You are on page 1of 10

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Tamnhct10 CHNG 1: VT LIU BN DN


I. Cht b n !"n. 1. Cht b n !"n th#$n Theo l tnh vt liu chia lm ba dng: kim loi, bn dn v in mi.

Hnh 1.1: Mc nng lng ca v ng dn v! v ng h"a t#$ ca ch%t &in '(i) bn dn v! *i' l+,i. h!t bn dn l nh"ng ngu#$n t% c& ' in t( ) l*+ ho t,-. .)i v/ 0% l12ng cc in t( ) l*+ h&a t,- c3a cc ch!t bn dn n4m gi"a 5 6%i v*i ch!t dn in hon ton7 v 8 6%i v*i ch!t cch in7, n$n ngu#$n t% bn dn l ch!t dn in khng t%t v c9ng l ch!t cch in khng t%t. & : vt liu bn dn th1;ng 12c 0( d<ng nh!t l =ilicon 6=i7, >e,manium 6>e7 v a,bon 6 7, cc ngu#$n t% n# 12c t,/nh b# ) h/nh 5.?. c ch!t bn dn nh1 =ilicon v >e,manium th1;ng 12c d@ng t,ong cng ngh chA to cc linh kin bn dn, cBn a,bon 12c d@ng ch3 #Au C chA to cc in t,) chuDn.

Hnh 1.-: C%u t#.c ngu/0n t1 ca a. g2#'aniu'3 b.4ilic+n.

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

c im ca cht bn dn thun: h!t bn dn thuEn l ch!t bn dn c& c!u t,Fc tinh thC l t1)ng khng c& 0G tham gia c3a ngu#$n t% khc 6ngoi lai7. Hung Iuanh mJi ngu#$n t( bn dn lun lun c& ' ngu#$n t( kA cn li$n kAt v*i ngu#$n t( &, to thnh li$n kAt cKng h&a t,-, v/ v# ngu#$n t( lun t t,ng thi bLo hBa. =G li$n kAt gi"a cc ngu#$n t( v*i nhau n# lm cho in t( kh& tch ,;i khMi nhNn c3a chFng. O*i c!u t,Fc nh1 v# n$n ti nhit K PPQ 6R?S:P 7 ch!t bn dn thuEn hon ton cch in.

6a7 6b7 Hnh 1.5: a.C%u t#.c tinh th6 &n ca 72 v! 8i3 b. c%u t#.c ',ng tinh th6 ca 8i Tt dn in tG do chU Vu!t hin ) iWu kin nhit K Vc -nh cho tXng ch!t bn dn 6 ha# n&i cch khc mJi ch!t bn dn chU c& khL nYng dn in ) iWu kin thch h2+ ,i$ng c3a n&7. Qhi ch!t bn dn 12c cung c!+ nYng l12ng in t( t,ong ngu#$n t( dao Kng 3 +h vZ m%i li$n kAt ho h[c t,) thnh in t( tG do 6elect,on7 chu#Cn Kng kh\+ tnh thC bn dn C li lJ t,%ng cho ngu#$n t(. Theo ngu#$n t\c li$n kAt h&a h[c, in t( c3a ngu#$n t( b$n cnh c& Vu h1*ng tha# thA lJ t,%ng vXa Vu!t hin v c9ng C li cho ngu#$n t( m/nh lJ t,%ng. ]h1 v# lJ t,%ng li$n t<c 12c ^i v- t, kh\+ ch!t bn dn n$n c9ng 12c g[i l lJ t,%ng tG do 6hole7. _%i v*i ch!t bn dn thuEn khiAt l12ng ht dn in t( v lJ t,%ng tG do b4ng nhau. ]Au n`ng K ht dn in t( l n v lJ t,%ng l +, ta c& n a +. %. Cht b n !"n t&' cht: ]gu#$n t% 0ilicon v ge,manium ngu#$n ch!t l cc ngu#$n t% dn in kbm. _iWu n# +h< thuKc vo 0% l12ng cc elect,on c3a l*+ h&a t,-, li$n kAt h&a t,-, v cc v@ng nYng l12ng gin on t1cng %i l*n. hnh v/ 0G dn in kbm n$n cc ngu#$n t% 0ilicon v ge,manium ngu#$n ch!t t 12c 0( d<ng. h!t bn dn t+ ch!t l ch!t bn dn thuEn c& +ha th$m cc ngu#$n t% t+ ch!t, cc ngu#$n t% t+ ch!t n# 12c +ha vo cc ngu#$n t% 0ilicon hodc ge,manium ngu#$n ch!t C cLi tiAn tnh dn in c3a ch!t bn dn. Tai t+ ch!t d@ng C +ha t,Kn c& h&a t,- : v h&a t,- e. N(#)*n t+ h,a t-. / n(#)*n t+ h,a t-. 0 fluminum 6fl7 gho0+ho,u0 6g7 >allium 6>a7 f,0enic 6f07 .o,on 6.7 fntimon# 6=b7 hndium 6hn7 .i0muth 6.i7 a. Cht b n !"n 12&3 n: Qhi cc t+ ch!t h&a t,- e 12c t,Kn vo ngu#$n t% 0ilicon hodc ge,manium, kAt IuL d1 5 in t( t,ong cc m%i li$n kAt cKng h&a t,- th!# ,i Iua h/nh 5.'. ]gu#$n t% =b h&a t,- e 12c bao b[c 2

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Vung Iuanh b)i ' ngu#$n t% 0ilicon. c ngu#$n t% 0ilicon 0j li$n kAt h&a t,- v*i cc ngu#$n t% c3a =b. Tu# nhi$n in t( thk e c3a ngu#$n t% =b khng thC li$n kAt v*i b!t kl ngu#$n t% 0ilicon Vung Iuanh. hnh v/ thA in t( thk e c3a ngu#$n t% =b chU cEn 12c cung c!+ 5 nYng l12ng ,!t nhM 0j t,) thnh in t( tG do i vo v@ng dn in. ]Au hng t,iu ngu#$n t% =b 12c t,Kn v*i 0ilicon hodc ge,manium th/ 0j c& hng t,iu in t( khng c& li$n kAt h&a t,-.

Hnh 1.9: Ch%t bn dn l+,i n v:i t,; ch%t;ha v!+ l! ngu/0n t1 8b. mo c& nhiWu elet,on n4m t,ong bYng dn in hcn cc lJ t,%ng n4m t,ong v@ng h&a t,- c3a ch!t bn dn loi n. c in t( 12c g[i l cc ht tLi a 0% v cc lJ t,%ng n4m ) l*+ h&a t,12c g[i l ht tLi tiCu 0% 6 nnnn +n7.

Hnh 1.<: 7i=n &> nng lng ca ch%t bn dn l+,i n. b. Cht b n !"n 12&3 ': Qhi cc t+ ch!t h&a t,- : 12c t,Kn vo ngu#$n t% 0ilicon hodc ge,manium, kAt IuL thiAu 5 in t( t,ong cc m%i li$n kAt cKng h&a t,- th!# ,i Iua h/nh 5.o. ]gu#$n t% .o,on h&a t,- : 12c bao b[c Vung Iuanh b)i ' ngu#$n t% 0ilicon. ]$n 0j c& 5 m%i li$n kAt khng thnh v/ thiAu in t( to thnh 5 lJ t,%ng. h!t bn dn loi + c& nhiWu lJ t,%ng ) v@ng h&a t,- p cBn 12c g[i l ht tLi a 0% v ,!t t in t( ) v@ng dn p cBn 12c g[i l ht tLi tiCu 0%. 6++ nn n+7.

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Hnh 1.?: Ch%t bn dn l+,i ; c" t,; ch%t l! ngu/0n t1 @. c.Cht b n !"n 4#) b35n: c ch!t bn dn t,$n c& n`ng K ht dn khng cao, 12c g[i l bn dn khng 0u# biAn. h!t bn dn c& n`ng K ht dn l*n hcn 5P 58qcm:, 12c g[i l bn dn 0u# biAn. ]Yng l12ng c3a ht dn tG do t,ong bn dn 0u# biAn khng +h< thuKc vo nhit K. /. 6# t-7nh 89n( t-2n( cht b n !"n. a. Th:3 (3an 4+n( c;a h&t man( 83<n Qhi mKt nYng l12ng vXa 3 tc Kng An 5 elect,on l*+ h&a t,-, elelct,on 0j nhL# tX l*+ h&a t,- An l*+ dn. QAt I3a C li mKt chJ t,%ng t,ong li$n kAt h&a t,-. hJ t,%ng n# Vem nh1 lJ t,%ng 6hole7. Hem h/nh 5Re. .Yng dn 6l*+ dn7 Hnh 1.A rKt cd+ in t( v lJ t,%ng t12ng t,1ng.

.Yng ho t,-

=au khoLng vi 0 ) t,ng thi in t( tG do, elect,on 6cBn g[i l in t(7 m!t hAt nYng l12ng v ,ci vo 5 t,ong cc lJ t,%ng n4m t,ong li$n kAt h&a t,-. su t,/nh n# g[i l ti kAt h2+. Th;i gian tX khi elect,on t,) thnh in t( tG do cho An khi VL# ,a vic ti h2+ li 12c g[i l th;i gian 0%ng c3a cd+ in t( p lJ t,%ng. b. Ch#)=n 89n( t->3 ?@ Ah#5ch t n c;a h&t !"n: Ch#)=n 89n( t->3: ]h1 t biAt, nAu dt in t( hodc lJ t,%ng vo mi t,1;ng chNn khng v khi c& in t,1;ng tc Kng, cc ht dn 0j chu#Cn Kng c& gia t%c 6nhanh dEn Wu hodc chm dEn Wu7. u t,ong mng tinh thC c3a ch!t ,\n, cch thkc VL# ,a khng hon gi%ng nh1 v#. rng tinh thC chka ,!t nhiWu ngu#$n t( 6kC cL t+ ch!t7, chFng lun lun dao Kng v/ nhit. O/ v# khi ch-u tc Kng c3a in t,1;ng, cc ht dn t,$n 1;ng chu#Cn Kng c& gia t%c 0j va chm v*i cc ngu#$n t% c3a mng tinh thC. rJi lEn va chm 0j lm tha# ^i t,- 0% v chiWu c3a vn t%c nghva l lm tn V chFng. hu#Cn Kng c3a ht dn t,ong mng tinh thC ch!t ,\n d1*i tc Kng c3a in t,1;ng nh1 v# 12c g[i l chu#Cn Kng t,i 6hodc chu#Cn Kng cu%n7. Ch#)=n 89n( Ah#5ch t n: 4

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

T,ong ch!t ,\n, ngoi h/nh thkc chu#Cn Kng t,i d1*i tc Kng c3a in t,1;ng, cc ht dn cBn chu#Cn Kng khuAch tn. mng chu#Cn Kng n# VL# ,a cho m[i +hEn t( vt ch!t khi c& 0G +hNn b% khng `ng Wu t,ong thC tch. _%i v*i ch!t bn dn, khi n`ng K in t( hodc lJ t,%ng +hNn b% khng Wu, chFng 0j khuAch tn tX nci n`ng K cao vW nci n`ng K th!+. mBng in do chu#Cn Kng c& h1*ng n# gN# ,a g[i l dBng in khuAch tn. c.Nh3<t 89 13*n B#an 85n 89 !"n 83<n: u nhit K t,ong +hBng ha# nhit K mi t,1;ng, nYng l12ng nhit to n$n mKt vi cd+ in t( v lJ t,%ng v 0G ti h2+ VL# ,a 0au &. mo & ch!t bn dn 0j c& 5 vi in t( tG do nga# cL t,1;ng h2+ khng cung c!+ nYng l12ng in +. Qhi nhit K +hBng tYng 0j c& nhiWu elect,on h!+ th< 3 nYng l12ng +h vZ m%i li$n kAt h&a t,- C t,) thnh in t( tG do dn An 0% l12ng in t( tG do tYng. ]g12c li khi nhit K giLm, nYng l12ng nhit giLm khng 3 C +h vZ m%i li$n kAt h&a t,dn An 0% l12ng cc in t( tG do giLm. r%i li$n h Iuan t,[ng l K dn in t,ong ch!t bn dn tU l thun v*i nhit K. II. Ch#)=n t35' ' C n hu#Cn tiA+ +n g`m mKt kh%i ch!t bn dn n v mKt kh%i ch!t bn dn + 12c ghb+ li v*i nhau nh1 h/nh 5R55. + n

Hnh 1.B: Chu/6n tiC; ;n. 5. T35' (3 ' 'n Ah3 chDa c, 83<n t-D:n( n(2@3 8Et ?@2: T/nh 5.w t,/nh b# cc ch!t bn dn ch1a kAt n%i. Ta c& thC th!# ,4ng ch!t bn dn n v*i ht tLi a 0% l in t( v ch!t bn dn loi + v*i ht tLi a 0% l lJ t,%ng.

Hnh 1.D: Ch%t bn dn l+,i n v! ch%t bn dn l+,i ;. T,1*c khi tiA+ VFc, mJi kh%i bn dn n4m ) t,ng thi cNn b4ng 6t^ng in tch Nm b4ng v*i t^ng in tch d1cng t,ong thC tch7 `ng th;i giL thiAt ,4ng n`ng K ht dn c9ng nh1 n`ng K t+ ch!t 6acce+to,, dono,7 +hNn b% Wu. >iLn ` nYng l12ng minh h[a m%i li$n h gi"a cc mkc nYng l12ng c3a ? ch!t bn dn h/nh 5.5P.

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Hnh 1.1E: Cc 'c nng lng ban &Fu ca - ch%t bn dn n v! ; *hi cha tiC; G.c. Qhi tiA+ VFc nhau nh1 h/nh 5.55, cc dN# dn v dt# h&a t,- t,@ng l\+ nhau. mo ch$nh lch n`ng K 0j VL# ,a hin t12ng khuAch tn c3a cc ht dn a 0%: lJ t,%ng khuAch tn tX + 0ang n, cBn in t( khuAch tn theo chiWu ng12c li tX n 0ang +. hFng to n$n dBng in khuAch tn 6chiWu tX + 0ang n7.

Hnh 1.11.Mc nng lng ca bn dn ; v! n *hi tiC; G.c nhau. T,$n 1;ng khuAch tn, cc in tch t,i d!u 0j ti h2+ v*i nhau, h/nh thnh 5 v@ng hx+ ) ? b$n mdt ,anh gi*i c& n`ng K ht tLi giLm Vu%ng ,!t th!+. Ti v@ng hx+, b$n bn dn + hEu nh1 chU cBn li cc ion Nm 6acce+to,7, cBn b$n bn dn n hEu nh1 chU cBn li cc ion d1cng 6dono,7, nghva l h/nh thnh ? l*+ in tch khng gian khc d!u %i din nhau nh1 h/nh 5R5?. >i"a hai l*+ in tch n# 0j c& mKt 0G ch$nh lch in thA 6b$n n d1cng hcn b$n +7 g[i l hiu in thA tiA+ VFc OtV. ]&i cch khc: t,ong v@ng lNn cn mdt ,anh gi*i t Vu!t hin mKt in t,1;ng 6h1*ng tX n 0ang +7 g[i l in t,1;ng tiA+ VFc ytV.

Hnh 1H15. MIi nIi ;n *hi cha c" &in t#Jng ng+!i. O@ng hx+ n&i t,$n g[i l v@ng nghzo hodc chu#Cn tiA+ +n. ]`ng K ht dn t,ong v@ng n# cBn ,!t th!+ n$n in t,) Vu!t c3a n& ,!t l*n 0o v*i cc v@ng cBn li. mo t`n ti in t,1;ng tiA+ VFc, cc ht tLi tiCu 0% c3a ? miWn 0j b- cu%n vW +ha %i din: lJ t,%ng c3a bn dn n ch# vW +ha cGc Nm c3a in t,1;ng, in t( c3a bn dn + ch# vW +ha cGc d1cng c3a in t,1;ng. hFng to n$n dBng in t,i ng12c chiWu v*i dBng khuAch tn c3a ht tLi a 0%. ]`ng K ht tLi a 0% t,ong ? kh%i bn dn cng ch$nh lch th/ hin t12ng khuAch tn cng mnh lit v Iu t,/nh ti h2+ cng nhiWu, dn An in t,1;ng tiA+ VFc cng tYng v dBng in t,i c3a ht dn tiCu 0% c9ng tYng. O/ v#, chU 0au mKt khoLng th;i gian ,!t ng\n, dBng t,i v

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

dBng khuAch tn t,) n$n cNn b4ng nhau, t,it ti$u nhau v dBng t^ng h2+ Iua mdt ,anh gi*i b4ng P.
L = L diKKu4ti+n L d#iKt = P

Ta n&i chu#Cn tiA+ +n t t*i t,ng thi cNn b4ng Kng. {ng v*i t,ng thi &, hiu thA tiA+ VFc 6hodc in t,1;ng tiA+ VFc7 gi"a bn dn n v bn dn + c& 5 gi t,- nh!t -nh. Thng th1;ng, hiu in thA tiA+ VFc vo cZ P,?ORP,:O 6%i v* ge,manium7 hodc P,oORP,SO 6%i v*i 0ilicon7. Tiu thA n# ngYn cLn khng cho ht dn tiA+ t<c chu#Cn Kng Iua mdt ,anh gi*i, du# t,/ t,ng thi cNn b4ng, n$n 12c g[i l |in thA hng ,o}. ?. a. T35' (3 ' 'n Ah3 c, 83<n t-D:n( n(2@3 8Et ?@2: Fhn cGc n(h.ch HVD I 0 J:

>iL 0( ngu`n in + Om 12c kAt n%i nh1 h/nh vj 5.5': + n%i cGc Nm v n n%i cGc d1cng. >iL thiAt in t,) c3a ch!t bn dn ) ngoi v@ng nghzo l khng ng kC. ~Fc & gEn nh1 ton bK in + Om 0j dt vo v@ng nghzo, VA+ ch`ng l$n hiu in thA tiA+ VFc OtV lm cho t/nh t,ng cNn b4ng t,1*c N# khng cBn n"a. =% l12ng cc ion d1cng t,ong v@ng nghzo c3a ch!t bn dn loi n 0j tYng l$n +h< thuKc vo 0% l12ng ,!t l*n cc in tch d1cng tG do l!# tX in thA d1cng c3a ngu`n in + cung c!+. T1cng tG 0% l12ng cc ion Nm 0j tYng t,ong ch!t bn dn loi +. QAt IuL lm cho v@ng nghzo n*i ,Kng ,a. =G n*i ,Kng c3a v@ng nghzo 0j thiAt l+ mKt ,o cLn l*n An n^i cc ht tLi a 0% khng thC no bYng Iua 12c n$n dBng khuAch tn l e,o nh1 12c t,/nh b# t,ong h/nh 5.5'.

Hnh 1.19: MhNn cOc ngh$ch 'Ii nIi ;n. mo v@ng nghzo b- m) ,Kng, in t,) c3a n& tYng. _in thA hng ,o t,) thnh:
V = VtG +V P

_in thA hng ,o tYng th$m gi t,- Om, lm cho dBng t,i c3a ht dn tiCu 0% th/ tYng theo Om. ]h1ng do n`ng K ht tLi tiCu 0% v%n ,!t t, n$n t,- 0% dBng n# ,!t nhM. ]& nhanh ch&ng t t*i gi t,- bLo hBa h0 nga# khi in + Om cBn ,!t th!+. O#
L = L diKKu4ti+n L d#iKt = L d#iKt = L 8

b.

Fhn cGc th#Kn HVD L 0 J:

Qhi ngu`n in + Om 12c m\c nh1 h/nh 5.5e: + n%i cGc d1cng v n n%i cGc Nm th/ t/nh h/nh 0j VL# ,a ng12c li. _in thA hng ,o giLm chU cBn OtVRO m. =% l12ng cc ion d1cng t,ong v@ng nghzo c3a ch!t bn dn loi n 0j giLm Vu%ng +h< thuKc vo 0% l12ng ,!t l*n cc in tch Nm tG do l!# tX in thA Nm c3a ngu`n in + cung c!+. T1cng tG 0% l12ng cc ion Nm 0j giLm t,ong ch!t bn dn loi +. QAt IuL lm cho v@ng nghzo thu hx+ li. =G thu hx+ c3a v@ng nghzo 0j lm cho ht dn a 0% c3a hai bn dn 0j t,n Iua hng ,o 0ang miWn %i din. mBng do ht dn a 0% tYng nhanh theo in + O m, cBn dBng t,i c3a ht dn tiCu 0% th/ giLm theo O m. Tu# nhi$n do dBng ht tLi tiCu 0% v%n ,!t bb n$n c& thC coi nh1 khng ^i.

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Qhi & dBng t^ng h2+ Iua chu#Cn tiA+ +n 0j l:

L = L diKKu4ti+n L d#iKt = L 8 2VP VQ 5

65R57

T,ong &: h0 a dBng in bLo hBa . : h4ng 0% +h< thuKc vo vt liu. 5? OT: l hiu in thA nhit
VQ = *Q* R

Tk : nhit K kelvin Tk a Tc ?S: I: in tch. I a 5,o V 5PR5w k: h4ng 0% .oltman. k a 5,:8 V 5PR?: qPQ

Hnh 1.1<. MhNn cOc thun 'Ii nIi ;n. Oj ` th- c3a +h1cng t,/nh 65.57 ta 12c h/nh vj 5R5o.

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

Hnh 1.1?: STc tu/Cn v(nHa';2 ca chu/6n tiC; ;n. :. H3<n tDMn( 8 nh th;n( ch#)=n t35' 'n Qhi chu#Cn tiA+ +n b- +hNn cGc ng12c, nAu in + ng12c tYng An mKt gi t,- kh l*n no & th/ dBng in ng12c t,) n$n tYng v[t, nghva l chu#Cn tiA+ +n dn in mnh cL theo chiWu ngh-ch, +h hMng dc tnh van c3a n&. Tin t12ng n# g[i l hin t12ng nh th3ng . ]gu#$n nhNn dn An nh th3ng c& thC do in hodc nhit, v/ v# ng1;i ta th1cng +hNn bit hai dng nh th3ng vW in v nh th3ng vW nhit. a. N nh th;n( ?O 83<n 8DMc ch3a 1@m % 12&3: Snh thng thc lU: Qhi in + +hNn cGc ngh-ch c3a chu#Cn tiA+ +n tYng, vn t%c c3a cc ht tLi tiCu 0% t1cng kng v*i dBng in bLo hBa ng12c h= c9ng 0j tYng. ]ga# cL khi vn t%c c3a n& v Kng nYng kAt h2+ vXa 3 C giLi +h&ng cc ht tLi khc lm tYng 0% l12ng ht tLi 6g[i l cc ht tLi m) ,Kng7 thng Iua 0G va chm v*i cc c!u t,Fc ^n -nh c3a ngu#$n t( khc. _& l mKt Iu t,/nh ion h&a 0j dn An cc in t( cNn b4ng h!+ th< 3 nYng l12ng C ,;i khMi ngu#$n t(. =au & cc ht tLi m) ,Kng c& thC t,2 giF+ cho Iu t,/nh ion h&a t An iCm m dBng in thc l9 cao 12c thiAt l+ v v@ng nh th3ng thc l9 12c Vc -nh. O@ng thc l9 6O7 c& thC d-ch chu#Cn t*i gEn t,<c tung b4ng cch tYng cc mkc K kch thch t,ong ch!t bn dn loi n v +. Tu# nhi$n khi O giLm An mkc ,!t th!+ chng hn nh1 eO, mKt cc c!u khc p 12c g[i l nh th3ng ene, p 0j tham gia vo 0G tha# ^i dc tnh Kt ngKt. _iWu n# VL# ,a do c& mKt in t,1;ng mnh t,ong v@ng m%i n%i m n& c& thC +h vZ cc m%i li$n kAt c3a ngu#$n t( v to ,a cc ht tLi. =G tha# ^i Kt ngKt c3a dc tnh ti b!t kl mkc in + no 12c g[i l v@ng ene,. _in + +hNn cGc ngh-ch l*n nh!t m c& thC + dc t*i v@ng diode ene, 12c g[i l in + ng12c Unh 6+eak inve,0e voltage: ghO7.

Hnh 1.1A. V ng V2n2#. Snh thng Gu/0n hF': HL# ,a khi c!u t,Fc c3a chu#Cn tiA+ l nh"ng bn dn c& n`ng K t+ ch!t ,!t l*n, khi & in t,1;ng t,ong v@ng tiA+ VFc ,!t l*n, c& khL nYng gN# ,a hiu kng |Vu#$n hEm}, tkc l in t( t,ong v@ng h&a t,- c3a bn dn + c& khL nYng chui Iua hng ,o thA C ch# 0ang v@ng bn dn n, lm cho dBng in tYng v[t. b. N nh th;n( ?O nh3<t:

Chng 1: Vt liu bn dn

HL# ,a do 0G tch lu nhit t,ong v@ng tiA+ VFc. Qhi c& in + ng12c l*n, dBng in ng12c tYng lm n&ng ch!t bn dn, khiAn n`ng K ht dn thiCu 0% tYng v do & li lm dBng in ng12c tYng nhanh. su t,/nh ck nh1 thA tiAn t,iCn khiAn cho nhit K v@ng tiA+ VFc v dBng in ng12c li$n t<c tYng nhanh, dn An nh th3ng. Tin t12ng nh th3ng n# c& t,- 0% in + nh th3ng +h< thuKc vo dBng in ng12c ban Eu, nhit K mi t,1;ng v iWu kin tMa nhit c3a chu#Cn tiA+ +n. _nh th3ng vW nhit th1;ng +h hMng vvnh vin dc tnh chUnh l1u c3a chu#Cn tiA+ +n. '. T35' PQc Rch2ttA): ~ tiA+ VFc g`m mKt kh%i kim loi 6nh1 l +latinum7 v mKt kh%i ch!t bn dn n 12c ghb+ li v*i nhau. ]h"ng linh kin bn dn 12c chA to d1*i dng n# th1;ng 12c 0( d<ng cho nh"ng kng d<ng m #$u cEu t%c K chu#Cn mch cao.

10