection Between a Symbol and a Symptom'. J. Lacan. Question pose de l'art. trans. op. 280. ('La re  gression'). Le site de  tranger. Ornicar. (note 58). pp. pp. cit. `Eine Beziehung zwischen einem Symbol und einem Symptom. vol. 216±17. op. (note 58). p. 73 R. 14. cit. 173. 1990. trans. op. Freud.

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