# Introduction to SPSS

Descriptive Statistics………………………………………………. Coding and Entering Data…………………………………………4 2.2 Entering Data (Data View) 3.1SPSS Data files 2.3 Correlation 3.3 1. Independent Sample T-test ………………………………………1% 2 .1.4 \$eans 4.2 Crosstabs 3..Introduction………………………………………………………….1 Coding Data (Variable View) 2.1 Fre !en"# Distrib!tion 3.9 3.

1'e Col!/ns re)resent Variables and t'e 4ows re)resent Cases.friendl# tool for anal#sing -!estionnaire Data and ot'er Data Sets. * new Data file is o)ened a!to/ati"all#.1. +t "an also be !sed in "on. +t )ro(ides a !ser.!n"tion wit' /ost standard s)reads'eet and word )ro"essing )a"&ages to )rod!"e )rofessional re)orts on t'e findings of an# *nal#sis. 1'e n!/eri"al data fro/ t'e !estionnaire are t#)ed in t'is 2indow (ii) Variable View 1'e (ariable (iew also "ontains a grid of rows and "ol!/ns. 2e will dis"!ss t'is in greater detail in t'e ne5t se"tion. INT !D"CTI!N Statisti"al Pa"&age for t'e So"ial S"ien"es (SPSS) is a (er# )owerf!l Data *nal#sis *))li"ation.1 SPSS D#T# \$I%ES 0n"e SPSS is a"ti(ated t'e !ser is )resented wit' t'e SPSS S"reen. +n t'is 2indow t'e rows re)resent t'e (ariables in t'e anal#sis and t'e "ol!/ns are !sed to define t'e "'ara"teristi"s of ea"' (ariable. 1'is file "ontains two 2indows3 a Data View and a Variable View (i) Data View 1'is Data View "onsists of a grid of Col!/ns and 4ows3 si/ilar to a s)reads'eet. 3 . 1.

Variable Name +n t'e first "ol!/n enter t'e (ariable na/e. Width and Decimals 2idt' and De"i/als will be entered a!to/ati"all# and are onl# !sed for )resentation )!r)oses Variable Label ( ptional) +f re !ired enter a :abel in t'e bo5 )ro(ided. 1'is !estionnaire is s'own is *))endi5 *.1 Coding Data 2'en )ro"essing data it is essential to de(elo) a "oding s#ste/. C!DIN& #ND ENTE IN& D#T# 2. 4 .e"ts it is re"o//ended to alwa#s !se 9!/eri" 1#)e w'ere )ossible and t'is is t'e defa!lt in SPSS. +f no Variable :abel is entered t'en t'e Variable 9a/e is !sed in an# 0!t)!t. 1'e (ariable na/e "an be !) to %4 "'ara"ters in lengt' (no s)a"es). 1'is is a s#ste/ of n!/eri"al "odes re)resenting different (al!es in t'e data set.What is your gender’ as t'e Variable :abel. +n !antitati(e resear"' )ro. Variable View 1o "ode a (ariable in SPSS we first need to enter t'e Variable View b# "li"&ing t'e Variable View tab at t'e botto/ of t'e s"reen. Variable Type 1'e Variable 1#)e allows t'e !sed enter t'e data in different for/s3 n!/eri"al3 string3 date et". 1'e Variable :abel )ro(ides a /ore detailed des"ri)tion of t'e !estion t'an t'e Variable 9a/e3 as it "an "ontain /an# /ore "'ara"ters. +f t'is (ariable is !sed in an# anal#sis it is t'e Variable :abel t'at a))ears in t'e 0!t)!t. For t'e first (ariable in t'e !estionnaire we "an !se t'e na/e Gender. 1o ill!strate t'is )ro"ess we will loo& at a si/)le !estionnaire and s'ow 'ow t'is s'o!ld be "oded in SPSS. +n SPSS t'e !ser "an enter t'is "oding s#ste/ !sing t'e Variable View 2indow. +n o!r e5a/)le we /ig't enter .2. 1'e first -!estion is6 '(at is )our gender* and t'e "odes for t'e res)onses are 1 7 \$ale and 2 7 Fe/ale 8ow "an we re)resent t'is (ariable in SPSS.

res)onse. #issing Val!es +n(ariabl# w'en data is "olle"ted !sing self. 2'en all Val!es and Val!e :abels are entered3 "li"& 0<. > . 1'is "an 'a))en for a (ariet# of reasons3 in"l!ding si/)le "arelessness3 a la"& of willingness on t'e )art of t'e res)ondent to s!))l# t'e desired infor/ation or a la"& of "o/)eten"e to answer t'e !estion. +n SPSS we /!st enter a "ode to re)resent /issing data."o/)leted !estionnaire for/s t'ere will be se(eral !estions left !nanswered. 1o enter a /issing (al!e "ode3 "li"& t'e gre# bo5 in t'e /issing (al!es "ell and sele"t dis"rete /issing (al!es. 1o define a "oding s#ste/ for a (ariable3 "li"& on t'e Val!es "ell and t'en "li"& t'e little gre# bo5 in t'e "ell. 1'en 1#)e 2 as t'e Val!e and Female as t'e Val!e :abel and "li"& "DD. Enter = as t'e /issing (al!e and "li"& 0<. +n t'is e5a/)le we will enter t'e (al!e = to re)resent a non. 1#)e t'e Val!e and t'e "orres)onding Val!e :abel in t'e bo5es )ro(ided. For t'e gender (ariable 1#)e 1 as t'e Val!e and Male as t'e Val!e :abel and t'en "li"& t'e "DD b!tton.Val!es Val!e labels are !sed to define t'e "oding s#ste/ for t'e (ariable. *lso a !estion /a# not be rele(ant to so/e of t'e res)ondents.

1o sa(e ti/e #o! "an "o)# t'e labels fro/ -!estion 4 and )aste t'e/ in -!estion >.ob in(ol(e t'e following tas&s E(al!ating Staff AAA \$anaging Staff AAA 1raining Staff AAA -!estion % is a /!lti)le res)onse !estion.ob in(ol(e training staff? Does #o!r .!st learned and to ill!strate two ot'er )oints lets now "ode so/e of t'e ot'er (ariables on t'e !estionnaire +2. 2'at le(el of ed!"ation 'a(e #o! a"'ie(ed? @a"'elors 1 \$asters 2 P'D 3 -!estion 2 "an be "oded !sing t'e sa/e ste)s as -!estion 1 +3. Call t'ese (ariables 1as&13 1as&2 and 1as&33 !se t'e t'ree !estions as t'e Variable labels and !se t'e Val!es 17Ces and 27 9o for ea"' (ariable.ob in(ol(e /anaging staff? Does #o!r .ob in(ol(e e(al!ating staff? 1'e res)ondent "an ti"& all t'ree res)onses or none or an# "o/bination of t'e/3 so #o! will need t'ree (ariables to re)resent t'is !estion. Do #o! find ti/e to rela5? *lwa#s 1 Bs!all# 2 So/eti/es 3 4arel# 4 9e(er > +. +-. Does #o!r .. *ll !estions are now "oded in t'e SPSS File. 2'at is #o!r age AAAA -!estion 3 is relati(el# eas# to "ode as it does not need (al!e labels3 be"a!se t'e res)onses to t'e !estions are n!/eri"al +4. DonDt worr# if #o! !sed different Variable na/es. 9oti"e t'at t'e res)onses to bot' !estions are t'e sa/e. Do #o! e(er feel stressed at wor&? *lwa#s 1 Bs!all# 2 So/eti/es 3 4arel# 4 9e(er > -!estions 4 and > "an also be "oded li&e !estion 1.1o )ra"ti"e w'at we 'a(e . 1'e res)ondent is being as&ed t'ree !estions3 na/el#6 Does #o!r . Co!r final (ariable (iew s'o!ld loo& li&e t'is. % .

1'e ne5t s"reen "ontains t'e data for a n!/ber of res)ondents to t'is !estionnaire. 9ow3 enter so/e data into #o!r own file. Co! "an /a&e !) #o!r res)onses.2 \$ntering Data 1o enter data to a SPSS file we /!st first ret!rn to t'e Data View. E . Data is si/)l# t#)ed into t'e a))ro)riate "ell wit' ea"' "ell re)resenting one indi(id!alDs answer to a gi(en !estion.2. Fro/ t'is data we "an see t'at t'e first res)ondent is \$ale (gender 7 1)3 is aged >> 'as a )ostgrad!ate degree (Ed!"71)3 !s!all# finds ti/e to rela53 is ne(er stressed at wor& et".

sa(G. 1'e File \$en! is SPSS is si/ilar to ot'er standard 2indows )a"&ages.Finall# sa(e t'e data file !sing t'e File \$en!. SPSS data files are gi(en t'e )refi5 . H .sa%3 for instan"e we "o!ld "all t'is file Fdata.

1o ill!strate t'e !se of t'ese te"'ni !es we will !se t'e .E ST#TISTICS Des"ri)ti(e Statisti"s are a gro!) of te"'ni !es for des"ribing t'e brea&down of a (ariable or (ariables. DESC IPTI. Sele"t Descripti%e )tatistics fro/ t'e "nalyse #en! 2.sta// dataD file. Sele"t 're(!encies in t'e s!b.3. 1'e# in"l!de Fre !en"# 1ables (si/)l# tables and "'arts)3 Crosstabs3 \$ean S"ores3 and ot'er Statisti"s. For a first loo& at #o!r data3 t'e Fre !en"ies )ro"ed!re is a good )la"e to start. 1o !se t'e fre !en"ies )ro"ed!re 1.1 're(!encies 1'e Fre !en"ies )ro"ed!re )ro(ides basi" statisti"s3 tables and gra)'i"al dis)la#s t'at are !sef!l for des"ribing /an# t#)es of (ariables.gro!) 3. 1'e Fre !en"ies 2indow "ontains a list of all t'e (ariables in t'e file3 a Variables bo*3 a Display 're(!ency Tables bo* and t'ree )!s'b!ttons na/el# )tatistics3 Charts and 'ormat. &. 9 .

otal Frequency 15 #\$ 51 + 1'# Percent 11 ! %5 # '( 5 5) 1!! ! Valid Percent 11 ! %5 # '( 5 5) 1!! ! 1= . +n t'is "ase "'oose a @ar C'art. Finall# on"e all Statisti"s and C'arts 'a(e been sele"ted "li"& !0 @elow we "an see so/e of t'e SPSS 0!t)!t fro/ t'e Fre !en"# Co//and 're(!ency Tables Do you find time to relax? Cumulative Percent 11 ! 5# # )% 1 1!! ! Valid Always "sually &ometimes *arely . Sele"t t'e (ariables #o! are interested in fro/ t'e Variables list on t'e left and )la"e t'e/ in t'e Variables +o* on t'e rig't (!sing t'e arrow in t'e "enter). 1o sele"t t'e a))ro)riate statisti" si/)l# "li"& t'e ad. For t'is e5er"ise3 "'oose FDo #o! find ti/e to rela5G and FDo #o! e(er feel stressedG. +f #o! re !ire a "'art "li"& t'e C'arts @!tton and "'oose t'e t#)e of "'art re !ired. * sele"tion of basi" statisti"al (al!es li&e t'e /ean3 standard de(iation and ot'ers are a(ailable b# "li"&ing t'e )tatistics b!tton. >.4.oining "ir"le (see below). +n t'is "ase sele"t t'e /ean and t'e standard de(iation. 2'en all re !ired statisti"s 'a(e been "'osen "li"& Contin!e E. For a Fre !en"# Distrib!tion 1able ti"& t'e Display 're(!ency Distrib!tion bo*. 1'ere are t'ree basi" "'arts a(ailable3 Pie C'arts3 @ar C'arts and 8istogra/s. (1'is will be ti"&ed b# defa!lt) %.

)tatistics Statistics -o you ever .eel stressed at wor10 1'% \$ ' %!'! 1 !'%15 2 Mean &td -eviation Valid Missing -o you .ind time to rela/0 1'# ! \$ '+\$% (#!#) Charts 11 .

For t'is e5er"ise sele"t Iender.&. C'oose t'e )er"entage s#nta5 re !ired (e. Do t'e sa/e t'ing for t'e rows bo5. 4. Sele"t Ed!"ation :e(el for t'e rows.g. Sele"t Descripti%e )tatistics fro/ t'e "nalyse #en! 2. E. Press Contin!e H. Fro/ t'e Variable :ist sele"t t'e (ariable(s) to re)resent t'e "ol!/ns and )la"e in t'e Col!/ns bo5.2 Crosstabs * Crosstab is an e5tension of a fre !en"# table to 2 or /ore (ariables. 1o "reate a Crosstab 1able 1. "ol!/n )er"entages) b# "li"&ing t'e a))ro)riate "ir"le. Sele"t Crosstabs in t'e s!b.gro!) 3. Finall# "li"& !0 1'e SPSS 0!t)!t for t'is Crosstab "an be seen on t'e ne5t )age 12 . For e5a/)le #o! /a# wis' to loo& at a brea&down of le(el of ed!"ation b# gender. >. 1o add )er"entages "li"& t'e Cells +!tton %.

otal 5# %1 \$5 (\$ 5\$ )5 + 5 )5 1'# 1!! !5 Primary -egree &.What level of education have you achieved? * What is your gender Crosstabulation What is your gender What level o. Fro/ t'e Variable :ist sele"t t'e (ariables #o! wis' to "orrelate. C'oose *ge and 9!/ber of #ears in t'e organisation 4. education have you achieved0 Post Graduate &tudies Count 5 within What is your gender Count 5 within What is your gender 3eaving Cert Count 5 within What is your gender .& Correlation 1. Sele"t Correlate fro/ t'e "nalyse #en! 2. Press Contin!e 13 . Sele"t +i%ariate 3.otal Count 5 within What is your gender MA34 %\$ %! %5 5# 5' +5 # 5 +5 1!% 1!! !5 F4MA34 1% %' +5 1# 5! !5 \$ # '5 '\$ 1!! !5 . Sele"t t'e Pearson Correlation Coeffi"ient >.

Ten!re ).icant at the ! !1 level 8\$9tailed: 1'# +#' 77 are you in the organisation0 +#'77 !!! 1'5 1 1 !!! 1'5 1'5 Correlation between age and n!/ber of #ears in organisation is .)) !tp!t Correlations 6ow many years What is your age What is your age Pearson Correlation &ig 8\$9tailed: 2 6ow many years are you in the organisation0 Pearson Correlation &ig 8\$9tailed: 2 77 Correlation is signi. 1'is indi"ates t'at t'e "orrelation is statisti"all# signifi"ant. 9ote t'e two asteris&s beside t'e "orrelation. 14 . 1'is indi"ates a )ositi(e relations'i) between t'e two (ariables3 w'i"' is e5a"tl# w'at we wo!ld e5)e"t.1'e 0!t)!t for t'is "orrelation is s'own below6 Correlation "ge %s.H%3.

. Cli"& !0 8ere is t'e asso"iated 0!t)!t fro/ SPSS Report What is your age0 What level o.otal Mean %% 1\$5! %5 )1#( %( (5!! %5 \$+#+ 2 5# (\$ + 1'# &td -eviation ) #1#') ) '+1)# % (1'\$! ) \$+(11 1> . C'oose age for t'is e5a/)le6 4. Sele"t Compare #eans fro/ t'e "nalyse #en! 2. C'oose :e(el of Ed!"ation for t'is e5a/)le6 >. Sele"t t'e de)endent (ariable(s) fro/ t'e Variable :ist. Sele"t t'e +nde)endent (ariable(s) for/ t'e Variable :ist. Sele"t #eans 3. education have you achieved0 Post Graduate &tudies Primary -egree 3eaving Cert .&.#eans 1'is f!n"tions allows t'e !ser "al"!late t'e /ean s"ore of a de)endent (ariable a"ross t'e (ario!s s!b. For e5a/)le3 in o!r "ase st!d# we "o!ld loo& at t'e a(erage age of staff /e/bers wit' different le(el of ed!"ation 1."ategories of t'e inde)endent (ariable.

+nsert t'e (al!e labels re)resenting t'e two inde)endent gro!)sL enter 1 as Iro!) 1 and 2 as Iro!) 2.4. Cli"& De0ine 1ro!ps b!tton. Cli"& Contin!e . Sele"t . (17De)art/ent *3 27De)art/ent @) . Independent Sample T-test 1o ill!strate t'e !se of t'e inde)endent sa/)le t.T-TestD file.ndependent )ample T/test . Cli"& 2 1% . Sele"t 1est Variable(s) fro/ Variable :ist (Kob Satisfa"tion3 Satisfa"tion wit' S!)er(isor3 Co//it/ent3 1!rno(er +ntention) . +n "nalyse #en! Cli"& Compare #eans . .test we will !se t'e . Sele"t Iro!)ing Variable fro/ Variable :ist (De)art/ent) . Independent Sample T-Test 2 +nde)endent Iro!)s3 1 4atioJ+nter(al 1est Variable Part of t'e t!rno(er intention "ase st!d# in(ol(ed e5a/ining differen"es between t'e two de)art/ents in t'e organisation3 for t'e fo!r &e# !antitati(e /eas!res. (Kob Satisfa"tion3 Satisfa"tion wit' S!)er(isor3 Co//it/ent3 1!rno(er +ntention) *s t'ese (ariables are inter(al (ariables and t'e test is e5a/ining t'e differen"e between two gro!)s3 t'e inde)endent sa/)le t. .test is !sed.

t'e * t'e are 1E .action 4qual variances assumed 4qual variances not assumed 4qual variances assumed 4qual variances not assumed 4qual variances assumed 4qual variances not assumed 4qual variances assumed 4qual variances not assumed \$1' &ig #%# t 9\$ '(( 9\$ '+% d. +n addition3 .action with &u..=>).=19M=.artment A > A > A > A > 2 5# %% 5# %% 5# %% 5# %% Mean ' (5!! % !%55 ' 1!(1 ' #'#) \$ )%\$! ' %\$)! \$ #1'1 \$ 1!#1 &td -eviation #\$'#1 #!+\$# )1### (#1#! 5+%'% #!1+% 1 \$#((5 +)(\$' Independent Samples 3evene@s . )+ )' %)( )+ )( ##) )+ )1 1+1 )+ )( !'# &ig 8\$9tailed: !1) !1) !!' !!\$ !!! !!! !\$( !\$1 Mean -i.=21M=.ervisor Commitment .=1) and satisfa"tion wit' s!)er(isor ()7..=>)3 "o//it/ent to organisation ()7.)) !tp!t Group Statistics &td 4rror Mean !+''' !)1(! 1\$\$%) 11%+1 !(+!) !)!(' 1#)%1 1'5\$# est t9test .=== M=.action &atis.urnover ?ntention -e.nterpretation and .ob satisfa"tion ()7.resentation 1'ese test res!lts indi"ate signifi"ant differen"es between t'e two de)art/ents in organisation.or 4quality o.urnover ?ntention # (1) !11 \$ \$%# \$ '') . ).est .=2EM=.ervisor (\$1 ')+ 9' !+# 9' 155 Commitment (1' %!1 9% !+' 9% !#+ .or 4quality o.erence 1\$%\$+ 1\$')1 1(1## 1#(+) 11)\$+ 11)(1 \$\$5(! \$1#(+ &atis. Means <o= &atis. 1!rno(er +ntention is signifi"antl# 'ig'er in De)art/ent ()7.erence 9 \$)5%5 9 \$)5%5 9 5\$)(# 9 5\$)(# 9 %+(!1 9 %+(!1 5!(!' 5!(!' &td 4rror -i.1'e SPSS 0!t)!t fro/ t'is test3 an e5)lanation of t'is o!t)!t and 'ow it s'o!ld be )resented are s'own on t'e ne5t )age.action with &u.=1) signifi"antl# lower in De)art/ent *. Variances F <o= &atis.

icant at the ! !5 level 77 &igni.1'ese res!lts are "o//onl# )resented in t'e following table for/at6 Department A > A > A > A > ! 5# %% 5# %% 5# %% 5# %% "ean ' (5 % !% ' 11 ' #% \$ )% ' %' \$ #1 \$ 11 S# Dev #\$ #! )\$ (# 5+ #! 1 \$# )! \$%&alue !1)7 !!'77 !!!77 !\$17 'ob Satisfaction Satisfaction (ith Supervisor Commitment urnover Intention 7&igni.icant at the ! !1 level #PPENDI1 # 1H .

Does #o!r .ob in(ol(e t'e following tas&s E(al!ating Staff AAA \$anaging Staff AAA 1raining Staff AAA 9e(er (>) 9e(er (>) 19 . 2'at is #o!r age AAAA +4.. Do #o! e(er feel stressed at wor&? *lwa#s (1) Bs!all# (2) So/eti/es (3) 4arel# (4) +-. 2'at is #o!r gender? \$ale 1 Fe/ale 2 +2.+1. Do #o! find ti/e to rela5? *lwa#s (1) Bs!all# (2) So/eti/es (3) 4arel# (4) +. 2'at le(el of ed!"ation 'a(e #o! a"'ie(ed? @a"'elors 1 \$asters 2 P'D 3 +3.