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Pergamon

Mech. Mach. Theory Vol.31, No. 2, pp. 229-244, 1996 Copyright © 1996ElsevierScienceLtd 0094-114X(95)00041-0 Printed in Great Britain.All rights reserved

0094-114X/96 $15.00 +0.00

**D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF LOAD D I S T R I B U T I O N IN A T H R E A D E D C O N N E C T O R WITH Y I E L D I N G T H R E A D S W. WANG
**

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yun Lin Engineering and Technical School, No. 64, Wen-Hwa Road, Hoo-Wei Town, Yun Lin, Taiwan, Republic of China

K. M. MARSHEK

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, U.S.A.

(Received 4 April 199l; in revised form 2 February 1995; received for publication 22 May 1995)

**Abstract--Amodified spring model was developed to predict the load distribution in the threaded portion
**

of a connector having yielded threads. Distinction was made between a compression case (nut and bolt) and a tension case (turnbuckle). The load distribution was described using simple second order difference equations and linear first order constraints. The load distributions for elastic and yielded threaded connectors are compared, and a discussion of how the yielded threads affect the load distribution is given.

NOMENCLATURE A, B, C, D---constant coefficients of the finite difference equations b--length of thread per revolution at the clamped end L--effective thread height F---external applied stud load h--thread width at the clamped end K~--axial stiffness of body section i between threads K~c--axial stiffness of stud section i between threads K~---composite spring constant of thread pair i L,--load on the body section i n--total number of active threads P,--load on the thread i, axial Q--first moment of the cross section at the clamped end of the thread r---diameter at base of thread Si--load on the stud section i u~--absolute deflection of stud thread ring i I/--shear force w--uniformly distributed load on thread ~, 8, 7--constant coefficients 6~--relative axial deflection of the springs with constant K~¢ 6~--relative axial deflection of the springs with constant K~ 6~---relative axial deflection of the springs with constant K~ a~----equivalentstress av--yield stress, tension z,.y--shear stress in the x - y plane a,.--tensile or compressive stress in the x direction

INTRODUCTION This p a p e r develops a m e t h o d for d e t e r m i n i n g the load d i s t r i b u t i o n in a yielding threaded c o n n e c t i o n . F o r static a n d fatigue loading, it is i m p o r t a n t to be able to accurately predict the local load increase (when some threads are yielded) in order to determine c o n n e c t o r load capacity. The analysis procedure developed follows from the finite difference m e t h o d s presented by Miller [1] for the e v a l u a t i o n of load d i s t r i b u t i o n in a n o n - y i e l d i n g threaded connection. Previous researchers have studied the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f load a l o n g the threads o f threaded c o n n e c t o r s [2-17]. T h e first theoretical m e t h o d that included radial expansion of the n u t was presented by Sopwith [2]. He deduced that the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f load a l o n g the length o f a n u t was n o t u n i f o r m due to the strains set up in the bolt a n d n u t while u n d e r load. By analyzing the strains, 229

The results of the method correlate closely with Sopwith's theoretical load distribution and with the finite element approach used by Bretl and Cook [12]. Allison [6] modeled buttress threads in a turnbuckle coupling. They showed a good match between calculated and experimental axial load distributions. Both tapered and conventional threads were . He found that by applying either a taper-thread nut or a nut with a tapered body. In their analysis. His method can be utilized for both the bolt and nut case and the turnbuckle case with symmetrical triangular thread forms. joint efficiency. linearly varying pitch diameters. They concluded that the coefficient of friction between the lubricated bolt and nut has little effect on the thread load distribution and. There were indications of general agreement with Heywood's equations. While using a similar three-dimensional photoelastic method. Hetenyi [5] investigated a variety of nut designs using a threedimensional "stress freezing' photoelastic method. The axial thread displacements were converted to axial thread loads by coefficients determined from single-and triple-thread tests. The various strains. they first assumed that the distribution of load in a screw thread is a polynomial function of turning angle as the variable with undetermined coefficients. Using an extensometer on the outside of a nut. Marshek Sopwith obtained the load distribution along the thread helix. deflection and deflection angle of the bolt at a distance from the bolt head and then decide the undetermined coefficients in the postulated polynomial by a linear programming method. Next. Goodier [4] investigated the distribution of thread loads and deformations. Wang and K. He showed that the load distribution was governed by a number of mechanisms: stretching of the bolt. He determined that the inclusion of tapered sections does not offer any advantages in terms of load sharing or reduction in critical fillet stress for the configurations tested.230 w. The distribution of load obtained from the tests showed peaks at either end of the engaged threads. the thread zone is replaced by a layer of elements with orthotropic properties. American National eight-pitch threads. compression in the nut. and circumferential stretching. He also made significant advances in the fatigue evaluation of threaded connections. cut on 2 inch steel bolts. Utilizing the data and techniques for load distribution. the fastener strength could be increased by 30%. Instead of modeling individual threads. Stoeckly and Macke modified the Sopwith equations to accommodate tapered screw-thread connections in order to compare their experimental data with Sopwith's. The principal directions of orthotropy depend upon the thread geometry and upon the direction of load. Yazawa and Hongo [3] derived an expression for the distribution of load in the screw thread of a bolt-nut connection that was subjected not only to axial forces but also simultaneously to tangential forces and bending moments. The larger error at the root was attributed to the use of a point load rather than a distributed load. Stoeckly and Macke [7] developed a testing apparatus that actually measured the axial displacement of the threads. He showed that determination and manipulation of load distribution played an important role in computing cyclic and static load capacity. Bretl and Cook[12] developed a unique finite element modeling technique for threaded connections. M. excluding the axial tension in the bolt and compression in the nut. In addition to these tests. Kenny and Patterson [10] used a frozen-stress photoelastic analysis employing a fringemultiplying polariscope in conjunction with a recording microdensitometer to find the load distribution and the normalized stress distribution in the threads of an ISO metric nut and bolt. used two-dimensional axisymmetric models of hypothetical thread profiles to compare his analysis with Heywood's. and (3) expansion of the nut caused by radial pressure between the bolt and nut. Sopwith's technique is also capable of analyzing systems with components of dissimilar materials. Heywood [8. bending of the threads. The thread projections were based on characteristic lengths and not on the dimensions of the real components. can be divided into three types: (1) bending deflection in the threads of the bolt and nut. The tests were performed on (1) a variety of tapered. constant pitch diameter. resultant tangential force. and (2) straight. the maximum stress in a bolt for a given load is reduced by choosing the proper thread taper. O'Hara [11] for example. 9] developed methods for calculating thread fillet stress. they used the polynomial function to calculate the resultant axial force. and load carrying capacity. bending moment at the bearing surface of the bolt head. except for the root load. More recent investigations into the distribution of load in threaded connections have involved the use of finite element methods. (2) axial recession due to compression in the threads of the bolt and nut.

made an unproved assumption that the thread displacements are in direct ratio to their distance from the external loading point. He concluded the following: (1) In the case with fastened plates of equal thickness. the value of the force ratio becomes negative. . he found that a hexagon socket head cap bolt is the hardest to separate. through bolt and tap bolt in this order. followed by stud. The effects of vessel geometry changes. seal movement. The paper concluded that in order to reduce the critical local stress in a conventional tubular threaded connection: (a) the thread fillet radius should be as large as possible. (3) In the case of a T-flange. The results of these comparisons are graphically presented. the effect of flange thickness upon the force ratio is greater than that of the bolt hole location. MODEL DEVELOPMENT The threaded connector is comprised of two major components: the internally threaded member (body) and the externally threaded member (stud). Physical models in Figs 1 and 2 represent two opposite loading patterns normally encountered by threaded components. classified as tension or compression. Newport and Glinka [16] investigated the effect of changing a dimension of the thread geometry on the maximum local stress occurring in a threaded tether connection. and thread imperfections are studied. 14] introduced a modified two-dimensional finite element method to analyze such cases as threaded connections subjected to a transverse displacement and flange coupling under an arbitrary type of loading for the typical examples of the threaded connections subjected to an external load. pitch. In some cases. we have to derive a generalized expression for the second order difference equation. In order to solve more complicated problems. They used a previously validated numerical technique and presented the results for changes in thread fillet radius. Tanaka [13. This equation has been tested against published photoelastic results and has been shown to be slightly conservative. His models consist of an assembly of springs. Crum [17]. In the present paper we give a review of spring models and the development of the finite difference equations used to predict the load distribution along the threaded portions of a bolt and nut connection and a pipe union connection. Bretl and Cook's numerical results for conventional and tapered threads agreed well with theoretical and experimental results in the literature. The effect of yielding on the performance of threaded fasteners for both a compression and a tension case will be discussed. This paper compares finite difference load distribution results for non-yielding and yielding fasteners. [15] used an axisymmetric finite element method with four types of models that include the effects of friction on two contact surfaces between threads of the bolt and nut. wall thickness and the number of engaged threads. (b) the pitch should be as large as possible.Load distribution in a threaded connector 231 considered on a nut and bolt configuration where the nut is in compression and the bolt in tension. The ratio of the axial tension increase to the external load increase is not constant. Locally imposed linear constraint together with a conservative yielding criterion and Crout's elimination method will be applied to solve for the load distribution in a yielding connector. They also compared the theoretical predictions of local stress based on their equation with Fessler's photoelastic results. (2) The axial tension is not linearly related to the external load. Two models of threaded connectors. They concluded that the friction coefficient on the bearing surface of the nut has a more dominant effect than on the pressure flank because of the stress concentration at the root of the bolt. They derived a parametric equation for the stress concentration factor in tubular threaded connections based on their results. and between fastened plate and nut. simulating elements of the threaded connectors. and its value changes with the amount of external load. The parametric equation allowed for the use of a stress concentration factor in threaded connections. were developed to analyze the behavior of threaded connectors by Miller [1]. temperature effects. and (c) the wall thickness should be above a critical minimum. The interactions of these elements lead to the development of a second order difference equation. Detailed description of a spring model for a yielding fastener is also included. Fukuoka et al. in the most recent work on the distribution of load in threaded connections.

.VVI.Vt-IV. 2. 3. . is distributed into the threads inducing compression in the body sections between threads. Model I will represent the compressison case of the threaded connector.I_~AA ~L..~.232 W.l-/ /~_. The spring with constant K~r is a composite spring which combines in series the axial stiffness of the threads in bending. . 1. Marshek Fig. Compression case: nut and bolt. thus the name "compression case. A diagram of the generalized spring model for the compression case is shown in Fig. M. there are springs for the axial stiffness of the stud's root area with constant K~ and for the axial stiffness of the body with constant K~:. Model 1--compression case ... as shown. Model L Compression case Fig. The external load F. 3. Tension case: body and stud. .- .~_L_AAAA 9-. Wang and K." In the spring model._ FIRSTACTIVETHREAD OF BODY ] LASTACTIVE THREAD OF BODY Fig.VVVt-VVVIBODY [AAA bll V. shear and AXISOFSYMMETRY ~ FIRSTACTIVETHREAD OF STUD LASTACTIVETHREAD OF STUD / SO S1 Si-I STUD Si Si Sn-2 Sn-1 Sn-I Sn :_.__LAAA -L~I ~LAA~ -L~i tlA ~-~A_.

Si K~' K~ (5) The load L k can be written as Lk= ~ S'.<. The threads are numbered from the first to the last thread. a~: j=l i Us-U~+ I i = a~ 1 . It is assumed that the load P is applied at the mid-height of the thread. The effective body section i between the thread i . 4.. / "1 KI~ I /. Stiffness of the stud sections between threads are simulated by the spring constant K~c = &/gL. The load Pi represents the load on the i th thread. MMT 31/2--H .PilOT. The load L~ is the load on body section i.1 and i has a spring constant KL = Li/6i~. (2) and the elongation of the stud section between any two consecutive rings is l <. 4).1 (3) Substituting the expression for u~ from equation (2) into equation (3) yields 6~--6~+'--6~'=6~ Pi K~- l<~i~n--I (4) Replacing the deflections in equation (4) by their equivalent spring constant ratios produces Pi+I K~r+' Li+ I ._. The first active body section which is between the fixed end and the first body thread sees the sum of the load Pj transferred into the threads. From force equilibrium P.<k . The load 5:. j=k u~ Ki . \ ~" Kib~l I \ ~' BODY /"~1 VVV Fig.is the load on the section between the i and i + 1 thread.=S. where 6L is the axial deflection due to load Li.Load distribution in a threaded connector 233 the radial stiffness of the body and stud sections. See [18] for the development of the equations for the spring constants.---. i <~ n .----.__q uis+i Si-I Si+l STUD . The deflection of the k th thread ring is given by k u~=a~= y. where 6L is the elongation of the section i due to load & (Fig..-& l~<l~<n i __ i (1) The thread deflections are included in the composite spring constant K T . Thread sections i and i + I of compression case. where 3!r is the combined axial component of deflection due to load P~.

M o d e l H. Equation (6) becomes L~ = Sk_l (7) Substituting the expressions for P and L from equations (1) and (7) into equation (5) yields Si-i--Si I 1 + v---7~ -~Tr"i+ K ~ ] + S i + l ~K~ = 0 • .~iSi -~. LAST ACTIVETHREAD OF BODY . known as Crout's elimination method is applied here to solve the (n .K'T + v---7~ -~ i+ K Ti/ K T (8) Replacing the constant coefficient terms in the bracket by ]/i and order difference equation of the form S i . In the tension model. is the load in the stud section n beyond the last active stud thread. yields a second (9) From equation (9) we have n . With the direction of the applied load F as shown. the first active body section in the tension model follows the first active body thread. the S. The difference between this model and the compression model is the location of fixity." Due to the similarity between the two models.234 W.1 linear independent unknowns. Tension case The spring model for the tension case is shown in Fig. thus the name "tension case. the load Lk becomes L k = S k .i -. the compression model description will adequately describe both configurations.1 simultaneous equations with n . the loads transferred into the body threads would induce tension in the sections between threads. 5. 5.| -. A modified Gauss elimination method.°~iSi+ 1 ~ 0 by g~. term must equal zero. the fixity location is near the last active body thread.1) by (n . However. M.Sn (6) where S. Wang and K. For compatibility with the boundary conditions of this system. In the compression case the first active body section comes before the AXIS OF SYMMETRY FIRST ACTIVETHREAD OF STUD LAST ACTIVETHREAD OF STUD / STUD So / / / I ' f 1 1 / I FIRST ACTIVETHREAD OF BODY Fig. Model II--tension case.1) system of equations. Marshek When Pj from equation (1) is substituted into the above equation.

-. Substitution of equation (1) into equation (10) yields (10) Lk = So . . 6. the load L is the combination of loads transmitted into the body sections in the axial direction. +-~-+-~-?-/-e "'T . 6).Sk (ll) The absolute deflection us o f a ring section for the tension case is a combination of local thread deflection and the sum of the section deflections following this location (Fig.S._. the first thread load P is carried through each successive body section. 1 +~v+l .--q ui+l Si+l STUD -+' / "1 \ K~c Li /''1 \ tri+ 1 BODY ~ Fig.--S.q si U~ Ksc i . These differences will be accounted for in the mathematical model and are highlighted below. The last body section (see Fig. T| -. 5) carries the sum of the loads transferred into the threads• The load Lk is given by Lk = Sk_.-----~ = T _S0~_~ *xbc l~-sc I T Kbc I r. Thread sections i and i + 1 of tension case. equation (13) becomes Pi Pi + l Li Si (14) Elimination of the variables P and L using equation (1) and equation (11) leads to an equation of the form K~-. in the tension model. K. Or. As in the compression model. j=k (12) Combining equation (12) with equation (3) produces 6~--6~+'+6~ ~-rs~ (13) Replacing the 6 variables with their equivalent load to spring constant ratios. However.Load distribution in a threaded connector 235 first active body thread.S S.~i Ki7 Ki K~ (15) Ki-I SC Si-1 ~. in mathematical terms k Us 6 ~ + ~ 6{.+. The first difference is the determination of load L.

5~- (21) Subtracting equation (21) from equation (20) gives = -~. (a) Compression case: i-I (20) i+1 +' + ' + jE =l . E. M.~ + - (22) Slress._. until the stress level reaches a value av.236 w.~ .S. the strain hardening parameter h which is defined as h = dtr/dcp = ET/(1 -. In the following analysis. ET Perfectly plastic behavior ET=0 ~ lastic behavior Slope. the material exhibits a linear strain-hardening characterized by the tangent modulus.1 and i + 1. + ~. manner. Er. we will use the deflection at stud thread i . The material initially deforms according to the elastic modulus. .S0 (16) The boundary conditions for S are given as So= F (17) (18) sn = o where So and Sn are defined in Fig.t and y equal the coefficients yields S.E~/E) is also zero. we first develop the equation to determine the load distribution for the compression case and then we will develop the equations for the tension case. . linear strain-hardening stress-strain behaviour. we will develop a method to determine the load distribution in a connector where the threads deform in an ideally elastic. and for this material. Ge 60 Elastoplastic behavior slope. perfectly plastic. S. Elasto-plastic behavior is characterized by an initial elastic material response to an external force followed by plastic deformation after a certain higher value of force is reached. Modified spring model for yielding threads In this section..1) unknown Si by Crout's elimination method. the tangent modulus Er is equal to zero. . Figure 7 shows an idealized stress-strain curve for a ductile engineering material. Since the yielded thread deflection depends on the displacements of the adjacent threads. we will assume that the i th thread is yielded. the uniaxial yield stress. 5. = . to avoid including the yielded thread deflection in our derivation. Marshek Indexing this equation by one and letting t. Wang and K. Elastic. as in the compression case we can solve the (n .?. +. In what follows. .. 7. E Fig.fl. Again. perfectly plastic material. For an ideally elastic. By increasing the load further. E Strain.

J ~ ' + fi~r-' .S.L o a d distribution in a threaded connector but with 237 u~./~+ I __ . Next we develop the equations for the tension case. (28) (29) (30) we can solve for the load distribution in a connector with yielding threads using equations (25)-(30). + B.S.1.S. S~ .1 Si K~ K~+K~ '- K~r+'= ~---7-si-I +K-7~K~ (24) The load Lk can be written as L. then the generalized form of equation (25) is -S and the n linear constraint equations are 1 1 1 S~_ t .1 - /.+.I-1_ 1 K'~] [~-~ + K ~ + i i[| l (26) K~r-' Ci = K~+ I Di = 0 With the constraint equation Si_ ~.Si+ ~= yield limit of thread i. = D.1 + i [derived from equation (3)].~r +' = &~-l + 6L (23) Replacing the deflections in equation (23) with their equivalent spring constant ratios produces Li Li + i Pi .. = Sk_ l Substituting the expressions for P and L from equation (1) and (7) into equation (24) yields S.S.Si = yield limit of thread = YLMT. (25) where Ai=-K~- . = yield limit of thread i._2 + A.S. + C._2 . (b) Tension case: Following the same procedure used for the compression case gives Si_ 2 + A~Si_ t + B~Si + C~S~+~= Di (25) where = i i1.! Pi + I Si . (32) Equations (31) and (32) give the load distribution for the compression case having yielded threads._. If n adjacent threads are yielded.f i xi .1 +K---~+ 1 1 (33) (34) . equation (22) becomes 6~ ~ . S~+.+n_ ~= yield limit of thread i + n .

where the yielding begins Y Fig.t Ci = Kit+ l (35) (36) D i = --S O q- and the linear constraint equations Si-.238 W. . Marshek K~r. . .+ Z b=2xr Y V =wb V w = distributed line load y = 0...1 -.. 1 S 1 1 1 +.0042 in. M. Wang and K.Si = yield limit of thread i (37) If n adjacent threads have yielded. A thread model under a transverse load V and an axial load V tan ~. . the generalized form of equation (25) becomes S 1 S x I ~ + 1 1 1 1 -] SF1 1-] = . . 8.

~iSi + ff. Next i Build a new stiffness matrix Fig.Si÷n_ z = yield limit o f t h r e a d i + n ._2 .. INPUT Compression case or tension case Fastener material properties Boundary conditions Yield limit (YLMT) I Calculate if. 2. 239 S~+.~ --~ Si-1 . 13i. (38) and (39) give the load distribution for the t e n s i o n case with (39) yielded 1. and Di. Equations threads. 9.iZi+l= "~ Construct the finite difference equations then solve for S's --1. 4.1..S~+ t = yield limit o f t h r e a d i + 1. Bi.Load distribution in a threaded connector a n d the n l i n e a r c o n s t r a i n t e q u a t i o n s are Si_ j . Ci. 3.i. Yes Si > YLMT No Set Si-1 .Si = YLMT Calculate Ai. . Si . Flow chart for the calculation of load distribution in the threaded fastener with yielding threads.Si = yield limit o f t h r e a d i.

the shear stress *xY= Ib =-~3 where V= w= b= Q = I= shear force = wd. theoretical. When the thread begins to yield. (40). I Fig. The deflection of the short beam is due to the bending m o m e n t and the shear force. bending stresses are not dominant and shear stresses must also be included in the analysis. Unlike the long beam. The Tresca yield criterion is taken to be 2 2 2 fix + 4Zxy = lYe (40) where G is the equivalent stress. uniformly distributed load. . plane. Marshek Conservative yield criterion In the spring model analysis. is found in the clamped end of the thread.to t~ e- 20 o. 10. length of thread per revolution = diameter at base of a thread times rr. m o m e n t of inertia of the thread's cross section. and a thread is considered to have failed when the combined stress exceeds the yield limit.o • . and subjected to a force at the free end. finite clement.240 w. the thread is modeled as a short beam. Wang and K. 40 -- Photoelastic Theoretical FEM Spring Model 30 • -- .y Since the m a x i m u m effective stress can be written as G equals lyy (the yield stress in pure tension or compression). 10 I / I I I I I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Thread. length I. where ~b is the slope angle of the thread face. depth h. and spring model of a 1 inch diameter steel bolt and nut with 8 engaged Whitworth threads (8 threads/inch). first m o m e n t of the thread's cross section with respect to the neutral Z axis. a transverse shear V and a normal force V tan q~. The Tresca yield criterion is applied to determine if the thread has yielded or not. Figure 8 shows a cantilever thread of rectangular cross section having width b. M. We applied a conservative Tresca yield criterion to determine a yield limit for the threads. Compression case: comparison of photoelastic. G is the tensile or compressive stress in the x direction. In equation and zxy is the shear stress in the x . The force can be divided into two components.

. Tension case: comparison of theoretical. we take the partial derivative of equation (43) with respect to y 0 = Otre dy where (44) Oae [-24VL'][-12VLy V] -1 6~6VTFh2 L JL -y ] (2y)=0 (45) For a l i n c h diameter bolt with Whitworth threads.= .004215 inch (0. and -0. we set the yield limit (YLMT) equal to 2665 lb in the spring model analysis.004215. i Fig.. .6136inch (66.0. . t + O'x due to th . equation (43) gives a maximum value for fie._J 10 0 0 I I i i i i ! 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Thread. .385mm). . Substituting these values into equation (45) and solving for y in inches gives y .Load distribution in a threaded connector The normal stress on the cross section of the thread at the clamped end can be written as 241 VLy O'x = O'x due to the bending m . and h = 0. .10417 inch (2. L = 0 . and the maximum external load that a nut thread can resist is 3203 lb (14.0673mm).Q "O -o 0 . .-. and spring model of a 1 inch steel stud and body with 8 engaged UNC threads (8 threads/inch). When y = 0.0454. yielding can occur in the bolt thread and not in the nut thread.000 psi or 207 Pa for steel) in equation (43).004215 inch from the neutral axis of the root cross section. finite element.1071 mm). Therefore. 25 Theoretical 20 t FEM 15 0 . we find the maximum external load V that a bolt thread can resist is 2665 lb (11. Because the nut threads have a higher yield limit.00496. pressive force . 0 4 2 0 2 i n c h (1. Replacing tre by a0 ( = 30.883 N). the results of which follow.. 11. 0.~ "t bh (42) Substituting equations (40) and (41) into equation (42) gives a°-L J2-F12VLy + ay V-]2 + 4 [6V (43) To locate the initial yield point. and the thread will begin yielding at 0.282 N).T "[ V 12VLy V bh .6459 mm). b = 2.

we increase the external load until the first five threads are yielded. The elastic spring model results are shown in Figs 10 and 11: (a) for a 1 inch diameter steel bolt and a nut with 8 engaged Whitworth threads (8 threads/in. . The compression case is also evaluated using the theoretical method developed by Sopwith [2]. Sopwith's model. i Fig. we present and interpret the results for the yielding fastener. we can compute the load to yield for each thread. Sopwith's analysis. M. R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N S In this section.) for the tension case. where the two horizontal lines represent respectively the loading limit for the nut thread and the bolt thread. Compressioncase: load distribution after some threads are yielded. For the yielding thread analysis. To observe how each thread responds. It is apparent that the 4000 3000 8 tO YLMT (Bolt) YLMT (Nut) F = 8700 Ib F =115001b = 2000 • . Results for the photoelastic model. i". but the finite element method predicts a slightly higher load on the first thread. In the compression case.) for the compression case. When the load on a thread is over yielding limit.Q 13 "0 ¢0 ::3 o. and the spring model analysis for the tension case. 9. The results from the spring model and finite element analysis compare well in this case. A two-dimensional axisymmetric contact finite element program [18] was developed to verify the spring model results. -- F =14000 Ib r_ 1000 .L F =16200 Ib F =18500 Ib I I l I I i I 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 Thread. 12. Figure 11 shows the results for the finite element analysis. By conservatively assuming that the thread will fail when the yield begins. a three-dimensional "stress freezing" method used by Hetenyi [3] to investigate nut and bolt configurations is utilized for comparison with the spring model. 10. and (b) for a 1 inch diameter steel bolt and nut with 8 engaged UNC threads (8 threads/in. the spring model.242 w. and the finite element model for the same threaded connection are shown in Fig.. The load distribution results for each analysis are plotted as "percentage of the total load" transmitted in each thread versus "thread number. The results are shown in Figs 12 and 13. Wang and K. a set of finite difference equations and linear constraints are generated for determining the load distributions for this condition. Marshek An algorithm useful in determining the load distribution for the case of yielding threaded connectors is shown in Fig.) is used for both the tension and compression case in the spring model analysis. the Whitworth thread (8 threads/in.

200. experimental and numerical results for a uniform threaded connector. 14. I. the thread yielding order follows the thread number order exactly. pp. 11. M. nut threads have a higher yield limit than the bolt threads.d -- F =18670 Ib F =18690 Ib 1000 & F =20500 Ib 0 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Thread. respectively. 6. The load distribution results from the spring model analysis compare well with theoretical. But for the tension case (see Fig.500 lb.700 lb force. Goodier. Tension case: load distribution after some threads are yielded. Yazawa and K. 413-416 (1978). 174--180(1988). only thread 1 is yielded when the turnbuckle is under a 12. Trans. Hung.500. 12). then 4. Theory 18. and 18. For the compression case (see Fig. Hetenyi. Since the lower number threads always carry a higher load. which is 2000 lb higher than for the same condition as in the compression case. N. so failure will occur in the bolt threads only. and the first five threads will not yield until the external force reaches 20. Allison. REFERENCES 1. S. J S M E Int. In modeling the fasteners with yielding threads. 319-398 (1948). Budapest. AI0-A16 (1940). Miller. D. 3. once these threads are yielded. We also show that the turnbuckle connector (tension case) can resist a higher load without yielding than the nut and bolt connector (compression case). Mach. Mech. . where thread 3 and thread 8 are yielded almost simultaneously. 2. G. 5. Congress on Material Testing. the thread that is next to them will carry a greater load as the external force increases. Institution o f Mechanical Engineers. 16. M. we show that yielding starts from the first active thread then spreads throughout the contacting threads for the compression case. D.Load distribution in a threaded connector 4000 243 YLMT (Bolt) 3000 4 YLMT (Nut) F = 12700 Ib F =16000 Ib o~ =O ta - 2000 • "O "O t~ O _. A S M E 62. 2. 8. 373-383. 13). Vol. i Fig. the first five threads yield when the fastener is under 8700. L. A93-A100 (1943).500 lb. Seventh Lecture. A S M E 65. Trans. J. 4. 3. Therefore. 159. Proc. The yielding starts from the end threads then moves to the inside threads for the tension case. 13. Series I 31. The thread yielding order is thread 1. J. Sopwith.000. 421-430 (1983). CONCLUSIONS Procedures have been presented for determining the load distribution in connectors having yielded threads for the compression and tension cases. 2. Hongo.

Vol. 43-53. 17. B. Yamada. J. Numer. Chapman & Hall (1952). Wang and K. Offshort Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Syrup. A. L. S. Int. Patterson. R. 291-298 (February 1982). ASME 74. D. Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Cook. Proc. M. Kitagawa and M. . P. 14. 10. ASME. W. H. M. J. A. 103-112 (1952). Tanaka. Bull. N. Hongo and E. JSME 29. JSME 29. Designing By Photoelasticity. of the Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics. O'Hara. 99-119. J. The Univ. K. W. Marshek E. ASME. 7th. Trans. 1359-1377 (1979). Experimental Mechanics. Bull. Macke. ASME. Reinhold (1962). 9. 13. A. pp. New York (1988). Proc. PhD Dissertation. 3275-3279 (October 1986). JSME 25. 15. Crum. pp. pp. 1. Tanaka and A. B. Kenny and E. 12. (1988). Newport and G. 8. Stoeckly and H.244 7. D. B. of Texas at Austin (1991). M. Heywood. Wang. E. of the Int. 148. Designing Against Fatigue of Metals. New York. Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center. 141-147. Vol. Fukuoka. Hamada. T. 16. Asaba. 11. R. Glinka. (1974). 18. 208-213 (September 1985). 617-624 (February 1986). Bull. Heywood. Bretl and R. AMMRC MS 74-8 pp. Yamasaki. Methods Engng 14.

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